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Sample records for velocities reynolds stresses

  1. Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.

  2. Local topology via the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor within vortex clusters and intense Reynolds stress structures in turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, Abel-John; Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio; Lozano-Durán, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Previous works have shown that momentum transfer in the wall–normal direction within turbulent wall–bounded flows occurs primarily within coherent structures defined by regions of intense Reynolds stress [1]. Such structures may be classified into wall–attached and wall–detached structures with the latter being typically weak, small–scale, and isotropically oriented, while the former are larger and carry most of the Reynolds stresses. The mean velocity fluctuation within each structure may also be used to separate structures by their dynamic properties. This study aims to extract information regarding the scales, kinematics and dynamics of these structures within the topological framework of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT). The local topological characteristics of these intense Reynolds stress structures are compared to the topological characteristics of vortex clusters defined by the discriminant of the velocity gradient tensor. The alignment of vorticity with the principal strain directions within these structures is also determined, and the implications of these findings are discussed. (paper)

  3. Reynolds stress and shear flow generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method......, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior...

  4. Vertical Distribution of Tidal Flow Reynolds Stress in Shallow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhi-yao; NI Zhi-hui; LU Guo-nian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of the tidal flow Reynolds stresses of the field observations,indoor experiments,and numerical models,the parabolic distribution of the tidal flow Reynolds stress is proposed and its coefficients are determined theoretically in this paper.Having been well verified with the field data and experimental data,the proposed distribution of Reynolds stress is also compared with numerical model results,and a good agreement is obtained,showing that this distribution can well reflect the basic features of Reynolds stress deviating from the linear distribution that is downward when the tidal flow is of acceleration,upward when the tidal flow is of deceleration.Its dynamics cause is also discussed preliminarily and the influence of the water depth is pointed out from the definition of Reynolds stress,turbulent generation,transmission,and so on.The established expression for the vertical distribution of the tidal flow Reynolds stress is not only simple and explicit,but can also well reflect the features of the tidal flow acceleration and deceleration for further study on the velocity profile of tidal flow.

  5. Reynolds Stress Closure for Inertial Frames and Rotating Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Charles; Benard, Andre

    2017-11-01

    In a rotating frame-of-reference, the Coriolis acceleration and the mean vorticity field have a profound impact on the redistribution of kinetic energy among the three components of the fluctuating velocity. Consequently, the normalized Reynolds (NR) stress is not objective. Furthermore, because the Reynolds stress is defined as an ensemble average of a product of fluctuating velocity vector fields, its eigenvalues must be non-negative for all turbulent flows. These fundamental properties (realizability and non-objectivity) of the NR-stress cannot be compromised in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of turbulent flows in either inertial frames or in rotating frames. The recently developed universal realizable anisotropic prestress (URAPS) closure for the NR-stress depends explicitly on the local mean velocity gradient and the Coriolis operator. The URAPS-closure is a significant paradigm shift from turbulent closure models that assume that dyadic-valued operators associated with turbulent fluctuations are objective.

  6. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  7. Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-02-01

    An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant

  8. Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant. (author). 15 refs

  9. Generation of sheared poloidal flows via Reynolds stress and transport barrier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Sanchez, E.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Milligen, B. van; Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Riccardi, C.; Carrozza, R.; Fontanesi, M.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.

    2000-01-01

    A view of the latest experimental results and progress in the understanding of the role of poloidal flows driven by fluctuations via Reynolds stress is given. Reynolds stress shows a radial gradient close to the velocity shear layer location in tokamaks and stellarators, indicating that this mechanism may drive significant poloidal flows in the plasma boundary. Observation of the generation of ExB sheared flows via Reynolds stress at the ion Bernstein resonance layer has been noticed in toroidal magnetized plasmas. The experimental evidence of sheared ExB flows linked to the location of rational surfaces in stellarator plasmas might be interpreted in terms of Reynolds stress sheared driven flows. These results show that ExB sheared flows driven by fluctuations can play an important role in the generation of transport barriers. (author)

  10. Does the flatness of the velocity derivative blow up at a finite Reynolds number?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.

    2006-12-01

    A tentative suggestion is made that the flatness of the velocity derivative could reach an infinite value at finite (though very large) Reynolds number, with possible implications for the singularities of the Navier-Stokes equations. A direct test of this suggestion requires measurements at Reynolds numbers presently outside the experimental capacity, so an alternative suggestion that can be tested at accessible Reynolds numbers is also made. (author)

  11. Assessment of Reynolds stress components and turbulent pressure loss using 4D flow MRI with extended motion encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Henrik; Kefayati, Sarah; Ahn, Sinyeob; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Lantz, Jonas; Karlsson, Matts; Laub, Gerhard; Ebbers, Tino; Saloner, David

    2018-04-01

    To measure the Reynolds stress tensor using 4D flow MRI, and to evaluate its contribution to computed pressure maps. A method to assess both velocity and Reynolds stress using 4D flow MRI is presented and evaluated. The Reynolds stress is compared by cross-sectional integrals of the Reynolds stress invariants. Pressure maps are computed using the pressure Poisson equation-both including and neglecting the Reynolds stress. Good agreement is seen for Reynolds stress between computational fluid dynamics, simulated MRI, and MRI experiment. The Reynolds stress can significantly influence the computed pressure loss for simulated (eg, -0.52% vs -15.34% error; P Reynolds stress (P Reynolds stress tensor. The additional information provided by this method improves the assessment of pressure gradients across a stenosis in the presence of turbulence. Unlike conventional methods, which are only valid if the flow is laminar, the proposed method is valid for both laminar and disturbed flow, a common presentation in diseased vessels. Magn Reson Med 79:1962-1971, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. First measurement of the magnetic turbulence induced Reynolds stress in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guosheng; Wan Baonian; Song Mei

    2003-01-01

    Reynolds stress component due to magnetic turbulence was first measured in the plasma edge region of the HT-7 superconducting tokamak using an insertable magnetic probe. A radial gradient of magnetic Reynolds stress was observed to be close to the velocity shear layer location; however, in this experiment its contribution to driving the poloidal flows is small compared to the electrostatic component. The electron heat transport driven by magnetic turbulence is quite small and cannot account for the total energy transport at the plasma edge

  13. Role of Reynolds stress and toroidal momentum transport in the dynamics of internal transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between intrinsic rotation and internal transport barrier (ITB) dynamics through the dynamic change of the parallel Reynolds stress. Global flux-driven gyrofluid simulations are used for this study. In particular, we investigate the role of parallel velocity gradient instability (PVGI) in the ITB formation and the back transition. It is found that the excitation of PVGI is followed by a change in the Reynolds stress which drives a momentum redistribution. This significantly influences E×B shear evolution and subsequent ITB dynamics. Nonlocal interactions among fluctuations are also observed during the PVGI excitation, resulting in turbulence suppression at the ITB.

  14. Modeling the flow in a 90 deg. rectangular duct using one Reynolds-stress and two eddy-viscosity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakinthos, K.; Vlahostergios, Z.; Goulas, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new effort to model the flow in a 90 deg. rectangular duct by adopting three low-Reynolds-number turbulence models, two eddy-viscosity models (a linear and a non-linear) and a Reynolds-stress model, is presented. The complex flow development is a challenge for the application of turbulence models in order to assess their capability to capture the secondary flow and the developing vortices due to curvature and strong pressure gradient effects. The numerical results show that both the non-linear eddy-viscosity and the Reynolds-stress models can provide good results, especially for the velocity distributions. The superiority of the Reynolds-stress model is shown primarily in the Reynolds-stress distributions, which have the best quality among the predictions from the other models. On the other hand, the main advantage of the non-linear model is its simplicity and the smaller needed CPU cost, compared to the Reynolds-stress model. Additionally, in some stations of the flow development, the non-linear model provides good velocity distributions. The linear model gives lower quality predictions for the Reynolds-stress distributions, although it is capable in providing quite satisfactory results for the velocity distributions

  15. Monodimensional estimation of maximum Reynolds shear stress in the downstream flow field of bileaflet valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Vincenzo

    2002-05-01

    Turbulent flow generated by prosthetic devices at the bloodstream level may cause mechanical stress on blood particles. Measurement of the Reynolds stress tensor and/or some of its components is a mandatory step to evaluate the mechanical load on blood components exerted by fluid stresses, as well as possible consequent blood damage (hemolysis or platelet activation). Because of the three-dimensional nature of turbulence, in general, a three-component anemometer should be used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor, but this is difficult, especially in vivo. The present study aimed to derive the maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in three commercially available prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) of wide diffusion, starting with monodimensional data provided in vivo by echo Doppler. Accurate measurement of PHV flow field was made using laser Doppler anemometry; this provided the principal turbulence quantities (mean velocity, root-mean-square value of velocity fluctuations, average value of cross-product of velocity fluctuations in orthogonal directions) needed to quantify the maximum turbulence-related shear stress. The recorded data enabled determination of the relationship, the Reynolds stresses ratio (RSR) between maximum RSS and Reynolds normal stress in the main flow direction. The RSR was found to be dependent upon the local structure of the flow field. The reported RSR profiles, which permit a simple calculation of maximum RSS, may prove valuable during the post-implantation phase, when an assessment of valve function is made echocardiographically. Hence, the risk of damage to blood constituents associated with bileaflet valve implantation may be accurately quantified in vivo.

  16. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional turbulent flow in a 90deg bent tube by algebraic Reynolds stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Akiyama, Mitsunobu; Shinohara, Yasunori; Hitomi, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    A numerical analysis has been performed for three dimensional developing turbulent flow in a 90deg bent tube with straight inlet and outlet sections by an algebraic Reynolds stress model. To our knowledge, very little has been reported about detailed comparison between calculated results and experimental data containing Reynolds stresses. In calculation, an algebraic Reynolds stress model together with a boundary-fitted coordinate system is applied to a 90deg bent tube in order to solve anisotropic turbulent flow precisely. The calculated results display comparatively good agreement with the experimental data of time averaged velocity and secondary vectors. In addition, the present method predicts as a characteristic feature that the intensity of secondary flow near the inner wall is increased immediately downstream from the bend outlet by the pressure gradient. With regard to comparison of Reynolds stresses, the present method is able to reproduce well the distributions of streamwise normal stress and shear stress defined streamwise and radial velocity fluctuation except for the shear stress defined streamwise and circumferential velocity fluctuation. The present calculation has been found to simulate many features of the developing flow in bent tube satisfactorily, but it has a tendency to underpredict the Reynolds stresses. (author)

  17. Role of advanced refuelling and heating on edge Reynolds stress-induced poloidal flow in HL-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Wenyu; Wang Enyao; Li Qiang; Cao Jianyong; Yan Longwen

    2002-01-01

    The radial profile of electrostatic Reynolds stress, plasma poloidal rotations, radial and poloidal electric fields have been measured in the plasma boundary region of the HL-1M tokamak using a multi-array of Mach/Langmuir probes. In the experiments of ohmic discharge, lower hybrid current drive, supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and multi-shot pellet injection, the correlation between the Reynolds stress and poloidal flow in the edge plasma is presented. The radial profile changes of the Reynolds stress and poloidal flow velocity V pol with lower hybrid wave injection power and SMBI injection are obtained. The results indicate that the sheared poloidal flow can be generated in tokamak plasma due to the radially varying Reynolds stress

  18. Angular velocity of a spheroid log rolling in a simple shear at small Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, Jan; Candelier, Fabien; Rosen, Tomas; Einarsson, Jonas; Lundell, Fredrik; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the angular velocity of a small neutrally buoyant spheroid log rolling in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the angular velocity ω -> equals half the fluid vorticity. We compute by singular perturbation theory how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity in an unbounded shear, and how this reduction depends upon the shape of the spheroid (on its aspect ratio). In addition we determine the angular velocity by direct numerical simulations. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory at small but not too small values of the shear Reynolds number, for all aspect ratios considered. For the special case of a sphere we find ω / s = - 1 / 2 + 0 . 0540Re 3 / 2 where s is the shear rate and Re is the shear Reynolds number. This result differs from that derived by Lin et al. who obtained a numerical coefficient roughly three times larger.

  19. Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilute surfactant solution of 25 ppm in the two-dimensional channel is investigated experimentally compared with water flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV system is used to take 2D velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane. Based on the frames of instantaneous vectors and statistical results, the phenomenon of zero Reynolds shear stress appearing in the drag-reducing flow is discussed. It is found that 25 ppm CTAC solution exhibits the highest drag reduction at Re = 25000 and loses drag reduction completely at Re = 40000. When drag reduction lies in the highest, Reynolds shear stress disappears and reaches zero although the RMS of the velocity fluctuations is not zero. By the categorization in four quadrants, the fluctuations of 25 ppm CTAC solution are distributed in all four quadrants equally at Re = 25000, which indicates that turnaround transportation happens in drag-reducing flow besides Reynolds shear stress transportation. Moreover, the contour distribution of streamwise velocity and the fluctuations suggests that turbulence transportation is depressed in drag-reducing flow. The viscoelasticity is possible to decrease the turbulence transportation and cause the turnaround transportation.

  20. A Reynolds stress model for near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper formulates a tensorially consistent near-wall second-order closure model. Redistributive terms in the Reynolds stress equations are modeled by an elliptic relaxation equation in order to represent strongly nonhomogeneous effects produced by the presence of walls; this replaces the quasi-homogeneous algebraic models that are usually employed, and avoids the need for ad hoc damping functions. The model is solved for channel flow and boundary layers with zero and adverse pressure gradients. Good predictions of Reynolds stress components, mean flow, skin friction, and displacement thickness are obtained in various comparisons to experimental and direct numerical simulation data. The model is also applied to a boundary layer flowing along a wall with a 90-deg, constant-radius, convex bend.

  1. Dynamical System Analysis of Reynolds Stress Closure Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the causality between the model coefficients in the standard pressure-strain correlation model and the predicted equilibrium states for homogeneous turbulence. We accomplish this by performing a comprehensive fixed point analysis of the modeled Reynolds stress and dissipation rate equations. The results from this analysis will be very useful for developing improved pressure-strain correlation models to yield observed equilibrium behavior.

  2. Numerical predictions and measurements of Reynolds normal stresses in turbulent pipe flow of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, P.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: resende@fe.up.pt; Escudier, M.P. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: escudier@liv.ac.uk; Presti, F [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEM, Universidade do Minho Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)]. E-mail: fpinho@dem.uminho.pt; Cruz, D.O.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal do Para-UFPa Campus Universitario do Guama, 66075-900 Belem, Para (Brazil)]. E-mail: doac@ufpa.br

    2006-04-15

    An anisotropic low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulence model has been developed and its performance compared with experimental data for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of four different polymer solutions. Although the predictions of friction factor, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show only slight improvements over those of a previous isotropic model [Cruz, D.O.A., Pinho, F.T., Resende, P.R., 2004. Modeling the new stress for improved drag reduction predictions of viscoelastic pipe flow. J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 121, 127-141], the new turbulence model is capable of predicting the enhanced anisotropy of the Reynolds normal stresses that accompanies polymer drag reduction in turbulent flow.

  3. Numerical predictions and measurements of Reynolds normal stresses in turbulent pipe flow of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, P.R.; Escudier, M.P.; Presti, F; Pinho, F.T.; Cruz, D.O.A.

    2006-01-01

    An anisotropic low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model has been developed and its performance compared with experimental data for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of four different polymer solutions. Although the predictions of friction factor, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show only slight improvements over those of a previous isotropic model [Cruz, D.O.A., Pinho, F.T., Resende, P.R., 2004. Modeling the new stress for improved drag reduction predictions of viscoelastic pipe flow. J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 121, 127-141], the new turbulence model is capable of predicting the enhanced anisotropy of the Reynolds normal stresses that accompanies polymer drag reduction in turbulent flow

  4. The possible role of Reynolds stress in the creation of a transport barrier in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Xu, Y.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.; Hron, M.; Stoeckel, J.

    2005-01-01

    To obtain a good confinement, mandatory in a fusion reactor, the understanding of the formation of transport barriers in the edge plasma of a tokamak is essential. Turbulence, the major candidate to explain anomalous transport, can be quenched by sheared flows in the edge which rip the convective cells apart, thus forming a barrier. Experimental evidence from the Chinese HT-6M tokamak [Y.H. Xu et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 3867], points to the fact that momentum transfer from the turbulence can create these sheared flows via the Reynolds stresses. A new 1-d fluid model for the generation of the poloidal flow, has been developed taking into account the driving force of the Reynolds stress and the friction forces due to neutrals and parallel viscosity. Special attention has been dedicated to the computation of the flux-surface-averaging for the various terms. This model has been confronted with the experimental results obtained in the HT-6M tokamak, where Reynolds stresses were generated by application of a turbulent heating pulse. If the model is applied in cylindrical geometry, the calculated Reynolds stress-induced flow agrees well with the measured poloidal velocity in the plasma edge. However, when the full toroidal geometry is taken into account, it seems that the Reynolds stresses are too small to explain the observed rotation. This indicates that the role of the Reynolds stresses in inducing macroscopic flow in the torus is weakened. A combined system of probes allowing to measure the Reynolds stress and the rotation velocity simultaneously, has been developed and installed on the CASTOR tokamak. We report here on the first results obtained. (author)

  5. Further experiments for mean velocity profile of pipe flow at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports further experimental results obtained in high Reynolds number actual flow facility in Japan. The experiments were performed in a pipe flow with water, and the friction Reynolds number was varied up to Reτ = 5.3 × 104. This high Reynolds number was achieved by using water as the working fluid and adopting a large-diameter pipe (387 mm) while controlling the flow rate and temperature with high accuracy and precision. The streamwise velocity was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry close to the wall, and the mean velocity profile, called log-law profile U+ = (1/κ) ln(y+) + B, is especially focused. After careful verification of the mean velocity profiles in terms of the flow rate accuracy and an evaluation of the consistency of the present results with those from previously measurements in a smaller pipe (100 mm), it was found that the value of κ asymptotically approaches a constant value of κ = 0.384.

  6. Spatio-temporal structure of turbulent Reynolds stress zonal flow drive in 3D magnetic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, B; Ramisch, M; Manz, P; Stroth, U

    2017-01-01

    The poloidal dependence of the zonal flow drive and the underlying Reynolds stress structure are studied at the stellarator experiment TJ-K by means of a poloidal Langmuir-probe array. This gives the unique possibility to study the locality of the Reynolds stress in a complex toroidal magnetic geometry. It is found that the Reynolds stress is not homogeneously distributed along the flux surface but has a strong poloidal asymmetry where it is concentrated on the outboard side with a maximum above the midplane. The average tilt of the turbulent structures is thereby reflected in the anisotropy of the bivariant velocity distribution. Using a conditional averaging technique the temporal dynamics reveal that the zonal flow drive is also maximal in this particular region. The results suggest an influence of the magnetic field line curvature, which controls the underlying plasma turbulence. The findings are a basis for further comparison with turbulence simulations in 3D geometry and demonstrate the need for a global characterisation of plasma turbulence. (paper)

  7. The interplay between Reynolds stress and zonal flows: direct numerical simulation as a bridge between theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, M; Schoor, M Van; Xu, Y; Jachmich, S; Weynants, R

    2006-01-01

    We describe the results of a measurement campaign on the CASTOR tokamak where the drive of flows and zonal flows by Reynolds stress was investigated by means of a dual probe head system allowing us to measure the properties of the electrostatic turbulence and the rotation velocities at the same location and at the same moment. We compare these experimental results with a turbulence model linked to a one dimensional fluid model describing the electrostatic turbulence and its influence on the background flow. The turbulence is simulated locally on the basis of the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, completed with magnetic inhomogeneity terms. In the fluid model the toroidal geometry is correctly taken into account, while various sources and sinks like viscosity, interaction with neutrals, Reynolds stress and electric current induced by biasing are included. The good agreement of the predicted flow with the measured one demonstrates that in a pure cylindrical geometry the modelled strength of Reynolds stress acceleration of flow is overestimated

  8. Angular velocity of a sphere in a simple shear at small Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, J.; Candelier, F.; Rosén, T.; Einarsson, J.; Lundell, F.; Mehlig, B.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the angular velocity of a small neutrally buoyant spheroid log rolling in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the angular velocity ω equals half the fluid vorticity. We compute by singular perturbation theory how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity in an unbounded shear, and how this reduction depends upon the shape of the spheroid (on its aspect ratio). In addition we determine the angular velocity by direct numerical simulations. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory at small but not too small values of the shear Reynolds number Res, for all aspect ratios considered. For the special case of a sphere we find ω /s =-1 /2 +0.0540 Res3 /2 where s is the shear rate. The O (Res3 /2) correction differs from that derived by Lin et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 1 (1970), 10.1017/S0022112070001659], who obtained a numerical coefficient roughly three times larger.

  9. Reynolds-Stress and Triple-Product Models Applied to a Flow with Rotation and Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence models, with increasing complexity, up to triple product terms, are applied to the flow in a rotating pipe. The rotating pipe is a challenging case for turbulence models as it contains significant rotational and curvature effects. The flow field starts with the classic fully developed pipe flow, with a stationary pipe wall. This well defined condition is then subjected to a section of pipe with a rotating wall. The rotating wall introduces a second velocity scale, and creates Reynolds shear stresses in the radial-circumferential and circumferential-axial planes. Furthermore, the wall rotation introduces a flow stabilization, and actually reduces the turbulent kinetic energy as the flow moves along the rotating wall section. It is shown in the present work that the Reynolds stress models are capable of predicting significant reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy, but triple product improves the predictions of the centerline turbulent kinetic energy, which is governed by convection, dissipation and transport terms, as the production terms vanish on the pipe axis.

  10. Vertical velocity variances and Reynold stresses at Brookhaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Niels E.; Brown, R.M.; Frizzola, J.A.

    1970-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests of the Brookhaven annular bivane are presented. The energy transfer functions describing the instrument response and the numerical filter employed in the data reduction process have been used to obtain corrected values of the normalized variance of the vertical wind v...

  11. Reynolds-Stress and Triple-Product Models Applied to Flows with Rotation and Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions for Reynolds-stress and triple product turbulence models are compared for flows with significant rotational effects. Driver spinning cylinder flowfield and Zaets rotating pipe case are to be investigated at a minimum.

  12. The signature of the magnetorotational instability in the Reynolds and Maxwell stress tensors in accretion discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    stresses during the late times of the exponential growth of the instability is determined only by the local shear and does not depend on the initial spectrum of perturbations or the strength of the seed magnetic. Even though we derived these properties of the stress tensors for the exponential growth...... of the instability, the mean (averaged over the disc scale-height) Reynolds stress is always positive, the mean Maxwell stress is always negative, and hence the mean total stress is positive and leads to a net outward flux of angular momentum. More importantly, we show that the ratio of the Maxwell to the Reynolds...

  13. Improvement of Reynolds-Stress and Triple-Product Lag Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    The Reynolds-stress and triple product Lag models were created with a normal stress distribution which was denied by a 4:3:2 distribution of streamwise, spanwise and wall normal stresses, and a ratio of r(sub w) = 0.3k in the log layer region of high Reynolds number flat plate flow, which implies R11(+)= [4/(9/2)*.3] approximately 2.96. More recent measurements show a more complex picture of the log layer region at high Reynolds numbers. The first cut at improving these models along with the direction for future refinements is described. Comparison with recent high Reynolds number data shows areas where further work is needed, but also shows inclusion of the modeled turbulent transport terms improve the prediction where they influence the solution. Additional work is needed to make the model better match experiment, but there is significant improvement in many of the details of the log layer behavior.

  14. Length and time scales of the near-surface axial velocity in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Reynolds number effects on relevant length and time scales in the near-wall region of a canonical turbulent boundary layer are investigated. Well resolved measurements in the atmospheric surface layer are compared with existing laboratory data to give a composite Reynolds number range spanning over three orders of magnitude. In the field experiments, a vertical rake of twenty single element hot-wires was used to measure the axial velocity, u, characteristics in the lower log layer region of the atmospheric surface layer that flows over Utah's western desert. Only data acquired under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability are analyzed. The shape of the power spectra of u as a function of distance from the wall, y, and Reynolds number is investigated, with emphasis on the appropriate scaling parameters valid across different wavenumber, k, bands. In particular, distance from the wall is found to scale the region of the u spectra around ky = 1. The presence of a k -1 slope in the spectra is also found to correlate with the Reynolds number dependence in the peak of the root mean square u profile. In addition, Reynolds number trends in the profiles of the Taylor microscales, which represent intermediate length and time scales in the boundary layer, are shown to deviate from classical scaling

  15. Evaluation of Full Reynolds Stress Turbulence Models in FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Julianne C.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2017-01-01

    Full seven-equation Reynolds stress turbulence models are a relatively new and promising tool for todays aerospace technology challenges. This paper uses two stress-omega full Reynolds stress models to evaluate challenging flows including shock-wave boundary layer interactions, separation and mixing layers. The Wilcox and the SSGLRR full second-moment Reynolds stress models are evaluated for four problems: a transonic two-dimensional diffuser, a supersonic axisymmetric compression corner, a compressible planar shear layer, and a subsonic axisymmetric jet. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and results using the more commonly used Spalart-Allmaras (SA) one-equation and the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) two-equation models.

  16. Prediction model of velocity field around circular cylinder over various Reynolds numbers by fusion convolutional neural networks based on pressure on the cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaowei; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    A data-driven model is proposed for the prediction of the velocity field around a cylinder by fusion convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using measurements of the pressure field on the cylinder. The model is based on the close relationship between the Reynolds stresses in the wake, the wake formation length, and the base pressure. Numerical simulations of flow around a cylinder at various Reynolds numbers are carried out to establish a dataset capturing the effect of the Reynolds number on various flow properties. The time series of pressure fluctuations on the cylinder is converted into a grid-like spatial-temporal topology to be handled as the input of a CNN. A CNN architecture composed of a fusion of paths with and without a pooling layer is designed. This architecture can capture both accurate spatial-temporal information and the features that are invariant of small translations in the temporal dimension of pressure fluctuations on the cylinder. The CNN is trained using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dataset to establish the mapping relationship between the pressure fluctuations on the cylinder and the velocity field around the cylinder. Adam (adaptive moment estimation), an efficient method for processing large-scale and high-dimensional machine learning problems, is employed to implement the optimization algorithm. The trained model is then tested over various Reynolds numbers. The predictions of this model are found to agree well with the CFD results, and the data-driven model successfully learns the underlying flow regimes, i.e., the relationship between wake structure and pressure experienced on the surface of a cylinder is well established.

  17. Application of a Full Reynolds Stress Model to High Lift Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Eisfeld, B.

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed second-moment Reynolds stress model was applied to two challenging high-lift flows: (1) transonic flow over the ONERA M6 wing, and (2) subsonic flow over the DLR-F11 wing-body configuration from the second AIAA High Lift Prediction Workshop. In this study, the Reynolds stress model results were contrasted with those obtained from one- and two{equation turbulence models, and were found to be competitive in terms of the prediction of shock location and separation. For an ONERA M6 case, results from multiple codes, grids, and models were compared, with the Reynolds stress model tending to yield a slightly smaller shock-induced separation bubble near the wing tip than the simpler models, but all models were fairly close to the limited experimental surface pressure data. For a series of high-lift DLR{F11 cases, the range of results was more limited, but there was indication that the Reynolds stress model yielded less-separated results than the one-equation model near maximum lift. These less-separated results were similar to results from the one-equation model with a quadratic constitutive relation. Additional computations need to be performed before a more definitive assessment of the Reynolds stress model can be made.

  18. Statistical analysis of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the shear flow generation in a cylindrical laboratory plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.; Yu, J. H.; Holland, C.; Xu, M.; Mueller, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    The statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress arising from collisional drift turbulence in a magnetized plasma column are studied and a physical picture of turbulent driven shear flow generation is discussed. The Reynolds stress peaks near the maximal density gradient region, and is governed by the turbulence amplitude and cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity fields. The amplitude probability distribution function (PDF) of the turbulent Reynolds stress is non-Gaussian and positively skewed at the density gradient maximum. The turbulent ion-saturation (Isat) current PDF shows that the region where the bursty Isat events are born coincides with the positively skewed non-Gaussian Reynolds stress PDF, which suggests that the bursts of particle transport appear to be associated with bursts of momentum transport as well. At the shear layer the density fluctuation radial correlation length has a strong minimum (∼4-6 mm∼0.5C s /Ω ci , where C s is the ion acoustic speed and Ω ci is the ion gyrofrequency), while the azimuthal turbulence correlation length is nearly constant across the shear layer. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale shear layer.

  19. Near-wall extension of a non-equilibrium, omega-based Reynolds stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tue; Behr, Marek; Reinartz, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a new ω-based Reynolds stress model that is consistent with asymptotic analysis in the near wall region and with rapid distortion theory in homogeneous turbulence is reported. The model is based on the SSG/LRR-ω model developed by Eisfeld (2006) with three main modifications. Firstly, the near wall behaviors of the redistribution, dissipation and diffusion terms are modified according to the asymptotic analysis and a new blending function based on low Reynolds number is proposed. Secondly, an anisotropic dissipation tensor based on the Reynolds stress inhomogeneity (Jakirlic et al., 2007) is used instead of the original isotropic model. Lastly, the SSG redistribution term, which is activated far from the wall, is replaced by Speziale's non-equilibrium model (Speziale, 1998).

  20. A New View of the Dynamics of Reynolds Stress Generation in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian J.; Chacin, Juan M.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of a numerically simulated turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re(theta) = 670 was studied using the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (Q and R) and a related scalar quantity, the cubic discriminant (D = 27R(exp 2)/4 + Q(exp 3)). These invariants have previously been used to study the properties of the small-scale motions responsible for the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. In addition, these scalar quantities allow the local flow patterns to be unambiguously classified according to the terminology proposed by Chong et al. The use of the discriminant as a marker of coherent motions reveals complex, large-scale flow structures that are shown to be associated with the generation of Reynolds shear stress -u'v'(bar). These motions are characterized by high spatial gradients of the discriminant and are believed to be an important part of the mechanism that sustains turbulence in the near-wall region.

  1. A turbulent mixing Reynolds stress model fitted to match linear interaction analysis predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffond, J; Soulard, O; Souffland, D

    2010-01-01

    To predict the evolution of turbulent mixing zones developing in shock tube experiments with different gases, a turbulence model must be able to reliably evaluate the production due to the shock-turbulence interaction. In the limit of homogeneous weak turbulence, 'linear interaction analysis' (LIA) can be applied. This theory relies on Kovasznay's decomposition and allows the computation of waves transmitted or produced at the shock front. With assumptions about the composition of the upstream turbulent mixture, one can connect the second-order moments downstream from the shock front to those upstream through a transfer matrix, depending on shock strength. The purpose of this work is to provide a turbulence model that matches LIA results for the shock-turbulent mixture interaction. Reynolds stress models (RSMs) with additional equations for the density-velocity correlation and the density variance are considered here. The turbulent states upstream and downstream from the shock front calculated with these models can also be related through a transfer matrix, provided that the numerical implementation is based on a pseudo-pressure formulation. Then, the RSM should be modified in such a way that its transfer matrix matches the LIA one. Using the pseudo-pressure to introduce ad hoc production terms, we are able to obtain a close agreement between LIA and RSM matrices for any shock strength and thus improve the capabilities of the RSM.

  2. The Reynolds number dependence of the velocity field in the BNL Jet-in-Pool water experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepura, R.T.

    1981-02-01

    The water Jet-in-Pool experiment at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories consists of an axisymmetric sudden expansion. A series of measurements was performed in this rig, using a single-channel Laser/Doppler Anemometer system, over a Reynolds number range of 1.4 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 4 to determine any dependence in the flow. The mean axial velocity data showed a slight variation, but the root-mean-square fluctuations of the axial velocity had a far more pronounced dependence. This was attributed to upstream conditions in the rig, specifically the nozzle used for injecting the central portion of the flow. The variations in the mean velocity data are sufficiently small for one set of data to act as a basis for calculations at any Reynolds number when a simple closure scheme such as a prescribed effective viscosity is used. However the variation in turbulence parameters will complicate the use of second-order closure schemes and this will be examined further. (author)

  3. Elliptic blending model : A new near-wall Reynolds-stress turbulence closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, R.; Hanjali?, K.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to modeling the effects of a solid wall in one-point second-moment (Reynolds-stress) turbulence closures is presented. The model is based on the relaxation of an inhomogeneous (near-wall) formulation of the pressure–strain tensor towards the chosen conventional homogeneous

  4. Coupled ADCPs can yield complete Reynolds stress tensor profiles in geophysical surface flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new technique to measure profiles of each term in the Reynolds stress tensor using coupled acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The technique is based on the variance method which is extended to the case with eight acoustic beams. Methods to analyze turbulence from a single

  5. Extending the bounds of ‘steady’ RANS closures: Toward an instability-sensitive Reynolds stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakirlić, S.; Maduta, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A grid-spacing free, instability-sensitive Reynolds stress model is formulated. • The model is capable of capturing turbulence fluctuations. • Substantial improvement concerning proper turbulence activity enhancement is achieved. • The model is intensively validated in a series of 2D and 3D separating flows. • The model feasibility is also checked in some attached flows. - Abstract: The incapability of the conventional Unsteady RANS (Reynolds–Averaged Navier Stokes) models to adequately capture turbulence unsteadiness presents the prime motivation of the present work, which focuses on formulating an instability-sensitive, eddy-resolving turbulence model on the Second-Moment Closure level. The model scheme adopted, functioning as a ‘sub-scale’ model in the Unsteady RANS framework, represents a differential near-wall Reynolds stress model formulated in conjunction with the scale-supplying equation governing the homogeneous part of the inverse turbulent time scale ω h (ω h = ε h /k). The latter equation was straightforwardly obtained from the model equation describing the dynamics of the homogeneous part of the total viscous dissipation rate ε, defined as ε h = ε − 0.5ν∂ 2 k/(∂x j ∂x j ) (Jakirlic and Hanjalic, 2002), by applying the derivation rules to the expression for ω h . The model capability to account for vortex length and time scales variability was enabled through an additional term in the corresponding length-scale determining equation, providing a selective enhancement of its production, pertinent particularly to the highly unsteady separated shear layer region, modeled in terms of the von Karman length scale (comprising the second derivative of the velocity field) in line with the SAS (Scale-Adaptive Simulation) proposal (Menter and Egorov, 2010). The present model formulation, termed as SRANS model (Sensitized RANS), does not comprise any parameter depending explicitly on grid spacing. The predictive

  6. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-08-01

    Suppression of resistive g-mode turbulence by background shear flow generated from a small external flow source and amplified by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress is demonstrated and analyzed. The model leads to a paradigm for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transition. To demonstrate the L-H transition model, single-helicity nonlinear fluid simulations using the vorticity equation for the electrostatic potential, the pressure fluctuation equation and the background poloidal flow equation are used in the sheared slab configuration. The relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the poloidal flow damping parameter ν which is given by neoclassical theory. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow and its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. In contrast, for small ν, we show that the fluctuations drive a Reynolds stress that becomes large and suddenly, at some critical point in time, shear flow much larger than the external flow is generated and leads to an abrupt, order unity reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is also found that, even in the case of no external flow, the shear flow generation due to the Reynolds stress occurs through the nonlinear interaction of the resistive g-modes and reduces the transport. To supplement the numerical solutions we derive the Landau equation for the mode amplitude of the resistive g-mode taking into account the fluctuation-induced shear flow and analyze the opposite action of the Reynolds stress in the resistive g turbulence compared with the classical shear flow Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) driven turbulence

  7. Calculation of lobe mixer flow with reynolds stress model. Oryoku hoteishiki model ni yoru lobe mixer ryu no suchi keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Arakawa, Chuichi; Tagori, Tetsuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan) Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1990-02-25

    It is considered that exhaust gas energy of turbofan engine is partly collected to realize the improvement of propulsion efficiency together with the reduction of noise appeared by the change in velocity distribution of exhaust gas flow. Then Lobe mixer was studied and its effectiveness was widely recognized, however the development of more realistic prediction method of exhaust nozzle system including Lobe mixer, is not completed yet. The stress equation model with low Reynolds Number which is easily used by the expansion of Launder Reece Rodi model in three dimension coordinate system was newly constructed. Applicability of the stress equation in more complicated flow field was greatly improved. While the above model was applied to Lobe mixer system, then the qualitative reproduction of mixing process accompanied with flow around Lobe and longitudinal eddy of core or bi-pass flow, was realized. There is room for improvement of pressure strain correlation term and behavior of Reynolds stress very close by wall surface in this model. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of confinement, geometry, inlet velocity profile, and Reynolds number on the asymmetry of opposed-jet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Abtin; Chen, Kevin K.; Burrell, Robert R.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2018-04-01

    The opposed-jet counterflow configuration is widely used to measure fundamental flame properties that are essential targets for validating chemical kinetic models. The main and key assumption of the counterflow configuration in laminar flame experiments is that the flow field is steady and quasi-one-dimensional. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the behavior and controlling parameters of counterflowing isothermal air jets for various nozzle designs, Reynolds numbers, and surrounding geometries. The flow field in the jets' impingement region was analyzed in search of instabilities, asymmetries, and two-dimensional effects that can introduce errors when the data are compared with results of quasi-one-dimensional simulations. The modeling involved transient axisymmetric numerical simulations along with bifurcation analysis, which revealed that when the flow field is confined between walls, local bifurcation occurs, which in turn results in asymmetry, deviation from the one-dimensional assumption, and sensitivity of the flow field structure to boundary conditions and surrounding geometry. Particle image velocimetry was utilized and results revealed that for jets of equal momenta at low Reynolds numbers of the order of 300, the flow field is asymmetric with respect to the middle plane between the nozzles even in the absence of confining walls. The asymmetry was traced to the asymmetric nozzle exit velocity profiles caused by unavoidable imperfections in the nozzle assembly. The asymmetry was not detectable at high Reynolds numbers of the order of 1000 due to the reduced sensitivity of the flow field to boundary conditions. The cases investigated computationally covered a wide range of Reynolds numbers to identify designs that are minimally affected by errors in the experimental procedures or manufacturing imperfections, and the simulations results were used to identify conditions that best conform to the assumptions of

  9. Recent progress in the development of the Elliptic Blending Reynolds-stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manceau, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various modifications of the Elliptic Blending Reynolds stress model, proposed during the last decade, are revisited. • Using theoretical arguments and detailed comparison with DNS data, a reference model is formulated. • The model satisfactorily reproduces the effects of spanwise rotation on turbulence, for cases without and with separation. - Abstract: The Elliptic Blending Reynolds Stress Model (EB-RSM), originally proposed by Manceau and Hanjalić (2002) to extend standard, weakly inhomogeneous Reynolds stress models to the near-wall region, has been subject to various modifications by several authors during the last decade, mainly for numerical robustness reasons. The present work revisits all these modifications from the theoretical standpoint and investigates in detail their influence on the reproduction of the physical mechanisms at the origin of the influence of the wall on turbulence. The analysis exploits recent DNS databases for high-Reynolds number channel flows, spanwise rotating channel flows with strong rotation rates, up to complete laminarization, and the separated flow after a sudden expansion without and with system rotation. Theoretical arguments and comparison with DNS results lead to the selection of a recommended formulation for the EB-RSM model. This formulation shows satisfactory predictions for the configurations described above, in particular as regards the modification of the mean flow and turbulent anisotropy on the anticyclonic or pressure side

  10. Reynolds number and settling velocity influence for finite-release particle-laden gravity currents in a basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.

  11. Numerical study to invistigate the effect of inlet gas velocity and Reynolds number on bubble formation in a viscous liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Tariqul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble formation dynamics has great value in mineral recovery and the oil industry. In this paper, a single bubble formation process through an orifice in a rectangle domain is modelled to study the bubble formation characteristics using the volume of fluid (VOF with the continuum surface force (CSF method. The effect of gas inlet velocities, Ug ~ 0.1 - 0.3 m/s on bubble formation stages (i.e., expansion, elongation and pinch off, bubble contact angle, dynamics and static pressure, bubble departure diameter etc. was investigated through an orifice diameter of 1 mm. The method was also used to study the effect of Reynolds number, Reμ ~ 1.32 - 120 on bubble formation when all other parameters were kept constant. It is found that a high inlet gas velocity accelerated the reducing of the bubble contact angle from an obtuse angle to an acute angle and the faster development of hemispherical shape of the bubble. It is also found that an increasing of Reynolds number caused speeding up of the bubble pinch-off and formed a smaller bubble neck height due to stronger vortex ring around the bubble neck.

