WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicles mdb-to-car side

  1. Improvement of injury severity prediction (ISP) of AACN during on-site triage using vehicle deformation pattern for car-to-car (C2C) side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Hirayama, Shigeru; Narahari, Sangolla; Jeyabharath, Manoharan; Prakash, Gopinath; Kulothungan, Vimalathithan; Combest, John

    2018-02-28

    The Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN) system needs to predict injury accurately, to provide appropriate treatment for seriously injured occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. This study investigates the possibility of improving the accuracy of the AACN system, using vehicle deformation parameters in car-to-car (C2C) side impacts. This study was based on car-to-car (C2C) crash data from NASS-CDS, CY 2004-2014. Variables from Kononen's algorithm (published in 2011) were used to build a "base model" for this study. Two additional variables, intrusion magnitude and max deformation location, are added to Kononen's algorithm variables (age, belt usage, number of events, and delta-v) to build a "proposed model." This proposed model operates in two stages: In the first stage, the AACN system uses Kononen's variables and predicts injury severity, based on which emergency medical services (EMS) is dispatched; in the second stage, the EMS team conveys deformation-related information, for accurate prediction of serious injury. Logistic regression analysis reveals that the vehicle deformation location and intrusion magnitude are significant parameters in predicting the level of injury. The percentage of serious injury decreases as the deformation location shifts away from the driver sitting position. The proposed model can improve the sensitivity (serious injury correctly predicted as serious) from 50% to 63%, and overall prediction accuracy increased from 83.5% to 85.9%. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of injury prediction in side-impact collisions. Similar opportunities exist for other crash modes also.

  2. 3MdB: the Mexican Million Models database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.

    2014-10-01

    The 3MdB is an original effort to construct a large multipurpose database of photoionization models. This is a more modern version of a previous attempt based on Cloudy3D and IDL tools. It is accessed by MySQL requests. The models are obtained using the well known and widely used Cloudy photoionization code (Ferland et al, 2013). The database is aimed to host grids of models with different references to identify each project and to facilitate the extraction of the desired data. We present here a description of the way the database is managed and some of the projects that use 3MdB. Anybody can ask for a grid to be run and stored in 3MdB, to increase the visibility of the grid and the potential side applications of it.

  3. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  4. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  5. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1...

  6. Vehicle mass and injury risk in two-car crashes: A novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei, Reza; Maher, Mike; Titheridge, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology based on disaggregate analysis of two-car crash data to estimate the partial effects of mass, through the velocity change, on absolute driver injury risk in each of the vehicles involved in the crash when absolute injury risk is defined as the probability of injury when the vehicle is involved in a two-car crash. The novel aspect of the introduced methodology is in providing a solution to the issue of lack of data on the speed of vehicles prior to the crash, which is required to calculate the velocity change, as well as a solution to the issue of lack of information on non-injury two-car crashes in national accident data. These issues have often led to focussing on relative measures of injury risk that are not independent of risk in the colliding cars. Furthermore, the introduced methodology is used to investigate whether there is any effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of mass ratio, and whether there are any effects associated with the gender and age of the drivers. The methodology was used to analyse two-car crashes to investigate the partial effects of vehicle mass and size on absolute driver injury risk. The results confirmed that in a two-car collision, vehicle mass has a protective effect on its own driver injury risk and an aggressive effect on the driver injury risk of the colliding vehicle. The results also confirmed that there is a protective effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of vehicle mass for frontal and front to side collisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 231.4 - Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 231.4 Section 231.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor are low-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  8. Computational Investigations on the Aerodynamics of a Generic Car Model in Proximity to a Side Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Srivatsa

    A moving road vehicle is subjected to many fluid interferences caused by a number of external agents apart from the vehicle itself. Vehicles moving in proximity to a side wall is an interesting aspect that has been little investigated in the literature. This is of great interest in motorsports, more specifically in NASCAR racing. The aim of this thesis is to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that can simulate the motion of a race car moving close to a side wall with an objective of understanding the influence of this side barrier on the overall aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, like the force and moment coefficients. Additionally, flow visualization tools are used to gain insights into the flow field and to explain the causes of the observed aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. This is accomplished by using a generic car model, a 25-degree slant angle Ahmed Body, in proximity to a side wall in a virtual wind tunnel where the vehicle body is allowed to move at constant velocity. This methodology is different from the traditional CFD approach where the air is blown over a stationary vehicle. The simulation process used in this thesis requires the use of a recently developed meshing methodology called the Overset mesh. All simulations were run using a commercial finite volume CFD code called StarCCM+ where the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes URANS fluid flow solver was used to model turbulence. However, the existing literature suggests that no URANS model can correctly predict the flow field around a 25-degree slant Ahmed body model; all models under-predict turbulence in the initial separated shear layer and over-predict the separation region. Subsequently, the first phase of this thesis involved the determination of a modeling methodology that can accurately predict the flow-field over a 25-degree Ahmed body. Two two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models, the AKN and SST preferred by many researchers for CFD simulations