  12. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence-first results from CICLoPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H

    2017-03-13

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10 4 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A 2 ≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A 2,w ≈A 2 /2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have investigated suppression of the resistive g mode turbulence by background shear flow produced by the external source and by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress. For that purpose, the authors used the model consisting of the equations describing the electrostatic potential φ≡(φ 0 +φ) and the pressure fluctuation p of the resistive g mode, and the equation for the background poloidal flow. They have done the single-helicity nonlinear simulations using the model equations in the sheared slab configuration. They find that, in the nonlinear turbulent regime, significant suppression of the turbulent transport is realized only when the shear flow v' E exceeds that which makes the fastest-growing linear modes marginally stable. With the shear flow which decreases the fastest linear growth rates by about a half, the turbulent transport in the saturated state is about the same as in the case of no shear flow. As seen from the equation for the background flow v E , the relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the parameter ν. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow although its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. On the other hand, for small ν, they observe that, as the fluctuations grow, the Reynolds stress becomes large and suddenly at some critical point in time shear flow much larger than the external one is generated and leads to the significant reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is remarkable that the Reynolds stress due to the resistive g mode fluctuations works not as a conventional viscosity term weakening the shear flow but as a negative viscosity term enhancing it

  14. Turbulent Reynolds stress and quadrant event activity in wind flow over a coastal foredune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Connie A.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on quasi-instantaneous turbulent kinematic Reynolds stresses (RS, - u'w') and decomposed quadrant event activity (e.g., ejections and sweeps) over dunes in fluvial settings and in wind tunnels has shown that turbulent stresses at the toe of a dune often exceed time-averaged, streamwise shear stress (ρ u * 2) estimates. It is believed that semi-coherent turbulent structures are conveyed toward the bed along concave streamlines in this region and that impact of these structures cause fluctuations in local surface stresses that assist in grain entrainment. This has been hypothesized to explain how sand is supplied to the windward slope through a region of flow stagnation. Toward the crest, surface stress increases and becomes dominated by streamwise accelerations resulting from streamline compression and convexity that suppress vertical motions. High-frequency (32 Hz) measurements of turbulent wind flow from 3-D ultrasonic anemometers are analyzed for oblique onshore flow over a vegetated coastal foredune in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Reynolds stress and quadrant activity distributions varied with height (0.60 m and 1.66 m) and location over the dune. In general, quadrant 2 ejection (u' 0) and quadrant 4 sweep activity (u' > 0, w' 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 3 inward interaction (u' dune and may help to explain sand transport potential and dune maintenance. For example, areas with a high frequency of ejection and sweep activity may have higher rates of sediment entrainment and transport, whereas areas with lower ejection and sweep activity and an increase in outward and inward interactions, which contribute negatively to Reynolds stress generation, may experience a greater potential for deposition. Further research on associations between quadrant event activity and coincident sand transport is required to confirm this hypothesis and the resultant significance of the flow exuberance effect in aeolian dune morphodynamics.

  15. Computational analysis of water entry of a circular section at constant velocity based on Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. Maruf; Fuad, Muzaddid-E.-Zaman; Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, M. Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid decrease in the cost of computational infrastructure with more efficient algorithm for solving non-linear problems, Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used widely now-a-days. As a preliminary evaluation tool, CFD is used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads on offshore installations, ships, and other structures in the ocean at initial design stages. Traditionally, wedges have been studied more than circular cylinders because cylinder section has zero deadrise angle at the instant of water impact, which increases with increase of submergence. In Present study, RaNS based commercial code ANSYS Fluent is used to simulate the water entry of a circular section at constant velocity. It is seen that present computational results were compared with experiment and other numerical method.

  16. Reynolds-Stress Budgets in an Impinging Shock Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Comparisons with experimental data showed a sensitivity of the current prediction to the modeling of the sidewalls. This was found to be common among various computational studies in the literature where periodic boundary conditions were used in the spanwise direction, as was the case in the present work. Thus, although the experiment was quasi-two-dimensional, the present simulation was determined to be two-dimensional. Quantities present in the exact equation of the Reynolds-stress transport, i.e., production, molecular diffusion, turbulent transport, pressure diffusion, pressure strain, dissipation, and turbulent mass flux were calculated. Reynolds-stress budgets were compared with past large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation datasets in the undisturbed portion of the turbulent boundary layer to validate the current approach. The budgets in SBLI showed the growth in the production term for the primary normal stress and energy transfer mechanism was led by the pressure strain term in the secondary normal stresses. The pressure diffusion term, commonly assumed as negligible by turbulence model developers, was shown to be small but non-zero in the normal stress budgets, however it played a key role in the primary shear stress budget.

  17. Comparative study of the two-fluid momentum equations for multi-dimensional bubbly flows: Modification of Reynolds stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Byoung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Two-fluid equations are widely used to obtain averaged behaviors of two-phase flows. This study addresses a problem that may arise when the two-fluid equations are used for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. If steady drag is the only accounted force for the interfacial momentum transfer, the disperse-phase velocity would be the same as the continuous-phase velocity when the flow is fully developed without gravity. However, existing momentum equations may show unphysical results in estimating the relative velocity of the disperse phase against the continuous-phase. First, we examine two types of existing momentum equations. One is the standard two-fluid momentum equation in which the disperse-phase is treated as a continuum. The other is the averaged momentum equation derived from a solid/ fluid particle motion. We show that the existing equations are not proper for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. To resolve the problem mentioned above, we modify the form of the Reynolds stress terms in the averaged momentum equation based on the solid/fluid particle motion. The proposed equation shows physically correct results for both multi-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows.

  18. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  19. Reynolds stress analysis of EMHD-controlled wall turbulence. Part I. Streamwise forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.H.; Karniadakis, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we investigate numerically turbulent flow of low electrical conductivity fluid subject to electro-magnetic (EMHD) forcing. The configuration is similar to the one considered in the experimental work of Henoch and Stace [Phys. Fluids 7, 1371 (1995)] but in a channel geometry. The lower wall of the channel is covered with alternating streamwise electrodes and magnets to create a Lorentz force in the positive streamwise direction. Two cases are considered in detail corresponding to interaction parameter values of 0.4 (case 1) and 0.1 (case 2). The effect of switching off and on the electrodes is also studied for the two cases. At the Reynolds number considered (Re τ ∼200), a drag increase was obtained for all cases, in agreement with the experiments of Henoch and Stace. A Reynolds stress analysis was performed based on a new decomposition of the gradients normal to the wall of the Reynolds stress -u'v'. It was found that the vortex stretching term w'w 2 ' and the spanwise variation of the stress component u'w' are responsible for the drag increase. More specifically, the term ∂(u'w')/∂x 3 is associated with secondary vortical motions in the near-wall and becomes large and positive for large shear stress in regions where fluid is moving toward the wall. In contrast, negative values are associated with regions of lower shear where fluid is being lifted away from the wall. Unlike the unperturbed flow, in the controlled flow high speed near-wall streamwise jets are present (case 1) even in the time-averaged fields. Other changes in turbulence structure are quantified using streak spacing, vortex lines, vorticity quadrant analysis, and plots of the rms value of the vorticity angle. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  1. Meridional Motions and Reynolds Stress Determined by Using Kanzelhöhe Drawings and White Light Solar Images from 1964 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruždjak, Domagoj; Sudar, Davor; Brajša, Roman; Skokić, Ivica; Poljančić Beljan, Ivana; Jurdana-Šepić, Rajka; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Veronig, Astrid; Pötzi, Werner

    2018-04-01

    Sunspot position data obtained from Kanzelhöhe Observatory for Solar and Environmental Research (KSO) sunspot drawings and white light images in the period 1964 to 2016 were used to calculate the rotational and meridional velocities of the solar plasma. Velocities were calculated from daily shifts of sunspot groups and an iterative process of calculation of the differential rotation profiles was used to discard outliers. We found a differential rotation profile and meridional motions in agreement with previous studies using sunspots as tracers and conclude that the quality of the KSO data is appropriate for analysis of solar velocity patterns. By analyzing the correlation and covariance of meridional velocities and rotation rate residuals we found that the angular momentum is transported towards the solar equator. The magnitude and latitudinal dependence of the horizontal component of the Reynolds stress tensor calculated is sufficient to maintain the observed solar differential rotation profile. Therefore, our results confirm that the Reynolds stress is the dominant mechanism responsible for transport of angular momentum towards the solar equator.

  2. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  3. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsaaker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E x B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport

  4. Reynolds stress turbulence model applied to two-phase pressurized thermal shocks in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérigoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.merigoux@edf.fr; Laviéville, Jérôme; Mimouni, Stéphane; Guingo, Mathieu; Baudry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS. • k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results but also highlights some weaknesses. • A more advanced turbulence model has been developed, validated and applied for PTS. • Coupled with LIM, the first results confirmed the increased accuracy of the approach. - Abstract: Nuclear power plants are subjected to a variety of ageing mechanisms and, at the same time, exposed to potential pressurized thermal shock (PTS) – characterized by a rapid cooling of the internal Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) surface. In this context, NEPTUNE-CFD is used to model two-phase PTS and give an assessment on the structural integrity of the RPV. The first available choice was to use standard first order turbulence model (k-ε) to model high-Reynolds number flows encountered in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary circuits. In a first attempt, the use of k-ε model did produce some satisfactory results in terms of condensation rate and temperature field distribution on integral experiments, but also highlights some weaknesses in the way to model highly anisotropic turbulence. One way to improve the turbulence prediction – and consequently the temperature field distribution – is to opt for more advanced Reynolds Stress turbulence Model. After various verification and validation steps on separated effects cases – co-current air/steam-water stratified flows in rectangular channels, water jet impingements on water pool free surfaces – this Reynolds Stress turbulence Model (R{sub ij}-ε SSG) has been applied for the first time to thermal free surface flows under industrial conditions on COSI and TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. Coupled with the Large Interface Model, the first results confirmed the adequacy and increased accuracy of the approach in an industrial context.

  5. Generation of sheared poloidal flows by electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress in the boundary plasma of HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.

    2005-01-01

    The radial profiles of electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress (Maxwell stress) have been measured in the plasma boundary region of HT-7 tokamak. Experimental results show that the radial gradient of electrostatic Reynolds stress (ERS) changes sign across the last closed flux surface, and the neoclassical flow damping and the damping due to charge exchange processes are balanced by the radial gradient of ERS, which sustains the equilibrium sheared flow structure in a steady state. The contribution of magnetic Reynolds stress was found unimportant in a low β plasma. Detailed analyses indicate that the propagation properties of turbulence in radial and poloidal directions and the profiles of potential fluctuation level are responsible for the radial structure of ERS. (author)

  6. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...... loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface...

  7. Enhancing PIV image and fractal descriptor for velocity and shear stresses propagation around a circular pier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Keshavarzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fractal dimensions of velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stresses propagation for flow around a circular bridge pier are presented. In the study reported herein, the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations (u′, v′, w′ and the Reynolds shear stresses (u′v′ and u′w′ of flow around a bridge pier were computed using a Fractal Interpolation Function (FIF algorithm. The velocity fluctuations of flow along a horizontal plane above the bed were measured using Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (ADV and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The PIV is a powerful technique which enables us to attain high resolution spatial and temporal information of turbulent flow using instantaneous time snapshots. In this study, PIV was used for detection of high resolution fractal scaling around a bridge pier. The results showed that the fractal dimension of flow fluctuated significantly in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the vicinity of the pier. It was also found that the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations and shear stresses increased rapidly at vicinity of pier at downstream whereas it remained approximately unchanged far downstream of the pier. The higher value of fractal dimension was found at a distance equal to one times of the pier diameter in the back of the pier. Furthermore, the average fractal dimension for the streamwise and transverse velocity fluctuations decreased from the centreline to the side wall of the flume. Finally, the results from ADV measurement were consistent with the result from PIV, therefore, the ADV enables to detect turbulent characteristics of flow around a circular bridge pier.

  8. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  9. Modification of the mean near-wall velocity profile of a high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer with the injection of drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-08-01

    The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the

  10. Anisotropy of the Reynolds stress tensor in the wakes of wind turbine arrays in Cartesian arrangements with counter-rotating rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nicholas; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 3 wind turbine array in a Cartesian arrangement was constructed in a wind tunnel setting with four configurations based on the rotational sense of the rotor blades. The fourth row of devices is considered to be in the fully developed turbine canopy for a Cartesian arrangement. Measurements of the flow field were made with stereo particle-image velocimetry immediately upstream and downstream of the selected model turbines. Rotational sense of the turbine blades is evident in the mean spanwise velocity W and the Reynolds shear stress - v w ¯ . The flux of kinetic energy is shown to be of greater magnitude following turbines in arrays where direction of rotation of the blades varies. Invariants of the normalized Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor (η and ξ) are plotted in the Lumley triangle and indicate that distinct characters of turbulence exist in regions of the wake following the nacelle and the rotor blade tips. Eigendecomposition of the tensor yields principle components and corresponding coordinate system transformations. Characteristic spheroids representing the balance of components in the normalized anisotropy tensor are composed with the eigenvalues yielding shapes predicted by the Lumley triangle. Rotation of the coordinate system defined by the eigenvectors demonstrates trends in the streamwise coordinate following the rotors, especially trailing the top-tip of the rotor and below the hub. Direction of rotation of rotor blades is shown by the orientation of characteristic spheroids according to principle axes. In the inflows of exit row turbines, the normalized Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor shows cumulative effects of the upstream turbines, tending toward prolate shapes for uniform rotational sense, oblate spheroids for streamwise organization of rotational senses, and a mixture of characteristic shapes when the rotation varies by row. Comparison between the invariants of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor and terms from the mean

  11. Reynolds stress structures in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2018-04-01

    Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage

  12. Assessment of Reynolds stresses tensor reconstruction methods for synthetic turbulent inflow conditions. Application to hybrid RANS/LES methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraufie, Romain; Deck, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present various Reynolds stresses reconstruction methods from a RANS-SA flow field. • Quantify the accuracy of the reconstruction methods for a wide range of Reynolds. • Evaluate the capabilities of the overall process (Reconstruction + SEM). • Provide practical guidelines to realize a streamwise RANS/LES (or WMLES) transition. -- Abstract: Hybrid or zonal RANS/LES approaches are recognized as the most promising way to accurately simulate complex unsteady flows under current computational limitations. One still open issue concerns the transition from a RANS to a LES or WMLES resolution in the stream-wise direction, when near wall turbulence is involved. Turbulence content has then to be prescribed at the transition to prevent from turbulence decay leading to possible flow relaminarization. The present paper aims to propose an efficient way to generate this switch, within the flow, based on a synthetic turbulence inflow condition, named Synthetic Eddy Method (SEM). As the knowledge of the whole Reynolds stresses is often missing, the scope of this paper is focused on generating the quantities required at the SEM inlet from a RANS calculation, namely the first and second order statistics of the aerodynamic field. Three different methods based on two different approaches are presented and their capability to accurately generate the needed aerodynamic values is investigated. Then, the ability of the combination SEM + Reconstruction method to manufacture well-behaved turbulence is demonstrated through spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layers. In the mean time, important intrinsic features of the Synthetic Eddy method are pointed out. The necessity of introducing, within the SEM, accurate data, with regards to the outer part of the boundary layer, is illustrated. Finally, user’s guidelines are given depending on the Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness, since one method is suitable for low Reynolds number while the

  13. β-distribution for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux in relaxation turbulent boundary layer of compression ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu

    2017-12-01

    A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.

  14. Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem at various flow modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A A; Butkovskii, A V

    2016-07-01

    The Reynolds analogy and the extended Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem are considered. For a viscous incompressible fluid we derive the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number and the Eckert number. We show that for any positive Eckert number, the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number has a maximum. For a monatomic gas in the transitional flow regime, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we investigate the extended Reynolds analogy, i.e., the relation between the shear stress and the energy flux transferred to the boundary surface, at different velocities and temperatures. We find that the extended Reynolds analogy for a rarefied monatomic gas flow with the temperature of the undisturbed gas equal to the surface temperature depends weakly on time and is close to 0.5. We show that at any fixed dimensionless time the extended Reynolds analogy depends on the plate velocity and temperature and undisturbed gas temperature mainly via the Eckert number. For Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less we generalize an extended Reynolds analogy. The generalized Reynolds analogy depends mainly only on dimensionless time for all considered Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less.

  15. Letter: The link between the Reynolds shear stress and the large structures of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Barberá, Sergio; Hoyas, Sergio; Oberlack, Martin; Kraheberger, Stefanie

    2018-04-01

    The length and width of the long and wide structures appearing in turbulent Couette flows are studied by means of a new dataset of direct numerical simulation covering a stepped transition from pure Couette flow to pure Poiseuille one, at Reτ ≈ 130, based on the stationary wall. The existence of these structures is linked to the averaged Reynolds stress, u v ¯ : as soon as in any part of the channel u v ¯ changes its sign, the structures disappear. The length and width of the rolls are found to be, approximately, 50h and 2.5h, respectively. For this Reynolds number, simulations with a domain shorter than 100h cannot properly describe the behaviour of the longest structures of the flow.

  16. Velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in isothermal dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Anuj; Lukes, Jennifer R.

    2010-02-01

    The velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in a dissipative particle dynamics ideal fluid model is analyzed in this paper. The autocorrelation functions are calculated at three different friction parameters and three different time steps using the well-known Groot/Warren algorithm and newer algorithms including self-consistent leap-frog, self-consistent velocity Verlet and Shardlow first and second order integrators. At low friction values, the velocity autocorrelation function decays exponentially at short times, shows slower-than exponential decay at intermediate times, and approaches zero at long times for all five integrators. As friction value increases, the deviation from exponential behavior occurs earlier and is more pronounced. At small time steps, all the integrators give identical decay profiles. As time step increases, there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the integrators. The stress correlation behavior is markedly different for the algorithms. The self-consistent velocity Verlet and the Shardlow algorithms show very similar stress autocorrelation decay with change in friction parameter, whereas the Groot/Warren and leap-frog schemes show variations at higher friction factors. Diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are calculated using Green-Kubo integration of the velocity and stress autocorrelation functions. The diffusion coefficients match well-known theoretical results at low friction limits. Although the stress autocorrelation function is different for each integrator, fluctuates rapidly, and gives poor statistics for most of the cases, the calculated shear viscosities still fall within range of theoretical predictions and nonequilibrium studies.

  17. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: budgets of Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritselis, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re b = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10 −5 ) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10 −5 ). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually control the

  18. Universal model of finite Reynolds number turbulent flow in channels and pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we suggest a simple and physically transparent analytical model of pressure driven turbulent wall-bounded flows at high but finite Reynolds numbers Re. The model provides an accurate quantitative description of the profiles of the mean-velocity and Reynolds stresses (second order

  19. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  20. Low Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamic loads determination via line integral of velocity obtained with particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y.Y. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C{sub l}. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C{sub l} data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C{sub l} with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C{sub l} data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio. (orig.)

  1. A second order turbulence model based on a Reynolds stress approach for two-phase boiling flow. Part 1: Application to the ASU-annular channel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.f [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Archambeau, F.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J. [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Morel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2010-09-15

    High-thermal performance PWR (pressurized water reactor) spacer grids require both low pressure loss and high critical heat flux (CHF) properties. Numerical investigations on the effect of angles and position of mixing vanes and to understand in more details the main physical phenomena (wall boiling, entrainment of bubbles in the wakes, recondensation) are required. In the field of fuel assembly analysis or design by means of CFD codes, the overwhelming majority of the studies are carried out using two-equation eddy viscosity models (EVM), especially the standard K-{epsilon} model, while the use of Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSTM) remains exceptional. But extensive testing and application over the past three decades have revealed a number of shortcomings and deficiencies in eddy viscosity models. In fact, the K-{epsilon} model is totally blind to rotation effects and the swirling flows can be regarded as a special case of fluid rotation. This aspect is crucial for the simulation of a hot channel in a fuel assembly. In fact, the mixing vanes of the spacer grids generate a swirl in the coolant water, to enhance the heat transfer from the rods to the coolant in the hot channels and to limit boiling. First, we started to evaluate computational fluid dynamics results against the AGATE-mixing experiment: single-phase liquid water tests, with Laser-Doppler liquid velocity measurements upstream and downstream of mixing blades. The comparison of computed and experimental azimuthal (circular component in a horizontal plane) liquid velocity downstream of a mixing vane for the AGATE-mixing test shows that the rotating flow is qualitatively well reproduced by CFD calculations but azimuthal liquid velocity is underestimated with the K-{epsilon} model. Before comparing performance of EVM and RSTM models on fuel assembly geometry, we performed calculations with a simpler geometry, the ASU-annular channel case. A wall function model dedicated to boiling flows is also

  2. Large eddy simulation in a rotary blood pump: Viscous shear stress computation and comparison with unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Benjamin; Konnigk, Lucas; Hallier, Sebastian; Kumar, Jitendra; Witte, Matthias; Wurm, Frank-Hendrik

    2018-06-01

    Numerical flow analysis (computational fluid dynamics) in combination with the prediction of blood damage is an important procedure to investigate the hemocompatibility of a blood pump, since blood trauma due to shear stresses remains a problem in these devices. Today, the numerical damage prediction is conducted using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Investigations with large eddy simulations are rarely being performed for blood pumps. Hence, the aim of the study is to examine the viscous shear stresses of a large eddy simulation in a blood pump and compare the results with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. The simulations were carried out at two operation points of a blood pump. The flow was simulated on a 100M element mesh for the large eddy simulation and a 20M element mesh for the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. As a first step, the large eddy simulation was verified by analyzing internal dissipative losses within the pump. Then, the pump characteristics and mean and turbulent viscous shear stresses were compared between the two simulation methods. The verification showed that the large eddy simulation is able to reproduce the significant portion of dissipative losses, which is a global indication that the equivalent viscous shear stresses are adequately resolved. The comparison with the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation revealed that the hydraulic parameters were in agreement, but differences for the shear stresses were found. The results show the potential of the large eddy simulation as a high-quality comparative case to check the suitability of a chosen Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes setup and turbulence model. Furthermore, the results lead to suggest that large eddy simulations are superior to unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations when instantaneous stresses are applied for the blood damage prediction.

  3. Global catalog of earthquake rupture velocities shows anticorrelation between stress drop and rupture velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise

    2018-05-01

    Application of the SCARDEC method provides the apparent source time functions together with seismic moment, depth, and focal mechanism, for most of the recent earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.6-6. Using this large dataset, we have developed a method to systematically invert for the rupture direction and average rupture velocity Vr, when unilateral rupture propagation dominates. The approach is applied to all the shallow (z earthquakes of the catalog over the 1992-2015 time period. After a careful validation process, rupture properties for a catalog of 96 earthquakes are obtained. The subsequent analysis of this catalog provides several insights about the seismic rupture process. We first report that up-dip ruptures are more abundant than down-dip ruptures for shallow subduction interface earthquakes, which can be understood as a consequence of the material contrast between the slab and the overriding crust. Rupture velocities, which are searched without any a-priori up to the maximal P wave velocity (6000-8000 m/s), are found between 1200 m/s and 4500 m/s. This observation indicates that no earthquakes propagate over long distances with rupture velocity approaching the P wave velocity. Among the 23 ruptures faster than 3100 m/s, we observe both documented supershear ruptures (e.g. the 2001 Kunlun earthquake), and undocumented ruptures that very likely include a supershear phase. We also find that the correlation of Vr with the source duration scaled to the seismic moment (Ts) is very weak. This directly implies that both Ts and Vr are anticorrelated with the stress drop Δσ. This result has implications for the assessment of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) variability. As shown by Causse and Song (2015), an anticorrelation between Δσ and Vr significantly reduces the predicted PGA variability, and brings it closer to the observed variability.

  4. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Grace M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Smith, S. Jarrell

    2013-12-01

    Under conditions common in muddy coastal and estuarine environments, acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) can serve to estimate sediment settling velocity ( w s) by assuming a balance between upward turbulent Reynolds flux and downward gravitational settling. Advantages of this method include simple instrument deployment, lack of flow disturbance, and relative insensitivity to biofouling and water column stratification. Although this method is being used with increasing frequency in coastal and estuarine environments, to date it has received little direct ground truthing. This study compared in situ estimates of w s inferred by a 5-MHz ADV to independent in situ observations from a high-definition video settling column over the course of a flood tide in the bottom boundary layer of the York River estuary, Virginia, USA. The ADV-based measurements were found to agree with those of the settling column when the current speed at about 40 cm above the bed was greater than about 20 cm/s. This corresponded to periods when the estimated magnitude of the settling term in the suspended sediment continuity equation was four or more times larger than the time rate of change of concentration. For ADV observations restricted to these conditions, ADV-based estimates of w s (mean 0.48±0.04 mm/s) were highly consistent with those observed by the settling column (mean 0.45±0.02 mm/s). However, the ADV-based method for estimating w s was sensitive to the prescribed concentration of the non-settling washload, C wash. In an objective operational definition, C wash can be set equal to the lowest suspended solids concentration observed around slack water.

  5. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  6. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail: fayssoil2000@yahoo.fr; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)

    2009-08-15

    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  7. Finite-Reynolds-number effects in turbulence using logarithmic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental or numerical data in turbulence are invariably obtained at finite Reynolds numbers whereas theories of turbulence correspond to infinitely large Reynolds numbers. A proper merger of the two approaches is possible only if corrections for finite Reynolds numbers can be quantified. This paper heuristically considers examples in two classes of finite-Reynolds-number effects. Expansions in terms of logarithms of appropriate variables are shown to yield results in agreement with experimental and numerical data in the following instances: the third-order structure function in isotropic turbulence, the mixed-order structure function for the passive scalar and the Reynolds shear stress around its maximum point. Results suggestive of expansions in terms of the inverse logarithm of the Reynolds number, also motivated by experimental data, concern the tendency for turbulent structures to cluster along a line of observation and (more speculatively) for the longitudinal velocity derivative to become singular at some finite Reynolds number. We suggest an elementary hydrodynamical process that may provide a physical basis for the expansions considered here, but note that the formal justification remains tantalizingly unclear. (author)

  8. Direct measurements of mean Reynolds stress and ripple roughness in the presence of energetic forcing by surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jones, Katie R.; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Direct covariance observations of the mean flow Reynolds stress and sonar images of the seafloor collected on a wave‐exposed inner continental shelf demonstrate that the drag exerted by the seabed on the overlying flow is consistent with boundary layer models for wave‐current interaction, provided that the orientation and anisotropy of the bed roughness are appropriately quantified. Large spatial and temporal variations in drag result from nonequilibrium ripple dynamics, ripple anisotropy, and the orientation of the ripples relative to the current. At a location in coarse sand characterized by large two‐dimensional orbital ripples, the observed drag shows a strong dependence on the relative orientation of the mean current to the ripple crests. At a contrasting location in fine sand, where more isotropic sub‐orbital ripples are observed, the sensitivity of the current to the orientation of the ripples is reduced. Further, at the coarse site under conditions when the currents are parallel to the ripple crests and the wave orbital diameter is smaller than the wavelength of the relic orbital ripples, the flow becomes hydraulically smooth. This transition is not observed at the fine site, where the observed wave orbital diameter is always greater than the wavelength of the observed sub‐orbital ripples. Paradoxically, the dominant along‐shelf flows often experience lower drag at the coarse site than at the fine site, despite the larger ripples, highlighting the complex dynamics controlling drag in wave‐exposed environments with heterogeneous roughness.

  9. Scalewise invariant analysis of the anisotropic Reynolds stress tensor for atmospheric surface layer and canopy sublayer turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Peter; Katul, Gabriel G.; De Roo, Frederik; Kröniger, Konstantin; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatyn, Shani; Mauder, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropy in the turbulent stress tensor, which forms the basis of invariant analysis, is conducted using velocity time series measurements collected in the canopy sublayer (CSL) and the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). The goal is to assess how thermal stratification and surface roughness conditions simultaneously distort the scalewise relaxation towards isotropic state from large to small scales when referenced to homogeneous turbulence. To achieve this goal, conventional invariant analysis is extended to allow scalewise information about relaxation to isotropy in physical (instead of Fourier) space to be incorporated. The proposed analysis shows that the CSL is more isotropic than its ASL counterpart at large, intermediate, and small (or inertial) scales irrespective of the thermal stratification. Moreover, the small (or inertial) scale anisotropy is more prevalent in the ASL when compared to the CSL, a finding that cannot be fully explained by the intensity of the mean velocity gradient acting on all scales. Implications to the validity of scalewise Rotta and Lumley models for return to isotropy as well as advantages to using barycentric instead of anisotropy invariant maps for such scalewise analysis are discussed.

  10. Stress wave velocity patterns in the longitudinal-radial plane of trees for defect diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiang Weng; Xiaocheng Du; Xiping Wang; Hailin Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic tomography for urban tree inspection typically uses stress wave data to reconstruct tomographic images for the trunk cross section using interpolation algorithm. This traditional technique does not take into account the stress wave velocity patterns along tree height. In this study, we proposed an analytical model for the wave velocity in the longitudinal–...

  11. Spectral assessment of the turbulent convection velocity in a spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Reynolds numbers up to Re θ = 13000

    OpenAIRE

    Renard , N.; Deck , S.; Sagaut , P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A method inspired by del Alamo et al. [1] is derived to assess the wavelength-dependent convection velocity in a zero pressure gradient spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Retheta = 13 000 for all wavelengths and all wall distances, using only estimates of the time power spectral density of the streamwise velocity and of its local spatial derivative. The resulting global convection velocity has a least-squares interpretation and is easily relate...

  12. Using digital holographic microscopy for simultaneous measurements of 3D near wall velocity and wall shear stress in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.

    2008-12-01

    A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.

  13. The structure of the solution obtained with Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalbou, J.-B.; Chassaing, P.

    2002-02-01

    The behavior of Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows is investigated. Current turbulent-diffusion models are found to produce propagative (possibly weak) solutions of the same type as those reported earlier by Cazalbou, Spalart, and Bradshaw [Phys. Fluids 6, 1797 (1994)] for two-equation models. As in the latter study, an analysis is presented that provides qualitative information on the flow structure predicted near the edge if a condition on the values of the diffusion constants is satisfied. In this case, the solution appears to be fairly insensitive to the residual free-stream turbulence levels needed with conventional numerical methods. The main specific result is that, depending on the diffusion model, the propagative solution can force turbulence toward definite and rather extreme anisotropy states at the edge (one- or two-component limit). This is not the case with the model of Daly and Harlow [Phys. Fluids 13, 2634 (1970)]; it may be one of the reasons why this "old" scheme is still the most widely used, even in recent Reynolds-stress-transport models. In addition, the analysis helps us to interpret some difficulties encountered in computing even very simple flows with Lumley's pressure-diffusion model [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)]. A new realizability condition, according to which the diffusion model should not globally become "anti-diffusive," is introduced, and a recalibration of Lumley's model satisfying this condition is performed using information drawn from the analysis.

  14. Reynolds number invariance of the structure inclination angle in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ivan; Heuer, Weston D C

    2007-09-14

    Cross correlations of the fluctuating wall-shear stress and the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers are reported over 3 orders of magnitude change in Reynolds number. These results are obtained using hot-film and hot-wire anemometry in a wind tunnel facility, and sonic anemometers and a purpose-built wall-shear stress sensor in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer on the salt flats of Utah's western desert. The direct measurement of fluctuating wall-shear stress in the atmospheric surface layer has not been available before. Structure inclination angles are inferred from the cross correlation results and are found to be invariant over the large range of Reynolds number. The findings justify the prior use of low Reynolds number experiments for obtaining structure angles for near-wall models in the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric surface layer flows.

  15. Velocity profile and wall shear stress of saccular aneurysms at the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuhei; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Haida, Sayaka; Nakazawa, Nobuhiko; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the aspect ratio (dome/neck) of an aneurysm correlates well with intraaneurysmal blood flow. Aneurysms with an aspect ratio larger than 1.6 carry a higher risk of rupture. We examined the effect of aspect ratio (AR) on intra-aneurysmal flow using experimental models. Flow visualization with particle imaging velocimetry and measurement of wall shear stress using laser Doppler anemometry were performed on three different aneurysm models: AR 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Intraaneurysmal flow consists of inflow, circulation, and outflow. Rapid inflow impinged on the distal neck creating a stagnant point. Rapid flow and maximum wall shear stress were observed in the vicinity of the stagnant point. By changing the Reynold's number, the stagnant point moved. By increasing the AR of the aneurysm, vortices inside the aneurysm sac closed and very slow flow was observed, resulting in very low shear stress markedly at a Reynold's number of 250, compatible with the diastolic phase. In the aneurysm model AR 2.0, both rapid flow at the neck and vortices inside the aneurysm are sufficient to activate platelets, making a thrombus that may anchor on the dome where very slow flow takes place. Hemodynamics in aneurysms larger than AR 2.0 definitely contribute to thrombus formation.

  16. Electromagnetic energy density and stress tensor in a warm plasma with finite flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong R.; Lee, Nam C.

    2004-01-01

    The expressions of the average of energy density and the average stress tensor of the electromagnetic field in a warm collisionless plasma moving with a finite velocity are obtained by using a microscopic method that uses the fluid description of plasma. The result contains terms involved with derivatives of the dielectric tensor with respect to the velocity, which explicitly represent the effects of the finite velocity of the medium. In the zero-velocity limit, the results reduce to the well-known expressions for a plasma at rest with temporal and spatial dispersion

  17. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The extent of fracturing in a region of a bore- hole is a vital factor in the extraction of oil and of geothermal heat. The observations of scat- tered waves provide the chief means of identi- fication of the extent and nature of fractures. Involving initial stress, the changes monitored in reservoir evolution during hydrocarbon pro-.

  18. Effect of particle velocity fluctuations on the inertia coupling in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Consistent forms for the interfacial force, the interfacial pressure, the Reynolds stresses and the particle stress have been derived for the inviscid, irrotational incompressible flow of fluid in a dilute suspension of spheres. The particles are assumed to have a velocity distribution, giving rise to an effective pressure and stress in the particle phase. The velocity fluctuations also contribute in the fluid Reynolds stress and in the (elastic) stress field inside the spheres. The relation of these constitutive equations to the force on an individual sphere is discussed

  19. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent flow field around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...

  20. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Reynolds averaged turbulence modelling using deep neural networks with embedded invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Julia; Kurzawski, Andrew; Templeton, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    There exists significant demand for improved Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence models that are informed by and can represent a richer set of turbulence physics. This paper presents a method of using deep neural networks to learn a model for the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor from high-fidelity simulation data. A novel neural network architecture is proposed which uses a multiplicative layer with an invariant tensor basis to embed Galilean invariance into the predicted anisotropy tensor. It is demonstrated that this neural network architecture provides improved prediction accuracy compared with a generic neural network architecture that does not embed this invariance property. Furthermore, the Reynolds stress anisotropy predictions of this invariant neural network are propagated through to the velocity field for two test cases. For both test cases, significant improvement versus baseline RANS linear eddy viscosity and nonlinear eddy viscosity models is demonstrated.

  3. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B.; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...... to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on farm animals in warm conditions includes several thermal indices which incorporate the effect of air velocities. But, surprisingly none of them predicts a decreased influence of air velocity when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. This study reviewed published investigations...

  4. Particle-pair relative velocity measurement in high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence using 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The radial relative velocity (RV) between particles suspended in turbulent flow plays a critical role in droplet collision and growth. We present a simple and accurate approach to RV measurement in isotropic turbulence—planar 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry—using routine PIV hardware. It improves particle positioning and pairing accuracy over the 2-frame holographic approach by de Jong et al. (Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332; de Jong et al., Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332, 2010) without using high-speed cameras and lasers as in Saw et al. (Phys Fluids 26:111702, 2014). Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow ({R_λ }=357) in a new, fan-driven, truncated iscosahedron chamber was laden with either low-Stokes (mean St=0.09, standard deviation 0.05) or high-Stokes aerosols (mean St=3.46, standard deviation 0.57). For comparison, DNS was conducted under similar conditions ({R_λ }=398; St=0.10 and 3.00, respectively). Experimental RV probability density functions (PDF) and mean inward RV agree well with DNS. Mean inward RV increases with St at small particle separations, r, and decreases with St at large r, indicating the dominance of "path-history" and "inertial filtering" effects, respectively. However, at small r, the experimental mean inward RV trends higher than DNS, possibly due to the slight polydispersity of particles and finite light sheet thickness in experiments. To confirm this interpretation, we performed numerical experiments and found that particle polydispersity increases mean inward RV at small r, while finite laser thickness also overestimates mean inward RV at small r, This study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately measuring RV using routine hardware, and verifies, for the first time, the path-history and inertial filtering effects on particle-pair RV at large particle separations experimentally.

  5. Reynold-Number Effects on Near-Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moser, R. D.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Reynolds stress budget in a full developed turbulent channel flow for three Reynolds numbers (Re = 180,395,590) are used to investigate the near wall scaling of various turbulence quantities. We find that as the Reynolds number increases, the extent of the region where the production of the kinetic energy is equal to the dissipation increases. At the highest Reynolds number the region of equilibrium extends from y+ - 120 to y+ = 240. As the Reynolds number increases, we find that wall scaling collapses the budgets for the streamwise fluctuating component, but the budgets for the other two components show Reynolds number dependency.

  6. The Effect of Air Velocity on the Prevention of Heat Stress in Iranian Veiled Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some environmental factors such as the ambient temperature, radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity as well as clothing and activity level are effective to induce heat strain on the workers. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of air velocity on Iranian veiled females at various exercise intensities and climatic conditions. Methods The current experimental study was conducted on 51 healthy veiled females with Islamic clothing (n = 30 in two hot-dry climatic chambers (wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 32 ± 0.1°C and WBGT = 30 ± 0.1°C, 40% relative humidity (RH without air velocity and (n = 21 with air velocity 0.31 m/s in sitting and light workload conditions, respectively, for 60 minutes. The WBGT, oral temperature and heart rate were measured simultaneously every five minutes during the heat exposure and resting state. Data were analyzed using correlation and line regression by SPSS ver. 16. Results In both groups, oral temperature and heart rate increased during heat exposure. The increase of oral temperature and heart rate were larger in the group with air velocity (sitting position, 37.05 ± 0.20°C, 98.30 ± 7.79 bpm, light workload, 37.34 ± 0.24°C, 124.08 ± 6.09 bpm compared those of the group without air velocity (sitting position, 36.70 ± 0.36°C, 69.74 ± 0.98 bpm, light workload, 36.71 ± 0.27°C, 110.78 ± 17.9 bpm. The difference in physiological strain index (PSI between resting and low workload were higher in with air velocity group than those of the group without air velocity. Conclusions The results showed that the heat stress increased by increasing air velocity and humidity in both groups. The air velocity with high humidity can be considered as a positive factor in the occurrence of heat strain. Therefore, the incidence of heat stress decreases with the increase of humidity and reduction of air velocity or with increase of air velocity and reduction of humidity in Iranian veiled

  7. Application of advanced one sided stress wave velocity measurement in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovices, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    It is of interest to reliably measure the velocity of stress waves in concrete. At present, reliable measurement is not possible for dispersive and attenuating materials such as concrete when access to only one surface of the structure is available, such as in the case of pavement structures. In this paper, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity determination in concrete is applied to investigate the effects of composition, age and moisture content. This method uses a controlled impact as a stress wave source and two sensitive receivers mounted on the same surface as the impact sites. The novel aspect of the technique is the data collection system which automatically determines the arrival of the generated longitudinal and surface wave arrivals. A conventional ultrasonic through transmission method is used to compare with the results determined by the one-sided method.

  8. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  9. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: models of terms in the Reynolds stress budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dritselis, Chris D, E-mail: dritseli@mie.uth.gr [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)

    2017-04-15

    In the first part of this study (Dritselis 2016 Fluid Dyn. Res. 48 015507), the Reynolds stress budgets were evaluated through point-particle direct numerical simulations (pp-DNSs) for the particle-laden turbulent flow in a vertical channel with two- and four-way coupling effects. Here several turbulence models are assessed by direct comparison of the particle contribution terms to the budgets, the dissipation rate, the pressure-strain rate, and the transport rate with the model expressions using the pp-DNS data. It is found that the models of the particle sources to the equations of fluid turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate cannot represent correctly the physics of the complex interaction between turbulence and particles. A relatively poor performance of the pressure-strain term models is revealed in the particulate flows, while the algebraic models for the dissipation rate of the fluid turbulence kinetic energy and the transport rate terms can adequately reproduce the main trends due to the presence of particles. Further work is generally needed to improve the models in order to account properly for the momentum exchange between the two phases and the effects of particle inertia, gravity and inter-particle collisions. (paper)

  10. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: models of terms in the Reynolds stress budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritselis, Chris D

    2017-01-01

    In the first part of this study (Dritselis 2016 Fluid Dyn. Res. 48 015507), the Reynolds stress budgets were evaluated through point-particle direct numerical simulations (pp-DNSs) for the particle-laden turbulent flow in a vertical channel with two- and four-way coupling effects. Here several turbulence models are assessed by direct comparison of the particle contribution terms to the budgets, the dissipation rate, the pressure-strain rate, and the transport rate with the model expressions using the pp-DNS data. It is found that the models of the particle sources to the equations of fluid turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate cannot represent correctly the physics of the complex interaction between turbulence and particles. A relatively poor performance of the pressure-strain term models is revealed in the particulate flows, while the algebraic models for the dissipation rate of the fluid turbulence kinetic energy and the transport rate terms can adequately reproduce the main trends due to the presence of particles. Further work is generally needed to improve the models in order to account properly for the momentum exchange between the two phases and the effects of particle inertia, gravity and inter-particle collisions. (paper)

  11. A Second-Order Turbulence Model Based on a Reynolds Stress Approach for Two-Phase Flow—Part I: Adiabatic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mimouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In our work in 2008, we evaluated the aptitude of the code Neptune_CFD to reproduce the incidence of a structure topped by vanes on a boiling layer, within the framework of the Neptune project. The objective was to reproduce the main effects of the spacer grids. The turbulence of the liquid phase was modeled by a first-order K-ε model. We show in this paper that this model is unable to describe the turbulence of rotating flows, in accordance with the theory. The objective of this paper is to improve the turbulence modeling of the liquid phase by a second turbulence model based on a Rij-ε approach. Results obtained on typical single-phase cases highlight the improvement of the prediction for all computed values. We tested the turbulence model Rij-ε implemented in the code versus typical adiabatic two-phase flow experiments. We check that the simulations with the Reynolds stress transport model (RSTM give satisfactory results in a simple geometry as compared to a K-ε model: this point is crucial before calculating rod bundle geometries where the K-ε model may fail.

  12. Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1989-04-01

    Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.

  13. Strength evolution of simulated carbonate-bearing faults: The role of normal stress and slip velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Marco; Scuderi, Marco Maria; Tesei, Telemaco; Carminati, Eugenio; Collettini, Cristiano

    2018-04-01

    A great number of earthquakes occur within thick carbonate sequences in the shallow crust. At the same time, carbonate fault rocks exhumed from a depth plasticity). We performed friction experiments on water-saturated simulated carbonate-bearing faults for a wide range of normal stresses (from 5 to 120 MPa) and slip velocities (from 0.3 to 100 μm/s). At high normal stresses (σn > 20 MPa) fault gouges undergo strain-weakening, that is more pronounced at slow slip velocities, and causes a significant reduction of frictional strength, from μ = 0.7 to μ = 0.47. Microstructural analysis show that fault gouge weakening is driven by deformation accommodated by cataclasis and pressure-insensitive deformation processes (pressure solution and granular plasticity) that become more efficient at slow slip velocity. The reduction in frictional strength caused by strain weakening behaviour promoted by the activation of pressure-insensitive deformation might play a significant role in carbonate-bearing faults mechanics.

  14. Direct Numerical Simulation of Flows over an NACA-0012 Airfoil at Low and Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over an NACA-0012 airfoil are performed at a low and a moderate Reynolds numbers of Re(sub c)=50 times10(exp 3) and 1times 10(exp 6). The angles of attack are 5 and 15 degrees at the low and the moderate Reynolds number cases respectively. The three-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using higher order compact schemes. The flow field in the low Reynolds number case consists of a long separation bubble near the leading-edge region and an attached boundary layer on the aft part of the airfoil. The shear layer that formed in the separated region persisted up to the end of the airfoil. The roles of the turbulent diffusion, advection, and dissipation terms in the turbulent kinetic-energy balance equation change as the boundary layer evolves over the airfoil. In the higher Reynolds number case, the leading-edge separation bubble is very small in length and in height. A fully developed turbulent boundary layer is observed in a short distance downstream of the reattachment point. The boundary layer velocity near the wall gradually decreases along the airfoil. Eventually, the boundary layer separates near the trailing edge. The Reynolds stresses peak in the outer part of the boundary layer and the maximum amplitude also gradually increases along the chord.

  15. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  16. The influence of emotional stress on Doppler-derived aortic peak velocity in boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradelli, D; Quintavalla, C; Crosta, M C; Mazzoni, L; Oliveira, P; Scotti, L; Brambilla, P; Bussadori, C

    2014-01-01

    Subaortic stenosis (SAS) is a common congenital heart disease in Boxers. Doppler-derived aortic peak velocity (AoPV) is a diagnostic criterion for the disease. To investigate the influence of emotional stress during echocardiographic examination on AoPV in normal and SAS-affected Boxers. To evaluate the effects of aortic root diameters on AoPV in normal Boxers. DOGS: Two hundred and fifteen normal and 19 SAS-affected Boxers. The AoPV was recorded at the beginning of echocardiographic examination (T0), and when the emotional stress of the dog was assumed to decrease based on behavioral parameters and heart rate (T1). AoPV0-AoPV1 was calculated. In normal dogs, stroke volume index was calculated at T0 and T1. Aortic root diameters were measured and their relationship with AoPV and AoPV0-AoPV1 was evaluated. In normal dogs, AoPV was higher at T0 (median, 1.95 m/s; range, 1.60-2.50 m/s) than at T1 (median, 1.76 m/s; range, 1.40-2.20 m/s; P dogs, AoPV0 was higher than AoPV1 (P < .0001; reduction 7.3%). Aortic peak velocity was affected by emotional stress during echocardiographic examination both in SAS-affected and normal Boxers. In normal Boxers, aortic root size weakly affected AoPVs, but did not affect AoPV0-AoPV1. Stroke volume seems to play a major role in stress-related AoPV increases in normal Boxers. Emotional stress should be taken into account when screening for SAS in the Boxer breed. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Alignment of stress, mean wind, and vertical gradient of the velocity vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Patton, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications in the atmospheric surface layer the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis is applied, i.e. the stress vector can be described through the vertical gradient of velocity. In the atmospheric surface layer, where the Coriolis force and baroclinic effects are considered negligible......, this is supposedly a good approximation. High resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) data show that it is indeed the case. Through analysis of WindCube lidar measurements accompanied by sonic measurements we show that this is, on the other hand, rarely the case in the real atmosphere. This might indicate that large...... of atmospheric boundary layer modeling. The measurements are from the Danish wind turbine test sites at Høvsøre. With theWindCube lidar we are able to reach heights of 250 meters and hence capture the entire atmospheric surface layer both in terms of wind speed and the direction of the mean stress vector....

  18. Velocity and stress distributions of deep seismic zone under Izu-Bonin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Jia, Zhengyuan

    2017-04-01

    Deep earthquakes can provide the deep information of the Earth directly. We have collected the waveform data from 77 deep earthquakes with depth greater than 300 km under Izu-Bonin in Japan. To obtain the velocity structures of P- and S-wave, we have inversed the double-differences of travel times from deep event-pairs. These velocity anomalies can further yield the Poisson's ratio and the porosity. Our results show that the average P-wave velocity anomaly is lower 6%, however the S-wave anomaly is higher 2% than the iasp91 model. The corresponding Poisson's ratio and porosity anomaly are -24% and -4%, respectively, which suggest that the possibility of water in the deep seismic zone is very few and the porosity might be richer. To obtain the stress distribution, we have used the ISOLA method to analyse the non-double-couple components of moment tensors of 77 deep earthquakes. The focal mechanism results show that almost half of all earthquakes have larger double-couple (DC) components, but others have clear isotropic (ISO) or compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components. The non-double-couple components (ISO and CLVD) seem to represent the volume around a deep earthquake changes as it occurs, which could be explained the metastable olivine phase transition. All results indicate that the metastable olivine wedge (MOW) might exist in the Pacific slab under the Izu-Bonin region and the deep earthquakes might be induced by the phase change of metastable olivine.

  19. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...

  20. Determination of mean pressure from PIV in compressible flows using the Reynolds-averaging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Paul L.; van Oudheusden, Bas W.; Schrijer, Ferry F. J.

    2018-03-01

    The feasibility of computing the flow pressure on the basis of PIV velocity data has been demonstrated abundantly for low-speed conditions. The added complications occurring for high-speed compressible flows have, however, so far proved to be largely inhibitive for the accurate experimental determination of instantaneous pressure. Obtaining mean pressure may remain a worthwhile and realistic goal to pursue. In a previous study, a Reynolds-averaging procedure was developed for this, under the moderate-Mach-number assumption that density fluctuations can be neglected. The present communication addresses the accuracy of this assumption, and the consistency of its implementation, by evaluating of the relevance of the different contributions resulting from the Reynolds-averaging. The methodology involves a theoretical order-of-magnitude analysis, complemented with a quantitative assessment based on a simulated and a real PIV experiment. The assessments show that it is sufficient to account for spatial variations in the mean velocity and the Reynolds-stresses and that temporal and spatial density variations (fluctuations and gradients) are of secondary importance and comparable order-of-magnitude. This result permits to simplify the calculation of mean pressure from PIV velocity data and to validate the approximation of neglecting temporal and spatial density variations without having access to reference pressure data.

  1. Elastic wave velocity and acoustic emission monitoring during Gypsum dehydration under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; David, E. C.; Héripré, E.; Schubnel, A. J.; Zimmerman, R. W.; Gueguen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Dehydration experiments were performed on natural Gypsum polycrystal samples coming from Volterra, Italy in order to study contemporaneously the evolution of P and S elastic wave velocities and acoustic emission (AE) triggering. During these experiments, temperature was slowly raised at 0.15 degrees C per minute under constant stress conditions. Two experiments were realized under quasi-hydrostatic stress (15 and 55 MPa respectively). The third experiment was realized under constant triaxial stress (σ3=45MPa, σ1=75MPa). All three were drained (10MPa constant pore pressure). In each experiments, both P and S wave velocities reduced drastically (as much as approx. 50% in the low confining pressure case) at the onset of dehydration. Importantly, the Vp/Vs ratio also decreased. Shortly after the onset of decrease in P and S wave velocities, the dehydration reaction was also accompanied by bursts of AEs. Time serie locations of the AEs show that they initiated from the pore pressure port, ie from where the pore fluid could easily be drained, and then slowly migrated within the sample. In each experiments, the AE rate could be positively correlated to the reaction rate, inferred from pore volumetry. In such a way, the AE rate reached a peak when the reaction was the fastest. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed they had a large volumetric component in compaction, confirming that AEs were indeed related to pore closure and/or collapse. In addition, the AE rate also increased with confinement, ie when a larger amount of compaction was observed. Interestingly, when under differential stress conditions, AE focal mechanisms were mainly in shear. Additional dehydration experiments performed within an environmental scanning electron microscope under low vacuum highlight that, in drained conditions at least, the reaction seems to take place in two phases. First, cracks are being opened along cleavage planes within a single gypsum crystal, which allows for the

  2. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Ri

  3. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  4. Application of one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Won Su

    1998-01-01

    It is well recognized that damage resulting from freeze-thaw cycles is a serious problems causing deterioration and degradation of concrete. In general, freeze-thaw cycles change the microstructure of the concrete ultimately leading to internal stresses and cracking. In this study, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity measurement has been applied to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete by monitoring the velocity change of longitudinal and surface waves. The freeze-thaw damage was induced in a 400 x 150 x 100 mm concrete specimen in accordance with ASTM C666 using s commercial testing apparatus. A cycle consisted of a variation of the temperature from -14 to 4 degrees Celsius. A cycle takes 4-5 hours with approximately equal times devoted to freezing-thawing. Measurement of longitudinal and surface wave velocities based on one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique was made every 5 freeze-thaw cycle. The variation of longitudinal and surface wave velocities due to increasing freeze-thaw damage is demonstrated and compared to determine which one is more effective to monitor freeze-thaw cyclic damage progress. The variation in longitudinal wave velocity measured by one-sided technique is also compared with that measured by the conventional through transmission technique.

  5. Prediction of wall shear stresses in transitional boundary layers using near-wall mean velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo Pyung; Shin, Sung Ho; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2000-01-01

    The local wall shear stress in transitional boundary layer was estimated from the near-wall mean velocity data using the principle of Computational Preston tube Method(CPM). The previous DNS and experimental databases of transitional boundary layers were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the method and to provide the applicable range of wall unit y + . The skin friction coefficients predicted by the CPM agreed well with those from previous studies. To reexamine the applicability of the CPM, near-wall hot-wire measurements were conducted in developing transitional boundary layers on a flat plate with different freestream turbulence intensities. The intermittency profiles across the transitional boundary layers were reasonably obtained from the conditional sampling technique. An empirical correlation between the representative intermittency near the wall and the free parameter K 1 of the extended wall function of CPM has been newly proposed using the present and other experimental data. The CPM has been verified as a useful tool to measure the wall shear stress in transitional boundary layer with reasonable accuracy

  6. Modeling skin temperature to assess the effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Pedersen, Poul; Morsing, Svend

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that increased air velocity can help to mitigate heat stress in livestock housing, however, it is not fully clear how much it helps and significant uncertainties exists when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. This study aims to develop a skin...... temperature model to generated data for determining the potential effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs housed in warm environment. The model calculates the skin temperature as function of body temperature, air temperature and the resistances for heat transfer from the body...

  7. Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    of the blade. The Darrieus VAWT has more complex aerodynamics. This type of wind turbine produces power as a result of the tangential thrust as...Horizontal Axis Propeller-Type b) Verticle Axis Darrieus -Type Figure 78. Wind Turbine Configurations 0 6 Q K [_ 2 -, C 4 UJ UJ...Sailplanes 23 5.2 Wind Turbines 23 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS 24 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 24 REFERENCES 25 FIGURES 32 yv/ LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER

  8. Vortex Shedding from Tapered Cylinders at high Reynolds Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2015-01-01

    percent for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The present investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine......^5 (Supercritical). Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3 percent of the structures mean diameter can be used to efficiently reduce VIV in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime....

  9. On the determination of general plane stress states in orthotropic materials from ultrasonic velocity data in non symmetry planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the progress in the development of a new experimental protocol for plane stress determination in orthotropic materials based on the ultrasonic velocity of bulk waves propagating in non symmetry planes with oblique incidence. The presence of stress-induced deformation introduces an acoustic anisotropy in the material in addition to that defined by its texture. Orthotropic materials under general plane stress states become acoustically monoclic and its orthotropic planes orthogonal to the stress plane become non symmetry planes. The inverse solution of the generalized Christoffel equation for ultrasonic bulk waves propagating in non symmetry planes of anisotropic bodies is known to be numerically unstable. The suggested protocol deals with this numerical instability without recourse to bulk wave propagation in the stress plane as proposed in the literature. Hence, it should be useful for plane stress analysis of thin wall pressure vessels where ultrasonic measurements in the direction of the wall plane are not possible. For the initial validation of the suggested protocol and verification of the stability of the inversion algorithm, computer simulation of stress determination have been performed from synthetic sets of velocity data obtained by the forward solution of the generalized Christoffel equation. Preliminary results for slightly orthotropic aluminium highlight the potential of the suggested protocol. (author)

  10. Effect of membrane and through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon-Sik

    2003-11-01

    This study clarified the effect of a membrane and a through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity due to irregularity of crack surface. Each stress component relates to fatigue crack growth behavior directly in general and thus the wild-used K I solutions are anticipated to give good evaluation results on it. Meanwhile, it is necessary to notify that surface irregularity for coolant leakage assessment is made by stress history in nature. Surface irregularity is known to be largely classified into the following two aspects: surface roughness due to continuous crack opening and closure behavior and surface turnover due to cyclic bending stress dominance. Therefore, the deterministic parameters on resistance of coolant leakage by surface irregularity are considered to be not only stress history but crack opening behavior. (author)

  11. Accelerometer-based estimation and modal velocity feedback vibration control of a stress-ribbon bridge with pneumatic muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohan; Schauer, Thomas; Goldack, Arndt; Bleicher, Achim; Schlaich, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Lightweight footbridges are very elegant but also prone to vibration. By employing active vibration control, smart footbridges could accomplish not only the architectural concept but also the required serviceability and comfort. Inertial sensors such as accelerometers allow the estimation of nodal velocities and displacements. A Kalman filter together with a band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC) is applied to enable a drift-free estimation of these signals for the quasi-periodic motion under pedestrian excitation without extra information from other kinds of auxiliary sensors. The modal velocities of the structure are determined by using a second Kalman filter with the known applied actuator forces as inputs and the estimated nodal displacement and velocities as measurements. The obtained multi-modal velocities are then used for feedback control. An ultra-lightweight stress-ribbon footbridge built in the Peter-Behrens- Halle at the Technische Universitat Berlin served as the research object. Using two inertial sensors in optimal points we can estimate the dominant modal characteristics of this bridge. Real-time implementation and evaluation results of the proposed estimator will be presented in comparison to signals derived from classical displacement encoders. The real-time estimated modal velocities were applied in a multi-modal velocity feedback vibration control scheme with lightweight pneumatic muscle actuators. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using inertial sensors for active vibration control of lightweight footbridges.

  12. Accelerometer-based estimation and modal velocity feedback vibration control of a stress-ribbon bridge with pneumatic muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaohan; Goldack, Arndt; Schlaich, Mike; Schauer, Thomas; Bleicher, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight footbridges are very elegant but also prone to vibration. By employing active vibration control, smart footbridges could accomplish not only the architectural concept but also the required serviceability and comfort. Inertial sensors such as accelerometers allow the estimation of nodal velocities and displacements. A Kalman filter together with a band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC) is applied to enable a drift-free estimation of these signals for the quasi-periodic motion under pedestrian excitation without extra information from other kinds of auxiliary sensors. The modal velocities of the structure are determined by using a second Kalman filter with the known applied actuator forces as inputs and the estimated nodal displacement and velocities as measurements. The obtained multi-modal velocities are then used for feedback control. An ultra-lightweight stress-ribbon footbridge built in the Peter-Behrens- Halle at the Technische Universitat Berlin served as the research object. Using two inertial sensors in optimal points we can estimate the dominant modal characteristics of this bridge. Real-time implementation and evaluation results of the proposed estimator will be presented in comparison to signals derived from classical displacement encoders. The real-time estimated modal velocities were applied in a multi-modal velocity feedback vibration control scheme with lightweight pneumatic muscle actuators. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using inertial sensors for active vibration control of lightweight footbridges. (paper)

  13. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... not show or at least it is difficult to define a clear pore-stiffening contact cementation trend as the Ontong Java Plateau chalk. Mechanical compaction is the principal cause of porosity reduction (at shallow depths) in the studied Eocene chalk, at least down to about 5MPa Terzaghi׳s effective stress...

  14. Experiments on a low aspect ratio wing at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel R.

    At the start of the 21st century much of the focus of aircraft design has been turned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which generally operate at much lower speeds in higher risk areas than manned aircraft. One subset of UAVs are Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which usually are no larger than 20cm and rely on non-traditional shapes to generate lift at very low velocities. This purpose of this work is to describe, in detail with experimental methods, the flow field around a low aspect ratio wing operating at low Reynolds numbers and at high angles of attack. Quantitative measurements are obtained by Three Component Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (3C TR PIV) which describe the mean and turbulent flow field. This research focuses on the leading edge separation zone and the vortex shedding process which occurs at the leading edge. Streamwise wing tip vortices which dominate the lift characteristics are described with flow visualization and 3C TR PIV measurements. Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is described at the leading edge over several angles of attack. Turbulent Reynolds stresses in all three directions are described over the wing span and several Reynolds numbers. Two primary cyclic processes are observed within the flow field; one low frequency oscillation in the separated region and one high frequency event associated with leading edge vortex formation and convection. Two length scales are proposed and are shown to match well with each other, one based on leading edge vortex shedding frequency and convective velocity and the other based on mean vortex separation distance. A new method of rendering velocity frequency content over large data sets is proposed and used to illustrate the different frequencies observed at the leading edge.

  15. Surface stress, initial stress and Knudsen-dependent flow velocity effects on the electro-thermo nonlocal wave propagation of SWBNNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanpour Arani, A., E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roudbari, M.A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the electro-thermal nonlocal wave propagation of fluid-conveying single-walled Boron Nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) using nonlocal piezoelasticity with surface stress, initial stress and Knudsen-dependent flow velocity effect. SWBNNT is embedded in a vicsoelastic medium which is simulated as visco-Pasternak foundation. Using Euler–Bernoulli beam (EBB) model, Hamilton's principle and nonlocal piezoelasticity theory, the higher order governing equation is derived. A detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of the electric parameters, viscoelastic medium, initial stress, surface stress, Knudsen number (Kn) and small scale on the wave propagation behaviour of the fluid-conveying SWBNNT. The results show that for smaller values of wave number the dispersion relation for different fluid viscosities seems to be similar. At the higher values of wave numbers, increase in the wave frequency values is remarkable due to increase in fluid viscosity. The electric field as a smart controller, surface effect, initial stress, temperature change and slip velocity effect have significant role on the wave frequency. The results of this work is hoped to be of use in design and manufacturing of smart MEMS/NEMS in advanced medical applications such as drug delivery systems with great applications in biomechanics.

  16. Surface stress, initial stress and Knudsen-dependent flow velocity effects on the electro-thermo nonlocal wave propagation of SWBNNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Roudbari, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the electro-thermal nonlocal wave propagation of fluid-conveying single-walled Boron Nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) using nonlocal piezoelasticity with surface stress, initial stress and Knudsen-dependent flow velocity effect. SWBNNT is embedded in a vicsoelastic medium which is simulated as visco-Pasternak foundation. Using Euler–Bernoulli beam (EBB) model, Hamilton's principle and nonlocal piezoelasticity theory, the higher order governing equation is derived. A detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of the electric parameters, viscoelastic medium, initial stress, surface stress, Knudsen number (Kn) and small scale on the wave propagation behaviour of the fluid-conveying SWBNNT. The results show that for smaller values of wave number the dispersion relation for different fluid viscosities seems to be similar. At the higher values of wave numbers, increase in the wave frequency values is remarkable due to increase in fluid viscosity. The electric field as a smart controller, surface effect, initial stress, temperature change and slip velocity effect have significant role on the wave frequency. The results of this work is hoped to be of use in design and manufacturing of smart MEMS/NEMS in advanced medical applications such as drug delivery systems with great applications in biomechanics

  17. Viscous flux flow velocity and stress distribution in the Kim model of a long rectangular slab superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Chai, Xueguang

    2018-05-01

    When a bulk superconductor endures the magnetization process, enormous mechanical stresses are imposed on the bulk, which often leads to cracking. In the present work, we aim to resolve the viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w, i.e. υ 0 (because w is a constant) and the stress distribution in a long rectangular slab superconductor for the decreasing external magnetic field (B a ) after zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) using the Kim model and viscous flux flow equation simultaneously. The viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w and the magnetic field B* at which the body forces point away in all of the slab volumes during B a reduction, are determined by both B a and the decreasing rate (db a /dt) of the external magnetic field normalized by the full penetration field B p . In previous studies, υ 0/w obtained by the Bean model with viscous flux flow is only determined by db a /dt, and the field B* that is derived only from the Kim model is a positive constant when the maximum external magnetic field is chosen. This means that the findings in this paper have more physical contents than the previous results. The field B* stress changing with decreasing field B a after ZFC if B* ≤ 0. The effect of db a /dt on the stress is significant in the cases of both ZFC and FC.

  18. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles

  19. Features of round air jet flowing at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Sharov, K. A.; Gorinovich, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The laminar-turbulent transition in a round jet flowing from a cylindrical channel with the diameter of 3.2 mm was studied experimentally. In experiments, the range of Reynolds numbers determined by the mean-flow velocity was Re = Ud/ν = 700-12000. The measurements were carried out using a PIV system and one-component hot-wire anemometer. The profiles of average velocities and their pulsations in the zone of laminar-turbulent transition were obtained along with axial distributions of longitudinal velocity and pulsations of longitudinal velocity.

  20. Investigating the round air jet dynamics at low Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemanov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar-turbulent transition in a round jet flowing from a cylindrical channel with the diameter of 3.2 mm was studied experimentally. In experiments, the range of Reynolds numbers determined by the mean-flow velocity was Re = Ud/v = 700-12000. The measurements were carried out using a PIV system and one-component hot-wire anemometer. The profiles of average velocities and their pulsations in the zone of laminar-turbulent transition were obtained, as well as axial distributions of longitudinal velocity and pulsations of longitudinal velocity.

  1. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  2. Model Experiments with Low Reynolds Number Effects in a Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Filholm, Claus; Topp, Claus

    the isothermal low Reynolds number flow from a slot inlet in the end wall of the room. The experiments are made on the scale of 1 to 5. Measurements indicate a low Reynolds number effect in the wall jet flow. The virtual origin of the wall jet moves forward in front of the opening at a small Reynolds number......, an effect that is also known from measurements on free jets. The growth rate of the jet, or the length scale, increases and the velocity decay factor decreases at small Reynolds numbers....

  3. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  4. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es. Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3% rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing, and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and

  5. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Therese; Ragu, Sandrine; Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S

    2016-05-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  6. Instability of shallow open channel flow with lateral velocity gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A C; Izumi, N, E-mail: adriano@eng.hokudai.ac.jp, E-mail: nizumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [River and Watershed Engineering Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    The turbulent flow in a wide rectangular open channel partially covered with vegetation is studied using linear stability analysis. In the base state normal flow condition, the water depth is constant and the transverse velocity vanishes, while there is a lateral gradient in the streamwise velocity with an inflexion point at the boundary between the vegetated zone and the main channel. The Reynolds stress is expressed by introducing the eddy viscosity, which is obtained from assuming a logarithmic distribution of the velocity near the bed. Perturbation expansions are introduced to the streamwise and transverse velocities, as well as to the water depth. The system of governing equations was solved in order to determine the maximum growth rate of the perturbations as a function of parameters which describe physical characteristics of the channel and the flow.

  7. Prediction of Compressional Wave Velocity Using Regression and Neural Network Modeling and Estimation of Stress Orientation in Bokaro Coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suman; Ali, Muhammad; Chatterjee, Rima

    2018-01-01

    Velocity of compressional wave ( V P) of coal and non-coal lithology is predicted from five wells from the Bokaro coalfield (CF), India. Shear sonic travel time logs are not recorded for all wells under the study area. Shear wave velocity ( Vs) is available only for two wells: one from east and other from west Bokaro CF. The major lithologies of this CF are dominated by coal, shaly coal of Barakar formation. This paper focuses on the (a) relationship between Vp and Vs, (b) prediction of Vp using regression and neural network modeling and (c) estimation of maximum horizontal stress from image log. Coal characterizes with low acoustic impedance (AI) as compared to the overlying and underlying strata. The cross-plot between AI and Vp/ Vs is able to identify coal, shaly coal, shale and sandstone from wells in Bokaro CF. The relationship between Vp and Vs is obtained with excellent goodness of fit ( R 2) ranging from 0.90 to 0.93. Linear multiple regression and multi-layered feed-forward neural network (MLFN) models are developed for prediction Vp from two wells using four input log parameters: gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and neutron porosity. Regression model predicted Vp shows poor fit (from R 2 = 0.28) to good fit ( R 2 = 0.79) with the observed velocity. MLFN model predicted Vp indicates satisfactory to good R2 values varying from 0.62 to 0.92 with the observed velocity. Maximum horizontal stress orientation from a well at west Bokaro CF is studied from Formation Micro-Imager (FMI) log. Breakouts and drilling-induced fractures (DIFs) are identified from the FMI log. Breakout length of 4.5 m is oriented towards N60°W whereas the orientation of DIFs for a cumulative length of 26.5 m is varying from N15°E to N35°E. The mean maximum horizontal stress in this CF is towards N28°E.

  8. Yield estimation based on calculated comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimizing the yield estimation process if some of the material properties are known from geophysical measurements and others are inferred from in-situ dynamic measurements. The material models and 2-D simulations of the event are combined to determine the yield. Other methods of yield determination from peak particle velocity data have mostly been based on comparisons of nearby events in similar media at NTS. These methods are largely empirical and are subject to additional error when a new event has different properties than the population being used for a basis of comparison. The effect of material variations can be examined using LLNL's KDYNA computer code. The data from an NTS event provide the instructive example for simulation

  9. Age-Specific Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity among Metabolic Syndrome Components, Inflammatory Markers, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Seung Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2018-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is thought to have different relationships with metabolic syndrome (MS) components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress, according to age. However, age-specific determinants of PWV have not yet been studied. We investigated age-dependent relationships among PWV and MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. A total of 4,318 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19-34 y (n=687), 35-44 y (n=1,413), 45-54 y (n=1,384), and 55-79 y (n=834). MS components, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress markers were measured. There were age-related increases in MS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), triglycerides, glucose, hs-CRP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 8-epi-prostaglandin F 2α (8-epi-PGF 2α ), and baPWV. BaPWV was significantly associated with sex and elevated BP in the 19-34 y group; with age, sex, BMI, elevated BP and triglycerides in the 35-44 y group; with age, sex, elevated BP, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and oxidized LDL in the 45-54 y group; and with age, BMI, elevated BP, fasting glucose and oxidized LDL in the 55-79 y group. Our results show that age-related increases in baPWV are associated with age-related changes in MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. However, each of these factors has an age-specific, different impact on arterial stiffness. In particular, oxidative stress may be independently associated with arterial stiffness in individuals older than 45 y.

  10. Reynolds Metals Company, Massena, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1,600-acre former Reynolds Metals Facility is located on the St. Lawrence River, approximately eight miles east of the Village of Massena, New York. The facility, which was constructed in 1958 for the production of aluminum, closed in 2014. It is owned

  11. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  12. Influence of the tilt angle of Percutaneous Aortic Prosthesis on Velocity and Shear Stress Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alvares de Azevedo Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Due to the nature of the percutaneous prosthesis deployment process, a variation in its final position is expected. Prosthetic valve placement will define the spatial location of its effective orifice in relation to the aortic annulus. The blood flow pattern in the ascending aorta is related to the aortic remodeling process, and depends on the spatial location of the effective orifice. The hemodynamic effect of small variations in the angle of inclination of the effective orifice has not been studied in detail. Objective: To implement an in vitro simulation to characterize the hydrodynamic blood flow pattern associated with small variations in the effective orifice inclination. Methods: A three-dimensional aortic phantom was constructed, reproducing the anatomy of one patient submitted to percutaneous aortic valve implantation. Flow analysis was performed by use of the Particle Image Velocimetry technique. The flow pattern in the ascending aorta was characterized for six flow rate levels. In addition, six angles of inclination of the effective orifice were assessed. Results: The effective orifice at the -4° and -2° angles directed the main flow towards the anterior wall of the aortic model, inducing asymmetric and high shear stress in that region. However, the effective orifice at the +3° and +5° angles mimics the physiological pattern, centralizing the main flow and promoting a symmetric distribution of shear stress. Conclusion: The measurements performed suggest that small changes in the angle of inclination of the percutaneous prosthesis aid in the generation of a physiological hemodynamic pattern, and can contribute to reduce aortic remodeling.

  13. Vegetation-Induced Roughness in Low-Reynold's Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, C. D.; Wynn, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems, providing habitat for wildlife and fish and shellfish production, water storage, erosion control, and water quality improvement and preservation. Models to estimate hydraulic resistance due to vegetation in emergent wetlands are crucial to good wetland design and analysis. The goal of this project is to improve modeling of emergent wetlands by linking properties of the vegetation to flow. Existing resistance equations such as Hoffmann (2004), Kadlec (1990), Moghadam and Kouwen (1997), Nepf (1999), and Stone and Shen (2002) were evaluated. A large outdoor vegetated flume was constructed at the Price's Fork Research Center near Blacksburg, Virginia to measure flow and water surface slope through woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), a common native emergent wetland plant. Measurements of clump and stem density, diameter, and volume, blockage factor, and stiffness were made after each set of flume runs. Flow rates through the flume were low (3-4 L/s) resulting in very low stem-Reynold's numbers (15-102). Since experimental flow conditions were in the laminar to transitional range, most of the models considered did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. At low stem-Reynold's numbers (drag coefficient is inversely proportional to the Reynold's number and can vary greatly with flow conditions. Most of the models considered assumed a stem-Reynold's number in the 100-105 range in which the drag coefficient is relatively constant and as a result did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. The only model that accurately predicted stem layer velocity was the Kadlec (1990) model since it does not make assumptions about flow regime; instead, the parameters are adjusted according to the site conditions. Future work includes relating the parameters used to fit the Kadlec (1990) model to measured vegetation

  14. Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.

    1999-02-08

    Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.

  15. Reducing high Reynolds number hydroacoustic noise using superhydrophobic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elboth, Thomas; Reif, Bjørn Anders Pettersson; Andreassen, Øyvind; Martell, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the effect of a superhydrophobic surface coating on turbulence-generated flow noise. The study utilizes results obtained from high Reynolds-number full-scale flow noise measurements taken on a commercial seismic streamer and results from low Reynolds-number direct numerical simulations. It is shown that it is possible to significantly reduce both the frictional drag and the levels of the turbulence generated flow noise even at very high Reynolds-numbers. For instance, frequencies below 10 Hz a reduction in the flow noise level of nearly 50% was measured. These results can be attributed to a reduced level of shear stress and change in the kinematic structure of the turbulence, both of which occur in the immediate vicinity of the superhydrophobic surface.

  16. Mathematical Relationship Between Particle Reynolds Number and Ripple Factor using Tapi River Data, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yadav

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The computation of bed load allows for the fact that only part of the shear stress is used for transport of sediments and some of the shear stress is wasted in overcoming the resistance due to bed forms therefore the total shear stress developed in the open channel requires correction in the form of correction factor called ripple factor. Different methods have been followed for correcting the actual shear stress in order to compute the sediment load. Correction factors are based on particular characteristics grain size of particle. In the present paper the ripple factor has been obtained for non uniform bed material considering the various variables like discharge, hydraulic mean depth, flow velocity, bed slope, average diameter of particle etc. by collecting the field data of Tapi river for 15 years for a particular gauging station. The ripple factor is obtained using Meyer Peter and Muller formula, Einstein Formula, Kalinske’s formula, Du Boy’s formula, Shield’s formula, Bagnold’s formula, average of six formulae and multiple regression analysis. The variation of ripple factor with particle Reynolds Number is studied. The ripple factor obtained by different approaches are further analyzed using Origin software and carrying out multiple regression on the 15 years of data with more than 10 parameters, ripple factor by multiple regression has been obtained. These values are further analysed and giving statistical mean to the parameters a relationship of power form has been developed. The ripple factor increases with the increase in the value of Particle Reynolds number. The large deviation is observed in case of Kalinske’s approach when compare with other approaches

  17. Strongly coupled fluid-particle flows in vertical channels. I. Reynolds-averaged two-phase turbulence statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, “Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.

  18. Strongly coupled fluid-particle flows in vertical channels. I. Reynolds-averaged two-phase turbulence statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-03-01

    Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, "Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.

  19. Effect of surface roughness and Reynolds number on compressor cascade performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Seung Chul; Song, Seung Jin

    2009-01-01

    An experimental work has been conducted in a linear compressor cascade to find out the effect of surface roughness and Reynolds number. Surveys were conducted with different roughness size and Reynolds number. The k s /c value of each roughness is 0.0006, 0.0090, 0.00150, 0.00213, and 0.00425. The range of Reynolds number is 300,000∼600,000 and conducted with roughened blade, which roughness Ra is 2.89 microns. Flow pressure, velocity, and angle have been found out via 5 hole probe. Pressure loss and deviation increased with increasing roughness. In the low Reynolds number under 500,000, tested roughness does not affect to the performance of compressor cascade. However, roughness is very sensitive to pressure loss in high Reynolds number over 550,000.

  20. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solutions of wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Daniel Evandro; Horn, Diego Anderson; Petry, Adriane Prisco [Thermal and Energy Study Group, Mechanical Engeneering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianep@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the influence of three different turbulence models in the study of a wind turbine wake. Numerical Simulation is used as working tool to characterize the flow through the wind turbines, it is used the numeric simulation. The numerical analysis is based on the finite volume method and the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Three turbulence models are used to represent the total effects of turbulence in the flow: the two equations k-classical and the RNG k- models, based on the turbulent viscosity; and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, based on the transport of the Reynolds tensor. The results of the 'u' velocity profiles are compared to experimental data from Vermeer (2003) at distances equivalent to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 16 diameters downstream from the turbine. Results shows that the SST model gives better results until 6 diameters, beyond this distance there is no significant differences between the compared models. (author)

  1. A comparative study of near-wall turbulence in high and low Reynolds number boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, M.M.; Klewicki, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores the effects of Reynolds number, over three orders of magnitude, in the viscous wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. Complementary experiments were conducted both in the boundary layer wind tunnel at the University of Utah and in the atmospheric surface layer which flows over the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert in western Utah. The Reynolds numbers, based on momentum deficit thickness, of the two flows were R θ =2x10 3 and R θ ≅5x10 6 , respectively. High-resolution velocity measurements were obtained from a five-element vertical rake of hot-wires spanning the buffer region. In both the low and high R θ flows, the length of the hot-wires measured less than 6 viscous units. To facilitate reliable comparisons, both the laboratory and field experiments employed the same instrumentation and procedures. Data indicate that, even in the immediate vicinity of the surface, strong influences from low-frequency motions at high R θ produce noticeable Reynolds number differences in the streamwise velocity and velocity gradient statistics. In particular, the peak value in the root mean square streamwise velocity profile, when normalized by viscous scales, was found to exhibit a logarithmic dependence on Reynolds number. The mean streamwise velocity profile, on the other hand, appears to be essentially independent of Reynolds number. Spectra and spatial correlation data suggest that low-frequency motions at high Reynolds number engender intensified local convection velocities which affect the structure of both the velocity and velocity gradient fields. Implications for turbulent production mechanisms and coherent motions in the buffer layer are discussed

  2. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-12-29

    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.

  4. Age-related changes in aortic 3D blood flow velocities and wall shear stress: Implications for the identification of altered hemodynamics in patients with aortic valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pim; Garcia, Julio; Potters, Wouter V.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Collins, Jeremy D.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in peak systolic aortic 3D velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in healthy controls and to investigate the importance of age-matching for 3D mapping of abnormal aortic hemodynamics in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV). 4D flow MRI (fields strengths = 1.5-3T;

  5. Uncertainty on PIV mean and fluctuating velocity due to bias and random errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Brandon M; Smith, Barton L

    2013-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry is a powerful and flexible fluid velocity measurement tool. In spite of its widespread use, the uncertainty of PIV measurements has not been sufficiently addressed to date. The calculation and propagation of local, instantaneous uncertainties on PIV results into the measured mean and Reynolds stresses are demonstrated for four PIV error sources that impact uncertainty through the vector computation: particle image density, diameter, displacement and velocity gradients. For the purpose of this demonstration, velocity data are acquired in a rectangular jet. Hot-wire measurements are compared to PIV measurements with velocity fields computed using two PIV algorithms. Local uncertainty on the velocity mean and Reynolds stress for these algorithms are automatically estimated using a previously published method. Previous work has shown that PIV measurements can become ‘noisy’ in regions of high shear as well as regions of small displacement. This paper also demonstrates the impact of these effects by comparing PIV data to data acquired using hot-wire anemometry, which does not suffer from the same issues. It is confirmed that flow gradients, large particle images and insufficient particle image displacements can result in elevated measurements of turbulence levels. The uncertainty surface method accurately estimates the difference between hot-wire and PIV measurements for most cases. The uncertainty based on each algorithm is found to be unique, motivating the use of algorithm-specific uncertainty estimates. (paper)

  6. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-01-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium

  7. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Ali [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan 313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestanian, Ramin [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-13

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  8. Structure of parallel-velocity-shear-driven mode in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Xu, W.B.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Horton, W.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the Fourier-ballooning representation is appropriate for the study of short-wavelength drift-like perturbation in toroidal plasmas with a parallel velocity shear (PVS). The radial structure of the mode driven by a PVS is investigated in a torus. The Reynolds stress created by PVS turbulence, and proposed as one of the sources for a sheared poloidal plasma rotation, is analyzed. It is demonstrated that a finite ion temperature may strongly enhance the Reynolds stress creation ability from PVS-driven turbulence. The correlation of this observation with the requirement that ion heating power be higher than a threshold value for the formation of an internal transport barrier is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in resulting stokes layer by acoustic standing wave in a duct; Kannai kichi shindo ni okeru stokes sonai onkyoryu ryusoku bunpu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, M; Kawahashi, M [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Acoustic streaming is generated by Reynolds stress in the sense of mean acoustic momentum flux in a sound field. In the case of an acoustic standing wave produced by an air column oscillation in a closed duct, the friction and the Reynolds stress in the resulting Stokes layer are the essentials of acoustic streaming generation in the vicinity of the duct wall. The thickness of the Stokes layer decreases with the oscillatory Reynolds number. The plane wave propagation in the duct is assumed for the case of high Reynolds number except for the thin Stokes layer adjacent to the duct wall. The velocity profiles of the streaming are estimated theoretically from the steady component of the second-order term of a perturbation expansion in which the first-order approximation is a sinusoidal oscillation of the air column with plane waves. The present paper describes theoretical analysis of the velocity profiles of the acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer by means of the matched asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained show the existence of reverse streaming in a very thin layer adjacent to the wall and the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the wall on the velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Shear-induced autorotation of freely rotatable cylinder in a channel flow at moderate Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Lin, Jianzhong; Ku, Xiaoke; Chan, Tatleung

    2018-04-01

    Flow past a center-pinned freely rotatable cylinder asymmetrically confined in a two-dimensional channel is simulated with the lattice Boltzmann method for a range of Reynolds number 0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 200, eccentricity ratio 0/8 ≤ ɛ ≤ 7/8, and blockage ratio 0.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. It is found that the inertia tends to facilitate the anomalous clockwise rotation of the cylinder. As the eccentricity ratio increases, the cylinder rotates faster in the counterclockwise direction and then slows down at a range of Re 40, there exists an anomalous clockwise rotation for the cylinder at a low eccentricity ratio and the domain where the cylinder rotates anomalously becomes larger with the increase in the Reynolds number. In a channel with a higher blockage ratio, the rotation of the cylinder is more sensitive to the change of cylinder lateral position, and the separatrix at which the cylinder remains a state of rest moves upward generally. The cylinder is more likely to rotate counterclockwise and the rotating velocity is larger. At a lower blockage ratio, the anomalous clockwise rotation is more likely to occur, and the largest rotating velocity occurs when the blockage ratio is equal to 0.3. The mechanism of distinct rotational behavior of the cylinder is attributed to the transformation of distribution of shear stress which is resulted from the variation of pressure drop, the shift of maximum or minimum pressure zones along the upper and lower semi-cylinder surface, and the movement of stagnant point and separate point. Finally, the effects of the cylinder rotation on the flow structure and hydrodynamic force exerted on the cylinder surface are analyzed as well.

  11. Hybrid RANS/LES method for high Reynolds numbers, applied to atmospheric flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

      The use of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable...... for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls the flow is treated with the RANS-equations and this layer act as wall model for the outer flow handled...... by LES. The wellknown high Reynolds number two-equation k - ǫ turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - ǫ subgrid-scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over rough walls. To demonstrate the ability...

  12. Turbulent flows at very large Reynolds numbers: new lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenblatt, G I; Prostokishin, V M; Chorin, A J

    2014-01-01

    The universal (Reynolds-number-independent) von Kármán–Prandtl logarithmic law for the velocity distribution in the basic intermediate region of a turbulent shear flow is generally considered to be one of the fundamental laws of engineering science and is taught universally in fluid mechanics and hydraulics courses. We show here that this law is based on an assumption that cannot be considered to be correct and which does not correspond to experiment. Nor is Landau's derivation of this law quite correct. In this paper, an alternative scaling law explicitly incorporating the influence of the Reynolds number is discussed, as is the corresponding drag law. The study uses the concept of intermediate asymptotics and that of incomplete similarity in the similarity parameter. Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich played an outstanding role in the development of these ideas. This work is a tribute to his glowing memory. (100th anniversary of the birth of ya b zeldovich)

  13. Development of a low Reynolds number turbulence stress and heat flux equation model. A new type wall boundary condition for dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy aided by DNS data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, M.