  9. Severity of vehicle bumper location in vehicle-to-pedestrian impact accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-10-10

    Pedestrian protection is one of the key topics for safety measures in traffic accidents all over the world. To analyze the relation between the collision site of the vehicle bumper and the severity of the lower extremity injuries, we performed biomechanical experiments. We compared the applied external force and the risks of subsequent injuries between the impact of the center and side positions of the front bumper. These comparisons were performed by practical impact tests with eight typical different types of cars which were typical of the current vehicle fleets. The tests were made using the TRL legform impactor which was a mechanical substitute of a pedestrian lower extremity. The TRL impactor is used all over the world for assessing the safety of car bumpers. It was found that the risks of lower extremity injuries in the impacts at the side positions, in front of the vehicle's side member, were significantly higher than those at the center. In the tests, we found that foam materials around the rigid front cross member had a significant effect on reducing the lower extremity injury risks and especially tibia fracture risk against vehicle bumper center collisions, but had little effect at the sides of the bumper over the vehicle's side members where the foam was thinner. We also found that the front shape of the vehicle affected the risk of ligaments injuries. According to these results, the information of impact locations of cars in vehicle-to-pedestrian traffic accidents is valuable for clinicians to diagnose patients with lower extremity injuries in traffic accidents and for forensic pathologists to analyze the accident reconstruction. Furthermore, the results suggest that testing of the bumper area in front of the main longitudinal beams should be included in the car safety legislation to require pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  11. Life-threatening and disabling injuries in car-to-car side impacts--implications for development of protective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, Y; Lövsund, P; Nygren, A

    1993-04-01

    Improvements to the passive safety of cars in lateral collisions are of great importance. This study of injuries in car side collisions in Sweden by the use of two evaluation methods has been performed to establish the basis for future development of protective systems for this type of accident. The Folksam car accident data file has been used. Injuries were found to be twice as common for near-side than for far-side* occupants in car to car impacts. Serious to fatal (AIS 3-6) injuries to belted front seat occupants in near side impacts (10% of all injuries) were compared with the estimated number of injuries to different parts of the body with risk of serious consequences (RSC)--either deaths or permanent disabilities (4.5% of all injuries). The two injury evaluation methods resulted in different ranking orders. AIS 3-6 injuries were received by the chest (37%), abdomen/pelvis (25%), and the head (15%). The RSC method gave a ranking order of head (25%), neck (21%), leg (15%), chest (14%), and abdomen/pelvis (11%). The method of evaluating AIS 3-6 injuries emphasizes only the threat to life. The RSC method also takes into account the risk of disabilities. Injuries to the neck and the leg were found to be most disabling, whilst the injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis were the most life threatening. The study also shows that elderly people receive significantly more chest injuries (relative to the number of head injuries), on average four times more than young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Placement of Road Side Units for Floating Car Data Collection in Highway Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashidi, Maryam; Batros, Iulian; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2012-01-01

    Floating car data (FCD) has been used to collect traffic state information from a set of individual vehicles. Vehicles are equipped with On Board Units (OBU) that collect different measurements and the vehicle position and transmit the data to a remote control center. In current implementations...... of FCD systems, vehicle fleets use cellular connections for data transmission. In this paper we consider an IEEE 802.11p-based Road Side Unit (RSU) infrastructure for FCD collection. Installing RSUs in order to acquire perfect coverage may prove to be a costly solution, while gaps between the coverage...... such as data delivery ratio, data collection update interval and size of measured data. We have proposed some heuristics that can be used while deciding on the distance between neighboring RSUs....

  13. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  14. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Flexible Car Body of Straddle Monorail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanmu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the finite element model of straddle monorail vehicle, a rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model considering vehicle body’s flexibility is established. The influence of vertical stiffness and vertical damping of the running wheel on the modal parameters of the car body is analyzed. The effect of flexible car body on modal parameters and vehicle ride quality is also studied. The results show that when the vertical stiffness of running wheel is less than 1 MN / m, the car body bounce and pitch frequency increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel, when the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1MN / m or more, car body bounce and pitch frequency remained unchanged; When the vertical stiffness of the running wheel is below 1.8 MN / m, the vehicle body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel; When the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1.8MN / m or more, the car body bounce and pitch damping ratio remained unchanged; The running wheel vertical damping on the car body bounce and pitch frequency has no effect; Car body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical damping of the running wheel. The flexibility of the car body has no effect on the modal parameters of the car, which will improve the vehicle ride quality index.

  16. Bumper and grille airbags concept for enhanced vehicle compatibility in side impact: phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Saeed; Li, Xiaowei; Prasad, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental physics and numerous field studies have shown a higher injury and fatality risk for occupants in smaller and lighter vehicles when struck by heavier, taller and higher vehicles. The consensus is that the significant parameters influencing compatibility in front-to-side crashes are geometric interaction, vehicle stiffness, and vehicle mass. The objective of this research is to develop a concept of deployable bumper and grille airbags for improved vehicle compatibility in side impact. The external airbags, deployed upon signals from sensors, may help mitigate the effect of weight, geometry and stiffness differences and reduce side intrusions. However, a highly reliable pre-crash sensing system is required to enable the reliable deployment, which is currently not technologically feasible. Analytical and numerical methods and hardware testing were used to help develop the deployable external airbags concept. Various Finite Element (FE) models at different stages were developed and an extensive number of iterations were conducted to help optimize airbag and inflator parameters to achieve desired targets. The concept development was executed and validated in two phases. This paper covers Phase II ONLY, which includes: (1) Re-design of the airbag geometry, pressure, and deployment strategies; (2) Further validation using a Via sled test of a 48 kph perpendicular side impact of an SUV-type impactor against a stationary car with US-SID-H3 crash dummy in the struck side; (3) Design of the reaction surface necessary for the bumper airbag functionality. The concept was demonstrated through live deployment of external airbags with a reaction surface in a full-scale perpendicular side impact of an SUV against a stationary passenger car at 48 kph. This research investigated only the concept of the inflatable devices since pre-crash sensing development was beyond the scope of this research. The concept design parameters of the bumper and grille airbags are presented in

  17. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  18. 49 CFR 231.2 - Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends... cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are high-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  19. Periodic vehicle inspection (MOT). [previously: Periodic Vehicle Inspection of cars (MOT).

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s the periodic vehicle inspection (MOT) of various categories of vehicles was introduced in the Netherlands. This fact sheet will discuss the legal framework of this measure and the research carried out into its effects on road safety, also in an international context. For instance, the technical conditions of cars at inspection as well as that of cars involved in crashes were studied. Tyre pressure will also be discussed in this fact sheet.

  20. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2...

  1. Vehicle Weight in Gipps' Car-Following Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nerem, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Car-following models are mathematical models, which describe the situation where vehicles drive behind each other on a single lane road section with no overtaking possibilities. The purpose of the models is to estimate how a vehicle reacts to the behavior of the vehicle ahead. A weakness in these models is that they do not take the weight of each vehicle into account. It can however be shown that a vehicle?s weight affects its driving behavior.The purpose of this master?s thesis is to investi...

  2. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    restraints and internal structures-especially the passenger seat. Risk analysis indicated that the head had the highest risk of sustaining an injury in the B-pillar case compared to the other 2 cases. Higher lap belt load (3.4 kN) may correspond to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2 pelvic injury observed in the B-pillar case. Risk of injury to other soft anatomical structures varied with impact configuration and restraint interaction. The average CORA rating was 0.7. In general, the results indicated that the high-speed impacts against the pole resulted in severe injuries, higher excursions followed by low-speed pole, high-speed moving deformable barrier (MDB), and low-speed MDB impacts. The vehicle and occupant kinematics varied with different impact setups and the latter kinematics were likely influenced by restraint effectiveness. Increased restraint engagement increased the injury risk to the corresponding anatomic structure, whereas ineffective restraint engagement increased the occupant excursion, resulting in a direct impact to the struck-side interior structures.

  3. Car firms and low-emission vehicles: The evolution of incumbents’ strategies in relation to policy developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnsack, R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the developments in the international car industry from 1997 to 2010 in relation to low-emission vehicles, with specific attention to electric vehicles. More specifically, the study seeks to better understand strategies of car manufacturers and the interplay of

  4. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  5. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  6. Vehicles' Sample Generation and Realization in Car-Following Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Danilevičius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the article is the adjustment of car-following mathematical models according to collected traffic data. Here the problem of ineffectively burdened road section is solved by adjusting the speed of vehicles in order to reduce the distance between the cars to a safe distance. The paper analyzes the car-following models to measure the interaction between vehicles in the same lane. Experimental data processed in Matlab and traffic distribution histograms are created using the most appropriate distribution curve. Distribution curve is used to compile congestion scenario of road section. Applicable model uses fundamental diagrams, which are created from the kind of traffic flow measurements. The mathematical model allows to choose the optimal vehicle speed while maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and to make recommendations to improve the traffic as the process.

  7. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  8. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dismissive and deceptive car dealerships create barriers to electric vehicle adoption at the point of sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazua de Rubens, Gerardo; Noel, Lance; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2018-06-01

    As most consumers do not have pre-existing knowledge of electric vehicles (EVs), and current market conditions favour petrol and diesel vehicles, car dealership experiences may strongly influence EV purchasing decisions. Here, we show that car dealerships pose a significant barrier at the point of sale due to a perceived lack of business case viability in relation to petrol and diesel vehicles. In 126 shopping experiences at 82 car dealerships across Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, we find that dealers were dismissive of EVs, misinformed shoppers on vehicle specifications, omitted EVs from the sales conversation and strongly oriented customers towards petrol and diesel vehicle options. Dealers' technological orientation, willingness to sell and displayed knowledge of EVs were the main contributors to likely purchase intentions. These findings combined with expert interviews suggest that government and industry signalling affect sales strategies and purchasing trends. Policy and business strategies that address barriers at the point of sale are needed to accelerate EV adoption.