    1998-04-01

    To predict thermal-hydraulic phenomena in actual plant under various conditions accurately, adequate simulation of laminar-turbulent flow transition is of importance. A low Reynolds number turbulence model is commonly used for a numerical simulation of the laminar-turbulent transition. The existing low Reynolds number turbulence models generally demands very thin mesh width between a wall and a first computational node from the wall, to keep accuracy and stability of numerical analyses. There is a criterion for the distance between the wall and the first computational node in which non-dimensional distance y + must be less than 0.5. Due to this criterion the suitable distance depends on Reynolds number. A liquid metal sodium is used for a coolant in first reactors therefore, Reynolds number is usually one or two order higher than that of the usual plants in which air and water are used for the work fluid. This makes the load of thermal-hydraulic numerical simulation of the liquid sodium relatively heavier. From above context, a new method is proposed for providing wall boundary condition of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε. The present method enables the wall-first node distance 10 times larger compared to the existing models. A function of the ε wall boundary condition has been constructed aided by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base. The method was validated through calculations of a turbulent Couette flow and a fully developed pipe flow and its laminar-turbulent transition. Thus the present method and modeling are capable of predicting the laminar-turbulent transition with less mesh numbers i.e. lighter computational loads. (J.P.N.)

  14. Momentum balance and stresses in a suspension of spherical particles in a plane Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Hammouti, Abdelkader; Wachs, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Non-Brownian suspension of monodisperse spherical particles, with volume fractions ranging between ϕ = 0.05 and 0.38 and particle Reynolds numbers ranging between Rep = 0.002 and 20, in plane Couette shear flows is investigated using three-dimensional particle-resolved numerical simulations. We examine the effects of volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macroscopic and microscopic stresses in the fluid phase. The effective viscosity of the suspension is in a good agreement with the previous empirical and experimental studies. At Rep = 20, however, the effective viscosity increases significantly compared to the lower particle Reynolds number simulations in the Stokes flow regime. Examining the stresses over the depth of the Couette gap reveals that this increase in wall shear stresses at high particle Reynolds numbers is mainly due to the significantly higher particle phase stress contributions. Next, we examine the momentum balance in the fluid and particle phase for different regimes to assess the significance of particle/particle interaction and fluid and particle inertia. At the highest particle Reynolds number and volume fraction, the particle inertia plays a dominant role in the momentum balance and the fluid inertia is non-negligible, while the short-lived contact forces are negligible compared to these effects. For all other regimes, the fluid inertia is negligible, but the particle inertia and contact forces are important in the momentum balance. Reynolds stresses originated from velocity fluctuations do not contribute significantly to the suspension stresses in any of the regimes we have studied, while the reduction in the shear-induced particle rotation can be a reason for higher wall shear stress at Rep = 20. Finally, we study the kinematics of particles, including their velocity fluctuations, rotation, and diffusion over the depth of the Couette gap. The particle diffusion coefficients in the cross flow direction exhibit an abrupt

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic duct and channel flows at finite magnetic Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandaru, Vinodh Kumar

    2015-11-27

    Lorentz force is found to show an R{sub m}{sup -1} dependence. After this, the phenomenon of dynamic runaway due to magnetic flux expulsion in a two-dimensional channel flow is studied. Comparison with an existing one-dimensional model shows a close agreement for the Hartmann regime and the bifurcation location but the model overpredicts the core velocities in the Poisuelle regime significantly. Parametric studies indicate the importance of the streamwise wavenumber of the imposed magnetic field on the bifurcation point. Finally, turbulent Hartmann duct flow is investigated at moderate values of R{sub m}. A higher R{sub m} is found to delay the onset of relaminarization to a higher value of Hartmann number. Large scale turbulence is induced at moderate R{sub m} and the effect increases with R{sub m}. Between the core and the Shercliff layers, Reynolds stresses decrease with increase in R{sub m}, leading to larger mean velocities in that region.

  16. Development Characteristics of Velocity Transports in An Isothermal Heated Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Dezhong; Chen, Hanping; Wang, Yanping

    2007-06-01

    The development characteristics, turbulence transports for stresses and kinetic energy of a cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant solution for a two-dimensional channel flow have been experimentally investigated. Time mean velocity and fluctuating velocity are measured using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at the Reynolds number 1.78×104 and isothermal heated temperature 31°C. Although mean velocity profiles at three cross sections show that the fluid is almost fully developed, the peak location of fluctuating intensity for the CTAC solution is slightly away from the wall downstream from the fluid and the peak location of fluctuating intensity is observed at far away from the wall than that of water. The location where the velocity gradient has its maximum, the fluctuating intensity does not get the high value. The elastic shear stress contribution to the total shear stress is 15 percents to 36 percents and it gets to the maximum near to the wall. The surfactant elastic shear stress is almost a liner function of the height of the channel, which means that the elastic stress contribution of the different cross locations is approximately the same. The fluctuating surfactant stress work is negative and the fluctuating elastic shear stresses produce rather than dissipate kinetic energy.

  17. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes investigation of high-lift low-pressure turbine blade aerodynamics at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Bryan M.

    Design trends for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) section of modern gas turbine engines include increasing the loading per airfoil, which promises a decreased airfoil count resulting in reduced manufacturing and operating costs. Accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes predictions of separated boundary layers and transition to turbulence are needed, as the lack of an economical and reliable computational model has contributed to this high-lift concept not reaching its full potential. Presented here for what is believed to be the first time applied to low-Re computations of high-lift linear cascade simulations is the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano (AKN) linear low-Re two-equation turbulence model which utilizes the Kolmogorov velocity scale for improved predictions of separated boundary layers. A second turbulence model investigated is the Kato-Launder modified version of the AKN, denoted MPAKN, which damps turbulent production in highly strained regions of flow. Fully Laminar solutions have also been calculated in an effort to elucidate the transitional quality of the turbulence model solutions. Time accurate simulations of three modern high-lift blades at a Reynolds number of 25,000 are compared to experimental data and higher-order computations in order to judge the accuracy of the results, where it is shown that the RANS simulations with highly refined grids can produce both quantitatively and qualitatively similar separation behavior as found in experiments. In particular, the MPAKN model is shown to predict the correct boundary layer behavior for all three blades, and evidence of transition is found through inspection of the components of the Reynolds Stress Tensor, spectral analysis, and the turbulence production parameter. Unfortunately, definitively stating that transition is occurring becomes an uncertain task, as similar evidence of the transition process is found in the Laminar predictions. This reveals that boundary layer reattachment may be a result of laminar

  18. Conditional analysis near strong shear layers in DNS of isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kaneda, Yukio [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hunt, Julian C R, E-mail: ishihara@cse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-22

    Data analysis of high resolution DNS of isotropic turbulence with the Taylor scale Reynolds number R{sub {lambda}} = 1131 shows that there are thin shear layers consisting of a cluster of strong vortex tubes with typical diameter of order 10{eta}, where {eta} is the Kolmogorov length scale. The widths of the layers are of the order of the Taylor micro length scale. According to the analysis of one of the layers, coarse grained vorticity in the layer are aligned approximately in the plane of the layer so that there is a net mean shear across the layer with a mean velocity jump of the order of the root-mean-square of the fluctuating velocity, and energy dissipation averaged over the layer is larger than ten times the average over the whole flow. The mean and the standard deviation of the energy transfer T(x, {kappa}) from scales larger than 1/{kappa} to scales smaller than 1/{kappa} at position x are largest within the layers (where the most intense vortices and dissipation occur), but are also large just outside the layers (where viscous stresses are weak), by comparison with the average values of T over the whole region. The DNS data are consistent with exterior fluctuation being damped/filtered at the interface of the layer and then selectively amplified within the layer.

  19. Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.

  20. Reynolds number dependency in equilibrium two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, A.; McWilliams, J.

    2009-04-01

    We use the Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic turbulence as a zero-order approximation of chaotic space-time patterns and equilibrium distributions that mimic turbulence in geophysical flows. In this overly-simplified set-up for which smooth-solutions exist, we investigate if is possible to bound the uncertainty associated with the numerical domain discretization, i.e. with the limitation imposed by the Reynolds number range we can explore. To do so we analyze a series of stationary barotropic turbulence simulations spanning a large range of Reynolds numbers and run over a three year period for over 300,000 CPU hours. We find a persistent Reynolds number dependency in the energy power spectra and second order vorticity structure function, while distributions of dynamical quantities such as velocity, vorticity, dissipation rates and others are invariant in shape and have variances scaling with the viscosity coefficient according to simple power-laws. The relevance to this work to the possibility of conceptually reducing uncertainties in climate models will be discussed.

  1. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large Eddy Simulation of the Flow in a Model SCRamjet Cavity Flameholder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. Experimental data available for this configuration include velocity statistics obtained from particle image velocimetry. Several turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This e ort was undertaken to not only assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community, but to also begin to understand how this capability can best be used to augment standard Reynolds-averaged simulations. The numerical errors were quantified for the steady-state simulations, and at least qualitatively assessed for the scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results displayed a high degree of variability when comparing the flameholder fuel distributions obtained from each turbulence model. This prompted the consideration of applying the higher-fidelity scale-resolving simulations as a surrogate "truth" model to calibrate the Reynolds-averaged closures in a non-reacting setting prior to their use for the combusting simulations. In general, the Reynolds-averaged velocity profile predictions at the lowest fueling level matched the particle imaging measurements almost as well as was observed for the non-reacting condition. However, the velocity field predictions proved to be more sensitive to the flameholder fueling rate than was indicated in the measurements.

  2. Experimental Studies of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows and Flow Control. Streamwise Pressure Profiles and Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research performed in support of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program. The work was performed experimentally at the U.S. Naval Academy faculties. The geometry corresponded to "Pak B" LPT airfoil. The test section simulated LPT flow in a passage. Three experimental studies were performed: (a) Boundary layer measurements for ten baseline cases under high and low freestream turbulence conditions at five Reynolds numbers of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000, based on passage exit velocity and suction surface wetted length; (b) Passive flow control studies with three thicknesses of two-dimensional bars, and two heights of three-dimensional circular cylinders with different spanwise separations, at same flow conditions as the 10 baseline cases; (c) Active flow control with oscillating synthetic (zero net mass flow) vortex generator jets, for one case with low freestream turbulence and a low Reynolds number of 25,000. The Passive flow control was successful at controlling the separation problem at low Reynolds numbers, with varying degrees of success from case to case and varying levels of impact at higher Reynolds numbers. The active flow control successfully eliminated the large separation problem for the low Reynolds number case. Very detailed data was acquired using hot-wire anemometry, including single and two velocity components, integral boundary layer quantities, turbulence statistics and spectra, turbulent shear stresses and their spectra, and intermittency, documenting transition, separation and reattachment. Models were constructed to correlate the results. The report includes a summary of the work performed and reprints of the publications describing the various studies.This report summarizes research performed in support of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program. The work was performed experimentally at the U.S. Naval Academy

  3. Numerical study of circular synthetic jets at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Lei, Shenghui; Ma, Jieyan; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter maps depicting different flow regimes of synthetic jets are produced. • Boundaries separating these regimes are defined using quantitative criteria. • The Reynolds number is most appropriate for classifying different flow regimes. • A use of high suction cycle factors enhances the effectiveness of synthetic jets. - Abstract: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, Re Do , is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers

  4. Effect of Reynolds number and saturation level on gas diffusion in and out of a superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hangjian; Katz, Joseph; Fu, Matthew; Hultmark, Marcus

    2017-12-01

    This experimental study investigates the effects of ambient pressure and Reynolds number on the volume of a plastron in a superhydrophobic surface (SHS) due to compression and gas diffusion. The hierarchical SHS consists of nanotextured, ˜100 μm wide spanwise grooves. Microscopic observations measure the time evolution of interface height and contact angle. The water tunnel tests are performed both without flow as well as in transitional and turbulent boundary layers at several Reynolds numbers. Particle image velocimetry is used for estimating the wall shear stress and calculating the momentum thickness for the SHSs under Cassie-Baxter (CB) and Wenzel states as well as a smooth wall at the same conditions. Holographic microscopy is used for determining the wall shear stress directly for one of the CB cases. The mass diffusion rate is calculated from changes to the plastron volume when the liquid is under- or supersaturated. For stationary water, the mass diffusion is slow. With increasing pressure, the interface is initially pinned and then migrates into the groove with high advancing contact angle. Upon subsequent decrease in pressure, the interface migrates upward at a shallow angle and, after being pinned to the tip corner, becomes convex. With flow and exposure to undersaturated liquid, the diffusion-induced wetting also involves pinned and downward migration states, followed by shrinkage of the plastron until it decreases below the resolution limit. The corresponding changes to the velocity profile indicate a transition from slight drag reduction to significant drag increase. In supersaturated water starting at a Wenzel state, a bubble grows from one of the bottom corners until it reaches the other side of the groove. Subsequently, dewetting involves upward migration of the interface, pinning to the tip corners, and formation of a convex interface. The diffusion rate increases with the level of under- or supersaturation and with the Reynolds number. A power

  5. High and Low Reynolds number Measurements in a Room with an Impinging Isothermal Jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Hyldgaard, C. E.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The present paper, which is within the work of the lEA - annex 20, presents a series of full-scale velocity measurements in a room with isothermal mixing ventilation. The measurements are in the Reynolds number range 1000 - 7000 based on inlet dimensions. This means that a transition from laminar...

  6. Gravitational sedimentation of cloud of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of study of gravitational sedimentation of highly-concentrated systems of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 are presented. Empirical equation for drag coefficient of the particle assembly has been obtained. The influence of initial particle concentration in the cloud on its dynamics and velocity has been analysed.

  7. Noninvasive evaluation of the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14 as biomarkers of psychosomatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Nishimiya, H

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the possibility of evaluating the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using noninvasive biomarkers. Over a consecutive 5-day period, 16 healthy young male adults were exposed to air flow from a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (low local air velocity) and from a commercial concentrated exhaust air conditioner (high local air velocity). Salivary cortisol was used as an index of the psychological effects and caspase-14, collected from the stratum corneum, was used as a marker of environmental stress on the skin. Local air velocity generated from the whole ceiling-type air conditioner where the subject's head was positioned was one-seventh that of the exhaust air conditioner. After exposure to the exhaust air conditioner for 5 days, salivary cortisol decreased significantly from morning to evening and skin caspase-14 gradually increased during the day. A significant increase in hydration index from the morning to the evening was found with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The effects of chronic exposure to air movement generated by an air conditioner may be quantified by measurement of salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14.

  8. Onset of chaos in helical vortex breakdown at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, S.; Avellan, F.; Gallaire, F.

    2018-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a swirling wake flow stemming from a Graboswksi-Berger vortex [Grabowski and Berger, J. Fluid Mech. 75, 525 (1976), 10.1017/S0022112076000360] in a semi-infinite domain is addressed at low Reynolds numbers for a fixed swirl number S =1.095 , defined as the ratio between the characteristic tangential velocity and the centerline axial velocity. In this system, only pure hydrodynamic instabilities develop and interact through the quadratic nonlinearities of the Navier-Stokes equations. Such interactions lead to the onset of chaos at a Reynolds value of Re=220 . This chaotic state is reached by following a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario, which is initiated by a Hopf bifurcation (the spiral vortex breakdown) as the Reynolds number increases. At larger Reynolds value, a frequency synchronization regime appears followed by a chaotic state again. This scenario is corroborated by nonlinear time series analyses. Stability analysis around the time-average flow and temporal-azimuthal Fourier decomposition of the nonlinear flow distributions both identify successfully the developing vortices and provide deeper insight into the development of the flow patterns leading to this route to chaos. Three single-helical vortices are involved: the primary spiral associated with the spiral vortex breakdown, a downstream spiral, and a near-wake spiral. As the Reynolds number increases, the frequencies of these vortices become closer, increasing their interactions by nonlinearity to eventually generate a strong chaotic axisymmetric oscillation.

  9. The influence of the Reynolds number on the passive scalar field in a turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.

    2006-01-01

    Many different turbulent heat transfer calculations based on a very accurate pseudo-spectral code have been performed in the last 5 years. The main effort was to investigate temperature fields at different Prandtl numbers, ranging from Pr=0.7 to Pr=200. For the treatment of the turbulent heat transfer at low Reynolds and high Prandtl numbers, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) was used for structures of the turbulent motions. DNS describes all the length and time scales for velocity and temperature fields. When Prandtl number is higher than 1, the smallest temperature scales are approximately inversely proportional to the square root of Prandtl number. For the smallest temperature scales, not resolved in the high Prandtl number simulation, a spectral turbulent diffusivity model was used in the pseudo-spectral computer code for DNS. A comparison of our temperature profiles obtained at friction Reynolds number Reτ=150 and Pr=100 and Pr=200 to the mean profiles of Calmet and Magnaudet, Wang and Lu and Kader's correlation that was built as a best fit of various experimental data at higher Reynolds numbers, revealed the discrepancies up to 10%. The most important reason for the differences was in different Reynolds numbers, which were much lower in our simulations than in the above mentioned LES simulations and experiments. The similar phenomenon as in our case can be found when DNS of Kawamura and Kader's results at Reτ=180 and Pr=0.71 were compared. On the other hand, the comparisons to the Kader's correlation at higher Reynolds numbers (i.e. DNS of Kawamura at Reτ=640 and DNS of Tiselj at Reτ=424) show that the differences are within statistical uncertainties. It follows that the heat transfer depends much more on Reynolds number in the range of low Reynolds numbers than in the range of high Reynolds numbers. (author)

  10. Usefulness of Myocardial Annular Velocity Change During Mental Stress to Predict Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (From the Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Fawaz; Brummett, Beverly H; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Alzaeim, Nabil; Wilson, Jennifer; Romano, Minna M D; Sun, Julia L; Ersboll, Mads; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is common and a prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study aimed at examining associations between mental stress-induced myocardial annular velocity (MAV) and cardiovascular outcome in patients with CAD. MAV, specifically, diastolic early (e'), diastolic late (a'), and systolic (s') velocities were obtained at rest and during mental stress testing in 224 patients with clinically stable CAD. Using Cox regression models, age, sex, and baseline-adjusted mental stress-induced MAV measures were examined as predictors of a priori defined composite event term that comprised all-cause mortality and/or nonfatal cardiovascular events, resulting in an unplanned hospitalization (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]). Median follow-up was 4 years. The sample was predominantly male, Caucasian with New York Heart Association functional class I and a mean age of 63 ± 10.2 years. MS-induced changes in e' (hazard ratio [HR] = .73) and s' (HR = .73) were significant (p Mental stress-induced MAV changes independently predict an adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.

  12. Characteristics of turbulent velocity and temperature in a wall channel of a heated rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T.; Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Turbulent air flow in a wall sub-channel of a heated 37-rod bundle (P/D = 1.12, W/D = 1.06) was investigated. measurements were performed with hot-wire probe with X-wires and a temperature wire. The mean velocity, the mean fluid temperature, the wall shear stress and wall temperature, the turbulent quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy, the Reynolds-stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes were measured and are discussed with respect to data from isothermal flow in a wall channel and heated flow in a central channel of the same rod bundle. Also, data on the power spectral densities of the velocity and temperature fluctuations are presented. These data show the existence of large scale periodic fluctuations are responsible for the high intersubchannel heat and momentum exchange.

  13. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  14. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M.; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew; Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years ± 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 ± 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 ± 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 ± 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  15. 76 FR 54801 - Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a Subsidiary of Reynolds Group Holding Limited, Grove City, PA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,183] Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a Subsidiary of Reynolds Group Holding Limited, Grove City, PA; Notice of Revised Determination... (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a subsidiary of Reynolds...

  16. Advanced lattice Boltzmann scheme for high-Reynolds-number magneto-hydrodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosis, Alessandro; Lévêque, Emmanuel; Chahine, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Is the lattice Boltzmann method suitable to investigate numerically high-Reynolds-number magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flows? It is shown that a standard approach based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator rapidly yields unstable simulations as the Reynolds number increases. In order to circumvent this limitation, it is here suggested to address the collision procedure in the space of central moments for the fluid dynamics. Therefore, an hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme is introduced, which couples a central-moment scheme for the velocity with a BGK scheme for the space-and-time evolution of the magnetic field. This method outperforms the standard approach in terms of stability, allowing us to simulate high-Reynolds-number MHD flows with non-unitary Prandtl number while maintaining accuracy and physical consistency.

  17. Room Airflows with Low Reynolds Number Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Davidson, Lars

    The behaviour of room airflows under fully turbulent conditions is well known both in terms of experiments and, numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For room airflows where turbulence is not fully developed though, i.e. flows at low Reynolds numbers, the existing knowledge...... is limited. It has been the objective to investigate the behaviour of a plane isothermal wall jet in a full-scale ventilated room at low Reynolds numbers, i.e. when the flow is not fully turbulent. The results are significantly different from known theory for fully turbulent flows. It was found that the jet...... constants are a strong function of the Reynolds number up to a level of Reh≈500....

  18. Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P blood flow, and heart rate were higher throughout HOT compared with COOL (P blood pressure and oxygen uptake were lower from 50% of work completed onward in HOT compared with COOL (P heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The thermal structure of a wind-driven Reynolds ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Peter Judd, K.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Handler, Robert A. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 20375, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the nature of a Reynolds ridge formed by wind shear. We have simultaneously imaged the water surface, with a deposit of a monolayer of the surfactant, oleyl alcohol, subject to different wind shears, by using a high-resolution infrared (IR) detector and a high-speed (HS) digital camera. The results reveal that the regions around the wind-driven Reynolds ridge, which have subtle manifestations in visual imagery, possess surprisingly complex hydrodynamical and thermal structures when observed in the infrared. The IR measurements reveal a warm, clean region upstream of the ridge, which is composed of the so called fishscale structures observed in earlier investigations. The region downstream of the ridge is composed of colder fluid which forms two counter-rotating cells. A region of intermediate temperature, which we call the mixing (wake) region, forms immediately downstream of the ridge near the channel centerline. By measuring the velocity of the advected fishscales, we have determined a surface drift speed of about 2% of the wind speed. The spanwise length-scale of the structures has also been used to estimate the wind shear. In addition, a comparison of IR and visual imagery shows that the thermal field is a very sensitive indicator of the exact position of the ridge itself. (orig.)

  20. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  1. Boundary induced nonlinearities at small Reynolds numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbragaglia, M.; Sugiyama, K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the importance of boundary slip at finite Reynolds numbers for mixed boundary conditions. Nonlinear effects are induced by the non-homogeneity of the boundary condition and change the symmetry properties of the flow with an overall mean flow reduction. To explain the observed drag

  2. Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louda Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.

  3. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  4. The influence of mass transfer, velocity and mechanical stress on the growth of coating in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimsch, R.; Hegele, E.; Frau, B.

    1977-01-01

    Within the scope of the research programme of the special research range 157 'Thermal Power Plant' at the university of Stuttgart, the formation, the growth and the characteristics of the magnetite layer (Fe 3 O 4 ) in steam generator pipes, in the hot water phase will be analysed. In the Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG a test plant was installed for that purpose, which operates at present in circulating operation at p = 250 bars and t = 340 0 C. For the Fe 3 O 4 formation important parameters, temperature, pH-value, Fe-, O 2 -, H 2 -content, electrical conductivity and redox potential will be controlled. By hot water oxidation - this is the range on which our research is concentrated at present, a double layer epitactical and topotactical of Fe 3 O 4 is formed. One of the undesired layer types is the so-called 'Ripple-rafflers' of the epitactical layer, which results in an extensive increase of pressure loss in the evaporator, and which requires cleaning of the evaporator. Referred to the entire system, the pressure loss increase can be up to 30%. During the report period, the influece of speed, mass flux and mechanical stress on the layer growth in hot water, especially on the morphology of the protective layers have been researched. The achieved results will be described in this lecture. (orig.) [de

  5. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-10-31

    To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (Ptriglycerides (P=0.108), cholesterol (P=0.531), and LDL (P=0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11±0.15 vs 1.24±0.23; P=0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r=0.58; Pindex in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2=0.38, Pglucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D.

  6. Revolutionary Performance For Ultra Low Reynolds Number Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel technique for controlling transition from laminar to turbulent flow in very low Reynolds number conditions has been developed. Normally flows with Reynolds...

  7. 77 FR 37316 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulations governing the operation of the Long Beach Bridge, mile 4.7, across Reynolds Channel, at Nassau...: The Long Beach Bridge, across Reynolds Channel, mile 4.7, at Nassau, New York, has a vertical...

  8. 78 FR 26508 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulation governing the operation of the Long Beach Bridge, mile 4.7, across Reynolds Channel at Nassau, New.... on July 12, 2013. Reynolds Creek has commercial and recreational vessel traffic. No objections were...

  9. 78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation... from the regulations governing the operation of the Atlantic Beach Bridge, mile 0.4, across Reynolds.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Atlantic Beach Bridge, across Reynolds Channel, mile 0.4, at Lawrence, New York...

  10. 78 FR 56609 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice canceling temporary... Beach Bridge, mile 0.4, across Reynolds Channel, at Lawrence, New York. The owner of the bridge, Nassau... published a temporary deviation entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY...

  11. 78 FR 37456 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Nassau, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulation governing the operation of the Long Beach Bridge, mile 4.7, across Reynolds Channel at Nassau, New... July 1, 2013. Reynolds Creek has commercial and recreational vessel traffic. No objections were...

  12. 78 FR 34893 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation... from the regulations governing the operation of the Atlantic Beach Bridge, mile 0.4, across Reynolds... Reynolds Channel, mile 0.4, at Lawrence, New York, has a vertical clearance in the closed position of 25...

  13. 78 FR 56610 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Reynolds Channel, Lawrence, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation... from the regulations governing the operation of the Atlantic Beach Bridge, mile 0.4, across Reynolds.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Atlantic Beach Bridge, across Reynolds Channel, mile 0.4, at Lawrence, New York...

  14. The use of low-radius circular-cross-section helical strakes for the reduction of VIV of tapered cylinders at high Reynolds numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2018-01-01

    % for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine towers during......^5, i.e. in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3% of the mean diameter of the structure can be used to efficiently reduce VIV at Supercritical Reynolds numbers. This suggests that e.g. robes may be used as temporary helical...

  15. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavity Flameholder; Assessment of Modeling Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. The cases simulated corresponded to those used to examine this flowfield experimentally using particle image velocimetry. A variety of turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This effort was undertaken to formally assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community. The numerical errors were quantified for both the steady-state and scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results showed a high degree of variability when comparing the predictions obtained from each turbulence model, with the non-linear eddy viscosity model (an explicit algebraic stress model) providing the most accurate prediction of the measured values. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation results were carefully scrutinized to ensure that even the coarsest grid had an acceptable level of resolution for large eddy simulation, and that the time-averaged statistics were acceptably accurate. The autocorrelation and its Fourier transform were the primary tools used for this assessment. The statistics extracted from the hybrid simulation strategy proved to be more accurate than the Reynolds-averaged results obtained using the linear eddy viscosity models. However, there was no predictive improvement noted over the results obtained from the explicit

  16. Parametric study of separation and transition characteristics over an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Yarusevych, Serhiy [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Time-resolved surface pressure measurements are used to experimentally investigate characteristics of separation and transition over a NACA 0018 airfoil for the relatively wide range of chord Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 250,000 and angles of attack from 0 to 21 . The results provide a comprehensive data set of characteristic parameters for separated shear layer development and reveal important dependencies of these quantities on flow conditions. Mean surface pressure measurements are used to explore the variation in separation bubble position, edge velocity in the separated shear layer, and lift coefficients with angle of attack and Reynolds number. Consistent with previous studies, the separation bubble is found to move upstream and decrease in length as the Reynolds number and angle of attack increase. Above a certain angle of attack, the proximity of the separation bubble to the location of the suction peak results in a reduced lift slope compared to that observed at lower angles. Simultaneous measurements of the time-varying component of surface pressure at various spatial locations on the model are used to estimate the frequency of shear layer instability, maximum root-mean-square (RMS) surface pressure, spatial amplification rates of RMS surface pressure, and convection speeds of the pressure fluctuations in the separation bubble. A power-law correlation between the shear layer instability frequency and Reynolds number is shown to provide an order of magnitude estimate of the central frequency of disturbance amplification for various airfoil geometries at low Reynolds numbers. Maximum RMS surface pressures are found to agree with values measured in separation bubbles over geometries other than airfoils, when normalized by the dynamic pressure based on edge velocity. Spatial amplification rates in the separation bubble increase with both Reynolds number and angle of attack, causing the accompanying decrease in separation bubble length. Values of the

  17. Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.

  18. Spanwise vorticity and wall normal velocity structure in the inertial region of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.

  19. A geometry-adaptive IB-LBM for FSI problems at moderate and high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangbao; Xu, Lincheng; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2017-11-01

    An FSI framework combining the LBM and an improved IBM is introduced for FSI problems at moderate and high Reynolds numbers. In this framework, the fluid dynamics is obtained by the LBM. The FSI boundary conditions are handled by an improved IBM based on the feedback scheme where the feedback coefficient is mathematically derived and explicitly approximated. The Lagrangian force is divided into two parts: one is caused by the mismatching of the flow velocity and the boundary velocity at previous time step, and the other is caused by the boundary acceleration. Such treatment significantly enhances the numerical stability. A geometry-adaptive refinement is applied to provide fine resolution around the immersed geometries. The overlapping grids between two adjacent refinements consist of two layers. The movement of fluid-structure interfaces only causes adding or removing grids at the boundaries of refinements. Finally, the classic Smagorinsky large eddy simulation model is incorporated into the framework to model turbulent flows at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Several validation cases are conducted to verify the accuracy and fidelity of the present solver over a range of Reynolds numbers. Mr L. Xu acknowledges the support of the University International Postgraduate Award by University of New South Wales. Dr. F.-B. Tian is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (Project Number DE160101098).

  20. On two distinct Reynolds number regimes of a turbulent square jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Reynolds number on both large-scale and small-scale turbulence properties are investigated in a square jet issuing from a square pipe. The detailed velocity fields were measured at five different exit Reynolds numbers of 8×103≤Re≤5×104. It is found that both large-scale properties (e.g., rates of mean velocity decay and spread and small-scale properties (e.g., the dimensionless dissipation rate constant A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 are dependent on Re for Re≤3×104 or Reλ≤190, but virtually become Re-independent with increasing Re or Reλ. In addition, for Reλ>190, the value of A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 in the present square jet converges to 0.5, which is consistent with the observation in direct numerical simulations of box turbulence, but lower than that in circular jet, plate wake flows, and grid turbulence. The discrepancies in critical Reynolds number and A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 among different turbulent flows most likely result from the flow type and initial conditions.

  1. Applications of Analytical Self-Similar Solutions of Reynolds-Averaged Models for Instability-Induced Turbulent Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartland, Tucker; Schilling, Oleg

    2017-11-01

    Analytical self-similar solutions to several families of single- and two-scale, eddy viscosity and Reynolds stress turbulence models are presented for Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability-induced turbulent mixing. The use of algebraic relationships between model coefficients and physical observables (e.g., experimental growth rates) following from the self-similar solutions to calibrate a member of a given family of turbulence models is shown. It is demonstrated numerically that the algebraic relations accurately predict the value and variation of physical outputs of a Reynolds-averaged simulation in flow regimes that are consistent with the simplifying assumptions used to derive the solutions. The use of experimental and numerical simulation data on Reynolds stress anisotropy ratios to calibrate a Reynolds stress model is briefly illustrated. The implications of the analytical solutions for future Reynolds-averaged modeling of hydrodynamic instability-induced mixing are briefly discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Reynolds number and friction coefficient for axial-parallel flow through complex cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markfort, D.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal and hydraulic lay-out of reactor fuel elements and other heat transfer equipment makes use of established functional relationship between dimensionless characters, the former being transferred from circular tube to more complex geometries. The stringent requirement (from theory) for 'geometrical similarity' is bypassed by defining 'equivalent diameters'. But dimensionless numbers may be derived from 'flow-integral-conditions' while the geometrical components contained therein reduce if not completely abolish the requirement for geometrical similarity. The derivation is demonstrated by using the Reynolds number. A friction coefficient valid for any kind of flow regime can be defined using integral-conditions. Correlations of friction coefficient and Reynolds number using universal-velocity profiles confirm the analysis when compared to well known experimental data. (orig.) [de

  3. CFD Analysis of 2D Unsteady Flow Past a Square Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhenquan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the behaviour of flow past a square cylinder for Reynolds numbers 10 and 20 is presented. Open source software Navier2d in Matlab is used in this study. The investigation starts from a uniform initial mesh and then refine the initial mesh using a mesh refinement method which was proposed based on both qualitative theory of differential equations and the finite volume method implemented in Navier2d. The horizontal and vertical velocity component profiles and pressures are shown on the once refined meshes. The comparisons between the profiles and pressures are conducted to show the variations from Reynolds number 10 to 20. The twice refined meshes are also presented and these refined meshes provide the information where the behaviour of flow is complex.

  4. DNS/LES Simulations of Separated Flows at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES) simulations of flow through a periodic channel with a constriction are performed using the dynamic Smagorinsky model at two Reynolds numbers of 2800 and 10595. The LES equations are solved using higher order compact schemes. DNS are performed for the lower Reynolds number case using a fine grid and the data are used to validate the LES results obtained with a coarse and a medium size grid. LES simulations are also performed for the higher Reynolds number case using a coarse and a medium size grid. The results are compared with an existing reference data set. The DNS and LES results agreed well with the reference data. Reynolds stresses, sub-grid eddy viscosity, and the budgets for the turbulent kinetic energy are also presented. It is found that the turbulent fluctuations in the normal and spanwise directions have the same magnitude. The turbulent kinetic energy budget shows that the production peaks near the separation point region and the production to dissipation ratio is very high on the order of five in this region. It is also observed that the production is balanced by the advection, diffusion, and dissipation in the shear layer region. The dominant term is the turbulent diffusion that is about two times the molecular dissipation.

  5. On Reynolds stress and neutral azimuthal modes in the stability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some results of Miles on the parallel flow stability theory are extended to the .... can lie on the stability boundary these modes were studied by him in detail. ... play important roles in the linear viscous critical layer theory (see, for example,.

  6. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  7. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  8. Reynolds averaged simulation of unsteady separated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, G.; Ooi, A.; Durbin, P.A.; Behnia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in predicting complex flows with separation is examined. The unsteady flow around square cylinder and over a wall-mounted cube are simulated and compared with experimental data. For the cube case, none of the previously published numerical predictions obtained by steady-state RANS produced a good match with experimental data. However, evidence exists that coherent vortex shedding occurs in this flow. Its presence demands unsteady RANS computation because the flow is not statistically stationary. The present study demonstrates that unsteady RANS does indeed predict periodic shedding, and leads to much better concurrence with available experimental data than has been achieved with steady computation

  9. Partial Cavity Flows at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiharju, Simo; Elbing, Brian; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Partial cavity flows created for friction drag reduction were examined on a large-scale. Partial cavities were investigated at Reynolds numbers up to 120 million, and stable cavities with frictional drag reduction of more than 95% were attained at optimal conditions. The model used was a 3 m wide and 12 m long flat plate with a plenum on the bottom. To create the partial cavity, air was injected at the base of an 18 cm backwards-facing step 2.1 m from the leading edge. The geometry at the cavity closure was varied for different flow speeds to optimize the closure of the cavity. Cavity gas flux, thickness, frictional loads, and cavity pressures were measured over a range of flow speeds and air injection fluxes. High-speed video was used extensively to investigate the unsteady three dimensional cavity closure, the overall cavity shape and oscillations.

  10. Trajectory of a synthetic jet issuing into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Baidya, Rio; de Silva, Charitha; Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic jets are zero-net-mass-flux actuators that can be used in a range of flow control applications. For several pulsed/synthetic jet in cross-flow applications the variation of the jet trajectory in the mean flow with jet and boundary layer parameters is important. This trajectory will provide an indication of the penetration depth of the pulsed/synthetic jet into a boundary layer. Trajectories of a synthetic jet in a turbulent boundary layer are measured for a range of actuation parameters in both low- and high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ = 13000). The important parameters influencing the trajectory are determined from these measurements. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is shown to only have a small effect on the trajectory. In fact, the critical parameters are found to be the Strouhal number of the jet based on jet dimensions as well as the velocity ratio of the jet (defined as a ratio between peak jet velocity and the freestream velocity). An expression for the trajectory of the synthetic (or pulsed) jet is derived from the data, which (in the limit) is consistent with known expressions for the trajectory of a steady jet in a cross-flow. T.B. and B.G. are grateful to the support from the ERC (Grant Agreement No. 277472) and the EPSRC (Grant ref. no. EP/L006383/1).

  11. Formation of free round jets with long laminar regions at large Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayko, Julia; Teplovodskii, Sergey; Chicherina, Anastasia; Vedeneev, Vasily; Reshmin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a new, simple method for the formation of free round jets with long laminar regions by a jet-forming device of ˜1.5 jet diameters in size. Submerged jets of 0.12 m diameter at Reynolds numbers of 2000-12 560 are experimentally studied. It is shown that for the optimal regime, the laminar region length reaches 5.5 diameters for Reynolds number ˜10 000 which is not achievable for other methods of laminar jet formation. To explain the existence of the optimal regime, a steady flow calculation in the forming unit and a stability analysis of outcoming jet velocity profiles are conducted. The shortening of the laminar regions, compared with the optimal regime, is explained by the higher incoming turbulence level for lower velocities and by the increase of perturbation growth rates for larger velocities. The initial laminar regions of free jets can be used for organising air curtains for the protection of objects in medicine and technologies by creating the air field with desired properties not mixed with ambient air. Free jets with long laminar regions can also be used for detailed studies of perturbation growth and transition to turbulence in round jets.

  12. Flocculation and Settling Velocity Estimates for Reservoir Sedimentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    viscosity ). Stokes’ law is commonly used to describe settling velocity of a single particle and is applicable when the particle Reynolds number (Rep...fluid viscosity , and ν is kinematic viscosity . Several researchers recognize that large, fast-settling particles disobey the laminar boundary...interparticle attraction caused by electrostatic and physiochemical forces. These properties give clays their stickiness and control essential

  13. Crossover from High to Low Reynolds Number Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef

    1994-01-01

    The Taylor-Reynolds and Reynolds number (Re lambda and Re) dependence of the dimensionless energy dissipation rate c epsilon = epsilon L / u31,rms is derived for statistically stationary isotropic turbulence, employing the results of a variable range mean field theory. Here epsilon is the energy

  14. Low-Reynolds Number Effects in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.; Topp, Claus

    In the present study, we use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) which is a suitable method for simulating the flow in ventilated rooms at low Reynolds number.......In the present study, we use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) which is a suitable method for simulating the flow in ventilated rooms at low Reynolds number....

  15. On Reynolds number dependence of micro-ramp-induced transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Q.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Scarano, F.

    2018-01-01

    The variation of transitional flow features past a micro-ramp is investigated when the Reynolds number is decreased approaching the critical regime. Experiments are conducted in the incompressible flow spanning from supercritical to subcritical roughness-height-based Reynolds number ( , 730, 460

  16. Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number Effects on Test Quality in a Hypersonic Expansion Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Tobias; Devin, Alyssa; Shi, Wen; Verhoog, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Reynolds number effects on test time and the temporal and spatial flow quality in a hypersonic expansion tube are explored using high-speed pressure, infrared optical, and Schlieren imaging measurements. Boundary layer models for shock tube flows are fairly well established to assist in the determination of test time and flow dimensions at typical high enthalpy test conditions. However, the application of these models needs to be more fully explored due to the unsteady expansion of turbulent boundary layers and contact regions separating dissimilar gasses present in expansion tube flows. Additionally, expansion tubes rely on the development of a steady jet with a large enough core-flow region at the exit of the acceleration tube to create a constant velocity region inside of the test section. High-speed measurements of pressure and Mach number at several locations within the expansion tube allow for the determination of an experimental x-t diagram. The comparison of the experimentally determined x-t diagram to theoretical highlights the Reynolds number dependent effects on expansion tube. Additionally, spatially resolved measurements of the Reynolds number dependent, steady core-flow in the expansion tube viewing section are shown. NSF MRI CBET #1531475, Lafayette College, McCutcheon Foundation.

  17. A Review of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition, and Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Patrick J.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2017-01-01

    The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition (RIAS-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2015) is an intelligence test for those aged 3 to 94 years. It contains eight subtests designed to assess general intelligence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence, memory, and processing speed. The two subtests targeting processing speed are new to the…

  18. Particle image velocimetry measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.

    2018-05-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers (TBL) have been performed under low Reynolds number conditions, Re_τ =200{-}1000, typical of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Three reservoir pressures and three measurement locations create an overlap in parameter space at one research facility. This allows us to assess the effects of Reynolds number, particle response and boundary layer thickness separate from facility specific experimental apparatus or methods. The Morkovin-scaled streamwise fluctuating velocity profiles agree well with published experimental and numerical data and show a small standard deviation among the nine test conditions. The wall-normal fluctuating velocity profiles show larger variations which appears to be due to particle lag. Prior to the current study, no detailed experimental study characterizing the effect of Stokes number on attenuating wall-normal fluctuating velocities has been performed. A linear variation is found between the Stokes number ( St) and the relative error in wall-normal fluctuating velocity magnitude (compared to hot wire anemometry data from Klebanoff, Characteristics of Turbulence in a Boundary Layer with Zero Pressure Gradient. Tech. Rep. NACA-TR-1247, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Springfield, Virginia, 1955). The relative error ranges from about 10% for St=0.26 to over 50% for St=1.06. Particle lag and spatial resolution are shown to act as low-pass filters on the fluctuating velocity power spectral densities which limit the measurable energy content. The wall-normal component appears more susceptible to these effects due to the flatter spectrum profile which indicates that there is additional energy at higher wave numbers not measured by PIV. The upstream inclination and spatial correlation extent of coherent turbulent structures agree well with published data including those using krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) performed at the same facility.

  19. Holography of the QGP Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Brett

    2017-08-01

    The viscosity of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is usually described holographically by the entropy-normalized dynamic viscosity η / s. However, other measures of viscosity, such as the kinematic viscosity ν and the Reynolds number Re, are often useful, and they too should be investigated from a holographic point of view. We show that a simple model of this kind puts an upper bound on Re for nearly central collisions at a given temperature; this upper bound is in very good agreement with the observational lower bound (from the RHIC facility). Furthermore, in a holographic approach using only Einstein gravity, η / s does not respond to variations of other physical parameters, while ν and Re can do so. In particular, it is known that the magnetic fields arising in peripheral heavy-ion collisions vary strongly with the impact parameter b, and we find that the holographic model predicts that ν and Re can also be expected to vary substantially with the magnetic field and therefore with b.

  20. Holography of the QGP Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of the Quark–Gluon Plasma (QGP is usually described holographically by the entropy-normalized dynamic viscosity η/s. However, other measures of viscosity, such as the kinematic viscosity ν and the Reynolds number Re, are often useful, and they too should be investigated from a holographic point of view. We show that a simple model of this kind puts an upper bound on Re for nearly central collisions at a given temperature; this upper bound is in very good agreement with the observational lower bound (from the RHIC facility. Furthermore, in a holographic approach using only Einstein gravity, η/s does not respond to variations of other physical parameters, while ν and Re can do so. In particular, it is known that the magnetic fields arising in peripheral heavy-ion collisions vary strongly with the impact parameter b, and we find that the holographic model predicts that ν and Re can also be expected to vary substantially with the magnetic field and therefore with b.

  1. Population dynamics at high Reynolds number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlekar, P.; Benzi, R.; Nelson, D.R.; Toschi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of population dynamics evolving in a realistic two-dimensional compressible turbulent velocity field. We show that the interplay between turbulent dynamics and population growth and saturation leads to quasi-localization and a remarkable reduction in the carrying

  2. Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John

    Due to advances in electronics technology, it is now possible to build small scale flying and swimming vehicles. These vehicles will have size and velocity scales similar to small birds and fish, and their characteristic Reynolds number will be between 104 and 105. Currently, these flying and swimming vehicles do not perform well, and very little research has been done to characterize them, or to explain why they perform so poorly. This dissertation documents three basic investigations into the performance of small scale lifting surfaces, with Reynolds numbers near 104. Part I. Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Three airfoil shapes were studied at Reynolds numbers of 1 and 2x104: a flat plate airfoil, a circular arc cambered airfoil, and the Eppler 387 airfoil. Lift and drag force measurements were made on both 2D and 3D conditions, with the 3D wings having an aspect ratio of 6, and the 2D condition being approximated by placing end plates at the wing tips. Comparisons to the limited number of previous measurements show adequate agreement. Previous studies have been inconclusive on whether lifting line theory can be applied to this range of Re, but this study shows that lifting line theory can be applied when there are no sudden changes in the slope of the force curves. This is highly dependent on the airfoil shape of the wing, and explains why previous studies have been inconclusive. Part II. The laminar separation bubble. The Eppler 387 airfoil was studied at two higher Reynolds numbers: 3 and 6x10 4. Previous studies at a Reynolds number of 6x104 had shown this airfoil experiences a drag increase at moderate lift, and a subsequent drag decrease at high lift. Previous studies suggested that the drag increase is caused by a laminar separation bubble, but the experiments used to show this were conducted at higher Reynolds numbers and extrapolated down. Force measurements were combined with flow field measurements at Reynolds numbers 3 and 6x104 to determine whether

  3. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  4. Horace Lamb and Osborne Reynolds: Remarkable mancunians ... and their interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launder, B E

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides glimpses into the professional lives of arguably, the two outstanding fluid mechanicists of their time who were simultaneously professors at Owens College, Manchester. Their interactions with each other were sometimes amicable but, equally, sometimes testy and their views on their common professional subject differed radically. Reynolds was appointed to the Chair of Engineering in 1868 at the age of 25 against strong competition while Horace Lamb, graduating a decade after Reynolds, was appointed as the inaugural Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Adelaide where he stayed for nine years before being appointed to a chair at Owens College in 1885. Among their various interactions the most significant arose from Reynolds' famous 'Reynolds averaging' paper. That was sent for review by Lamb who was critical of the paper but finally recommended that a revised version be published since Reynolds had essentially invented the subject. Reynolds, in his turn, criticised Lamb's patronizing reference to engineers' approach to fluid mechanics in a draft revision of his book Hydrodynamics. Nevertheless, on Reynolds' death in 1912, it was Lamb who attended his funeral on behalf of the University and the Royal Society and who later wrote a moving, much cited obituary of him.

  5. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  6. Pulsatility role in cylinder flow dynamics at low Reynolds number

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    We present dynamics of pulsatile flow past a stationary cylinder characterized by three non-dimensional parameters: the Reynolds number (Re), non-dimensional amplitude (A) of the pulsatile flow velocity, and Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC = Uo/Dωc). This work is motivated by the development of total artificial lungs (TAL) device, which is envisioned to provide ambulatory support to patients. Results are presented for 0.2 ≤ A ≤ 0.6 and 0.57 ≤ KC ≤ 2 at Re = 5 and 10, which correspond to the operating range of TAL. Two distinct fluid regimes are identified. In both regimes, the size of the separated zone is much greater than the uniform flow case, the onset of separation is function of KC, and the separation vortex collapses rapidly during the last fraction of the pulsatile cycle. The vortex size is independent of KC, but with an exponential dependency on A. In regime I, the separation point remains attached to the cylinder surface. In regime II, the separation point migrates upstream of the cylinder. Two distinct vortex collapse mechanisms are observed. For A < 0.4 and all KC and Re values, collapse occurs on the cylinder surface, whereas for A > 0.4 the separation vortex detaches from the cylinder surface and collapses at a certain distance downstream of the cylinder. The average drag coefficient is found to be independent of A and KC, and depends only on Re. However, for A > 0.4, for a fraction of the pulsatile cycle, the instantaneous drag coefficient is negative indicating a thrust production. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Non-unique turbulent boundary layer flows having a moderately large velocity defect: a rational extension of the classical asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheichl, B.; Kluwick, A.

    2013-11-01

    The classical analysis of turbulent boundary layers in the limit of large Reynolds number Re is characterised by an asymptotically small velocity defect with respect to the external irrotational flow. As an extension of the classical theory, it is shown in the present work that the defect may become moderately large and, in the most general case, independent of Re but still remain small compared to the external streamwise velocity for non-zero pressure gradient boundary layers. That wake-type flow turns out to be characterised by large values of the Rotta-Clauser parameter, serving as an appropriate measure for the defect and hence as a second perturbation parameter besides Re. Most important, it is demonstrated that also this case can be addressed by rigorous asymptotic analysis, which is essentially independent of the choice of a specific Reynolds stress closure. As a salient result of this procedure, transition from the classical small defect to a pronounced wake flow is found to be accompanied by quasi-equilibrium flow, described by a distinguished limit that involves the wall shear stress. This situation is associated with double-valued solutions of the boundary layer equations and an unconventional weak Re-dependence of the external bulk flow—a phenomenon seen to agree well with previous semi-empirical studies and early experimental observations. Numerical computations of the boundary layer flow for various values of Re reproduce these analytical findings with satisfactory agreement.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of nonpremixed reacting swirling wakes at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rong F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Yen, Shun C. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)

    2008-12-15

    The aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of uncontrolled and controlled swirling double-concentric jet flames at low Reynolds numbers are experimentally studied. The swirl and Reynolds numbers are lower than 0.6 and 2000, respectively. The flow characteristics are diagnosed by the laser-light-sheet-assisted Mie scattering flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The thermal structure is measured by a fine-wire thermocouple. The flame shapes, combined images of flame and flow, velocity vector maps, streamline patterns, velocity and turbulence distributions, flame lengths, and temperature distributions are discussed. The flow patterns of the no-control case exhibit an open-top, single-ring vortex sitting on the blockage disc with a jetlike swirling flow evolving from the central disc face toward the downstream area. The rotation direction and size of the near-disc vortex, as well as the flow properties, change in different ranges of annulus swirl number and therefore induce three characteristic flame modes: weak swirling flame, lifted flame, and turbulent reattached flame. Because the near-disc vortex is open-top, the radial dispersion of the fuel-jet fluids is not significantly enhanced by the annulus swirling flow. The flows of the reacting swirling double-concentric jets at such low swirl and Reynolds numbers therefore present characteristics of diffusion jet flames. In the controlled case, the axial momentum of the central fuel jet is deflected radially by a control disc placed above the blockage disc. This arrangement can induce a large near-disc recirculation bubble and high turbulence intensities. The enhanced mixing hence tremendously shortens the flame length and enlarges the flame width. (author)

  9. Dissipative Effects on Inertial-Range Statistics at High Reynolds Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2017-09-29

    Using the unique capabilities of the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, we report experimental measurements in classical grid turbulence that uncover oscillations of the velocity structure functions in the inertial range. This was made possible by measuring extremely long time series of up to 10^{10} samples of the turbulent fluctuating velocity, which corresponds to O(10^{7}) integral length scales. The measurements were conducted in a well-controlled environment at a wide range of high Reynolds numbers from R_{λ}=110 up to R_{λ}=1600, using both traditional hot-wire probes as well as the nanoscale thermal anemometry probe developed at Princeton University. An implication of the observed oscillations is that dissipation influences the inertial-range statistics of turbulent flows at scales significantly larger than predicted by current models and theories.

  10. PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a continuous jet issuing from a small narrow slot with a width of 0.36 mm. The experimental arrangement is based on the piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator studied previously for easy comparisons. The working fluid is water at room temperature. The experiments were performed using methods of particle image velocimetry (PIV and flow visualization (laser induced fluorescence, LIF. The time-mean volume flux through the exit nozzle was quantified using precise scales. The mean velocity and the Reynolds number were evaluated as Um = 0.12 m/s and Re = 90, respectively. The results of LIF and PIV techniques revealed the three-dimensional character of the flow field, namely the saddle-shape velocity profiles. This behavior is typical for steady jets from a rectangular nozzle. The obtained results were compared with previous measurements of the synthetic jet issuing from the same cavity and the slot nozzle.

  11. Reynolds number effects on the non-nulling calibration of a cone-type five-hole probe for turbomachinery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Jun, Sang Bae

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Reynolds number on the non-nulling calibration of a typical cone-type five-hole probe have been investigated for the representative Reynolds numbers in turbomachinery. The pitch and yaw angles are changed from -35 degrees to 35 degrees with an angle interval of 5 degrees at six probe Reynolds numbers in range between 6.60x10 3 and 3.17x10 4 . The result shows that not only each calibration coefficient itself but also its Reynolds number dependency is affected significantly by the pitch and yaw angles. The Reynolds-number effects on the pitch-and yaw-angle coefficients are noticeable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are smaller than 20 degrees. The static-pressure coefficient is sensitive to the Reynolds number nearly all over the pitch-and yaw-angle range. The Reynolds-number effect on the total-pressure coefficient is found remarkable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are larger than 20 degrees. Through a typical non-nulling reduction procedure, actual reduced values of the pitch and yaw angles, static and total pressures, and velocity magnitude at each Reynolds number are obtained by employing the calibration coefficients at the highest Reynolds number (Re=3.17x10 4 ) as input reference calibration data. As a result, it is found that each reduced value has its own unique trend depending on the pitch and yaw angles. Its general tendency is related closely to the variation of the corresponding calibration coefficient with the Reynolds number. Among the reduced values, the reduced total pressure suffers the most considerable deviation from the measured one and its dependency upon the pitch and yaw angles is most noticeable. In this study, the root-mean-square data as well as the upper and lower bounds of the reduced values are reported as a function of the Reynolds number. These data would be very useful in the estimation of the Reynolds-number effects on the non-nulling calibration

  12. Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.

  13. Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Andrew L.; Heil, Matthias

    2003-07-01

    A fully coupled finite-element method is used to investigate the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a thin-walled elastic tube mounted between two rigid tubes. The steady three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are solved simultaneously with the equations of geometrically nonlinear Kirchhoff Love shell theory. If the transmural (internal minus external) pressure acting on the tube is sufficiently negative then the tube buckles non-axisymmetrically and the subsequent large deformations lead to a strong interaction between the fluid and solid mechanics. The main effect of fluid inertia on the macroscopic behaviour of the system is due to the Bernoulli effect, which induces an additional local pressure drop when the tube buckles and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Thus, the tube collapses more strongly than it would in the absence of fluid inertia. Typical tube shapes and flow fields are presented. In strongly collapsed tubes, at finite values of the Reynolds number, two ’jets‘ develop downstream of the region of strongest collapse and persist for considerable axial distances. For sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number, these jets impact upon the sidewalls and spread azimuthally. The consequent azimuthal transport of momentum dramatically changes the axial velocity profiles, which become approximately uTheta-shaped when the flow enters the rigid downstream pipe. Further convection of momentum causes the development of a ring-shaped velocity profile before the ultimate return to a parabolic profile far downstream.

  14. Derivation of a numerical solution of the 3D coupled velocity field for an ice sheet – ice shelf system, incorporating both full and approximate stress solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831905; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Borsboom, P.-P.

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the mechanical coupling of an ice sheet with an ice shelf, one single set of velocity equations is presented covering both the sheet and the shelf. This set is obtained by applying shared sheet-shelf approximations. The hydrostatic approximation and a constant density are the only

  15. Mass transfer controlled reactions in packed beds at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedkiw, P.S.

    1978-12-01

    The a priori prediction and correlation of mass-transfer rates in transport limited, packed-bed reactors at low Reynolds numbers is examined. The solutions to the governing equations for a flow-through porous electrode reactor indicate that these devices must operate at a low space velocity to suppress a large ohmic potential drop. Packed-bed data for the mass-transfer rate at such low Reynolds numbers were examined and found to be sparse, especially in liquid systems. Prior models to simulate the solid-void structure in a bed are reviewed. Here the bed was envisioned as an array of sinusoidal periodically constricted tubes (PCT). Use of this model has not appeared in the literature. The velocity field in such a tube should be a good approximation to the converging-diverging character of the velocity field in an actual bed. The creeping flow velocity profiles were calculated. These results were used in the convective-diffusion equation to find mass transfer rates at high Peclet number for both deep and shallow beds, for low Peclet numbers in a deep bed. All calculations assumed that the reactant concentration at the tube surface is zero. Mass-transfer data were experimentally taken in a transport controlled, flow-through porous electrode to test the theoretical calculations and to provide data resently unavailable for deeper beds. It was found that the sinusoidal PCT model could not fit the data of this work or that available in the literature. However, all data could be adequately described by a model which incorporates a channelingeffect. The bed was successfully modeled as an array of dual sized straight tubes.

  16. Estimation of viscous dissipative stresses induced by a mechanical heart valve using PIV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Pei; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lu, Po-Chien

    2010-03-01

    Among the clinical complications of mechanical heart valves (MHVs), hemolysis was previously thought to result from Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows. A more recent hypothesis suggests viscous dissipative stresses at spatial scales similar in size to red blood cells may be related to hemolysis in MHVs, but the resolution of current instrumentation is insufficient to measure the smallest eddy sizes. We studied the St. Jude Medical (SJM) 27 mm valve in the aortic position of a pulsatile circulatory mock loop under physiologic conditions with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Assuming a dynamic equilibrium assumption between the resolved and sub-grid-scale (SGS) energy flux, the SGS energy flux was calculated from the strain rate tensor computed from the resolved velocity fields and the SGS stress was determined by the Smagorinsky model, from which the turbulence dissipation rate and then the viscous dissipative stresses were estimated. Our results showed Reynolds stresses up to 80 N/m2 throughout the cardiac cycle, and viscous dissipative stresses below 12 N/m2. The viscous dissipative stresses remain far below the threshold of red blood cell hemolysis, but could potentially damage platelets, implying the need for further study in the phenomenon of MHV hemolytic complications.

  17. First steps in modelling turbulence and its origins: a commentary on Reynolds (1895) 'On the dynamical theory of incompressible viscous fluids and the determination of the criterion'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launder, Brian E

    2015-04-13

    Reynolds' paper sought to explain the change in character of flow through a pipe from laminar to turbulent that his earlier experiments had shown to occur when the dimensionless group that today bears his name exceeded approximately 2000. This he did by decomposing the velocity into mean and fluctuating components and noting how the average kinetic energy generation and dissipation rates changed with Reynolds number. The paper was only grudgingly accepted by two very distinguished referees and initially raised little external interest. As years went by, however, the averaged form of the equations of motion, known as the Reynolds equations (which were an intermediate stage in Reynolds' analysis) became the acknowledged starting point for computing turbulent flows. Moreover, some 50 years after his paper, a refinement of his strategy for predicting transition was also successfully taken up. For some engineering problems, the continual rapid growth of computing resources has meant that more detailed approaches for computing turbulent flow phenomena can nowadays be employed. However, this growth of computing power likewise makes possible a Reynolds-averaging strategy for complex flow systems in industry or the environment which formerly had to adopt less comprehensive analyses. Thus, Reynolds' approach may well remain in use throughout the present century. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  18. Validity of the modified Reynolds equation for incompressible active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    The modified Reynolds equation for active lubrication has been the cornerstone around which the theoretical investigations regarding actively lubricated bearings have evolved over the years. Introduced originally in 1994, it enables to calculate in a simplified manner the bearing pressure field...... as a function of servovalve controlled pressurized oil injection. This article deals with a preliminary critical review of the simplificatory assumptions that are introduced into the modified Reynolds equation in order to model the phenomena taking place in the interface between the injection nozzle...... and the bearing clearance. The analysis is performed by means of direct comparison of the results of the modified Reynolds equation model versus benchmark CFD calculations, applied to a geometry representative of the system analyzed. The results show that the modified Reynolds equation mathematical simplicity...

  19. The Influence of Realistic Reynolds Numbers on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2012-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.71 to 12.0 million based on the stowed chord resulted in slight changes in the radiated noise. Tonal features in the spectra were robust and evident for all Reynolds numbers and even when a spanwise flow was imposed. The general trends observed in near-field fluctuations were also similar for all the different Reynolds numbers. Experiments on simplified, subscale high-lift systems have exhibited noticeable dependencies on the Reynolds number and tripping, although primarily for tonal features rather than the broadband portion of the spectra. Either the 30P/30N model behaves differently, or the computational model is unable to capture these effects. Hence, the results underscore the need for more detailed measurements of the slat cove flow.

  20. Reynolds Number Effect on Spatial Development of Viscous Flow Induced by Wave Propagation Over Bed Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Athanassios A.; Kolokythas, Gerasimos A.

    Numerical simulations of the free-surface flow, developing by the propagation of nonlinear water waves over a rippled bottom, are performed assuming that the corresponding flow is two-dimensional, incompressible and viscous. The simulations are based on the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations subject to the fully-nonlinear free-surface boundary conditions and appropriate bottom, inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The equations are properly transformed so that the computational domain becomes time-independent. For the spatial discretization, a hybrid scheme is used where central finite-differences, in the horizontal direction, and a pseudo-spectral approximation method with Chebyshev polynomials, in the vertical direction, are applied. A fractional time-step scheme is used for the temporal discretization. Over the rippled bed, the wave boundary layer thickness increases significantly, in comparison to the one over flat bed, due to flow separation at the ripple crests, which generates alternating circulation regions. The amplitude of the wall shear stress over the ripples increases with increasing ripple height or decreasing Reynolds number, while the corresponding friction force is insensitive to the ripple height change. The amplitude of the form drag forces due to dynamic and hydrostatic pressures increase with increasing ripple height but is insensitive to the Reynolds number change, therefore, the percentage of friction in the total drag force decreases with increasing ripple height or increasing Reynolds number.

  1. Kate Watson on Reynold Humphries’ Hollywood’s Blacklists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reynold Humphries. Hollywood’s Blacklists: A Political and Cultural History. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008. Reynold Humphries’ Hollywood’s Blacklists provides a comprehensive examination of the historical and political ramifications of the blacklisting process and of Communism in the motion picture industry. His section on ‘The Background’ initially sets up just this, making the debate and dispute accessible even to those not au fait with such knowledge. This section is informat...

  2. Flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhong Zhang; Takashi Hibiki; Kaichiro Mishima

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In view of the significance of a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at conditions of low liquid Reynolds number or liquid laminar flow, and very few existing correlations in principle suitable for such flow conditions, this study is aiming at developing a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. The obtained results are as follows: 1. A new heat transfer correlation has been developed for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions based on superimposition of two boiling mechanisms, namely convective boiling and nucleate boiling. In the new correlation, two terms corresponding to the mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convective boiling are obtained from the pool boiling correlation by Forster and Zuber and the analytical annular flow model by Hewitt and Hall-Taylor, respectively. 2. An extensive database was collected for saturated flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number conditions, including data for different channels geometries (circular and rectangular), flow orientations (vertical and horizontal), and working fluids (water, R11, R12, R113). 3. An extensive comparison of the new correlation with the collected database shows that the new correlation works satisfactorily with the mean deviation of 16.6% for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. 4. The detailed discussion reveals the similarity of the newly developed correlation for flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number to the Chen correlation for flow boiling at high liquid Reynolds number. The Reynolds number factor F can be analytically deduced in this study. (authors)

  3. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  4. Lagrangian velocity correlations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R.S.; Herring, J.R.; Kraichnan, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation and the time correlations for individual wave-number bands are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) using the passive vector method (PVM), and the accuracy of the method is studied. It is found that the PVM is accurate when K max /k d ≥2 where K max is the maximum wave number carried in the simulation and k d is the Kolmogorov wave number. The Eulerian and Lagrangian time correlations for various wave-number bands are compared. At moderate to high wave number the Eulerian time correlation decays faster than the Lagrangian, and the effect of sweep on the former is observed. The time scale of the Eulerian correlation is found to be (kU 0 ) -1 while that of the Lagrangian is [∫ 0 k p 2 E(p)dp] -1/2 . The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in a frozen turbulent field is computed using the DIA, ALHDIA, and LRA theories and is compared with DNS measurements. The Markovianized Lagrangian renormalized approximation (MLRA) is compared with the DNS, and good agreement is found for one-time quantities in decaying turbulence at low Reynolds numbers and for the Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in stationary turbulence at moderate Reynolds number. The effect of non-Gaussianity on the Lagrangian correlation predicted by the theories is also discussed

  5. Numerical Study of Mixed Convective Peristaltic Flow through Vertical Tube with Heat Generation for Moderate Reynolds and Wave Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Tariq; Ahmed, B.; Sajid, M.

    2018-04-01

    The current study focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixed convective peristaltic mechanism through a vertical tube for non-zero Reynolds and wave number. In the set of constitutional equations, energy equation contains the term representing heat generation parameter. The problem is formulated by dropping the assumption of lubrication theory that turns the model mathematically into a system of the nonlinear partial differential equations. The results of the long wavelength in a creeping flow are deduced from the present analysis. Thus, the current study explores the neglected features of peristaltic heat flow in the mixed convective model by considering moderate values of Reynolds and wave numbers. The finite element based on Galerkin’s weighted residual scheme is applied to solve the governing equations. The computed solution is presented in the form of contours of streamlines and isothermal lines, velocity and temperature profiles for variation of different involved parameters. The investigation shows that the strength of circulation for stream function increases by increasing the wave number and Reynolds number. Symmetric isotherms are reported for small values of time-mean flow. Linear behavior of pressure is noticed by vanishing inertial forces while the increase in pressure is observed by amplifying the Reynolds number.

  6. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady flow over a hump model with zero efflux oscillatory flow control is modeled computationally using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three different turbulence models produce similar results, and do a reasonably good job predicting the general character of the unsteady surface pressure coefficients during the forced cycle. However, the turbulent shear stresses are underpredicted in magnitude inside the separation bubble, and the computed results predict too large a (mean) separation bubble compared with experiment. These missed predictions are consistent with earlier steady-state results using no-flow-control and steady suction, from a 2004 CFD validation workshop for synthetic jets.

  7. Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements with Wall Shear Stress and Uncertainty Quantification for the FDA Nozzle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2016-03-01

    We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over

  8. Hydromagnetic effect on inclined peristaltic flow of a couple stress fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Shit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the effect of channel inclination on the peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in the presence of externally applied magnetic field. The slip velocity at the channel wall has been taken into account. Under the long wave length and low-Reynolds number assumptions, the analytical solutions for axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient and pressure rise are obtained. The computed results are presented graphically by taking valid numerical data for non-dimensional physical parameters available in the existing scientific literatures. The results revealed that the trapping fluid can be eliminated and the central line axial velocity can be reduced with a considerable extent by the application of magnetic field. The flow phenomena for the pumping characteristics, trapping and reflux are furthermore investigated. The study shows that the slip parameter and Froude number play an important role in controlling axial pressure gradient.

  9. Inspection of the dynamic properties of laminar separation bubbles: free-stream turbulence intensity effects for different Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Daniele; Lengani, Davide; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Dellacasagrande, Matteo

    2017-06-01

    The effects of free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI) on the transition process of a pressure-induced laminar separation bubble have been studied for different Reynolds numbers (Re) by means of time-resolved (TR) PIV. Measurements have been performed along a flat plate installed within a double-contoured test section, designed to produce an adverse pressure gradient typical of ultra-high-lift turbine blade profiles. A test matrix spanning 3 FSTI levels and 3 Reynolds numbers has been considered allowing estimation of cross effects of these parameters on the instability mechanisms driving the separated flow transition process. Boundary layer integral parameters, spatial growth rate and saturation level of velocity fluctuations are discussed for the different cases in order to characterize the base flow response as well as the time-mean properties of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The inspection of the instantaneous velocity vector maps highlights the dynamics of the large-scale structures shed near the bubble maximum displacement, as well as the low-frequency motion of the fore part of the separated shear layer. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been implemented to reduce the large amount of data for each condition allowing a rapid evaluation of the group velocity, spatial wavelength and dominant frequency of the vortex shedding process. The dimensionless shedding wave number parameter makes evident that the modification of the shear layer thickness at separation due to Reynolds number variation mainly drives the length scale of the rollup vortices, while higher FSTI levels force the onset of the shedding phenomenon to occur upstream due to the higher velocity fluctuations penetrating into the separating boundary layer.

  10. Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.

  11. A stability investigation of two-dimensional surface waves on evaporating, isothermal or condensing liquid films - Part I, Thermal non-equilibrium effects on wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunxi, L.; Xuemin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The temporal stability equation of the two-dimensional traveling waves of evaporating or condensing liquid films falling down on an inclined wall is established based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The model indicates that the wave velocity is related to the effects of evaporating, isothermal and condensing states, thermo-capillarity, Reynolds number, fluid property and inclined angle, and the effects of above factors are distinctly different under different Reynolds numbers. The theoretical studies show that evaporation process induces the wave velocity to increase slightly compared with the isothermal case, and condensation process induces the wave velocity to decrease slightly. Furthermore, the wave velocity decreases because of the effects of thermo-capillarity under evaporation and increases because of the effects of thermo-capillarity under condensation. The effects of thermal non-equilibrium conditions have relatively obvious effects under lower Reynolds numbers and little effects under higher Reynolds numbers

  12. Quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations: A data-driven, physics-informed Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, H.; Wu, J.-L.; Wang, J.-X.; Sun, R.; Roy, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their well-known limitations, Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models are still the workhorse tools for turbulent flow simulations in today's engineering analysis, design and optimization. While the predictive capability of RANS models depends on many factors, for many practical flows the turbulence models are by far the largest source of uncertainty. As RANS models are used in the design and safety evaluation of many mission-critical systems such as airplanes and nuclear power plants, quantifying their model-form uncertainties has significant implications in enabling risk-informed decision-making. In this work we develop a data-driven, physics-informed Bayesian framework for quantifying model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations. Uncertainties are introduced directly to the Reynolds stresses and are represented with compact parameterization accounting for empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints (e.g., realizability, smoothness, and symmetry). An iterative ensemble Kalman method is used to assimilate the prior knowledge and observation data in a Bayesian framework, and to propagate them to posterior distributions of velocities and other Quantities of Interest (QoIs). We use two representative cases, the flow over periodic hills and the flow in a square duct, to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. Both cases are challenging for standard RANS turbulence models. Simulation results suggest that, even with very sparse observations, the obtained posterior mean velocities and other QoIs have significantly better agreement with the benchmark data compared to the baseline results. At most locations the posterior distribution adequately captures the true model error within the developed model form uncertainty bounds. The framework is a major improvement over existing black-box, physics-neutral methods for model-form uncertainty quantification, where prior knowledge and details of the models are not exploited. This approach has

  13. Quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations: A data-driven, physics-informed Bayesian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, H., E-mail: hengxiao@vt.edu; Wu, J.-L.; Wang, J.-X.; Sun, R.; Roy, C.J.

    2016-11-01

    Despite their well-known limitations, Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models are still the workhorse tools for turbulent flow simulations in today's engineering analysis, design and optimization. While the predictive capability of RANS models depends on many factors, for many practical flows the turbulence models are by far the largest source of uncertainty. As RANS models are used in the design and safety evaluation of many mission-critical systems such as airplanes and nuclear power plants, quantifying their model-form uncertainties has significant implications in enabling risk-informed decision-making. In this work we develop a data-driven, physics-informed Bayesian framework for quantifying model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations. Uncertainties are introduced directly to the Reynolds stresses and are represented with compact parameterization accounting for empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints (e.g., realizability, smoothness, and symmetry). An iterative ensemble Kalman method is used to assimilate the prior knowledge and observation data in a Bayesian framework, and to propagate them to posterior distributions of velocities and other Quantities of Interest (QoIs). We use two representative cases, the flow over periodic hills and the flow in a square duct, to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. Both cases are challenging for standard RANS turbulence models. Simulation results suggest that, even with very sparse observations, the obtained posterior mean velocities and other QoIs have significantly better agreement with the benchmark data compared to the baseline results. At most locations the posterior distribution adequately captures the true model error within the developed model form uncertainty bounds. The framework is a major improvement over existing black-box, physics-neutral methods for model-form uncertainty quantification, where prior knowledge and details of the models are not exploited. This approach

  14. Reynolds number calculation and applications for curved wall jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper refers to the preliminary estimation of the Reynolds number for curved wall jets. This, in turn, can be a useful tool for controlling the boundary layer mesh size near a generic curved wall which is wetted by a thin, attached jet. The method relies on analytical calculations that link the local curvature of the wall with the pressure gradient and further, the local Reynolds number. Knowing the local Reynolds number distribution, a CFD user can tailor their mesh size to more exact specifications (e.g. y+=1 for k-omega RANS models and lower the risk that the mesh is too coarse or finer than necessary.

  15. The effect of tip speed ratio on a vertical axis wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-05-01

    This work visualizes the flow surrounding a scaled model vertical axis wind turbine at realistic operating conditions. The model closely matches geometric and dynamic properties—tip speed ratio and Reynolds number—of a full-size turbine. The flow is visualized using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) in the midplane upstream, around, and after (up to 4 turbine diameters downstream) the turbine, as well as a vertical plane behind the turbine. Time-averaged results show an asymmetric wake behind the turbine, regardless of tip speed ratio, with a larger velocity deficit for a higher tip speed ratio. For the higher tip speed ratio, an area of averaged flow reversal is present with a maximum reverse flow of -0.04U_∞. Phase-averaged vorticity fields—achieved by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine—show distinct structures form from each turbine blade. There were distinct differences in results by tip speed ratios of 0.9, 1.3, and 2.2 of when in the cycle structures are shed into the wake—switching from two pairs to a single pair of vortices being shed—and how they convect into the wake—the middle tip speed ratio vortices convect downstream inside the wake, while the high tip speed ratio pair is shed into the shear layer of the wake. Finally, results show that the wake structure is much more sensitive to changes in tip speed ratio than to changes in Reynolds number.

  16. Hybrid Large-Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Simulation of a Supersonic Cavity Using VULCAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse; McDaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters a three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and the effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case and indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. Simulations are performed with and without inflow turbulence recycling on the coarse grid to isolate the effect of the recycling procedure, which is demonstrably critical to capturing the relevant shear layer dynamics. Shock sensor formulations of Ducros and Larsson are found to predict mean flow statistics equally well.

  17. Wall modeled large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows with synthetic inlet turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Sunil; Tafti, Danesh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Large eddy simulation. ► Wall layer modeling. ► Synthetic inlet turbulence. ► Swirl flows. - Abstract: Large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows are carried out with the near wall region being modeled with a zonal two layer model. A novel formulation for solving the turbulent boundary layer equation for the effective tangential velocity in a generalized co-ordinate system is presented and applied in the near wall zonal treatment. This formulation reduces the computational time in the inner layer significantly compared to the conventional two layer formulations present in the literature and is most suitable for complex geometries involving body fitted structured and unstructured meshes. The cost effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed wall model, used with the synthetic eddy method (SEM) to generate inlet turbulence, is investigated in turbulent channel flow, flow over a backward facing step, and confined swirling flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers. Predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental LDV data, as well as wall resolved LES. In all cases, there is at least an order of magnitude reduction in computational cost with no significant loss in prediction accuracy.

  18. Reynolds-number-dependent dynamical transitions on hydrodynamic synchronization modes of externally driven colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Norihiro; Teshigawara, Kosuke; Molina, John Jairo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The collective dynamics of externally driven Np-colloidal systems (1 ≤Np≤4 ) in a confined viscous fluid have been investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations with fully resolved hydrodynamics. The dynamical modes of collective particle motion are studied by changing the particle Reynolds number as determined by the strength of the external driving force and the confining wall distance. For a system with Np=3 , we found that at a critical Reynolds number a dynamical mode transition occurs from the doublet-singlet mode to the triplet mode, which has not been reported experimentally. The dynamical mode transition was analyzed in detail from the following two viewpoints: (1) spectrum analysis of the time evolution of a tagged particle velocity and (2) the relative acceleration of the doublet cluster with respect to the singlet particle. For a system with Np=4 , we found similar dynamical mode transitions from the doublet-singlet-singlet mode to the triplet-singlet mode and further to the quartet mode.

  19. Reynolds number effect on airfoil wake structures under pitching and heaving motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Karbasian, Hamidreza; ExpTENsys Team

    2017-11-01

    Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to investigate the wake flow characteristics of an airfoil under pitching and heaving motion. A NACA0012 airfoil was selected for the numerical simulation and experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel and a water tunnel at Reynolds number of 15,000 and 90,000, respectively. The airfoil oscillated around an axis located 1/4 distance from the leading edge chord. Two different angles of attack, 20° and 30°, were selected with +/-10° maximum amplitude of oscillation. In order to extract the coherent flow structures from time-resolved PIV data, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was performed on 1,000 instantaneous realisations for each condition using the method of snapshots. Vorticity contour and velocity profiles for both PIV and DES results are in good agreement for pitching and heaving motion. At high Reynolds number, 3D stream-wise vortices appeared after generating span-wise vortices. The higher maximum angle of attack allows the leading edge vortex to grow stronger and that the angle of attack appears to be more important in influencing the growth of the leading edge vortex structure than the reduced frequency. National Research Foundation of Korea (No. 2011-0030013).

  20. Control of wing-tip vortex using winglets at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seunghyun; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Winglets are considered as one of the effective devices for reducing induced drag, and thus many studies have been conducted, but mainly at high Reynolds numbers (Re ~106 ~107) for commercial airplanes. However, small-size unmanned air vehicles (UAV), operating at low Reynolds numbers (Re PIV measurements are conducted at several cross-flow planes for a few different angles of attack (α) . At high angles of attack (7° ~13°) , the winglets with the cant angle of 70° increase the aerodynamic performance, whereas at low angles of attack (2° ~6°) , the wing-tip extension (cant angle of 0°) shows better performances. The velocity fields measured from PIV indicate that, with the winglet, the wing-tip vortex moves away from the wing surface at α =12° , and the downwash motion in the wake behind the trailing edge is decreased, reducing the magnitude of the induced drag. A concept of changing the cant angle during flight is also suggested at this talk. Supported by 2011-0028032.

  1. High Reynolds number flows using liquid and gaseous helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to liquid and gaseous helium as test fluids, high Reynolds number test requirements in low speed aerodynamics, the measurement of subsonic flow around an appended body of revolution at cryogenic conditions in the NTF, water tunnels, flow visualization, the six component magnetic suspension system for wind tunnel testing, and recent aerodynamic measurements with magnetic suspension systems. Attention is also given to application of a flow visualization technique to a superflow experiment, experimental investigations of He II flows at high Reynolds numbers, a study of homogeneous turbulence in superfluid helium, and thermal convection in liquid helium

  2. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations with dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.

    2010-08-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in

  3. Study of parameters and entrainment of a jet in cross-flow arrangement with transition at two low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Camilo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe (Germany); Convenio Andres Bello, Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Educativas para la Integracion, La Paz (Bolivia); Denev, Jordan A.; Bockhorn, Henning [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engler-Bunte-Institute, Combustion Division, Karlsruhe (Germany); Suntz, Rainer [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of the mixing process is one of the main issues in chemical engineering and combustion and the configuration of a jet into a cross-flow (JCF) is often employed for this purpose. Experimental data are gained for the symmetry plane in a JCF-arrangement of an air flow using a combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The experimental data with thoroughly measured boundary conditions are complemented with direct numerical simulations, which are based on idealized boundary conditions. Two similar cases are studied with a fixed jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of 3.5 and variable cross-flow Reynolds numbers equal to 4,120 and 8,240; in both cases the jet issues from the pipe at laminar conditions. This leads to a laminar-to-turbulent transition, which depends on the Reynolds number and occurs quicker for the case with higher Reynolds number in both experiments and simulations as well. It was found that the Reynolds number only slightly affects the jet trajectory, which in the case with the higher Reynolds number is slightly deeper. It is attributed to the changed boundary layer shape of the cross-flow. Leeward streamlines bend toward the jet and are responsible for the strong entrainment of cross-flow fluid into the jet. Velocity components are compared for the two Reynolds numbers at the leeward side at positions where strongest entrainment is present and a pressure minimum near the jet trajectory is found. The numerical simulations showed that entrainment is higher for the case with the higher Reynolds number. The latter is attributed to the earlier transition in this case. Fluid entrainment of the jet in cross-flow is more than twice stronger than for a similar flow of a jet issuing into a co-flowing stream. This comparison is made along the trajectory of the two jets at a distance of 5.5 jet diameters downstream and is based on the results from the direct numerical simulations and recently published

  4. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  5. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  6. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Intermittency Behavior Along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  7. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oleg

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent mixing of gases in free shear layers is simulated using a weighted essentially nonoscillatory implementation of ɛ- and L-based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models. Specifically, the air/air shear layer with velocity ratio 0.6 studied experimentally by Bell and Mehta (1990) is modeled. The detailed predictions of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and lengthscale models are compared to one another, and to the experimental data. The role of analytical, self-similar solutions for model calibration and physical insights is also discussed. It is shown that turbulent lengthscale-based models are unable to predict both the growth parameter (spreading rate) and turbulent kinetic energy normalized by the square of the velocity difference of the streams. The terms in the K, ɛ, and L equation budgets are compared between the models, and it is shown that the production and destruction mechanisms are substantially different in the ɛ and L equations. Application of the turbulence models to the Brown and Roshko (1974) experiments with streams having various velocity and density ratios is also briefly discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Unsteady hydraulic characteristics in pipe with elbow under high Reynolds condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A.; Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2x10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow (r/D=1.0, r: curvature radius, D: pipe diameter) is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation force which is caused by the pressure fluctuation on the wall. The pressure fluctuation on the pipe wall is closely related with the flow fluctuation. In this study, water experiments using two types of 1/8 scaled elbows with different curvature ratio, r/D=1.0 and 1.5 (short-elbow and long-elbow), were conducted in order to investigate the mechanism of velocity and pressure fluctuation in the elbow and its downstream. The experiments were carried out at Re=5.4x10{sup 5} conditions. Measurement of velocity fluctuation and pressure fluctuation in two types of elbows with different curvature revealed that behavior of separation region and the circumferential secondary flow affected the pressure fluctuation on the wall of the elbow greatly. (author)

  9. Influence of elbow curvature on flow structure at elbow outlet under high Reynolds number condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A., E-mail: ono.ayako@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and to reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation source which is caused by the pressure fluctuation in the pipe. The pressure fluctuation in the pipe is closely related with the velocity fluctuation. As the first step of clarification of the FIV mechanism, it is important to grasp the mechanism of flow fluctuation in the elbow. In this study, water experiments with two types of elbows with different curvature ratios were conducted in order to investigate the interaction between flow separation and the secondary flow due to the elbow curvature. The experiments were conducted with the short-elbow and the long-elbow under Re = 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} and 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} conditions. The velocity fields in the elbows were measured using a high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The time-series of axial velocity fields and the cross-section velocity fields obtained by the high-speed PIV measurements revealed the unsteady and complex flow structure in the elbow. The flow separation always occurred in the short-elbow while the flow separation occurred intermittently in the long-elbow case. The circumferential secondary flows in clockwise and counterclockwise directions flowed forward downstream of reattachment point alternately in both elbows.