  10. Glucose Sensor MdHXK1 Phosphorylates and Stabilizes MdbHLH3 to Promote Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Da-Gang; Zhang, Quan-Yan; An, Jian-Ping; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Glucose induces anthocyanin accumulation in many plant species; however, the molecular mechanism involved in this process remains largely unknown. Here, we found that apple hexokinase MdHXK1, a glucose sensor, was involved in sensing exogenous glucose and regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. In vitro and in vivo assays suggested that MdHXK1 interacted directly with and phosphorylated an anthocyanin-associated bHLH transcription factor (TF) MdbHLH3 at its Ser361 site in response to glucose. Furthermore, both the hexokinase_2 domain and signal peptide are crucial for the MdHXK1-mediated phosphorylation of MdbHLH3. Moreover, phosphorylation modification stabilized MdbHLH3 protein and enhanced its transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, thereby increasing anthocyanin biosynthesis. Finally, a series of transgenic analyses in apple calli and fruits demonstrated that MdHXK1 controlled glucose-induced anthocyanin accumulation at least partially, if not completely, via regulating MdbHLH3. Overall, our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of the glucose sensor HXK1 modulation of anthocyanin accumulation, which occur by directly regulating the anthocyanin-related bHLH TFs in response to a glucose signal in plants. PMID:27560976

  11. Glucose Sensor MdHXK1 Phosphorylates and Stabilizes MdbHLH3 to Promote Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Gang Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucose induces anthocyanin accumulation in many plant species; however, the molecular mechanism involved in this process remains largely unknown. Here, we found that apple hexokinase MdHXK1, a glucose sensor, was involved in sensing exogenous glucose and regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. In vitro and in vivo assays suggested that MdHXK1 interacted directly with and phosphorylated an anthocyanin-associated bHLH transcription factor (TF MdbHLH3 at its Ser361 site in response to glucose. Furthermore, both the hexokinase_2 domain and signal peptide are crucial for the MdHXK1-mediated phosphorylation of MdbHLH3. Moreover, phosphorylation modification stabilized MdbHLH3 protein and enhanced its transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, thereby increasing anthocyanin biosynthesis. Finally, a series of transgenic analyses in apple calli and fruits demonstrated that MdHXK1 controlled glucose-induced anthocyanin accumulation at least partially, if not completely, via regulating MdbHLH3. Overall, our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of the glucose sensor HXK1 modulation of anthocyanin accumulation, which occur by directly regulating the anthocyanin-related bHLH TFs in response to a glucose signal in plants.

  12. Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Bulumulle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications.

  13. Street-side vehicle detection, classification and change detection using mobile laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Schindler, Konrad; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Statistics on street-side car parks, e.g. occupancy rates, parked vehicle types, parking durations, are of great importance for urban planning and policy making. Related studies, e.g. vehicle detection and classification, mostly focus on static images or video. Whereas mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are increasingly utilized for urban street environment perception due to their direct 3D information acquisition, high accuracy and movability. In this paper, we design a complete system for car park monitoring, including vehicle recognition, localization, classification and change detection, from laser scanning point clouds. The experimental data are acquired by an MLS system using high frequency laser scanner which scans the streets vertically along the system's moving trajectory. The point clouds are firstly classified as ground, building façade, and street objects which are then segmented using state-of-the-art methods. Each segment is treated as an object hypothesis, and its geometric features are extracted. Moreover, a deformable vehicle model is fitted to each object. By fitting an explicit model to the vehicle points, detailed information, such as precise position and orientation, can be obtained. The model parameters are also treated as vehicle features. Together with the geometric features, they are applied to a supervised learning procedure for vehicle or non-vehicle recognition. The classes of detected vehicles are also investigated. Whether vehicles have changed across two datasets acquired at different times is detected to estimate the durations. Here, vehicles are trained pair-wisely. Two same or different vehicles are paired up as training samples. As a result, the vehicle recognition, classification and change detection accuracies are 95.9%, 86.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Vehicle modelling improves not only the recognition rate, but also the localization precision compared to bounding boxes.

  14. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  15. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  16. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  17. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  18. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    In crashes between a car and a light truck or van (LTV), car occupants are more likely to be killed than LTV occupants. The extent this is due to the greater harm imposed by LTVs on cars or the greater protection they offer their own occupants is not known. We conducted a case-control study of collisions between two passenger vehicles in the USA during 1990-2008. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes (N=157,684); one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes (N=379,458). Adjusted for the type of vehicle they were riding in and other confounders, occupants of vehicles colliding with any type of LTVs (categorised as compact sport utility vehicles (SUV), full-size SUVs, minivans, full-size vans, compact pickups and full-size pickups) were at higher risk of death compared with occupants colliding with cars. Adjusted for the type of vehicle they crashed with and other confounders, occupants of LTVs in a collision with any vehicle were at lower risk of death compared with car occupants. Compared with a crash between two cars, the overall RR of death in a crash between any of the other 27 different combinations of vehicle types was 1.0 or greater, except for crashes between two full-size pickups, where the RR of death was 0.9. Although LTVs protect their own occupants better than cars do, LTVs are associated with an excess total risk of death in crashes with cars or other LTVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