  10. Medieval Day at Reynolds: An Interdisciplinary Learning Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval Day at Reynolds turned a typical Friday class day into an interdisciplinary learning event, which joined faculty and students into a community of learners. From classrooms issued tales of Viking and Mongol conquests, religious crusaders, deadly plague, and majestic cathedrals and art, all told by costumed faculty members with expertise in…

  11. Reynolds number dependence of drag reduction by rodlike polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amarouchene, Y.; Bonn, D.; Kellay, H.; Lo, T.-S.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results addressing the Reynolds number (Re) dependence of drag reduction by sufficiently large concentrations of rodlike polymers in turbulent wall-bounded flows. It is shown that when Re is small the drag is enhanced. On the other hand, when Re increases, the

  12. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Reynolds Metals Company in Massena, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Reynolds Metals Company is located at 194 County Route 45 in Massena, New York. The facility has been an active aluminum production plant since 1958. The 1,600-acre facility is bordered on the north by the St. Lawrence River and on the south by the

  13. Reynolds-number dependence of turbulence enhancement on collision growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Onishi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the Reynolds-number dependence of turbulence enhancement on the collision growth of cloud droplets. The Onishi turbulent coagulation kernel proposed in Onishi et al. (2015 is updated by using the direct numerical simulation (DNS results for the Taylor-microscale-based Reynolds number (Reλ up to 1140. The DNS results for particles with a small Stokes number (St show a consistent Reynolds-number dependence of the so-called clustering effect with the locality theory proposed by Onishi et al. (2015. It is confirmed that the present Onishi kernel is more robust for a wider St range and has better agreement with the Reynolds-number dependence shown by the DNS results. The present Onishi kernel is then compared with the Ayala–Wang kernel (Ayala et al., 2008a; Wang et al., 2008. At low and moderate Reynolds numbers, both kernels show similar values except for r2 ∼ r1, for which the Ayala–Wang kernel shows much larger values due to its large turbulence enhancement on collision efficiency. A large difference is observed for the Reynolds-number dependences between the two kernels. The Ayala–Wang kernel increases for the autoconversion region (r1, r2 < 40 µm and for the accretion region (r1 < 40 and r2 > 40 µm; r1 > 40 and r2 < 40 µm as Reλ increases. In contrast, the Onishi kernel decreases for the autoconversion region and increases for the rain–rain self-collection region (r1, r2 > 40 µm. Stochastic collision–coalescence equation (SCE simulations are also conducted to investigate the turbulence enhancement on particle size evolutions. The SCE with the Ayala–Wang kernel (SCE-Ayala and that with the present Onishi kernel (SCE-Onishi are compared with results from the Lagrangian Cloud Simulator (LCS; Onishi et al., 2015, which tracks individual particle motions and size evolutions in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The SCE-Ayala and SCE-Onishi kernels show consistent

  14. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.

  15. Detailed experimental investigations on flow behaviors and velocity field properties of a supersonic mixing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Hao; Hou, Juwei

    2018-03-01

    The flow behaviors and mixing characteristics of a supersonic mixing layer with a convective Mach number of 0.2 have been experimentally investigated utilizing nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering and particle image velocimetry techniques. The full development and evolution process, including the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices, breakdown of large-scale structures and establishment of self-similar turbulence, is exhibited clearly in the experiments, which can give a qualitative graphically comparing for the DNS and LES results. The shocklets are first captured at this low convective Mach number, and their generation mechanisms are elaborated and analyzed. The convective velocity derived from two images with space-time correlations is well consistent with the theoretical result. The pairing and merging process of large-scale vortices in transition region is clearly revealed in the velocity vector field. The analysis of turbulent statistics indicates that in weakly compressible mixing layers, with the increase of convective Mach number, the peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress experience a sharp decrease, while the anisotropy ratio seems to keep quasi unchanged. The normalized growth rate of the present experiments shows a well agreement with former experimental and DNS data. The validation of present experimental results is important for that in the future the present work can be a reference for assessing the accuracy of numerical data.

  16. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  17. Chaotic sedimentation of particle pairs in a vertical channel at low Reynolds number: Multiple states and routes to chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verjus, Romuald; Guillou, Sylvain; Ezersky, Alexander; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-12-01

    The sedimentation of a pair of rigid circular particles in a two-dimensional vertical channel containing a Newtonian fluid is investigated numerically, for terminal particle Reynolds numbers (ReT) ranging from 1 to 10, and for a confinement ratio equal to 4. While it is widely admitted that sufficiently inertial pairs should sediment by performing a regular DKT oscillation (Drafting-Kissing-Tumbling), the present analysis shows in contrast that a chaotic regime can also exist for such particles, leading to a much slower sedimentation velocity. It consists of a nearly horizontal pair, corresponding to a maximum effective blockage ratio, and performing a quasiperiodic transition to chaos while increasing the particle weight. For less inertial regimes, the classical oblique doublet structure and its complex behavior (multiple stable states and hysteresis, period-doubling cascade and chaotic attractor) are recovered, in agreement with previous work [Aidun, C. K. and Ding, E.-J., "Dynamics of particle sedimentation in a vertical channel: Period-doubling bifurcation and chaotic state," Phys. Fluids 15, 1612 (2003)]. As a consequence of these various behaviors, the link between the terminal Reynolds number and the non-dimensional driving force is complex: it contains several branches displaying hysteresis as well as various bifurcations. For the range of Reynolds number considered here, a global bifurcation diagram is given.

  18. Mixing enhancement of low-Reynolds electro-osmotic flows in microchannels with temperature-patterned walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zhang, L; Wang, M

    2014-10-01

    Mixing becomes challenging in microchannels because of the low Reynolds number. This study aims to present a mixing enhancement method for electro-osmotic flows in microchannels using vortices caused by temperature-patterned walls. Since the fluid is non-isothermal, the conventional form of Nernst-Planck equation is modified by adding a new migration term which is dependent on both temperature and internal electric potential gradient. This term results in the so-called thermo-electrochemical migration phenomenon. The coupled Navier-Stokes, Poisson, modified Nernst-Planck, energy and advection-diffusion equations are iteratively solved by multiple lattice Boltzmann methods to obtain the velocity, internal electric potential, ion distribution, temperature and species concentration fields, respectively. To enhance the mixing, three schemes of temperature-patterned walls have been considered with symmetrical or asymmetrical arrangements of blocks with surface charge and temperature. Modeling results show that the asymmetric arrangement scheme is the most efficient scheme and enhances the mixing of species by 39% when the Reynolds number is on the order of 10(-3). Current results may help improve the design of micro-mixers at low Reynolds number. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura

    2011-09-21

    The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Re<10. Similarly, the work required to generate the pulsing motion increases significantly for Re<10. When compared to actual organisms, the swimming velocities and vortex separation patterns for the model prolate agree with those observed in Nemopsis bachei. The forward swimming velocities of the model oblate jellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as

  20. Turbulent stress measurements with phase-contrast magnetic resonance through tilted slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Jordan; Soederberg, Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden-Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    Aiming at turbulent measurements in opaque suspensions, a simplistic methodology for measuring the turbulent stresses with phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry is described. The method relies on flow-compensated and flow-encoding protocols with the flow encoding gradient normal to the slice. The experimental data is compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS), both directly but also, more importantly, after spatial averaging of the DNS data that resembles the measurement and data treatment of the experimental data. The results show that the most important MRI data (streamwise velocity, streamwise variance and Reynolds shear stress) is reliable up to at least anti r = 0.75 without any correction, paving the way for dearly needed turbulence and stress measurements in opaque suspensions. (orig.)

  1. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T. C.; Karanasos, Antonios; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Aben, Jean-Paul; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression. Materials Methods Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography. Results The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area. Discussion This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the

  2. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle T C Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression.Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography.The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area.This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the low WSS regions directly distal to

  3. Effects of Reynolds and Womersley Numbers on the Hemodynamics of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Reynolds and Womersley numbers on the hemodynamics of two simplified intracranial aneurysms (IAs), that is, sidewall and bifurcation IAs, and a patient-specific IA are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose, we carried out three numerical experiments for each IA with various Reynolds (Re = 145.45 to 378.79) and Womersley (Wo = 7.4 to 9.96) numbers. Although the dominant flow feature, which is the vortex ring formation, is similar for all test cases here, the propagation of the vortex ring is controlled by both Re and Wo in both simplified IAs (bifurcation and sidewall) and the patient-specific IA. The location of the vortex ring in all tested IAs is shown to be proportional to Re/Wo2 which is in agreement with empirical formulations for the location of a vortex ring in a tank. In sidewall IAs, the oscillatory shear index is shown to increase with Wo and 1/Re because the vortex reached the distal wall later in the cycle (higher resident time). However, this trend was not observed in the bifurcation IA because the stresses were dominated by particle trapping structures, which were absent at low Re = 151.51 in contrast to higher Re = 378.79. PMID:27847544

  4. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  5. Flow through collapsible tubes at low Reynolds numbers. Applicability of the waterfall model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, C K; Scott, J B; Wang, C Y

    1980-07-01

    The applicability of the waterfall model was tested using the Starling resistor and different viscosities of fluids to vary the Reynolds number. The waterfall model proved adequate to describe flow in the Starling resistor model only at very low Reynolds numbers (Reynolds number less than 1). Blood flow characterized by such low Reynolds numbers occurs only in the microvasculature. Thus, it is inappropriate to apply the waterfall model indiscriminately to flow through large collapsible veins.

  6. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  7. Velocity and concentration fields in turbulent buoyant mixing in tilted tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaien, J.; Moisy, F.; Hulin, J. P.; Salin, D.; Hinch, E. J.

    2008-11-01

    2D PIV and LIF measurements have been performed on buoyancy driven flows of two miscible fluids of the same viscosity in a tube tilted at different angles θ from vertical and at different density contrasts (characterized by the Atwood number At). As θ increases and At decreases, the flow regime evolves, behind the front, from a turbulent shear flow towards a laminar counter flow with 3 layers of different concentrations. Time variations of the structure function show that both intermittent and developed turbulence occur in intermediate conditions. In the turbulent regime (Reλ˜60) the magnitudes of the longitudinal u'^2 and transverse v'^2 velocity fluctuations and of the component u'v' of the Reynolds stress tensor are shown to be largest on the tube axis while viscous stresses is only important close to the walls. The analyzis of the momentum transfer in the flow with buoyancy forces estimated from the concentration gradients demonstrates that 3D effects are required to achieve the momentum balance. These results are discussed in the framework of classical turbulence models.

  8. Experimental determination of the fluid velocity by spectral analysis of temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucrier, M.J.; Faya, A.J.G.

    1988-12-01

    Local velocities of turbulent closed channel flow were measured applying the noise analysis technique to signals coming from two sensors separated by a know distance. Good agreement was found when comparing experimental data to more accurate measurements. Ranges of Reynolds number and thermocouple spacial separation are recommended. (author) [pt

  9. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  10. Experimental Investigation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0277 Experimental Investigation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in High- Reynolds -Number Turbulent Partially Premixed...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE [U] Experimental investigation of turbulence-chemistry interaction in high- Reynolds -number 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER turbulent...for public release Final Report: Experimental investigation of turbulence-chemistry interaction in high- Reynolds -number turbulent partially premixed

  11. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  12. The Variation of Slat Noise with Mach and Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2011-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. By varying the Mach number from 0.13 to 0.25, the noise was found to vary roughly with the 5th power of the speed. Slight changes in the behavior with directivity angle could easily account for the different speed dependencies reported in the literature. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.4 to 2.4 million resulted in almost no differences, and primarily served to demonstrate the repeatability of the results. However, changing the underlying hybrid Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy-Simulation turbulence model significantly altered the mean flow because of changes in the flap separation. However, the general trends observed in both the acoustics and near-field fluctuations were similar for both models.

  13. Effects of Reynold's number on flight performance of turbofan engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozu, Masao; Yajima, Satoshi [Defense Agency Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-12-10

    Concerning the performance of the F3-30 turbofan engine which is carried on the intermediate trainer XT-4 of the Air Self Defense Force, tests simulating its flight conditions were conducted at the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), U.S. Air Force in order to adjust the effect of Reynold's number corresponding to the flight condition. This report summarizes the results of the above tests. As the results of the tests, it was revealed that in order to calculate with precision the flight performance of the F3-30 turbofan engine, it was required to adjust Reynold's number against the following figures, namely the fan air flow, compressor air flow, compressor adiabatic efficiency, low pressure turbine gas flow and low pressure turbine adiabatic efficiency. The engine performance calculated by using the above adjustments agreed well with the measured values of the ATF tests. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Identifying a Superfluid Reynolds Number via Dynamical Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, M T; Billam, T P; Anderson, B P; Bradley, A S

    2015-04-17

    The Reynolds number provides a characterization of the transition to turbulent flow, with wide application in classical fluid dynamics. Identifying such a parameter in superfluid systems is challenging due to their fundamentally inviscid nature. Performing a systematic study of superfluid cylinder wakes in two dimensions, we observe dynamical similarity of the frequency of vortex shedding by a cylindrical obstacle. The universality of the turbulent wake dynamics is revealed by expressing shedding frequencies in terms of an appropriately defined superfluid Reynolds number, Re(s), that accounts for the breakdown of superfluid flow through quantum vortex shedding. For large obstacles, the dimensionless shedding frequency exhibits a universal form that is well-fitted by a classical empirical relation. In this regime the transition to turbulence occurs at Re(s)≈0.7, irrespective of obstacle width.

  15. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  16. Reynolds Number Scaling and Parameterization of Stratified Turbulent Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-17

    be solved numerically. These issues are the focal point of our current investigations. The most recent update on our work on high Re effects in...Reynolds numbers, internal waves, nonlinear effects , mean flows, Lagrangian dispersion. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT... location where nonlinear dynamics and, therefore, Lagrangian mean drift are most potent. An extensive existing database of 19 2-D simulations of

  17. Fluid Mechanics of Aquatic Locomotion at Large Reynolds Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Govardhan, RN; Arakeri, JH

    2011-01-01

    Abstract | There exist a huge range of fish species besides other aquatic organisms like squids and salps that locomote in water at large Reynolds numbers, a regime of flow where inertial forces dominate viscous forces. In the present review, we discuss the fluid mechanics governing the locomotion of such organisms. Most fishes propel themselves by periodic undulatory motions of the body and tail, and the typical classification of their swimming modes is based on the fraction of their body...

  18. A Cryogenic High-Reynolds Turbulence Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Knoops, S; Lebrun, P; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Bret, J L; Chabaud, B; Garde, G; Guttin, C; Hébral, B; Pietropinto, S; Roche, P; Barbier-Neyret, J P; Baudet, C; Gagne, Y; Poulain, C; Castaing, B; Ladam, Y; Vittoz, F

    2002-01-01

    The potential of cryogenic helium flows for studying high-Reynolds number turbulence in the laboratory has been recognised for a long time and implemented in several small-scale hydrodynamic experiments. With its large superconducting particle accelerators and detector magnets, CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has become a major world center in helium cryogenics, with several large helium refrigerators having capacities up to 18 kW @ 4.5 K. Combining a small fraction of these resources with the expertise of three laboratories at the forefront of turbulence research, has led to the design, swift implementation, and successful operation of GReC (Grands Reynolds Cryogéniques) a large axisymmetric turbulent-jet experiment. With flow-rates up to 260 g/s of gaseous helium at ~ 5 K and atmospheric pressure, Reynolds numbers up to 107 have been achieved in a 4.6 m high, 1.4 m diameter cryostat. This paper presents the results of the first runs and describes the experimental set-up comprehensively ...

  19. Fully developed MHD turbulence near critical magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leorat, J.; Pouquet, A.; Frisch, U.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid-sodium-cooled breeder reactors may soon be operating at magnetic Reynolds numbers Rsup(M) where magnetic fields can be self-excited by a dynamo mechanism. Such flows have kinetic Reynolds numbers Rsup(V) of the order of 10 7 and are therefore highly turbulent. The behaviour of MHD turbulence with high Rsup(V) and low magnetic Prandtl numbers is investigated, using the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian closure applied to the MHD equations. For simplicity the study is restricted to homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, but includes helicity. A critical magnetic Reynolds number Rsub(c)sup(M) of the order of a few tens (non-helical case) is obtained above which magnetic energy is present. Rsub(c)sup(M) is practically independent of Rsup(V) (in the range 40 to 10 6 ) and can be considerably decreased by the presence of helicity. No attempt is made to obtain quantitative estimates for a breeder reactor, but discuss some of the possible consequences of exceeding Rsub(c)sup(M) such as decreased turbulent heat transport. (author)

  20. The neurological legacy of John Russell Reynolds (1828-1896).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, M J

    2007-04-01

    Sir John Russell Reynolds was an eminent and highly influential physician in the Victorian era who held the Presidencies of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and of the British Medical Association. He was the protégée of the great experimental physiologist, Marshall Hall, who discovered the reflex arc, and succeeded to Hall's clinical practice in London. Reynolds' thought and clinical activities linked the emerging British neurology of the first half of the 19th century with its blossoming, particularly in London, from 1860 onwards. In his writings Reynolds was the first English author to apply the approach to classification of neurological disorders that is still often used, though now in modified form. He was also the first to enunciate the notion of positive and negative symptoms arising from neurological disease and to suggest their pathogenesis, and was arguably the originator of the influential concept that an idiopathic disease, epilepsy, existed, one to be distinguished from 'epileptiform' seizures due to brain pathology.

  1. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer A; Warrier, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.

  2. Swimming at small Reynolds number of a planar assembly of spheres in an incompressible viscous fluid with inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    2017-09-01

    Translational and rotational swimming at small Reynolds numbers of a planar assembly of identical spheres immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid is studied on the basis of a set of equations of motion for the individual spheres. The motion of the spheres is caused by actuating forces and forces derived from a direct interaction potential, as well as hydrodynamic forces exerted by the fluid as frictional and added mass hydrodynamic interactions. The translational and rotational swimming velocities of the assembly are deduced from momentum and angular momentum balance equations. The mean power required during a period is calculated from an instantaneous power equation. Expressions are derived for the mean swimming velocities and the mean power, valid to second order in the amplitude of displacements from the relative equilibrium positions. Hence these quantities can be evaluated for prescribed periodic displacements. Explicit calculations are performed for three spheres interacting such that they form an equilateral triangle in the rest frame of the configuration.

  3. Reynolds numbers influence the directionality of self-propelled microjet engines in the 10(-4) regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Pumera, Martin

    2013-08-21

    The motion directionality of self-propelled bubble-jet microengines is influenced by their velocities and/or viscosity of the media in which they move. The influence of the fuel concentration from 1 to 3 wt% of H2O2 in 0.5% steps and of the glycerol fraction from 0 to 64% in aqueous solution on the directionality of the microjets motions is examined systematically. We show that with decreasing Reynolds numbers of the system (that is, with increasing viscosity or decreasing velocity of the microjets), the directionality of the motion shifts from circular to linear motion. This translates to a shorter travel time towards a designated target for the microjets despite moving at a slower speed, since the movements are linear instead of circular. We show that such dependence of trajectories of microjets on Re is a general issue. This observation has a strong implication for the real-world applications of microjets.

  4. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  5. Reconciling the Reynolds number dependence of scalar roughness length and laminar resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Rigden, A. J.; Salvucci, G.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The scalar roughness length and laminar resistance are necessary for computing scalar fluxes in numerical simulations and experimental studies. Their dependence on flow properties such as the Reynolds number remains controversial. In particular, two important power laws (1/4 and 1/2), proposed by Brutsaert and Zilitinkevich, respectively, are commonly seen in various parameterizations and models. Building on a previously proposed phenomenological model for interactions between the viscous sublayer and the turbulent flow, it is shown here that the two scaling laws can be reconciled. The "1/4" power law corresponds to the situation where the vertical diffusion is balanced by the temporal change or advection due to a constant velocity in the viscous sublayer, while the "1/2" power law scaling corresponds to the situation where the vertical diffusion is balanced by the advection due to a linear velocity profile in the viscous sublayer. In addition, the recently proposed "1" power law scaling is also recovered, which corresponds to the situation where molecular diffusion dominates the scalar budget in the viscous sublayer. The formulation proposed here provides a unified framework for understanding the onset of these different scaling laws and offers a new perspective on how to evaluate them experimentally.

  6. Reynolds number and end-wall effects on a lid-driven cavity flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.K.; Koseff, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in a lid-driven cavity of square cross section (depth = width = 150 mm) for Reynolds numbers (Re, based on lid speed and cavity width) between 3200 and 10 000, and spanwise aspect ratios (SAR) between 0.25:1 and 1:1. Flow visualization using polystyrene beads and two-dimensional laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements have shed new light on the momentum transfer processes within the cavity. This paper focuses on the variation, with Re and SAR, of the mean and the rms velocities profiles, as well as the /similar to/(U'V') profile, along the horizontal and vertical centerlines in the symmetry plane. In addition, the contribution of the large-scale ''organized structures,'' and the high-frequency ''turbulent'' velocity fluctuations to the total rms is examined. At low Re, the organized structures account for most of the energy contained in the flow irrespective of SAR. As the Re increases, however, so does the energy content of the higher frequency fluctuations. This trend is not independent of SAR; a reduction in the SAR causes the ''organized structures'' to again become more evident

  7. LARGE-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF A SEPARATION/REATTACHMENT BUBBLE IN A TURBULENT-BOUNDARY-LAYER SUBJECTED TO A PRESCRIBED UPPER-BOUNDARY, VERTICAL-VELOCITY PROFILE

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan

    2015-06-30

    We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.

  8. Numerical investigation of the high Reynolds number 3D flow field generated by a self-propelling manta ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzani, Jean-Noel; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    An embedded-boundary (or cut-cell) method for complex geometry with moving boundaries is used to solve the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equation around a self-propelling manta swimming at moderately high Reynolds numbers. The motion of the ray is prescribed using a kinematic model fitted to actual biological data. The dependence of thrust production mechanism on Strouhal and Reynolds numbers is investigated. The vortex core structures are accurately plotted and a correlation between wake structures and propulsive performance is established. This insight is critical in understanding the key flow features that a bio-inspired autonomous vehicle should reproduce in order to swim efficiently. The solution method is implemented, on a block-structured Cartesian grid using a cut-cell approach enabling the code to correctly evaluate the wall shear-stress, a key feature necessary at higher Reynolds. To enhance computational efficiency, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement technique is used. The present method is validated against published experimental results. Supported by ONR MURI.

  9. Effects of Reynolds Number on the Energy Conversion and Near-Wake Dynamics of a High Solidity Vertical-Axis Cross-Flow Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bachant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed with a large laboratory-scale high solidity cross-flow turbine to investigate Reynolds number effects on performance and wake characteristics and to establish scale thresholds for physical and numerical modeling of individual devices and arrays. It was demonstrated that the performance of the cross-flow turbine becomes essentially R e -independent at a Reynolds number based on the rotor diameter R e D ≈ 10 6 or an approximate average Reynolds number based on the blade chord length R e c ≈ 2 × 10 5 . A simple model that calculates the peak torque coefficient from static foil data and cross-flow turbine kinematics was shown to be a reasonable predictor for Reynolds number dependence of an actual cross-flow turbine operating under dynamic conditions. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements in the near-wake showed subtle differences over the range of R e investigated. However, when transport terms for the streamwise momentum and mean kinetic energy were calculated, a similar R e threshold was revealed. These results imply that physical model studies of cross-flow turbines should achieve R e D ∼ 10 6 to properly approximate both the performance and wake dynamics of full-scale devices and arrays.

  10. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS--Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL--Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Mrazik, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), an individually administered test of intelligence for use with individuals between the ages of 3 and 94. The RIAS represents the newest intelligence test on the marketplace and incorporates the most current intelligence test theory…

  11. Electron velocity of 6 × 107 cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L.; Ng, G. I.; Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S.; Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S.

    2015-01-01

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W eff ) exhibited a very high I Dmax of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g m of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I D and g m in the 3D TT-gate In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v e ) of 6.0 × 10 7  cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10 7  cm/s). The v e in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v e at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v e  = 6 × 10 7  cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications

  12. Electron velocity of 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulkumaran, S., E-mail: SArulkumaran@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ng, G. I., E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-02-02

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W{sub eff}) exhibited a very high I{sub Dmax} of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g{sub m} of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I{sub D} and g{sub m} in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v{sub e}) of 6.0 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s). The v{sub e} in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v{sub e} at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v{sub e} = 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications.

  13. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.

  14. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented

  15. Reynolds analogy for subcooled surface boiling under forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    For the case of subcooled surface boiling under forced convection the analytic expression of analogy between the heat transfer and carry pulse (Reynolds analogy) is derived. It is concluded that the obtained dependence creates the basis for solution of a series of problems of surface boiling physics. On the basis of the performed analysis the method of coordinate calculation of the origin of intensive vapour generation is developed and the formula for calculation of the broken-off-bubble radius under forced convection is derived [ru

  16. Role of pseudo-turbulent stresses in shocked particle clouds and construction of surrogate models for closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, O.; Gaul, N. J.; Davis, S.; Choi, K. K.; Jacobs, G.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Macroscale models of shock-particle interactions require closure terms for unresolved solid-fluid momentum and energy transfer. These comprise the effects of mean as well as fluctuating fluid-phase velocity fields in the particle cloud. Mean drag and Reynolds stress equivalent terms (also known as pseudo-turbulent terms) appear in the macroscale equations. Closure laws for the pseudo-turbulent terms are constructed in this work from ensembles of high-fidelity mesoscale simulations. The computations are performed over a wide range of Mach numbers ( M) and particle volume fractions (φ ) and are used to explicitly compute the pseudo-turbulent stresses from the Favre average of the velocity fluctuations in the flow field. The computed stresses are then used as inputs to a Modified Bayesian Kriging method to generate surrogate models. The surrogates can be used as closure models for the pseudo-turbulent terms in macroscale computations of shock-particle interactions. It is found that the kinetic energy associated with the velocity fluctuations is comparable to that of the mean flow—especially for increasing M and φ . This work is a first attempt to quantify and evaluate the effect of velocity fluctuations for problems of shock-particle interactions.

  17. Anomalous scaling of low-order structure functions of turbulent velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Dhruva, B.; Kurien, S.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Taylor, M.A.

    2006-12-01

    It is now believed that the scaling exponents of moments of velocity increments are anomalous, or that the departures from Kolmogorov's (1941) self-similar scaling increase nonlinearly with the increasing order of the moment. This appears to be true whether one considers velocity increments themselves or their absolute values. However, moments of order lower than 2 of the absolute values of velocity increments have not been investigated thoroughly for anomaly. Here, we discuss the importance of the scaling of non-integer moments of order between +2 and -1, and obtain them from direct numerical simulations at moderate Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers R λ ≤ 450, and experimental data at high Reynolds numbers (R λ ∼ 10 000). The relative difference between the measured exponents and Kolmogorov's prediction increases as the moment order decreases towards -1, thus showing that the anomaly is manifested in low-order moments as well. (author)

  18. Rotating Hele-Shaw cell with a time-dependent angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Pedro H. A.; Alvarez, Victor M. M.; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the large number of existing studies of viscous flows in rotating Hele-Shaw cells, most investigations analyze rotational motion with a constant angular velocity, under vanishing Reynolds number conditions in which inertial effects can be neglected. In this work, we examine the linear and weakly nonlinear dynamics of the interface between two immiscible fluids in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, considering the action of a time-dependent angular velocity, and taking into account the contribution of inertia. By using a generalized Darcy's law, we derive a second-order mode-coupling equation which describes the time evolution of the interfacial perturbation amplitudes. For arbitrary values of viscosity and density ratios, and for a range of values of a rotational Reynolds number, we investigate how the time-dependent angular velocity and inertia affect the important finger competition events that traditionally arise in rotating Hele-Shaw flows.

  19. Drop Characteristics of non-Newtonian Impinging Jets at High Generalized Bird-Carreau Jet Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Paul E.; Rodrigues, Neil S.

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigates the drop characteristics of three Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sprays produced by the impingement of two liquid jets. The three water-based solutions used in this work (0.5 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.8 wt.-% CMC-7MF, and 1.4 wt.-% CMC-7MF) exhibited strong shear-thinning, non-Newtonian behavior - characterized by the Bird-Carreau rheological model. A generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number was used as the primary parameter to characterize the drop size and the drop velocity, which were measured using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). PDA optical configuration enabled a drop size measurement range of approximately 2.3 to 116.2 μm. 50,000 drops were measured at each test condition to ensure statistical significance. The arithmetic mean diameter (D10) , Sauter mean diameter (D32) , and mass median diameter (MMD) were used as representative diameters to characterize drop size. The mean axial drop velocity Uz -mean along with its root-mean square Uz -rms were used to characterize drop velocity. Incredibly, measurements for all three CMC liquids and reference DI water sprays seemed to follow a single curve for D32 and MMD drop diameters in the high generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number range considered in this work (9.21E +03

  20. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  1. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  2. Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Große, S; Schröder, W

    2008-01-01

    A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress

  3. Boundary-Layer Control: In Memory of Bill Reynolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John

    2004-11-01

    Professor Bill Reynolds (1933-2004) inspired many students and colleagues with his never-ending curiosity and thought-provoking ideas. Bill's relentless energy, together with his hallmark can-do character and do-it-yourself attitude, led to many seminal contributions to mechanical engineering in general, and fluid mechanics in particular. He has left a lasting impact on many of us, especially for those who had the privilege of working closely with him. Some of my current work on boundary-layer control, the use of neural networks in particular, were inspired by many discussions with Bill. He was among the first to see the potential of control-theoretic approaches for flow control, which has become the main thrust of my current research. Without his continued encouragement, I would not have been deeply involved in this line of research; and perhaps, we would not have seen the current flurry of research activities in applying modern control theories to flow control. In memory of Bill Reynolds, who himself has contributed much to flow control, an analysis of boundary-layer control from a linear system perspective will be presented.

  4. Reynolds number scaling of straining motions in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinga, Gerrit; Ishihara, T.; Goudar, M. V.; da Silva, C. B.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Strain is an important fluid motion in turbulence as it is associated with the kinetic energy dissipation rate, vorticity stretching, and the dispersion of passive scalars. The present study investigates the scaling of the turbulent straining motions by evaluating the flow in the eigenframe of the local strain-rate tensor. The analysis is based on DNS of homogeneous isotropic turbulence covering a Reynolds number range Reλ = 34.6 - 1131. The resulting flow pattern reveals a shear layer containing tube-like vortices and a dissipation sheet, which both scale on the Kolmogorov length scale, η. The vorticity stretching motions scale on the Taylor length scale, while the flow outside the shear layer scales on the integral length scale. These scaling results are consistent with those in wall-bounded flow, which suggests a quantitative universality between the different flows. The overall coherence length of the vorticity is 120 η in all directions, which is considerably larger than the typical size of individual vortices, and reflects the importance of spatial organization at the small scales. Transitions in flow structure are identified at Reλ 45 and 250. Below these respective Reynolds numbers, the small-scale motions and the vorticity stretching motions appear underdeveloped.

  5. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  6. Hydrodynamics of Low Reynolds Respiratory-type Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Erin; True, Aaron; Crimaldi, John

    2017-11-01

    Both aquatic and terrestrial animals inhale surrounding fluid for metabolic and sensory purposes. As organisms inhale and exhale, complex fluid interactions occur both internal and external to the physiological orifice. Using both numerical and experimental approaches, we model an idealized respiratory flow consisting of cyclic inhalation and exhalation through a single cylindrical tube. We investigate the effect of varying Reynolds number (Re) as well as the ratio of the inhalation time to the exhalation time (I:E ratio) for a fixed inhalation volume. The numerical model is used for laminar cases at lower Re, whereas the experimental model permits the study to be extended into higher Reynolds numbers that include transitions to turbulence. We map the spatial distribution of both inhaled and exhaled fluid volumes. By comparing these two maps, we can compute the volume of exhaled fluid that is reingested during the subsequent inhalation. The models of interacting inhalation and exhalation exhibit a rich range of flow behaviors across Re number and I:E ratio. This study builds a foundation for more complex studies of animal respiration that will include more realistic morphologies.

  7. Design of a High-Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Libin; Elbing, Brian

    2014-11-01

    An experimental fluid mechanics laboratory focused on turbulent boundary layers, drag reduction techniques, multiphase flows and fluid-structure interactions has recently been established at Oklahoma State University. This laboratory has three primary components; (1) a recirculating water tunnel, (2) a multiphase pipe flow loop, and (3) a multi-scale flow visualization system. The design of the water tunnel is the focus of this talk. The criteria used for the water tunnel design was that it had to produce a momentum-thickness based Reynolds number in excess of 104, negligible flow acceleration due to boundary layer growth, maximize optical access for use of the flow visualization system, and minimize inlet flow non-uniformity. This Reynolds number was targeted to bridge the gap between typical university/commercial water tunnels (103) and the world's largest water tunnel facilities (105) . These objectives were achieved with a 152 mm (6-inch) square test section that is 1 m long and has a maximum flow speed of 10 m/s. The flow non-uniformity was mitigated with the use of a tandem honeycomb configuration, a settling chamber and an 8.5:1 contraction. The design process that produced this final design will be presented along with its current status.

  8. Simulation of Reynolds number influence on heat exchange in turbulent flow of medium slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with the numerical simulation of mass and heat exchange in turbulent flow of solid-liquid mixture in the range of averaged solid particle diameter from 0.10mm to 0.80mm, named further as the medium slurry. Physical model assumes that dispersed phase is fully suspended and a turbulent flow is hydro-dynamically, and thermally developed in a straight horizontal pipeline. Taking into account the aforementioned assumptions the slurry is treated as a single-phase flow with increased density, while viscosity is equals to a carrier liquid viscosity. The mathematical model constitutes time averaged momentum equation in which the turbulent stress tensor was designated using a two-equation turbulence model, which makes use of the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity hypothesis. Turbulence damping function in the turbulence model was especially designed for the medium slurry. In addition, an energy equation has been used in which a convective term was determined from the energy balance acting on a unit pipe length, assuming linear changes of temperature in main flow direction. Finally, the mathematical model of non-isothermal medium slurry flow comprises four partial differential equations, namely momentum and energy equations, equations of kinetic energy of turbulence and its dissipation rate. Four partial differential equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using own computer code. The objective of the paper is to examine the influence of Reynolds number on temperature profiles and Nusselt number in turbulent flow of medium slurry in the range of solids concentration from 0% to 30% by volume. The effect of influential factors on heat transfer between the pipe and slurry is analysed. The paper demonstrates substantial impact of Reynolds number and solids volume fraction on the Nusselt number. The results of numerical simulation are reviewed.

  9. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulations of Flows across Staggered Tube Bundle for a VHTR Lower Plenum Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Kyeong; Park, Jong Woon

    2013-01-01

    In this work, behavior of unsteady and oscillating flow through a typical tube bundle array are analyzed by unsteady computations: 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the results are compared with existing experimental data. In order to confirm appropriateness and limitations of CFD applications in the Korean VHTR design, two types of unsteady computations are performed such as 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the existing tube bundle array. The velocity component profiles are compared with the experimental data and it is concluded that the URANS with the standard k-ω model is reasonably appropriate for cost-effective VHTR lower plenum analysis. Nevertheless, if more accurate results are needed, the LES-Smagorinsky computation is recommended considering limitations in the time averaged RANS in capturing small eddies

  10. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  11. Experimental study on the Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study for Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent mixing between fuel-bundle subchannels, was performed. The measurements were done on a triangular array bundle with a 1.20 pitch to diameter relation and 10 mm rod diameter, in a low-pressure water loop, at Reynolds numbers between 1.4 x 10 3 and 1.3 x 10 5 . The high accuracy of the results was obtained by improving a thermal tracing technique recently developed. The Reynolds exponent on the mixing rate correlation was obtained with two-digit accuracy for Reynolds numbers greater than 3 x 10 3 . It was also found a marked increase in the mixing rate for lower Reynolds numbers. The weak theoretical base of the accepted Reynolds dependence was pointed out in light of the later findings, as well as its ambiguous supporting experimental data. The present results also provide indirect information about dominant large scale flow pulsations at different flow regimes

  12. Experimental validation of the design method to prevent flow-induced vibration in high Reynolds-number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji

    1998-08-01

    The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)

  13. Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence Model Assessment for a Highly Back-Pressured Isolator Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Middleton, Troy F.; Wilson, L. G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of computational fluid dynamics in scramjet engine component development is widespread in the existing literature. Unfortunately, the quantification of model-form uncertainties is rarely addressed with anything other than sensitivity studies, requiring that the computational results be intimately tied to and calibrated against existing test data. This practice must be replaced with a formal uncertainty quantification process for computational fluid dynamics to play an expanded role in the system design, development, and flight certification process. Due to ground test facility limitations, this expanded role is believed to be a requirement by some in the test and evaluation community if scramjet engines are to be given serious consideration as a viable propulsion device. An effort has been initiated at the NASA Langley Research Center to validate several turbulence closure models used for Reynolds-averaged simulations of scramjet isolator flows. The turbulence models considered were the Menter BSL, Menter SST, Wilcox 1998, Wilcox 2006, and the Gatski-Speziale explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models. The simulations were carried out using the VULCAN computational fluid dynamics package developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. A procedure to quantify the numerical errors was developed to account for discretization errors in the validation process. This procedure utilized the grid convergence index defined by Roache as a bounding estimate for the numerical error. The validation data was collected from a mechanically back-pressured constant area (1 2 inch) isolator model with an isolator entrance Mach number of 2.5. As expected, the model-form uncertainty was substantial for the shock-dominated, massively separated flowfield within the isolator as evidenced by a 6 duct height variation in shock train length depending on the turbulence model employed. Generally speaking, the turbulence models that did not include an explicit stress limiter more closely

  14. High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0192 High- Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids Marsha Berger NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Final...TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30/04/2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) High- Reynolds 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE High- Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1

  15. Air velocity profiles near sleeve blockages in an unheated 7 x 7 rod bundle. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creer, J. M.; Bates, J. M.

    1979-04-01

    Local air velocity measurements were obtained with a laser Doppler anemometer near flow blockages in an unheated 7 x 7 rod bundle. Sleeve blockages were positioned on the center nine rods to create an area reduction of 90% in the center four subchannels of the bundle. Experimental results indicated that severe flow disturbances occurred downstream from the blockage cluster but showed only minor flow disturbances upstream from the blockage. Flow reversals were detected downstream from the blockage and persisted for approximately five subchannel hydraulic diameters. The air velocity profiles were in excellent agreement with water velocity data previously obtained at essentially the same Reynolds number. Subchannel average velocity predictions obtained with the COBRA computer program were in good agreement with subchannel average velocities estimated using the measured local velocity data.

  16. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  17. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  18. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A.; Gama-Goicochea, A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. → The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. → A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. → The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 ≤ Re ≤ 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 ≤ Er ≤ 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  19. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J., E-mail: jrm@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A. [Departamento de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gama-Goicochea, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. > The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. > A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. > The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 {<=} Re {<=} 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 {<=} Er {<=} 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  20. Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high Reynolds number wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A S; Moarref, R; McKeon, B J

    2017-03-13

    Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Aquatic wing flapping at low Reynolds numbers: swimming kinematics of the Antarctic pteropod, Clione antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Brendan J; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Dudley, Robert

    2005-08-01

    We studied swimming kinematics of the Antarctic pteropod, Clione antarctica, to investigate how propulsive forces are generated by flexible oscillating appendages operating at low Reynolds numbers (10stroke of flapping consisted of distinct power and recovery phases, which were of approximately equal duration in both the upstroke and the downstroke. As pteropods ascended, the body traced a sawtooth path when viewed laterally. The magnitude of these oscillations decreased with body mass, and larger animals (operating at Re>25) exhibited gliding during the recovery phase of each half-stroke. Maximum translational and rotational accelerations of the body occurred at the initiation of each power phase, suggesting that rotational circulation, the acceleration reaction, and wake recapture may all potentially contribute to vertical force production. Individual contributions of these mechanisms cannot, however, be assessed from these kinematic data alone. During recovery phases of each half-stroke, C. antarctica minimized adverse drag forces by orienting the wings parallel to flow and by moving them along the body surface, possibly taking advantage of boundary layer effects. Vertical force production was altered through changes in the hydrodynamic angle of attack of the wing that augmented drag during the power phase of each half-stroke. At higher translational velocities of the body, the inclination of the power phase also became more nearly vertical. These results indicate that, in addition to serotonin-mediated modulation of wingbeat frequency reported previously in Clione, geometric alteration of wingbeat kinematics offers a precise means of controlling swimming forces.

  2. Technique for forcing high Reynolds number isotropic turbulence in physical space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, John A.; Desjardins, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Many common engineering problems involve the study of turbulence interaction with other physical processes. For many such physical processes, solutions are expressed most naturally in physical space, necessitating the use of physical space solutions. For simulating isotropic turbulence in physical space, linear forcing is a commonly used strategy because it produces realistic turbulence in an easy-to-implement formulation. However, the method resolves a smaller range of scales on the same mesh than spectral forcing. We propose an alternative approach for turbulence forcing in physical space that uses the low-pass filtered velocity field as the basis of the forcing term. This method is shown to double the range of scales captured by linear forcing while maintaining the flexibility and low computational cost of the original method. This translates to a 60% increase of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number on the same mesh. An extension is made to scalar mixing wherein a scalar field is forced to have an arbitrarily chosen, constant variance. Filtered linear forcing of the scalar field allows for control over the length scale of scalar injection, which could be important when simulating scalar mixing.

  3. Fluid forces on a very low Reynolds number airfoil and their prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y., E-mail: mmyzhou@polyu.edu.h [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Alam, Md. Mahbub [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Yang, H.X. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Guo, H. [School of Aeronautical Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xue Yuan Road No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing (China); Wood, D.H. [School of Engineering, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the measurements of mean and fluctuating forces on an NACA0012 airfoil over a large range of angle ({alpha}) of attack (0-90{sup o}) and low to small chord Reynolds numbers (Re{sub c}), 5.3 x 10{sup 3}-5.1 x 10{sup 4}, which is of both fundamental and practical importance. The forces, measured using a load cell, display good agreement with the estimate from the LDA-measured cross-flow distributions of velocities in the wake based on the momentum conservation. The dependence of the forces on both {alpha} and Re{sub c} is determined and discussed in detail. It has been found that the stall of an airfoil, characterized by a drop in the lift force and a jump in the drag force, occurs at Re{sub c} {>=} 1.05 x 10{sup 4} but is absent at Re{sub c} = 5.3 x 10{sup 3}. A theoretical analysis is developed to predict and explain the observed dependence of the mean lift and drag on {alpha}.

  4. The terminal rise velocity of bubble in a liquid column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Ar Talaia

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: As it is know, buoyancy and drag forces govern bubble rising velocity in a liquid column. These forces strongly depend on fluid proprieties and gravity as well as bubble equivalent diameter. The present work reports about a set of experiments bubble rising velocity in a liquid column using liquid with different kinematics viscosity. Records of terminal velocity were obtained, over a wide range of dynamic viscosity. The results show that the terminal rise velocity of bubble is strongly influenced by the effect of kinematics viscosity. The interpretation of physical phenomenon is considered. The set data permit to have a game of terminal velocities of 7.96 - 32.86 cm.s -1 with Reynolds number of 0.8 - 7491. The bubble movement is recorded with a camera video, which will be presented. Our aim goal is to present an original set data and the results are discussed in light of theory of two-phase flow. Prediction of bubble terminal velocity is discussed, so as, the range of applicability. (author)

  5. Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huakun; Zhao, Dongliang; Yang, Wenyu; Yu, Guoliang, E-mail: yugl@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China (China)

    2015-02-01

    Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of M{sub r} = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, α = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each α, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 U{sub r} ≤ 18. The numerical results show that at α = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At α = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated α, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at α = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At α = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity. (paper)

  6. Entropy Analyses of Droplet Combustion in Convective Environment with Small Reynolds Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaobin; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the entropy generation rate of simple pure droplet combustion in a temperature-elevated air convective environment based on the solutions of flow,and heat and mass transfer between the two phases.The flow-field calculations are carried out by solving the respective conservation equations for each phase,accounting for the droplet deformation with the axisymmetric model.The effects of the temperature,velocity and oxygen fraction of the free stream air on the total entropy generation rate in the process of the droplet combustion are investigated.Special attention is given to analyze the quantitative effects of droplet deformation.The results reveal that the entropy generation rate due to chemical reaction occupies a large fraction of the total entropy generated,as a result of the large areas covered by the flame.Although,the magnitude of the entropy generation rate per volume due to heat transfer and combined mass and heat transfer has a magnitude of one order greater than that due to chemical reaction,they cover a very limited area,leading to a small fraction of the total entropy generated.The entropy generation rate due to mass transfer is negligible.High temperature and high velocity of the free stream are advantageous to increase the exergy efficiency in the range of small Reynolds number (<1) from the viewpoint of the second-law analysis over the droplet lifetime.The effect of droplet deformation on the total entropy generation is the modest.

  7. An Investigation into the Potential Benefits of Distributed Electric Propulsion on Small UAVs at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Engin

    Distributed electric propulsion systems benefit from the inherent scale independence of electric propulsion. This property allows the designer to place multiple small electric motors along the wing of an aircraft instead of using a single or several internal combustion motors with gear boxes or other power train components. Aircraft operating at low Reynolds numbers are ideal candidates for benefiting from increased local flow velocities as provided by distributed propulsion systems. In this study, a distributed electric propulsion system made up of eight motor/propellers was integrated into the leading edge of a small fixed wing-body model to investigate the expected improvements on the aerodynamics available to small UAVs operating at low Reynolds numbers. Wind tunnel tests featuring a Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology were used for aerodynamic characterization. Experiments were performed in four modes: all-propellers-on, wing-tip-propellers-alone-on, wing-alone mode, and two-inboard-propellers-on-alone mode. In addition, the all-propeller-on, wing-alone, and a single-tractor configuration were analyzed using VSPAERO, a vortex lattice code, to make comparisons between these different configurations. Results show that the distributed propulsion system has higher normal force, endurance, and range features, despite a potential weight penalty.

  8. Velocity Feedback Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.

  9. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  10. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  11. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenfei, E-mail: zwenfei@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  12. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Sun, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  13. Manipulating low-Reynolds-number flow by a watermill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lailai; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Cilia and filaments have evolved in nature to achieve swimming, mixing and pumping at low Reynolds number. Their unique capacity has inspired a variety of biomimetic strategies employing artificial slender structures to manipulate flows in microfluidic devices. Most of them have to rely on an external field, such as magnetic or electric fields to actuate the slender structures actively. In this talk, we will present a new approach of utilizing the underlying flow alone to drive these structures passively. We investigate theoretically and numerically a watermill composing several rigid slender rods in simple flows. Slender body theory with and without considering hydrodynamic interactions is adopted. The theoretical predictions agree qualitatively with the numerical results and quantitatively in certain configurations. A VR International Postdoc Grant from Swedish Research Council ``2015-06334'' (L.Z.) is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2012-01-16

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  15. Stirring inertia in time-dependent low Reynolds number flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yecko, Philip; Luchtenburg, Dirk Martin (Mark); Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of a kinematic flow and its transport using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) neglects dynamical effects, such as pressure, as well as dynamically important constraints, such as potential vorticity conservation. Chaotic advection, on the other hand, often neglects inertial effects, which are prominent in LCS. We present results for very low Reynolds number laboratory flows, including a Stokes double gyre, vertically sheared strain and a four roll mill. Images of tracer (dye) and FTLE fields computed from particle image velocimetry (PIV) reveal complementary sets of flow structures, giving a more complete picture of transport in these flows. We confirm by computing FTLE of an exact time-dependent Stokes flow solution and present implications of these findings for inertial object transport in flows. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is gratefully acknoweldged.

  16. Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.

  17. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2012-01-01

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  18. Rheosensing by impulsive cells at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Arnold; Bhamla, Saad; Prakash, Manu

    2017-11-01

    For aquatic organisms, mechanical signals are often carried by the surrounding liquid, through viscous and inertial forces. Here we consider a unicellular yet millimetric ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, as a model organism to study hydrodynamic sensing. This protist typically swims at moderate Reynolds numbers, Re 100 during impulsive contractions where its elongated body recoils within milliseconds. First, using high-speed PIV and an electrophysiology setup, we deliver controlled voltage pulses to induce these rapid contractions and visualise the vortex flows generated thereby. By comparing these measurements with CFD simulations the range of these hydrodynamic ``signals'' is characterized. Second, we probe the mechano-sensing of the organism with externally applied flows and find a critical shear rate necessary to trigger a contraction. The combination of high Re flow generation and rheosensing could facilitate intercellular communication over large distances. Please also see our other talk ``Collective hydrodynamic communication through ultra-fast contractions''.

  19. Local vibrations and lift performance of low Reynolds number airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TariqAmin Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on the finite volume method and dynamic mesh technique is used to carry out partial fluid structure interaction. The local flexible structure (hereinafter termed as flexible structure vibrates in a single mode located on the upper surface of the airfoil. The Influence of vibration frequency and amplitude are examined and the corresponding fluid flow characteristics are investigated which add complexity to the inherent problem in unsteady flow. The study is conducted for flow over NACA0012 airfoil at 600≤Re≤3000 at a low angle of attack. Vibration of flexible structure induces a secondary vortex which modifies the pressure distribution and lift performance of the airfoil. At some moderate vibration amplitude, frequency synchronization or lock-in phenomenon occurs when the vibration frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of rigid airfoil. Evolution and shedding of vortices corresponding to the deformation of flexible structure depends on the Reynolds number. In the case of Re≤1000, the deformation of flexible structure is considered in-phase with the vortex shedding i.e., increasing maximum lift is linked with the positive deformation of flexible structure. At Re=1500 a phase shift of about 1/π exists while they are out-of-phase at Re>1500. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude of lift coefficient increases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re≤1500 while it decreases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re>1500. As a result of frequency lock-in, the average lift coefficient is increased with increasing vibration amplitude for all investigated Reynolds numbers (Re. The maximum increase in the average lift coefficient is 19.72% within the range of investigated parameters.

  20. Rarefaction Effects in Low Reynolds Number Subsonic and Transonic Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekardan, Cem

    The quantification of rarefaction effects for low Reynolds number (Reefficient. It was also shown that when the Reynolds number of the flow decreased from 10,000 to 1,000, slip effects become dominant. The flow becomes fully rarefied at Re=10. Furthermore, rarefaction effects were quantified for the NACA 0007 and the NACA 2407 at 0 and 10 degrees of angle of attack to investigate the effects of thickness, camber, and the angle of attack. It was observed that flow separation due to increase in thickness resulted in higher rarefaction effects. It was concluded that thin airfoils with very smooth shape changes minimize continuum breakdown / rarefaction effects. Rarefied gas phenomena that only appear in low pressures (such as thermal effects) can be exploited for performance enhancement of applications in slightly rarefied aerodynamics. In this study, feasibility and advantages of using thermal control to reduce drag and mitigate vortex shedding for airfoils are studied. NACA 0012 airfoil with a temperature difference applied between the upper and the lower surface is simulated in the continuum regime with a Navier-Stokes solver and compared to experimental data for verification of parameters and turbulence modelling. At lower pressures, an elevated temperature on the bottom surface of the airfoil is investigated to create lift and understand the rarefaction effects. Continuum NS results were compared to the rarefied ES-BGK solver for the rarefaction effects. It was shown that an elevated temperature enhances the lift by 25 % and reduces the drag at high angles of attack. In the second part, a temperature gradient on the upper surface is applied and it was seen that drag is reduced by 4 % and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to gradients introduced in the flow by thermal transpiration.

  1. Effects of flow unsteadiness on the wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Raisee, M

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were performed on pulsating fully turbulent flows in a pipe test rig with a diameter of 100 mm. Sinusoidal oscillatory flow at different frequencies was superimposed on a mean flow of averaged Reynolds number Re=20000 based on the pipe diameter. The measurements have been performed at different forcing frequencies (0.001 + < 0.08) covering all the oscillatory regimes; quasi-steady, relaxation, quasi laminar and high frequency. The amplitude of the flow oscillation was small enough to allow a linear response in the measurements, i.e., all flow parameters showed an oscillatory behavior at the frequency of the flow. The amplitude of the oscillatory flow was about 10% of the mean velocity in all cases. The results include mean and phase averaged values of different parameters. The centerline velocity was measured by a 2D LDA system. Hot film and constant temperature anemometry system was used to determine the wall shear stress. Bulk velocity and pressure gradient along the pipe were also acquired. The results showed a good agreement with the previous analytical, experimental and numerical results available in the literature.

  2. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  3. The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of a biomorphic pulsed-jet underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of its propulsion system with squid. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and dimensionless frequency (St L ) in the range 0.2-0.6 in a glycerin-water mixture. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses from the velocity and vorticity fields of the jet flow to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency, and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 37 and 60. The current results for propulsive efficiency were compared to the previously published results in water where Re ranged between 1300 and 2700. The results showed that the average propulsive efficiency decreased by 26% as the average Re decreased from 2000 to 50 while the ratio of pulsed-jet to steady jet efficiency (η P /η P,ss ) increased up to 0.15 (26%) as the Re decreased over the same range and for similar pulsing conditions. The improved η P /η P,ss at lower Re suggests that pulsed-jet propulsion can be used as an efficient propulsion system for millimeter-scale propulsion applications. The Re = 37-60 conditions in the present investigation, showed a reduced dependence of η P and η P /η P,ss on L/D compared to higher Re results. This may be due to the lack of clearly observed vortex ring pinch-off as L/D increased for this Re regime.

  4. Effects of the Reynolds number on two-dimensional dielectrophoretic motions of a pair of particles under a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Mo; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan; Maniyeri, Ranjith Maniyeri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations to explore the effect of the Reynolds number on the Dielectrophoretic (DEP) motion of a pair of freely suspended particles in an unbounded viscous fluid under an external uniform electric field. Accordingly, the electric potential is obtained by solving the Maxwell'00s equation with a great sudden change in the electric conductivity at the particle-fluid interface and then the Maxwell stress tensor is integrated to determine the DEP force exerted on each particle. The fluid flow and particle movement, on the other hand, are predicted by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations together with the kinetic equations. Numerical simulations are carried out using a finite volume approach, composed of a sharp interface method for the electric potential and a direct-forcing immersed-boundary method for the fluid flow. Through the simulations, it is found that both particles with the same sign of the conductivity revolve and eventually align themselves in a line with the electric field. With different signs, to the contrary, they revolve in the reverse way and eventually become lined up at a right angle with the electric field. The DEP motion also depends significantly on the Reynolds number defined based on the external electric field for all the combinations of the conductivity signs. When the Reynolds number is approximately below Re cr ≈ 0.1, the DEP motion becomes independent of the Reynolds number and thus can be exactly predicted by the no-inertia solver that neglects all the inertial and convective effects. With increasing Reynolds number above the critical number, on the other hand, the particles trace larger trajectories and thus take longer time during their revolution to the eventual in-line alignment.

  5. Effects of the Reynolds number on two-dimensional dielectrophoretic motions of a pair of particles under a uniform electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Mo; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Maniyeri, Ranjith Maniyeri [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations to explore the effect of the Reynolds number on the Dielectrophoretic (DEP) motion of a pair of freely suspended particles in an unbounded viscous fluid under an external uniform electric field. Accordingly, the electric potential is obtained by solving the Maxwell'00s equation with a great sudden change in the electric conductivity at the particle-fluid interface and then the Maxwell stress tensor is integrated to determine the DEP force exerted on each particle. The fluid flow and particle movement, on the other hand, are predicted by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations together with the kinetic equations. Numerical simulations are carried out using a finite volume approach, composed of a sharp interface method for the electric potential and a direct-forcing immersed-boundary method for the fluid flow. Through the simulations, it is found that both particles with the same sign of the conductivity revolve and eventually align themselves in a line with the electric field. With different signs, to the contrary, they revolve in the reverse way and eventually become lined up at a right angle with the electric field. The DEP motion also depends significantly on the Reynolds number defined based on the external electric field for all the combinations of the conductivity signs. When the Reynolds number is approximately below Re{sub cr} ≈ 0.1, the DEP motion becomes independent of the Reynolds number and thus can be exactly predicted by the no-inertia solver that neglects all the inertial and convective effects. With increasing Reynolds number above the critical number, on the other hand, the particles trace larger trajectories and thus take longer time during their revolution to the eventual in-line alignment.

  6. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  8. Influence of initial turbulence level on the flow and sound fields of a subsonic jet at a diameter-based Reynolds number of 10(5)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogey , Christophe; Marsden , Olivier; Bailly , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Five isothermal round jets at Mach number M = 0.9 and Reynolds number ReD=10(5) originating from a pipe nozzle are computed by large-eddy simulations to investigate the effects of initial turbulence on flow development and noise generation. In the pipe, the boundary layers are untripped in the first case and tripped numerically in the four others in order to obtain, at the exit, mean velocity profiles similar to a Blasius laminar profile of momentum thickness equal to ...

  9. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  10. Unsteady behavior of a confined jet in a cavity at moderate Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, G; Climent, E

    2012-01-01

    Self-sustained oscillations in the sinuous mode are observed when a jet impinges on a rigid surface. Confined jet instability is experimentally and numerically investigated here at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the Reynolds number is varied, the dynamic response of the jet is unusual in comparison with that of similar configurations (hole-tone, jet edge, etc). Modal transitions are clearly detected when the Reynolds number is varied. However, these transitions result in a reduction of the frequency, which means that the wavelength grows with Reynolds number. Moreover, the instability that sets in at low Reynolds number, as a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, disappears only 25% above the threshold. Then, the flow becomes steady again and symmetric. This atypical behavior is compared with our previous study on a submerged fountain (Bouchet et al 2002 Europhys. Lett. 59 826). (paper)

  11. Effect of Reynolds Number on Aerodynamics of Airfoil with Gurney Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady state, two-dimensional computational investigations performed on NACA 0012 airfoil to analyze the effect of variation in Reynolds number on the aerodynamics of the airfoil without and with a Gurney flap of height of 3% chord are presented in this paper. RANS based one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model is used for the computations. Both lift and drag coefficients increase with Gurney flap compared to those without Gurney flap at all Reynolds numbers at all angles of attack. The zero lift angle of attack seems to become more negative as Reynolds number increases due to effective increase of the airfoil camber. However the stall angle of attack decreased by 2° for the airfoil with Gurney flap. Lift coefficient decreases rapidly and drag coefficient increases rapidly when Reynolds number is decreased below critical range. This occurs due to change in flow pattern near Gurney flap at low Reynolds numbers.

  12. TR-PIV measurement of the wake behind a grooved cylinder at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying Zheng; Shi, Liu Liu; Yu, Jun

    2011-04-01

    A comparative study of the wakes behind cylinders with grooved and smooth surfaces was performed with a view to understand the wake characteristics associated with the adult Saguaro cacti. A low-speed recirculation water channel was established for the experiment; the Reynolds number, based on the free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter (D), was kept at ReD=1500. State-of-the-art time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) was employed to measure a total of 20 480 realizations of the wake field at a frame rate of 250 Hz, enabling a comprehensive view of the time- and phase-averaged wake pattern. In comparison to the wake behind the smooth cylinder, the length of the recirculation zone behind the grooved cylinder was extended by nearly 18.2%, yet the longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensity was considerably weakened. A global view of the peaked spectrum of the longitudinal velocity component revealed that the intermediate region for the grooved cylinder, which approximately corresponds to the transition region where the shear layer vortices interact, merge and shed before the formation of the Karman-like vortex street, was much wider than that for the smooth one. The unsteady events near St=0.3-0.4 were detected in the intermediate region behind the grooved cylinder, but no such events were found in the smooth cylinder system. Although the formation of the Karman-like vortex street was delayed by about 0.6D downstream for the grooved cylinder, no prominent difference in the vortex street region was found in the far wake for both cylinders. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method was used extensively to decompose the vector and swirling strength fields, which gave a close-up view of the vortices in the near wake. The first two POD modes of the swirling strength clarified the spatio-temporal characteristics of the shear layer vortices behind the grooved cylinder. The small-scale vortices superimposed on the shear layers behind the grooved cylinder

  13. Kinematic Dynamo Action in the Presence of a Large Scale Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se investiga la influencia de Un campo de velocidades de ran escala sobre la acci6n del tur bulento. Usando Un proceso de expansi6n, las soluciones se encuentran en el del movimiento lobal y de cizalla pequeflo y para randes de Reynolds. Se calcula la re jeneraci6n tica hasta un orden en el de expansi6n usando convectivas ciclotr6nicas para el campo turbulento de velocidad. ABSTRACT. The influence a scale velocity field upon the kinernatic turbulent dynamo action is . Usinj an expansion process, the solutions are found in the limit of small bulk motion and shear, and for Reynolds number. The majnetic is calculated up to second order in the expansion parameter usin cyclonic convective cells for the turbulent velocity field. Key o'td : HYDROMAGNETICS

  14. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R E; Schindfessel, L; Creëlle, S; De Mulder, T; McLelland, S J

    2017-01-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2 , to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ∼3000 to 6000 mg L −1 ; 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver. (paper)

  15. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Schindfessel, L.; McLelland, S. J.; Creëlle, S.; De Mulder, T.

    2017-07-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2, to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ~3000 to 6000 mg L-1 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver.

  16. Instantaneous fluctuation velocity and skewness distributions upstream of transition onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernon, D.; Walsh, E.J.; McEligot, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of streamwise orientated disturbances through the boundary layer thickness prior to transition onset for zero-pressure gradient boundary layer flow under the influence %Tu = 4.2 is presented. The analysis concentrates on the development of the maximum positive and negative of the fluctuation velocity in order to gain further insight into the transition process. The average location of the peak negative fluctuation velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers was measured in the upper portion of the boundary layer at y/δ ∼ 0.6, whereas the location of the peak positive value was measured at y/δ ∼ 0.3. The disturbance magnitude of the negative fluctuation velocity increased beyond that of the positive as transition onset approached. The distribution and disturbance magnitude of the maximum positive and negative fluctuation velocities indicate that the initiation of transition may occur on the low-speed components of the flow that are lifted up to the upper region of the boundary layer. This is in qualitative agreement with recent direct numerical simulations on the breakdown of the flow on the lifted low-speed streaks near the boundary layer edge. The results presented in this investigation also demonstrate the increased physical insight gained by examining the distributions of the maximum positive and negative of the streamwise fluctuation velocity component associated with the low- and high-speed streaks, compared to time-averaged values, in determining what structures cause the breakdown to turbulence

  17. The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.

  18. High-velocity frictional properties of gabbro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akito; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    High-velocity friction experiments have been performed on a pair of hollow-cylindrical specimens of gabbro initially at room temperature, at slip rates from 7.5 mm/s to 1.8 m/s, with total circumferential displacements of 125 to 174 m, and at normal stresses to 5 MPa, using a rotary-shear high-speed friction testing machine. Steady-state friction increases slightly with increasing slip rate at slip rates to about 100 mm/s (velocity strengthening) and it decreases markedly with increasing slip rate at higher velocities (velocity weakening). Steady-state friction in the velocity weakening regime is lower for the non-melting case than the frictional melting case, due perhaps to severe thermal fracturing. A very large peak friction is always recognized upon the initiation of visible frictional melting, presumably owing to the welding of fault surfaces upon the solidification of melt patches. Frictional properties thus change dramatically with increasing displacement at high velocities, and such a non-linear effect must be incorporated into the analysis of earthquake initiation processes.

  19. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  20. Multidisc neutron velocity selector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.

    1987-12-01

    The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Introduction to turbulence modelling: Applications of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equations (RANSE) to engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.

    1997-01-01

    The k-ε model and Reynolds stress transport model are set out in a few words. Limitations of models are shown, particularly for turbulence generation in the turbulent viscosity context, and, more generally, the uncertainties and miscellaneous changes made to the dissipation equation. The performances of models are then compared, using results of the three latest ERCOFTA/IAHR workshops. It is shown that algebraic constraints which can be derived exactly by assuming asymptotic limits (rapid distortion, homogeneous shear at infinite time, 2D turbulence) have inhibited a better tuning of the models for real life flow where these limits are not encountered. A more pragmatic approach could be taken by allowing the constants to be functions of invariant parameters. But these functions, making the models non-linear, can lead to bifurcations or instability. One essential parameter is the distance to the wall, which recent models have tried to eliminate, although this parameter appears indirectly through the Poisson equation for the fluctuating pressure. A possible indirect model is the elliptic relaxation. Progress was recently achieved in near-wall low Re modelling, but these advances do not always result in benefits to industry since only the 'wall function' approaches can be used in the high Re, 3D flows that we need to study. With the knowledge gained from near-wall modelling, it might be profitable to revisit the 'wall functions' devised 20 years ago. (author)

  2. Cryogenic wind tunnel technology. A way to measurement at higher Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The goals, design, problems, and value of cryogenic transonic wind tunnels being developed in Europe are discussed. The disadvantages inherent in low-Reynolds-number (Re) wind tunnel simulations of aircraft flight at high Re are reviewed, and the cryogenic tunnel is shown to be the most practical method to achieve high Re. The design proposed for the European Transonic Wind tunnel (ETW) is presented: parameters include cross section. DISPLAY 83A46484/2 = 4 sq m, operating pressure = 5 bar, temperature = 110-120 K, maximum Re = 40 x 10 to the 6th, liquid N2 consumption = 40,000 metric tons/year, and power = 39,5 MW. The smaller Cologne subsonic tunnel being adapted to cryogenic use for preliminary studies is described. Problems of configuration, materials, and liquid N2 evaporation and handling and the research underway to solve them are outlined. The benefits to be gained by the construction of these costly installations are seen more in applied aerodynamics than in basic research in fluid physics. The need for parallel development of both high Re tunnels and computers capable of performing high-Re numerical analysis is stressed.

  3. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.

  4. Parametric Study of Flow Control Over a Hump Model Using an Unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Greenblatt, David

    2007-01-01

    This is an expanded version of a limited-length paper that appeared at the 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena by the same authors. A computational study was performed for steady and oscillatory flow control over a hump model with flow separation to assess how well the steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations predict trends due to Reynolds number, control magnitude, and control frequency. As demonstrated in earlier studies, the hump model case is useful because it clearly demonstrates a failing in all known turbulence models: they under-predict the turbulent shear stress in the separated region and consequently reattachment occurs too far downstream. In spite of this known failing, three different turbulence models were employed to determine if trends can be captured even though absolute levels are not. Overall the three turbulence models showed very similar trends as experiment for steady suction, but only agreed qualitatively with some of the trends for oscillatory control.

  5. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations and κ-ε Modelling of Fluid Velocity and Tracer Concentration in Impinging Jet Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtas Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of turbulent mixing in two types of jet mixers were carried out using two CFD models, large eddy simulation and κ-ε model. Modelling approaches were compared with experimental data obtained by the application of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence methods. Measured local microstructures of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration can be used for direct validation of numerical simulations. Presented results show that for higher tested values of jet Reynolds number both models are in good agreement with the experiments. Differences between models were observed for lower Reynolds numbers when the effects of large scale inhomogeneity are important.

  6. Decomposing the aerodynamic forces of low-Reynolds flapping airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriche, Manuel; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Flores, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of flow around flapping NACA0012 airfoils at relatively small Reynolds numbers, Re = 1000 . The simulations are carried out with TUCAN, an in-house code that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with an immersed boundary method to model the presence of the airfoil. The motion of the airfoil is composed of a vertical translation, heaving, and a rotation about the quarter of the chord, pitching. Both motions are prescribed by sinusoidal laws, with a reduced frequency of k = 1 . 41 , a pitching amplitude of 30deg and a heaving amplitude of one chord. Both, the mean pitch angle and the phase shift between pitching and heaving motions are varied, to build a database with 18 configurations. Four of these cases are analysed in detail using the force decomposition algorithm of Chang (1992) and Martín Alcántara et al. (2015). This method decomposes the total aerodynamic force into added-mass (translation and rotation of the airfoil), a volumetric contribution from the vorticity (circulatory effects) and a surface contribution proportional to viscosity. In particular we will focus on the second, analysing the contribution of the leading and trailing edge vortices that typically appear in these flows. This work has been supported by the Spanish MINECO under Grant TRA2013-41103-P. The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources provided by the Red Española de Supercomputacion.

  7. Reynolds number scalability of bristled wings performing clap and fling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Skyler; Kasoju, Vishwa; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Tiny flying insects such as thrips show a distinctive physical adaptation in the use of bristled wings. Thrips use wing-wing interaction kinematics for flapping, in which a pair of wings clap together at the end of upstroke and fling apart at the beginning of downstroke. Previous studies have shown that the use of bristled wings can reduce the forces needed for clap and fling at Reynolds number (Re) on the order of 10. This study examines if the fluid dynamic advantages of using bristled wings also extend to higher Re on the order of 100. A robotic clap and fling platform was used for this study, in which a pair of physical wing models were programmed to execute clap and fling kinematics. Force measurements were conducted on solid (non-bristled) and bristled wing pairs. The results show lift and drag forces were both lower for bristled wings when compared to solid wings for Re ranging from 1-10, effectively increasing peak lift to peak drag ratio of bristled wings. However, peak lift to peak drag ratio was lower for bristled wings at Re =120 as compared to solid wings, suggesting that bristled wings may be uniquely advantageous for Re on the orders of 1-10. Flow structures visualized using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and their impact on force production will be presented.

  8. Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke

    2013-11-01

    We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.

  9. Flow control at low Reynolds numbers using periodic airfoil morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Santer, Matthew; Papadakis, George; Bouremel, Yann; Debiasi, Marco; Imperial-NUS Joint PhD Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The performance of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers is known to suffer from flow separation even at low angles of attack as a result of their boundary layers remaining laminar. The lack of mixing---a characteristic of turbulent boundary layers---leaves laminar boundary layers with insufficient energy to overcome the adverse pressure gradient that occurs in the pressure recovery region. This study looks at periodic surface morphing as an active flow control technique for airfoils in such a flight regime. It was discovered that at sufficiently high frequencies an oscillating surface is capable of not only reducing the size of the separated region---and consequently significantly reducing drag whilst simultaneously increasing lift---but it is also capable of delaying stall and as a result increasing CLmax. Furthermore, by bonding Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) to the underside of an airfoil skin and driving them with a sinusoidal frequency, it is shown that this control technique can be practically implemented in a lightweight, energy efficient way. Imperial-NUS Joint Ph.D. Programme.

  10. Perturbed Partial Cavity Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiharju, Simo; Elbing, Brian; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    Ventilated partial cavities were investigated at Reynolds numbers to 80 million. These cavities could be suitable for friction drag reduction on ocean going vessels and thereby lead to environmental and economical benefits. The test model was a 3.05 m wide by 12.9 m long flat plate, with a 0.18 m backward-facing step and a cavity-terminating beach, which had an adjustable slope, tilt and height. The step and beach trapped a ventilated partial cavity over the longitudinal mid-section of the model. Large-scale flow perturbations, mimicking the effect of ambient ocean waves were investigated. For the conditions tested a cavity could be maintained under perturbed flow conditions when the gas flux supplied was greater than the minimum required to maintain a cavity under steady conditions, with larger perturbations requiring more excess gas flux to maintain the cavity. High-speed video was used to observe the unsteady three dimensional cavity closure, the overall cavity shape, and the cavity oscillations. Cavities with friction drag reduction exceeding 95% were attained at optimal conditions. A simplified energy cost-benefit analysis of partial cavity drag reduction was also performed. The results suggest that PCDR could potentially lead to energy savings.

  11. Normalizations of High Taylor Reynolds Number Power Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alejandro; Koster, Timothy; Larue, John C.

    2014-11-01

    The velocity power spectrum provides insight in how the turbulent kinetic energy is transferred from larger to smaller scales. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted where high intensity turbulence is generated by means of an active turbulence grid modeled after Makita's 1991 design (Makita, 1991) as implemented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (M&W, 1998). The goal of this study is to document the evolution of the scaling region and assess the relative collapse of several proposed normalizations over a range of Rλ from 185 to 997. As predicted by Kolmogorov (1963), an asymptotic approach of the slope (n) of the inertial subrange to - 5 / 3 with increasing Rλ is observed. There are three velocity power spectrum normalizations as presented by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938) and George (1992). Results show that the Von Karman and Howarth normalization does not collapse the velocity power spectrum as well as the Kolmogorov and George normalizations. The Kolmogorov normalization does a good job of collapsing the velocity power spectrum in the normalized high wavenumber range of 0 . 0002 University of California, Irvine Research Fund.

  12. Three-dimensional time-lapse velocity tomography of an underground longwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxbacher, K.; Westman, E.; Swanson, P.; Karfakis, M. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mining & Minerals Engineering

    2008-06-15

    Three-dimensional velocity tomograms were generated to image the stress redistribution around an underground coal longwall panel to produce a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to ground failure, especially rockbursts. Mining-induced microseismic events provided passive sources for the three-dimensional velocity tomography. Surface-mounted geophones monitored microseismic activity for 18 days. Eighteen tomograms were generated and high-velocity regions correlated with high abutment stresses predicted by numerical modeling. Additionally, the high-velocity regions were observed to redistribute as the longwall face retreated, indicating that velocity tomography may be an appropriate technology for monitoring stress redistribution in underground mines.

  13. Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomofumi

    2007-09-15

    by the coupled shear-flow tests of fracture specimens with visualization of the fluid flow. From the obtained flow velocity fields, the particle transport was predicted by the streamline particle tracking method with calculated flow velocity fields (vectors) from the flow simulations, obtaining results such as flow velocity profiles, total flow rates, particle travel time, breakthrough curves and the Peclet number, Pe, respectively. The fluid flow in the vertical 2-D cross-sections of a rock fracture was also simulated by solving both Navier-Stokes (NS) and Reynolds equations, and the particle transport was predicted by streamline particle tracking method. The results obtained using NS and Reynolds equations were compared to illustrate the degree of the validity of the Reynolds equation for general applications in practice since the later is mush more computationally efficient for large scale problems. The flow simulation results show that the total flow rate and the flow velocity predicted by NS equations are quite different from that as predicted by the Reynolds equation. The results show that a roughly 5-10 % overestimation on the flow rate is produced when the Reynolds equation is used, and the ideal parabolic velocity profiles defined by the local cubic law, when Reynolds equation is used, is no longer valid, especially when the roughness feature of the fracture surfaces changes with shear. These deviations of flow rate and flow velocity profiles across the fracture aperture have a significant impact on the particle transport behavior and the associated properties, such as the travel time and Peclet number. The deviations increase with increasing flow velocity and become more significant when fracture aperture geometry changes with shear. The scientific findings from these studies provided new insights to the physical behavior of fluid flow and mass transport in rock fractures which is the scientific basis for many rock mechanics problems at the fundamental

  14. Large Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of CUBRC Base Heating Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Edwards, Jack R.; Amar, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    ven with great advances in computational techniques and computing power during recent decades, the modeling of unsteady separated flows, such as those encountered in the wake of a re-entry vehicle, continues to be one of the most challenging problems in CFD. Of most interest to the aerothermodynamics community is accurately predicting transient heating loads on the base of a blunt body, which would result in reduced uncertainties and safety margins when designing a re-entry vehicle. However, the prediction of heat transfer can vary widely depending on the turbulence model employed. Therefore, selecting a turbulence model which realistically captures as much of the flow physics as possible will result in improved results. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models have become increasingly popular due to their good performance with attached flows, and the relatively quick turnaround time to obtain results. However, RANS methods cannot accurately simulate unsteady separated wake flows, and running direct numerical simulation (DNS) on such complex flows is currently too computationally expensive. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques allow for the computation of the large eddies, which contain most of the Reynolds stress, while modeling the smaller (subgrid) eddies. This results in models which are more computationally expensive than RANS methods, but not as prohibitive as DNS. By complimenting an LES approach with a RANS model, a hybrid LES/RANS method resolves the larger turbulent scales away from surfaces with LES, and switches to a RANS model inside boundary layers. As pointed out by Bertin et al., this type of hybrid approach has shown a lot of promise for predicting turbulent flows, but work is needed to verify that these models work well in hypersonic flows. The very limited amounts of flight and experimental data available presents an additional challenge for researchers. Recently, a joint study by NASA and CUBRC has focused on collecting heat transfer data

  15. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  16. Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-11-01

    This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channel for arbitrary piston motions. By changing the piston speed and the length of piston travel we cover a range of values of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles during the decay of the flow are unsteady with reverse flow near the wall, and are highly unstable due to their inflectional nature. In the pipe, we observe from flow visualization that the flow becomes unstable with the formation of what appears to be a helical vortex. The wavelength of the instability [simeq R: similar, equals]3[delta] where [delta] is the average boundary layer thickness, the average being taken over the time the flow is unstable. The time of formation of the vortices scales with the average convective time scale and is [simeq R: similar, equals]39/([Delta]u/[delta]), where [Delta]u=(umax[minus sign]umin) and umax, umin and [delta] are the maximum velocity, minimum velocity and boundary layer thickness respectively at each instant of time. The time to transition to turbulence is [simeq R: similar, equals]33/([Delta]u/[delta]). Quasi-steady linear stability analysis of the velocity profiles brings out two important results. First that the stability characteristics of velocity profiles with reverse flow near the wall collapse when scaled with the above variables. Second that the wavenumber corresponding to maximum growth does not change much during the instability even though the velocity profile does change substantially. Using the results from the experiments and the

  17. The species velocity of trees in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; de Lafontaine, G.; Heath, K.; Li, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has motivated interest in the paleo record to enhance our knowledge about past vegetation responses to climate change and help understand potential responses in the future. Additionally, polar regions currently experience the most rapid rates of climate change globally, prompting concern over changes in the ecological composition of high latitude ecosystems. Recent analyses have attempted to construct methods to estimate a species' ability to track climate change by computing climate velocity; a measure of the rate of climate displacement across a landscape which may indicate the speed an organism must migrate to keep pace with climate change. However, a challenge to using climate velocity in understanding range shifts is a lack of species-specificity in the velocity calculations: climate velocity does not actually use any species data in its analysis. To solve the shortcomings of climate velocity in estimating species displacement rates, we computed the "species velocity" of white spruce, green and grey alder populations across the state of Alaska from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to today. Species velocity represents the rate and direction a species is required to migrate to keep pace with a changing climate following the LGM. We used a species distribution model to determine past and present white spruce and alder distributions using statistically downscaled climate data at 60m. Species velocity was then derived from the change in species distribution per year by the change in distribution over Alaska (km/yr). High velocities indicate locations where the species environmental envelope is changing drastically and must disperse rapidly to survive climate change. As a result, high velocity regions are more vulnerable to distribution shifts and higher risk of local extinction. Conversely, low species velocities indicate locations where the local climate envelope is shifting relatively slowly, reducing the stress to disperse quickly

  18. Analysis of the coherent and turbulent stresses of a numerically simulated rough wall pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; Hutchins, N.; Ooi, A.

    2017-04-01

    A turbulent rough wall flow in a pipe is simulated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the roughness elements consist of explicitly gridded three-dimensional sinusoids. Two groups of simulations were conducted where the roughness semi-amplitude h+ and the roughness wavelength λ+ are systematically varied. The triple decomposition is applied to the velocity to separate the coherent and turbulent components. The coherent or dispersive component arises due to the roughness and depends on the topological features of the surface. The turbulent stress on the other hand, scales with the friction Reynolds number. For the case with the largest roughness wavelength, large secondary flows are observed which are similar to that of duct flows. The occurrence of these large secondary flows is due to the spanwise heterogeneity of the roughness which has a spacing approximately equal to the boundary layer thickness δ.

  19. Multidisk neutron velocity selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, B.

    1992-01-01

    Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)

  20. Lift Production on Flapping and Rotary Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0098 Flapping and Rotary Wing Lift at Low Reynolds Number Anya Jones MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK Final Report 02/26/2016...Lift Production on Flapping and Rotary Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers (YIP) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0251 5c. PROGRAM...necessary if the abstract is to be limited. Standard Form 298 Back (Rev. 8/98) Lift Production on Flapping and Rotary Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers

  1. Effect of Reynolds number and inflow parameters on mean and turbulent flow over complex topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpatrick, Ryan; Hangan, Horia; Siddiqui, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    inflow conditions were tested in order to isolate the impact of key parameters such as Reynolds number, inflow shear profile, and effective roughness, on flow behaviour over the escarpment. The results show that the mean flow behaviour was generally not affected by the Reynolds number; however, a slight...... (TKE) over the escarpment was found be a strong function of inflow roughness and a weak function of the Reynolds number. The local change in the inflow wind shear was found to have the most significant influence on the TKE magnitude, which more closely approximated the full-scale TKE data, a result...

  2. On the motion of non-spherical particles at high Reynolds number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a critical review of available methodology for dealing with the motion of non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers in the Eulerian- Lagrangian methodology for dispersed flow. First, an account of the various attempts to classify the various shapes and the efforts...... motion it is necessary to account for the non-coincidence between the center of pressure and center of gravity which is a direct consequence of the inertial pressure forces associated with particles at high Reynolds number flow. Extensions for non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers are far...

  3. Effects of Velocity-Slip and Viscosity Variation in Squeeze Film Lubrication of Two Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A generalized form of Reynolds equation for two symmetrical surfaces is taken by considering velocity-slip at the bearing surfaces. This equation is applied to study the effects of velocity-slip and viscosity variation for the lubrication of squeeze films between two circular plates. Expressions for the load capacity and squeezing time obtained are also studied theoretically for various parameters. The load capacity and squeezing time decreases due to slip. They increase due to the presence of high viscous layer near the surface and decrease due to low viscous layer.

  4. Calculation of pressure gradients from MR velocity data in a laminar flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.S.; Chenevert, T.L.; Fowlkes, J.B.; Pipe, J.G.; Rubin, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the ability of current imaging modalities to provide velocity-distribution data that offers the possibility of noninvasive pressure-gradient determination from an appropriate rheologic model of flow. A simple laminar flow model is considered at low Reynolds number, RE calc = 0.59 + (1.13 x (dp/dz) meas ), R 2 = .994, in units of dyne/cm 2 /cm for the range of flows considered. The authors' results indicate the potential usefulness of noninvasive pressure-gradient determinations from quantitative analysis of imaging-derived velocity data

  5. Method of solution for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, M; Russo, Q [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Almeida, M S; Bozzo, S [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    1975-03-01

    A method of solutions is presented for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tubes, based on the Von Karman similarity theory developed by Quarmby. The parameters found by Quarmby appearing in the velocity profiles and determined experimentally by different authors were approximated by polynonial functions of variable degree, as function of the Reynolds numbers. The Runge-Kutta-Nystrom method was used in the integration of the differential equations and the systematic of solution is presented in a computer program. The calculated results were compared to the experimental date and presented a deviation of 10/sup -2/%.

  6. Deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 0 to 90 0 C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 0 C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreted in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or inertial coasting step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number

  7. Mechanism of subcooled water flow boiling critical heat flux in a circular tube at high liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The subcooled boiling heat transfer and the steady state critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical circular tube for the flow velocities (u=3.95 to 30.80 m/s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304 test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm) and heated length (L=59.5 mm) is used in this work. The outer surface temperatures of the SUS304 test tube with heating are observed by an infrared thermal imaging camera and a video camera. The subcooled boiling heat transfers for SUS304 test tube are compared with the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the subcooled boiling heat transfer. The influence of flow velocity on the subcooled boiling heat transfer and the CHF is investigated into details based on the experimental data. Nucleate boiling surface superheats at the CHF are close to the lower limit of the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature and the homogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature. The dominant mechanism of the subcooled flow boiling CHF on the SUS304 circular tube is discussed at high liquid Reynolds number. On the other hand, theoretical equations for k-ε turbulence model in a circular tube of a 3 mm in diameter and a 526 mm long are numerically solved for heating of water on heated section of a 3 mm in diameter and a 67 mm long with various thicknesses of conductive sub-layer by using PHOENICS code under the same conditions as the experimental ones previously obtained considering the temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties concerned. The Platinum (Pt) test tube of inner diameter (d=3 mm) and heated length (L=66.5 mm) was used in this experiment. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer from non-boiling regime to CHF are clarified. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer at the CHF point are evaluated for various flow velocities. The experimental values of the CHF are also compared with the corresponding

  8. High Reynolds number oscillations of a circular cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Miguel H.; Pereira, Luiz Antonio A.; Recicar, Jan N.; Moura, Washington H. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the numerical simulation of the flow around an oscillating circular cylinder, which moves with constant velocity in a quiescent Newtonian fluid with constant properties. For each time step of the simulation a number of discrete Lamb vortices is placed close to the body surface; the intensity of each of these is determined such as to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition. The aerodynamic loads acting on the surface of cylinder are computed using the integral formulation de...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in High Reynolds Number Flow Over Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Choon

    2003-01-01

    .... Vortex shedding was determined to be a leading edge phenomenon as periodic shedding was only detected on the pressure side of the wake, The relationship between vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds...