    2006-02-10

    Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect 'the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat' (Joy and Hartley 1953-54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle 'feel' accompanying modern trends in automotive design, such as drive-by-wire and increased automation. The aim of this paper is to move the debate from the anecdotal to the scientific level. This is achieved by using the Brunel University driving simulator to replicate some of these trends and changes by presenting (or removing) different forms of non-visual vehicle feedback, and measuring resultant driver situational awareness (SA) using a probe-recall method. The findings confirm that vehicle feedback plays a key role in coupling the driver to the dynamics of their environment (Moray 2004), with the role of auditory feedback particularly prominent. As a contrast, drivers in the study also rated their self-perceived levels of SA and a concerning dissociation occurred between the two sets of results. Despite the large changes in vehicle feedback presented in the simulator, and the measured changes in SA, drivers appeared to have little self-awareness of these changes. Most worryingly, drivers demonstrated little awareness of diminished SA. The issues surrounding vehicle feedback are therefore similar to the classic problems and ironies studied in aviation and automation, and highlight the role that ergonomics can also play within the domain of contemporary vehicle design.

  20. Car dieselization: A solution to China's energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Shen, Wei; Yang, Shuhong; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there is a renewed interest in car dieselization in China to address the challenge of oil security. We developed an econometric model to estimate the vehicle fuels and crude oil demands. The results indicate that if the average travel distance of cars is maintained at the level of 2010–16,000 km/yr, and if the distillation products mix of the refineries remains unchanged, China's crude oil demand in 2020 will reach 1060 million tonnes (Mt), which also results in an excess supply of 107 Mt of diesel. A new balance of diesel supply and demand can be reached and crude oil demand can be significantly reduced to 840 Mt by improving the production ratio between diesel and gasoline on the supply side and promoting passenger vehicle dieselization on the demand side. The crude oil demand will be reduced to 810 Mt in 2020, if the vehicle travel distance gradually drops to 12,000 km/yr. If so, dieselization will provide a rather limited added value—only 6% further oil saving by 2020. Dieselization is not a silver bullet but it depends on a series of key factors: growth rate of gross domestic products (GDP), vehicle sales, and vehicle annual travel distance. -- Highlights: •Econometric approach is employed to forecast fuel and oil demand. •Dieselization is a potential policy option to improve China's oil security. •In favorable conditions, dieselization will cut more than 200 Mt oil import in 2020. •In some cases; however, dieselization may have limited effect on oil saving

  1. Forecasting the State of Health of Electric Vehicle Batteries to Evaluate the Viability of Car Sharing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Semanjski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic of car sharing, and the implications on the battery’s state of health (SoH. In this paper, we forecast the SoH of two identical EVs being used in different car-sharing practices. For this purpose, we use real life transaction data from charging stations and different EV sensors. The results indicate that insight into users’ driving and charging behavior can provide a valuable point of reference for car-sharing system designers. In particular, the forecasting results show that the moment when an EV battery reaches its theoretical end of life can differ in as much as a quarter of the time when vehicles are shared under different conditions.

  2. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82... Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. (a) Unless...

  3. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight... position in a train of each loaded placarded car, transport vehicle, freight container, and bulk packaging..., and other specially equipped cars with tie-down devices for securing vehicles. Permanent bulk head...

  4. The effects of revised barrier and dummy specification in the side impact test procedure or EuroNCAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waagmeester, C.D.; Versmissen, T.; Ratingen, M.R. van; Zuljar, R. [TNO Automotive, Crash Safety Center, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper the effects of potential changes to the side impact test in EuroNCAP are studied. Research in Europe has come to the point that enhanced alternatives will soon become available for the test tools used, in the form of the EUROSID-2 (ES-2), Q child dummies and the progressive MDB barrier. The objective of this study is to illustrate the effect that introduction of the new test tools could have in terms of injury outcome and rating for a typical mid-size family saloon vehicle. For this, a full-scale test, previously carried out as part of the EuroNCAP programme, has been repeated three times replacing the current barrier and/or dummies by the new alternatives. Even though these new tools are designed to meet the existing specifications, the comparison of old and new results show that the end result, i.e. the car rating, may be substantially influenced. For the car tested in this study, the added effect of dummy and barrier change would lower the rating from 14.56 to 11.62 points (91% to 73%). Some small, not critical, values measured with EUROSID-1 (V*C's) increased 500 to 600% by using the new tools. However, the car used in this study would still meet the ECE R95 criteria. Cars that are designed closer to the legislation limits may fail to comply. Comparing the 'New dummies - Old barrier' test with equivalent tests performed in the ES-2 evaluation program show a substantial variation in injury parameter results. Based on the four tests with one car type in this study it can be illustrated that the new barrier may show an undesired increase of crash test results. (orig.)