  10. Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal offers to provide NASA with an automatic mesh generator for the simulation of aerodynamic flows using Reynolds-Averages Navier-Stokes (RANS) models....

  11. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number......, and the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet for impinging jet flows at high jet Reynolds numbers. Copyright © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  12. Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., to Retire as NCI Associate Director for Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 2, Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, and NCI associate director for Frederick, will put the finishing touches on a 37-year career with the National Cancer Institute.

  13. The Penguin: a Low Reynolds Number Powered Glider for Station Keeping Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J. K.; Greene, D. W.; Lee, T. T.; Matier, P. T.; Mccarthy, T. R.; Mcguire, R. J.; Schuette, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Penguin is a low Reynolds number (approx. 100,000) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). It was designed to fly three laps indoors around two pylons in a figure-eight course while maximizing loiter time. The Penguin's low Reynolds number mission is an important one currently being studied for possible future flights in the atmospheres of other planets and for specialized military missions. Although the Penguin's mission seemed quite simple at first, the challenges of such low Reynolds number flight have proven to be quite unique. In addition to the constraint of low Reynolds number flight, the aircraft had to be robust in its control, highly durable, and it had to carry a small instrument package. The Penguin's flight plan, concept, performance, aerodynamic design, weight estimation, structural design, propulsion, stability and control, and cost estimate is detailed.

  14. Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal offers to provide NASA with an automatic mesh generator for the simulation of aerodynamic flows using Reynolds-Averages Navier-Stokes (RANS) models....

  15. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure

  16. Three-dimensional study of flow past a square cylinder at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.K.; Biswas, G.; Muralidhar, K.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial evolution of vortices and transition to three-dimensionality in the wake of a square cylinder have been numerically studied. A Reynolds number range between 150 and 500 has been considered. Starting from the two-dimensional Karman vortex street, the transition to three-dimensionality is found to take place at a Reynolds number between 150 and 175. The three-dimensional wake of the square cylinder has been characterized using indicators appropriate for the wake of a bluff body as described by the earlier workers. In these terms, the secondary vortices of Mode-A are seen to persist over the Reynolds number range of 175-240. At about a Reynolds number of 250, Mode-B secondary vortices are present, these having predominantly small-scale structures. The transitional flow around a square cylinder exhibits an intermittent low frequency modulation due to the formation of a large-scale irregularity in the near-wake, called vortex dislocation. The superposition of vortex dislocation and the Mode-A vortices leads to a new pattern, labelled as Mode-A with dislocations. The results for the square cylinder are in good accordance with the three-dimensional modes of transition that are well-known in the circular cylinder wake. In the case of a circular cylinder, the transition from periodic vortex shedding to Mode-A is characterized by a discontinuity in the Strouhal number-Reynolds number relationship at about a Reynolds of 190. The transition from Mode-A to Mode-B is characterized by a second discontinuity in the frequency law at a Reynolds number of ∼250. The numerical computations of the present study with a square cylinder show that the values of the Strouhal number and the time-averaged drag-coefficient are closely associated with each other over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and reflect the spatial structure of the wake

  17. Optimized chord and twist angle distributions of wind turbine blade considering Reynolds number effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Tang, X. [Univ. of Central Lancashire. Engineering and Physical Sciences, Preston (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Univ. of Cumbria. Sustainable Engineering, Workington (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine depends very much on its blade geometric design, typically based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, which divides the blade into several blade elements. In current blade design practices based on Schmitz rotor design theory, the blade geometric parameters including chord and twist angle distributions are determined based on airfoil aerodynamic data at a specific Reynolds number. However, rotating wind turbine blade elements operate at different Reynolds numbers due to variable wind speed and different blade span locations. Therefore, the blade design through Schmitz rotor theory at a specific Reynolds number does not necessarily provide the best power performance under operational conditions. This paper aims to provide an optimal blade design strategy for horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at different Reynolds numbers. A fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine with S809 airfoil is chosen as a case study and a Matlab program which considers Reynolds number effects is developed to determine the optimized chord and twist angle distributions of the blade. The performance of the optimized blade is compared with that of the preliminary blade which is designed based on Schmitz rotor design theory at a specific Reynolds number. The results demonstrate that the proposed blade design optimization strategy can improve the power performance of the wind turbine. This approach can be further developed for any practice of horizontal axis wind turbine blade design. (Author)

  18. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.

  19. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J C; Chini, G P; Gibson, J F

    2017-03-13

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (C Popt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger C Popt or AEP (C Popt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same C Popt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum C popt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and C popt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  1. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585

  2. Effects of relative thickness on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at a low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Dongli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of low Reynolds number flow around airfoil of high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (HAUAVs cruising at low speed. Numerical simulation on the flows around several representative airfoils is carried out to investigate the low Reynolds number flow. The water tunnel model tests further validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the numerical method. Then the effects of the relative thickness of airfoil on aerodynamic performance are explored, using the above numerical method, by simulating flows around airfoils of different relative thicknesses (12%, 14%, 16%, 18%, as well as different locations of the maximum relative thickness (x/c = 22%, 26%, 30%, 34%, at a low Reynolds number of 5 × 105. Results show that performance of airfoils at low Reynolds number is mainly affected by the laminar separation bubble. On the premise of good stall characteristics, the value of maximum relative thickness should be as small as possible, and the location of the maximum relative thickness ought to be closer to the trailing edge to obtain fine airfoil performance. The numerical method is feasible for the simulation of low Reynolds number flow. The study can help to provide a basis for the design of low Reynolds number airfoil.

  3. Aspects of magnetohydrodynamic duct flow at high magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.B.

    1973-07-01

    The thesis is concerned with the performance of a flow coupler, which consists of an MHD generator coupled to an MHD pump so that one stream of fluid is induced to move by the motion of another. The flow coupler investigations include: the effects caused by eddy currents on the applied magnetic field and electric potential distribution, the velocity perturbation which occurs as a liquid flows through a magnetic field, devices in which large currents flow through a moving conductor and through an external circuit, and the movement of two conductors through the gap of a magnet. The expected performance of a flow coupler is calculated. (U.K.)

  4. Pressure fluctuation prediction in pump mode using large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes in a pump–turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-You Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For pump–turbines, most of the instabilities couple with high-level pressure fluctuations, which are harmful to pump–turbines, even the whole units. In order to understand the causes of pressure fluctuations and reduce their amplitudes, proper numerical methods should be chosen to obtain the accurate results. The method of large eddy simulation with wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model was chosen to predict the pressure fluctuations in pump mode of a pump–turbine compared with the method of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes with two-equation turbulence model shear stress transport k–ω. Partial load operating point (0.91QBEP under 15-mm guide vane opening was selected to make a comparison of performance and frequency characteristics between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes based on the experimental validation. Good agreement indicates that the method of large eddy simulation could be applied in the simulation of pump–turbines. Then, a detailed comparison of variation for peak-to-peak value in the whole passage was presented. Both the methods show that the highest level pressure fluctuations occur in the vaneless space. In addition, the propagation of amplitudes of blade pass frequency, 2 times of blade pass frequency, and 3 times of blade pass frequency in the circumferential and flow directions was investigated. Although the difference exists between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes, the trend of variation in different parts is almost the same. Based on the analysis, using the same mesh (8 million, large eddy simulation underestimates pressure characteristics and shows a better result compared with the experiments, while unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes overestimates them.

  5. Particle image velocimetry measurements of 2-dimensional velocity field around twisted tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Measurements of the flow field in a pipe with twisted tape were conducted by particle image velocimetry (PIV). • A novel matching index of refraction technique utilizing 3D printing and oil mixture was adopted to make the test section transparent. • Undistorted particle images were clearly captured in the presence of twisted tape. • 2D flow field in the pipe with twisted tape revealed the characteristic two-peak velocity profile. - Abstract: Twisted tape is a passive component used to enhance heat exchange in various devices. It induces swirl flow that increases the mixing of fluid. Thus, ITER selected the twisted tape as one of the candidates for turbulence promoting in the divertor cooling. Previous study was mainly focused on the thermohydraulic performance of the twisted tape. As detailed data on the velocity field around the twisted tape was insufficient, flow visualization study was performed to provide fundamental data on velocity field. To visualize the flow in a complex structure, novel matching index of refraction technique was used with 3-D printing and mixture of anise and mineral oil. This technique enables the camera to capture undistorted particle image for velocity field measurement. Velocity fields at Reynolds number 1370–9591 for 3 different measurement plane were obtained through particle image velocimetry. The 2-dimensional averaged velocity field data were obtained from 177 pair of instantaneous velocity fields. It reveals the characteristic two-peak flow motion in axial direction. In addition, the normalized velocity profiles were converged with increase of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the uncertainty of the result data was analyzed.

  6. First simultaneous measurements of Reynolds stress with ball-pen and Langmuir probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grover, Ondřej; Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Devitre, A.; Šos, Miroslav; Vondráček, Petr; Bílková, Petra; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 063501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS tokamak * Electric field effects * Electric fields * Langmuir probes * Magnetoplasma * Ball-pen probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4984240

  7. Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Pipe Computed By an Eddy-Resolving Reynolds Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    the numerical code OpenFOAM R©. 1 Introduction Turbulent bubbly flows are encountered in many industrially relevant applications, such as chemical in...performed using the OpenFOAM -2.2.2 computational code utilizing a cell- center-based finite volume method on an unstructured numerical grid. The...the mean Courant number is always below 0.4. The utilized turbulence models were implemented into the so-called twoPhaseEulerFoam solver in OpenFOAM , to

  8. Numerical simulations of flows through fixed networks of monodispersed and bi-dispersed spheres, for moderate Reynolds numbers; Simulations numeriques d'ecoulements a travers des reseaux fixes de spheres monodisperses et bidisperses, pour des nombres de Reynolds moderes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, A.

    2004-02-15

    The application of statistically averaged two-fluid models for the simulation of complex indus- trial two-phase flows requires the development of adequate models for the drag force exerted on the inclusions and the interfacial heat exchange. This task becomes problematic at high volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The quality of the simulation strongly depends upon the inter- facial exchange terms, starting with the steady drag force. For example, an accurate modelling of the drag force is therefore a crucial point to simulate the expansion of dense fluidized beds. Most models used to study the exchange terms between particles and fluids are based on the interaction between an isolated particle and a surrounding gas. Those models are clearly not adequate in cases where the volume fraction of particles increases and particle-particle interactions become important. Studying such cases is a complex task because of the multiple possible configurations. While the interaction between an isolated sphere and a gas depends only on the particle size and the slip velocity between gas and particles, the interaction between a cloud of particles and a gas depends on many more parameters: size and velocity distribution of particles, relative position of particles. Even if the particles keep relative fixed positions, there is an infinite number of combinations to construct such an array. The objective of the present work is to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow in regular arrays of fixed particles in order to analyze the influence of the size and distributions of spheres on drag force and heat transfer (the array of spheres can be either monodispersed, either bi-dispersed). Several authors have studied the drag exerted on the spheres, but only for low Reynolds numbers and/or solid volume fractions close to the packed limit. Moreover some discrepancies are observed between the different studies. On top of that, all existing studies are limited to steady flows

  9. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.

    2011-01-01

    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  10. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  11. Multiplicative Process in Turbulent Velocity Statistics: A Simplified Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillà, F.; Peinke, J.; Castaing, B.

    1996-04-01

    A lot of models in turbulence links the energy cascade process and intermittency, the characteristic of which being the shape evolution of the probability density functions (pdf) for longitudinal velocity increments. Using recent models and experimental results, we show that the flatness factor of these pdf gives a simple and direct estimate for what is called the deepness of the cascade. We analyse in this way the published data of a Direct Numerical Simulation and show that the deepness of the cascade presents the same Reynolds number dependence as in laboratory experiments. Plusieurs modèles de turbulence relient la cascade d'énergie et l'intermittence, caractérisée par l'évolution des densités de probabilité (pdf) des incréments longitudinaux de vitesse. Nous appuyant aussi bien sur des modèles récents que sur des résultats expérimentaux, nous montrons que la Curtosis de ces pdf permet une estimation simple et directe de la profondeur de la cascade. Cela nous permet de réanalyser les résultats publiés d'une simulation numérique et de montrer que la profondeur de la cascade y évolue de la même façon que pour les expériences de laboratoire en fonction du nombre de Reynolds.

  12. Qualification of a Method to Calculate the Irrecoverable Pressure Loss in High Reynolds Number Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, K. C.; Coffield, R. D.

    2002-09-01

    High Reynolds number test data has recently been reported for both single and multiple piping elbow design configurations at earlier ASME Fluid Engineering Division conferences. The data of these studies ranged up to a Reynolds number of 42 x 10[sup]6 which is significantly greater than that used to establish design correlations before the data was available. Many of the accepted design correlations, based on the lower Reynolds number data, date back as much as fifty years. The new data shows that these earlier correlations are extremely conservative for high Reynolds number applications. Based on the recent high Reynolds number information a new recommended method has been developed for calculating irrecoverable pressure loses in piping systems for design considerations such as establishing pump sizing requirements. This paper describes the recommended design approach and additional testing that has been performed as part of the qualification of the method. This qualification testing determined the irrecoverable pressure loss of a piping configuration that would typify a limiting piping section in a complicated piping network, i.e., multiple, tightly coupled, out-of-plane elbows in series under high Reynolds number flow conditions. The overall pressure loss measurements were then compared to predictions, which used the new methodology to assure that conservative estimates for the pressure loss (of the type used for pump sizing) were obtained. The recommended design methodology, the qualification testing and the comparison between the predictions and the test data are presented. A major conclusion of this study is that the recommended method for calculating irrecoverable pressure loss in piping systems is conservative yet significantly lower than predicted by early design correlations that were based on the extrapolation of low Reynolds number test data.

  13. Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.

  14. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  15. Fall Velocities of Hydrometeors in the Atmosphere: Refinements to a Continuous Analytical Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper extends the previous research of the authors on the unified representation of fall velocities for both liquid and crystalline particles as a power law over the entire size range of hydrometeors observed in the atmosphere. The power-law coefficients are determined as continuous analytical functions of the Best or Reynolds number or of the particle size. Here, analytical expressions are formulated for the turbulent corrections to the Reynolds number and to the power-law coefficients that describe the continuous transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow around a falling particle. A simple analytical expression is found for the correction of fall velocities for temperature and pressure. These expressions and the resulting fall velocities are compared with observations and other calculations for a range of ice crystal habits and sizes. This approach provides a continuous analytical power-law description of the terminal velocities of liquid and crystalline hydrometeors with sufficiently high accuracy and can be directly used in bin-resolving models or incorporated into parameterizations for cloud- and large-scale models and remote sensing techniques.

  16. Influence of vapor phase turbulent stress to the onset of slugging in a horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won

    1995-01-01

    An influence of the vapor phase turbulent stress(i, e., the two-phase Reynolds stress)to the characteristics of two-phase system in a horizontal pipe has been theoretically investigated. The average two-fluid model has been constituted with closure relations for stratified flow in a horizontal pipe. A vapor phase turbulent stress model for the regular interface geometry has been included. It is found that the second order waves propagate in opposite direction with almost the same speed in the moving frame of reference of the liquid phase velocity. Using the well-posedness limit of the two-phase system, the dispersed-stratified flow regime boundary has been modeled. Two-phase Froude number has been found to be a convenient parameter in quantifying the onset of slugging as a function of the global void fraction. The influence of the vapor phase turbulent stress was found to stabilize the flow stratification. 4 figs., 12 refs. (Author)

  17. A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2011-07-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.

  18. Characteristics of the Residual Stress tensor when filter width is larger than the Ozmidov scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bragança Alves, Felipe Augusto; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    In stratified turbulence, the residual stress tensor is statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic. We present approximations to the residual stress tensor that are derived analytically. These approximations are evaluated by filtering data from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous stratified turbulence, with unity Prandtl number, resolved on up to 8192 × 8192 × 4096 grid points along with an isotropic homogeneous case resolved on 81923 grid points. It is found that the best possible scaling of the strain rate tensor yields a residual stress tensor (RST) that is less well statistically aligned with the exact RST than a randomly generated tensor. It is also found that, while a scaling of the strain rate tensor can dissipate the right amount of energy, it produces incorrect anisotropic dissipation, removing energy from the wrong components of the velocity vector. We find that a combination of the strain rate tensor and a tensor related to energy redistribution caused by a Newtonian fluid viscous stress yields an excellent tensorial basis for modelling the RST.

  19. Predicting NonInertial Effects with Algebraic Stress Models which Account for Dissipation Rate Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, T.; Machiels, L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of turbulence models which account for rotational effects in noninertial frames of reference are evaluated for the case of incompressible, fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. The different types of models are a Coriolis-modified eddy-viscosity model, a realizable algebraic stress model, and an algebraic stress model which accounts for dissipation rate anisotropies. A direct numerical simulation of a rotating channel flow is used for the turbulent model validation. This simulation differs from previous studies in that significantly higher rotation numbers are investigated. Flows at these higher rotation numbers are characterized by a relaminarization on the cyclonic or suction side of the channel, and a linear velocity profile on the anticyclonic or pressure side of the channel. The predictive performance of the three types of models are examined in detail, and formulation deficiencies are identified which cause poor predictive performance for some of the models. Criteria are identified which allow for accurate prediction of such flows by algebraic stress models and their corresponding Reynolds stress formulations.

  20. A parabolic velocity-decomposition method for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anshul; Briley, W. Roger; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Taylor, Lafayette K.

    2017-02-01

    An economical parabolized Navier-Stokes approximation for steady incompressible flow is combined with a compatible wind turbine model to simulate wind turbine flows, both upstream of the turbine and in downstream wake regions. The inviscid parabolizing approximation is based on a Helmholtz decomposition of the secondary velocity vector and physical order-of-magnitude estimates, rather than an axial pressure gradient approximation. The wind turbine is modeled by distributed source-term forces incorporating time-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by a blade-element momentum turbine model. A solution algorithm is given whose dependent variables are streamwise velocity, streamwise vorticity, and pressure, with secondary velocity determined by two-dimensional scalar and vector potentials. In addition to laminar and turbulent boundary-layer test cases, solutions for a streamwise vortex-convection test problem are assessed by mesh refinement and comparison with Navier-Stokes solutions using the same grid. Computed results for a single turbine and a three-turbine array are presented using the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. These are also compared with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution computed with full rotor resolution. On balance, the agreement in turbine wake predictions for these test cases is very encouraging given the substantial differences in physical modeling fidelity and computer resources required.

  1. Influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a turbulent rectangular free jet of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length L ND = L 1 . • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length L SD . • Total length, L ND + L SD = L 2 , is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, L U . • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length L CV . • Total length, L ND + L SD + L CV = L 3 , is in agreement with average Potential core, L P . - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length L CIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio L CIH /H equal to L CIH /H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to L CIH /H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U ‾ 0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U ‾ 0 , remain below ±4% for a length L CIV , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio L CIV /H increases from L CIV /H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to L CIV /H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to L CIH /H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length L CIT , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio L CIT /H is equal to L CIV /H

  2. Turbulent conductivity in parallel with iso-velocities in a planar established flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, F.

    1968-02-01

    In this thesis are presented the experimental results obtained during the study of the turbulent diffusion of heat using a wire source in a flat air flow. The Taylor statistical theory laws are well respected in the domain studied. The experiments have made it possible to evaluate the influence of the Reynolds number and of the distance from the wall on the quadratic values of velocity fluctuations and on the Lagrange turbulence scales. In particular, the author has found a correlation between the Lagrange scales and the friction coefficient when the Reynolds number varies. A diffusion law is derived from the Taylor theory; it makes it possible to explain more clearly the idea of turbulent conductivity. (author) [fr

  3. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  4. Negative Magnus Effect on a Rotating Sphere at around the Critical Reynolds Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Tsubokura, Makoto; Oshima, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Negative Magnus lift acting on a sphere rotating about the axis perpendicular to an incoming flow is investigated using large-eddy simulation at three Reynolds numbers of 1.0× 10 4 , 2.0 × 10 5 , and 1.14 × 10 6 . The numerical methods adopted are first validated on a non-rotating sphere and the spatial resolution around the sphere is determined so as to reproduce the laminar separation, reattachment, and turbulent transition of the boundary layer observed at around the critical Reynolds number. In the rotating sphere, positive or negative Magnus effect is observed depending on the Reynolds number and the rotating speed imposed. At the Reynolds number in the subcritical or supercritical region, the direction of the lift force follows the Magnus effect to be independent of the rotational speed tested here. In contrast, negative lift is observed at the Reynolds number at the critical region when particular rotating speeds are imposed. The negative Magnus effect is discussed in the context of the suppression or promotion of boundary layer transition around the separation point.

  5. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO ELEMENT CAMBER MORPHING AIRFOIL IN LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJESH SENTHIL KUMAR T.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a two-element camber morphing airfoil was investigated at low Reynolds number using the transient SST model in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 and eN method in XFLR5. The two-element camber morphing concept was employed to morph the baseline airfoil into another airfoil by altering the orientation of mean-line at 35% of the chord to achieve better aerodynamic efficiency. NACA 0012 was selected as baseline airfoil. NACA 23012 was chosen as the test case as it has the camber-line similar to that of the morphed airfoil and as it has the same thickness as that of the baseline airfoil. The simulations were carried out at chord based Reynolds numbers of 2.5×105 and 3.9×105. The aerodynamic force coefficients, aerodynamic efficiency and the location of the transition point of laminar separation bubble over these airfoils were studied for various angles of attack. It was found that the aerodynamic efficiency of the morphed airfoil was 12% higher than that of the target airfoil at 4° angle of attack for Reynolds number of 3.9×105 and 54% rise in aerodynamic performance was noted as Reynolds number was varied from 2.5×105 to 3.9×105. The morphed airfoil exhibited the nature of low Reynolds number airfoil.

  6. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, G. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China)

    2014-01-29

    Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  7. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  8. Investigation on low velocity impact resistance of SMA composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dianyin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Rongqiao; Zhang, Xiaoyong

    2016-04-01

    A method to improve low velocity impact resistance of aeroengine composite casing using shape memory alloy's properties of shape memory(SM) and super-elasticity(SE) is proposed in this study. Firstly, a numerical modeling of SMA reinforced composite laminate under low velocity impact load with impact velocity of 10 m/s is established based on its constitutive model implemented by the VUMAT subroutine of commercial software ABAQUS. Secondly, the responses of SMA composite laminate including stress and deflection distributions were achieved through transient analysis under low velocity impact load. Numerical results show that both peak stress and deflection values of SMA composite laminate are less than that without SMA, which proves that embedding SMA into the composite structure can effectively improve the low velocity impact performance of composite structure. Finally, the influence of SM and SE on low velocity impact resistance is quantitatively investigated. The values of peak stress and deflection of SMA composite based on SM property decrease by 18.28% and 9.43% respectively, compared with those without SMA, instead of 12.87% and 5.19% based on SE. In conclusion, this proposed model described the impact damage of SMA composite structure and turned to be a more beneficial method to enhance the impact resistance by utilizing SM effect.

  9. Unsteady effects in flows past stationary airfoils with Gurney flaps due to unsteady flow separations at low Reynolds numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Dan MATEESCU

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the unsteady flows past stationary airfoils equipped with Gurney flaps at low Reynolds numbers, aiming to study the unsteady behavior of the aerodynamic coefficients due to the flow separations occurring at these Reynolds numbers. The Gurney flaps are simple but very efficient lift-increasing devices, which due to their mechanical simplicity are of particular interest for the small size micro-air-vehicles (MAV) flying at low speed and very low Reynolds numb...

  10. Steady state characteristics of an adjustable hybrid gas bearing – Computational fluid dynamics, modified Reynolds equation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    To include the effect of external pressurization in hybrid gas bearings an extra term is added to Reynolds Equation to accommodate the gas jet. Two cases are considered: cylindrical and annular flow profiles. Validation of theoretical results obtained using the modified version of Reynolds equation....... By introducing such coefficients into the modified Reynolds equation, good agreement with experiments is achieved in terms of journal equilibrium position and resulting aerodynamic forces....

  11. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  12. Separation and reattachment in flows over asymmetric cavities at small Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoularis, S.; Goldman, A.; Floryan, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent experimental and analytical studies of flows at extremely small Reynolds numbers have revealed rather complicated flow patterns, often beyond intuitive explanation. Such flows are common in biological systems as well as in industrial applications involving small particle suspensions. The present study was motivated by Nachtigall's observation that scales on certain butterfly and moth upper wing surfaces appear aerodynamically advantageous, since their removal results in decrease of the lift without an appreciable change of the drag. Since low Reynolds number flows are nearly reversible, it seems that geometrical asymmetry and not random roughness is responsible for this effect. Stokes flows (i.e. at 'zero' Reynolds number) are known to separate behind steps and obstacles, contrary to the expectation that the fluid motion would follow the boundary shape, if its inertia became negligible. (author)

  13. Unsteady heat transfer from a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 15,000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hajime; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Unsteady heat transfer from a circular cylinder to the cross-flow of air was investigated experimentally for Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 15,000. Fluctuating heat transfer on the cylinder surface was measured using a heat flux sensor, and time-spatial characteristics of the heat transfer were measured using an infrared thermograph. The present measurements showed that the alternating rolling-up of the shear layers that separated from the cylinder forms an alternating reattached flow at the rear of the cylinder in the range of Re>5000-8000, due to the forward movement of the vortex formation region with increasing Reynolds number. This leads to a sharp increase in the time-averaged Nusselt number around the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. The heat transfer in the separated flow region has spanwise nonuniformity throughout the examined Reynolds number range. The wavelength of this nonuniformity corresponds to that of the streamwise vortices formed in the near-wake

  14. Effect of Reynolds number on flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Ikarashi, Yuya; Yamagata, Takayuki; Taguchi, Syoichi

    2016-11-01

    The flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow was studied experimentally by using the mass transfer measurement by plaster dissolution method, the surface flow visualization by oil film method and stereo PIV measurement. The experiments are carried out in a water tunnel of a circular pipe of 56mm in diameter with a working fluid of water. The Reynolds number was varied from 30000 to 200000. The experimental result indicated the change of the mass transfer coefficient distribution in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds number. This phenomenon is further examined by the surface flow visualization and measurement of secondary flow pattern in the elbow, and the results showed the suggested change of the secondary flow pattern in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds numbers.

  15. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  16. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of an SD7003 Airfoil: Effects of Reynolds number and Subgrid-scale modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of a series of numerical simulations in order to study aerodynamic characteristics of the low Reynolds number Selig-Donovan airfoil, SD7003. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique is used for all computations at chord-based Reynolds numbers 10,000, 24,000 and 60...... the Reynolds number, and the effect is visible even at a relatively low chord-Reynolds number of 60,000. Among the tested models, the dynamic Smagorinsky gives the poorest predictions of the flow, with overprediction of lift and a larger separation on airfoils suction side. Among various models, the implicit...

  18. Modelling low Reynolds number vortex-induced vibration problems with a fixed mesh fluid-solid interaction formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cornejo, Felipe A.; Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Celentano, Diego J.

    2017-11-01

    The present work reports a fluid-rigid solid interaction formulation described within the framework of a fixed-mesh technique. The numerical analysis is focussed on the study of a vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number. The proposed numerical scheme encompasses the fluid dynamics computation in an Eulerian domain where the body is embedded using a collection of markers to describe its shape, and the rigid solid's motion is obtained with the well-known Newton's law. The body's velocity is imposed on the fluid domain through a penalty technique on the embedded fluid-solid interface. The fluid tractions acting on the solid are computed from the fluid dynamic solution of the flow around the body. The resulting forces are considered to solve the solid motion. The numerical code is validated by contrasting the obtained results with those reported in the literature using different approaches for simulating the flow past a fixed circular cylinder as a benchmark problem. Moreover, a mesh convergence analysis is also done providing a satisfactory response. In particular, a VIV problem is analyzed, emphasizing the description of the synchronization phenomenon.

  19. Computation of drag and lift coefficients for simple two-dimensional objects with Reynolds number Re = 420 000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matas Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of drag and lift coefficients for simple two-dimensional objects, which are often discussed in fluid mechanics fundamentals books. The commercial CFD software ANSYS/FLUENT 13 was used for computation of flow fields around the objects and determination of the drag and lift coefficients. The flow fields of the two-dimensional objects were computed for velocity up to 160 km per hour and Reynolds number Re = 420 000. Main purpose was to verify the suggested computational domain and model settings for further more complex objects geometries. The more complex profiles are used to stabilize asymmetrical ('z'-shaped pantographs of high-speed trains. The trains are used in two-way traffic where the pantographs have to operate with the same characteristics in both directions. Results of the CFD computations show oscillation of the drag and lift coefficients over time. The results are compared with theoretical and experimental data and discussed. Some examples are presented in the paper.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of MHD heat transfer in high Reynolds number turbulent channel flows for Prandtl number of 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study

  1. Direct numerical simulation of MHD heat transfer in high Reynolds number turbulent channel flows for Prandtl number of 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study.

  2. Nano-particle drag prediction at low Reynolds number using a direct Boltzmann-BGK solution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper outlines a novel approach for solution of the Boltzmann-BGK equation describing molecular gas dynamics applied to the challenging problem of drag prediction of a 2D circular nano-particle at transitional Knudsen number (0.0214) and low Reynolds number (0.25-2.0). The numerical scheme utilises a discontinuous-Galerkin finite element discretisation for the physical space representing the problem particle geometry and a high order discretisation for molecular velocity space describing the molecular distribution function. The paper shows that this method produces drag predictions that are aligned well with the range of drag predictions for this problem generated from the alternative numerical approaches of molecular dynamics codes and a modified continuum scheme. It also demonstrates the sensitivity of flow-field solutions and therefore drag predictions to the wall absorption parameter used to construct the solid wall boundary condition used in the solver algorithm. The results from this work has applications in fields ranging from diagnostics and therapeutics in medicine to the fields of semiconductors and xerographics.

  3. On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandache, H.

    1986-11-01

    We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs

  4. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition: initial validation of the Korean version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Kyoung-A; Kang, Hee Sun; Reynolds, William M

    2009-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test the validity and reliability of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition in Korean culture. Depression is a significant mental health problem in adolescents. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition has been shown to be a useful tool to assess depression in adolescents, with extensive research on this measure having been conducted in western cultures. Measures developed in western cultures need to be tested and validated before being used in Asian cultures. The participants were a convenience sample of 440 Korean adolescents with a mean age of 13.78 years (sd = 0.95) from grades 7 to 9 in three public middle schools in South Korea. A cross-sectional design was used. Back-translation was used to create the Korean version, with additional testing for cultural meaning and comprehension. The data were collected at the end of 2004. Internal consistency reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was 0.89, with subscale reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.81. Evidence for criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was found. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor structure of Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition. Our results support the validity and reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition as a measure of depression and suggest that it can be used to screen students and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in school settings.

  5. Retrospective cost adaptive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes k-ω model for data-driven unsteady turbulent simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Hoagg, Jesse B.; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a data-driven computational model for simulating unsteady turbulent flows, where sparse measurement data is available. The model uses the retrospective cost adaptation (RCA) algorithm to automatically adjust the closure coefficients of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) k- ω turbulence equations to improve agreement between the simulated flow and the measurements. The RCA-RANS k- ω model is verified for steady flow using a pipe-flow test case and for unsteady flow using a surface-mounted-cube test case. Measurements used for adaptation of the verification cases are obtained from baseline simulations with known closure coefficients. These verification test cases demonstrate that the RCA-RANS k- ω model can successfully adapt the closure coefficients to improve agreement between the simulated flow field and a set of sparse flow-field measurements. Furthermore, the RCA-RANS k- ω model improves agreement between the simulated flow and the baseline flow at locations at which measurements do not exist. The RCA-RANS k- ω model is also validated with experimental data from 2 test cases: steady pipe flow, and unsteady flow past a square cylinder. In both test cases, the adaptation improves agreement with experimental data in comparison to the results from a non-adaptive RANS k- ω model that uses the standard values of the k- ω closure coefficients. For the steady pipe flow, adaptation is driven by mean stream-wise velocity measurements at 24 locations along the pipe radius. The RCA-RANS k- ω model reduces the average velocity error at these locations by over 35%. For the unsteady flow over a square cylinder, adaptation is driven by time-varying surface pressure measurements at 2 locations on the square cylinder. The RCA-RANS k- ω model reduces the average surface-pressure error at these locations by 88.8%.

  6. Finite-span rotating flat-plate wings at low reynolds number and the effects of aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Zakery R.

    In the complex and dangerous environments of the modern warrior and emergency professional, the small size, maneuverability, and stealth of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs), scaled to the size of large insects or hummingbirds, has the potential to provide previously inaccessible levels of situational awareness, reconnaissance capability, and flexibility directly to the front lines. Although development of such an efficient, autonomous, and capable MAV is years away, there are immediate contributions that can be made to the fundamental science of the flapping-wing-type propulsion that makes MAVs so attractive. This investigation contributes to those fundamentals by considering the unsteady vortex dynamics problem of a rigid, rectangular flat plate at a fixed angle of attack rotating from rest---a simplified hovering half-stroke. Parameters are chosen to be biologically-relevant and relevant to MAVs operating at Reynolds numbers of O (103), and experiments are performed in a 50% by mass glycerin-water mixture. These experiments use novel application of methodologies verified by rigorous uncertainty analysis. The overall objective is to understand the vortex formation and forces as well as aspect ratio ( AR) effects. Of interest is the overall, time-varying, three-dimensional vortex structure obtained qualitatively from dye visualization and quantitatively from volumes reconstructed using planar stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (S-DPIV) measurements. The velocity information from S-DPIV also allows statements to be made on leading-edge vortex (LEV) stability, spanwise flow, LEV and tip-vortex (TV) circulation, and numerous circulation scalings. Force measurements are made and the lift coefficient is discussed in the context of the flow structure, the dimensional lift and the ability to relate velocity and force measurements going forward. AR effects is a topic of continued interest to those performing MAV-related research and also a primary

  7. Introduction: Scaling and structure in high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, B.J.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2007-05-01

    The papers discussed in this report are dealing with the following aspects: Fundamental scaling relations for canonical flows and asymptotic approach to infinite Reynolds numbers; large and very large scales in near-wall turbulences; the influence of roughness and finite Reynolds number effects; comparison between internal and external flows and the universality of the near-wall region; qualitative and quantitative models of the turbulent boundary layer; the neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer as a model for a canonical zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer (author)

  8. Analysis of compressible light dynamic stall flow at transitional Reynolds numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, R.D. Van; Ekaterinaris, John A.; Chandrasekhara, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results of steady and light dynamic stall flow over an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 0.54 x 10(6) are compared, The experimental observation that dynamic stall is induced from the bursting of a laminar separation...... point is specified suitably and a simple transition length model is incorporated to determine the extent of the laminar separation bubble. The thin-layer approximations of compressible, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are used for the numerical solution, with an implicit, upwind-biased, third...

  9. Use of Resolving Equation to Define the Lower Critical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Solovyev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the issue of streams with non-crossing trajectories of particle motions ranging from chaotic, random with irregular current lines, has been given a lot of attention, it still remains unresolved. The study features a relevant issue for hydromechanics, which is precise values determination of the Lower Critical Reynolds Number. It is suggested to put forward an updated approach to the use of energetic analysis for analytical calculation of the Reynolds Resolving Equation. The assessment of transition to mean motion from pulsation to the direction of laminar flows was fulfilled.

  10. Magnus effects at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, A.; Ringel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Magnus force and moment experienced by a yawed, spinning cylinder were studied experimentally in low speed and subsonic flows at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers. Flow-field visualization aided in describing a flow model that divides the Magnus phenomenon into a subcritical region, where reverse Magnus loads are experienced, and a supercritical region where these loads are not encountered. The roles of the spin rate, angle of attack, and crossflow Reynolds number in determining the boundaries of the subcritical region and the variations of the Magnus loads were studied.

  11. On the application of reynolds theory to thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication in oil hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of fluid power motors and pumps is a subject to research, which has generated numerous publications during the last three decades. The main incentives for this research are optimization of reliability and efficiency through the study of loss and wear mechanisms, which are very....... In this paper the derivation of Reynolds equation from the continuum assumption is reviewed and it is shown that the validity of Reynolds theory based pressure field solutions in oil hydraulic thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication models are subject to maximum bounds on the pressure and temperature field gradients...

  12. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  13. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  14. Inertial effects on the stress generation of active fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, S. C.; Brady, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of self-propelled bodies generate a unique mechanical stress owing to their motility that impacts their large-scale collective behavior. For microswimmers suspended in a fluid with negligible particle inertia, we have shown that the virial swim stress is a useful quantity to understand the rheology and nonequilibrium behaviors of active soft matter systems. For larger self-propelled organisms such as fish, it is unclear how particle inertia impacts their stress generation and collective movement. Here we analyze the effects of finite particle inertia on the mechanical pressure (or stress) generated by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. We find that swimmers of all scales generate a unique swim stress and Reynolds stress that impact their collective motion. We discover that particle inertia plays a similar role as confinement in overdamped active Brownian systems, where the reduced run length of the swimmers decreases the swim stress and affects the phase behavior. Although the swim and Reynolds stresses vary individually with the magnitude of particle inertia, the sum of the two contributions is independent of particle inertia. This points to an important concept when computing stresses in computer simulations of nonequilibrium systems: The Reynolds and the virial stresses must both be calculated to obtain the overall stress generated by a system.

  15. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...

  16. A method of solution for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmal, M.; Russo, Q.; Almeida, M.S.; Bozzo, S.

    1975-01-01

    A method of solutions is presented for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tubes, based on the Von Karman similarity theory developed by Quarmby. The parameters found by Quarmby appearing in the velocity profiles and determined experimentally by different authors were approximated by polynonial functions of variable degree, as function of the Reynolds numbers. The Runge-Kutta-Nystrom method was used in the integration of the differential equations and the systematic of solution is presented in a computer program. The calculated results were compared to the experimental date and presented a deviation of 10 -2 % [pt

  17. Local velocity scaling in T400 vessel agitated by Rushton turbine in a fully turbulent region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc Radek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV. The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 400 mm in inner diameter agitated by a Rushton turbine 133 mm in diameter. The velocity fields were measured in the zone in upward flow to the impeller for impeller rotation speeds from 300 rpm to 850 rpm and three liquids of different viscosities (i.e. (i distilled water, ii a 28% vol. aqueous solution of glycol, and iii a 43% vol. aqueous solution of glycol, corresponding to the impeller Reynolds number in the range 50 000 < Re < 189 000. This Re range secures the fully-developed turbulent flow of agitated liquid. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller Reynolds number. On the basis of the test results the spatial distributions of dimensionless velocities were calculated. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the majority in the range from 0.388 to 0.540, which corresponds to the high level of turbulence intensity.

  18. Local velocity scaling in T400 vessel agitated by Rushton turbine in a fully turbulent region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Radek; Ditl, Pavel; Fořt, Ivan; Jašíkova, Darina; Kotek, Michal; Kopecký, Václav; Kysela, Bohuš

    The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV). The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 400 mm in inner diameter agitated by a Rushton turbine 133 mm in diameter. The velocity fields were measured in the zone in upward flow to the impeller for impeller rotation speeds from 300 rpm to 850 rpm and three liquids of different viscosities (i.e. (i) distilled water, ii) a 28% vol. aqueous solution of glycol, and iii) a 43% vol. aqueous solution of glycol), corresponding to the impeller Reynolds number in the range 50 000 < Re < 189 000. This Re range secures the fully-developed turbulent flow of agitated liquid. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller Reynolds number. On the basis of the test results the spatial distributions of dimensionless velocities were calculated. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the majority in the range from 0.388 to 0.540, which corresponds to the high level of turbulence intensity.

  19. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  20. A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for computation of high Reynolds number equilibrium and non-equilibrium wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yifeng; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2014-11-01

    A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for high Reynolds number, wall-bounded turbulence is presented. In this approach, a coarse-grained LES is performed in the full-domain, along with a nested, fine-resolution LES in a minimal flow unit. The coupling between the two domains is achieved by renormalizing the instantaneous LES velocity fields to match the profiles of kinetic energies of components of the mean velocity and velocity fluctuations in both domains to those of the minimal flow unit in the near-wall region, and to those of the full-domain in the outer region. The method is of fixed computational cost, independent of Reτ , in homogenous flows, and is O (Reτ) in strongly non-homogenous flows. The method has been applied to equilibrium turbulent channel flows at 1000 shear-driven, 3D turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 2000 . In equilibrium channel flow, the friction coefficient and the one-point turbulence statistics are predicted in agreement with Dean's correlation and available DNS and experimental data. In shear-driven, 3D channel flow, the evolution of turbulence statistics is predicted in agreement with experimental data of Driver & Hebbar (1991) in shear-driven, 3D boundary layer flow.