  5. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Bin; Li, Shen; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Zhao, Qiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the cold-induced bHLH transcription factor gene MdbHLH3 was isolated from an apple tree and was found to interact physically and specifically through two regions (amino acids 1-23 and 186-228) at the N terminus with the MYB partner MdMYB1 (allelic to MdMYB10). Subsequently, MdbHLH3 bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes MdDFR and MdUFGT and the regulatory gene MdMYB1 to activate their expression. Furthermore, the MdbHLH3 protein was post-translationally modified, possibly involving phosphorylation following exposure to LTs, which enhanced its promoter-binding capacity and transcription activity. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car as...

  7. The effect of linear spring number at side load of McPherson suspension in electric city car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Sigit Setijo; Suprihadi, Agus; Makhrojan, Agus; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the spring suspension on Mc Pherson type is to control vehicle stability and increase ride convenience although having tendencies of side load presence. The purpose of this study is to obtain simulation results of Mc Pherson suspension spring in the electric city car by using the finite element method and determining the side load that appears on the spring suspension. This research is conducted in several stages; they are linear spring designing models with various spring coil and spring suspension modeling using FEM software. Suspension spring is compressed in the vertical direction (z-axis) and at the upper part of the suspension springs will be seen the force that arises towards the x, y, and z-axis to simulate the side load arising on the upper part of the spring. The results of FEM simulation that the side load on the spring toward the x and y-axis which the value gets close to zero is the most stable spring.

  8. Analyzing the Relationship Between Car Generation and Severity of Motor-Vehicle Crashes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove

    2013-01-01

    .e., car’s first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity...... car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i...... analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers’ injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked...

  9. 49 CFR 231.3 - Drop-end high-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end high-side gondola cars. 231.3 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(2)). (3...

  10. 49 CFR 231.5 - Drop-end low-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end low-side gondola cars. 231.5 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(2)). (3...

  11. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  12. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  13. The Safety of Transnational Imported Second-Hand Cars: A Case Study on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie Coșciug

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of imported second-hand cars (e.g., age, degree of wear and tear, technical design can increase their likelihood for traffic crashes. Three official datasets which cover an eight year period (2008–2015 are used to test the connection between importation of second-hand cars and different types of traffic crashes. The traffic crashes database was provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD. The car registration database was provided by Driving-License and Vehicles-Registration Direction (DLVRD. Right-hand driving (RHD cars database was provided by the Romanian Automotive Registry (RAR. A spatio-temporal visualization of data was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS while for the statistical analysis we use regression models and Pearson-Correlation-coefficient. The analysis suggests that a significant part of the variation in the volume of traffic accidents can be explained by the volume of imported second-hand cars at the county level. Moreover, an even stronger direct relation exists between the number of imported second-hand cars and Severe Traffic Accidents but also in the case of RHD imported second-hand cars. The overall impact of imported second-hand cars on the traffic safety in Romania is significant but small in comparison to other types of car registration. Study results belong to the category of empirical evidence production which can improve the quality of existing traffic regulations focused both on organizing and ensuring traffic safety, and on the policy of sustainable transport infrastructure development.

  14. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  15. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  16. An Effective Surface Modeling Method for Car Styling from a Side-View Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBao-jun; ZHANGXue-fang; LVZhang-quan; QIYi-chao

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an almost-automatic technique for generating 3D car styling surface models based on a single side-view image. Our approach combines the prior knowledge of car styling and deformable curve network model to obtain an automatic modeling process. Firstly, we define the consistent parameterized curve template for 2D and 3D case respectivelyby analyzingthe characteristic lines for car styling. Then, a semi-automatic extraction from a side-view car image is adopted. Thirdly, statistic morphable model of 3D curve network isused to get the initial solution with sparse point constraints.Withonly afew post-processing operations, the optimized curve network models for creating surfaces are obtained. Finally, the styling surfaces are automatically generated using template-based parametric surface modeling method. More than 50 3D curve network models are constructed as the morphable database. We show that this intelligent modeling toolsimplifiesthe exhausted modeling task, and also demonstratemeaningful results of our approach.

  17. A Choice Experiment on Alternative Fuel Vehicle Preferences of Private Car Owners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.; Koetse, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an online stated choice experiment on preferences of Dutch private car owners for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Results show that negative preferences for alternative fuel vehicles are large, especially for the electric and fuel cell car,

  18. An automotive vehicle dynamics prototyping platform based on a remote control model car

    OpenAIRE

    SOLMAZ, Selim; COŞKUN, Türker

    2013-01-01

    The use of a modified remote control (RC) model car as a vehicle dynamics testing and development platform is detailed. Vehicle dynamics testing is an important aspect of automotive engineering and it plays a key role during the design and tuning of active safety control systems. Considering the fact that such tests are conductedi at great expense, scaled model cars can potentially be used to help with the process to reduce the costs. With this view, we instrument and develop a stand...

  19. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  20. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other...

  1. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  2. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically

  3. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  4. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  5. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars...

  6. The molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin metabolism in apple using the MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Nan; Liu, Jingxuan; Qu, Changzhi; Wang, Yicheng; Jiang, Shenghui; Lu, Ninglin; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2017-05-01

    MdMYB16 forms homodimers and directly inhibits anthocyanin synthesis via its C-terminal EAR repressor. It weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis when overexpressing MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16. MdMYB16 could interact with MdbHLH33. Anthocyanins are strong antioxidants that play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The germplasm of Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana is important for the study of anthocyanin metabolism. To date, only limited studies have examined the negative regulatory mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in apple. Here, we analyzed the relationship between anthocyanin levels and MdMYB16 expression in mature Red Crisp 1-5 apple (M. domestica) fruit, generated an evolutionary tree, and identified an EAR suppression sequence and a bHLH binding motif of the MdMYB16 protein using protein sequence analyses. Overexpression of MdMYB16 or MdMYB16 without bHLH binding sequence (LBSMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus inhibited MdUFGT and MdANS expression and anthocyanin synthesis. However, overexpression of MdMYB16 without the EAR sequence (LESMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus had no inhibitory effect on anthocyanin. The yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdMYB16 and LESMdMYB16 interacted the promoters of MdANS and MdUFGT, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that MdMYB16 formed homodimers and interacted with MdbHLH33, however, the LBSMdMYB16 could not interact with MdbHLH33. We overexpressed MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16 and found that it weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis. Together, these results suggested that MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 may be important part of the regulatory network controlling the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  7. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars or other vehicles having carried... treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars...

  8. Driving a modified car: a simple but unexploited adjunct in the management of patients with chronic right sided foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl; Abbassian, Ali; Trompeter, Alex; Solan, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    Driving is important in maintaining independence. Limb pain can significantly limit this ability. Automatic vehicles can restore independence to people with left lower or upper limb disability but those with right-sided pathology are disadvantaged in this respect. This is despite the fact that numerous centers across the UK specialize in modifying automatic cars such that they can be driven solely with the use of the left foot. The knowledge of this amongst patients and health professionals is lacking. In this study we aim to confirm this fact and discuss the legal and practical aspects of driving a modified car. We used patients who had undergone right-sided ankle and hind foot fusions or ankle replacements, as we believed they would have had a long period of right-sided leg pain that may have affected their driving ability. A consecutive series was identified from operative records over a 2 year period and patients contacted by telephone. We identified 33 patients, of these 22 were available for telephonic interview. The average duration of right leg disability was 7.5 years. All responders had seen at least two healthcare professionals but car modification had never been discussed at any stage. Only 3 were aware of such modifications and of these all had been informed by sources outside the health service. The availability of right to left modification of automatic cars is not widely known by patients and healthcare professionals alike with potential benefits of this simple adjunct not being exploited. More needs to be done to generate awareness of its existence as it may have a significant impact on patient independence. Copyright © 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The science of vehicle dynamics handling, braking, and ride of road and race cars

    CERN Document Server

    Guiggiani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics is often perceived as a quite intuitive subject. As a matter of fact, lots of people are able to drive a car. Nevertheless, without a rigorous mathematical formulation it is very difficult to truly understand the physical phenomena involved in the motion of a road vehicle. In this book, mathematical models of vehicles are developed, always paying attention to state the relevant assumptions and to provide explanations for each step. This approach allows for a deep, yet simple, analysis of the dynamics of vehicles, without having to resort to foggy concepts. The reader will soon achieve a clear understanding of the subject, which will be of great help both in dealing with the challenges of designing and testing new vehicles and in tackling new research topics. The book covers handling and performance of both road and race cars. A new approach, called MAP (Map of Achievable Performance), is presented and thoroughly discussed. It provides a global and intuitive picture of the handling features of...

  10. Improvement of Network Performance by In-Vehicle Routing Using Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdien A. Klunder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study which gives insight into the size of improvement that is possible with individual in-car routing advice based on the actual traffic situation derived from floating car data (FCD. It also gives an idea about the required penetration rate of floating car data needed to achieve a certain degree of improvement. The study uses real loop detector data from the region of Amsterdam collected for over a year, a route generating algorithm for in-car routing advice, and emulated floating car data to generate the routing advice. The case with in-car routing advice has been compared to the base case, where drivers base their routing decisions on average knowledge of travel times in the network. The improvement in total delay using the in-vehicle system is dependent on penetration rate and accuracy of the floating car data and varies from 2.0% to 3.4% for 10% penetration rate. This leads to yearly savings of about 15 million euros if delay is monetarised using standard prices for value of time (VOT.

  11. Effect of rear end spoiler angle of a sedan car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashud, Mohammad; Das, Rubel Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Automotive vehicle's performance, safety, maneuverability can be influenced by multi-disciplinary factors such as car engine, tires, aerodynamics, and ergonomics of design. With the recent years, inflation in the fuel prices & the demand to have reduced greenhouse emissions has played a significant role in redefining the car aerodynamics. The shape of the vehicle uses about 3% of fuel to overcome the resistance in urban driving, while it takes 11% of fuel for the highway driving. This considerable high value of fuel usage in highway driving attracts several design engineers to enhance the aerodynamics of the vehicle using minimal design changes. Besides, automotive vehicles have become so much faster experiencing uplift force which creates unexpected accidents. This brings the idea of using external devices, which could be attached to the present vehicle without changing the body. This paper is based on the design, developments and numeral calculation of the effects of external device, which will be spoiler that mounted at the rear side of the sedan car to make the present vehicles more aerodynamically attractive. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported using commercially available Autodesk Simulation CFD software tool.

  12. Analysis of vehicle dynamics under sadden cross wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the way of calculating aerodynamic forces acting on a vehicle passing in the region of sadden cross wind was presented. The CarDyn, a vehicle dynamics simulation program, developed by the author was used. The effects of the cross wind were studied with a fixed steering wheel simulation. On the base of computer simulations the car cross wind sensitivity were determined, and vehicle responses such as lateral offset, side acceleration and yaw angular velocity are presented.

  13. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In

  14. The new car market for electric vehicles and the potential for fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihm, Alexander; Trommer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to significantly reduce road transport emissions, given an increasingly renewable power generation. While technological issues are more and more being overcome, the economic viability and thus possible adoption is still constrained, mainly by higher prices than for conventional vehicles. In our work we analyze possible market developments for electric vehicles with an application to Germany. We develop a drivetrain choice model with economical, technical and social constraints on the current vehicle registrations and inventory. It estimates the demand for electric vehicles until 2030 for private and commercially registered cars as well as light commercial vehicles. The results show a replacement potential of almost one third of the total German annual mileage for these vehicles. The result has a high granularity to allow for detailed emission calculation along different spatial areas as well as vehicle and engine types. Besides a baseline forecast, our method allows for calculating different scenarios regarding policy actions or the future development of important parameters such as energy prices. The results provide insights for policy measures as well as for transport and environmental modeling. - Highlights: • We model the potential German market for electric vehicles using total cost of ownership. • The results show a substitution potential of one third of the total German annual mileage. • Plug-in hybrid drivetrains outperform battery electric ones due to their cost advantages. • Suburbia around large cities is the largest market for EVs. • The first main vehicle categories for EVs are large and medium-sized company cars

  15. Incorporating vehicle mix in stimulus-response car-following models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Siuhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to incorporate vehicle mix in stimulus-response car-following models. Separate models were estimated for acceleration and deceleration responses to account for vehicle mix via both movement state and vehicle type. For each model, three sub-models were developed for different pairs of following vehicles including “automobile following automobile,” “automobile following truck,” and “truck following automobile.” The estimated model parameters were then validated against other data from a similar region and roadway. The results indicated that drivers' behaviors were significantly different among the different pairs of following vehicles. Also the magnitude of the estimated parameters depends on the type of vehicle being driven and/or followed. These results demonstrated the need to use separate models depending on movement state and vehicle type. The differences in parameter estimates confirmed in this paper highlight traffic safety and operational issues of mixed traffic operation on a single lane. The findings of this paper can assist transportation professionals to improve traffic simulation models used to evaluate the impact of different strategies on ameliorate safety and performance of highways. In addition, driver response time lag estimates can be used in roadway design to calculate important design parameters such as stopping sight distance on horizontal and vertical curves for both automobiles and trucks.

  16. Fuel consumption optimization for smart hybrid electric vehicle during a car-following process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Xiangyu; Song, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide large potential to save energy and reduce emission, and smart vehicles bring out great convenience and safety for drivers. By combining these two technologies, vehicles may achieve excellent performances in terms of dynamic, economy, environmental friendliness, safety, and comfort. Hence, a smart hybrid electric vehicle (s-HEV) is selected as a platform in this paper to study a car-following process with optimizing the fuel consumption. The whole process is a multi-objective optimal problem, whose optimal solution is not just adding an energy management strategy (EMS) to an adaptive cruise control (ACC), but a deep fusion of these two methods. The problem has more restricted conditions, optimal objectives, and system states, which may result in larger computing burden. Therefore, a novel fuel consumption optimization algorithm based on model predictive control (MPC) is proposed and some search skills are adopted in receding horizon optimization to reduce computing burden. Simulations are carried out and the results indicate that the fuel consumption of proposed method is lower than that of the ACC+EMS method on the condition of ensuring car-following performances.

  17. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  18. An extended two-lane car-following model accounting for inter-vehicle communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hui; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel car-following model with inter-vehicle communication to explore each vehicle's movement in a two-lane traffic system when an incident occurs on a lane. The numerical results show that the proposed model can perfectly describe each vehicle's motion when an incident occurs, i.e., no collision occurs while the classical full velocity difference (FVD) model produces collision on each lane, which shows the proposed model is more reasonable. The above results can help drivers to reasonably adjust their driving behaviors when an incident occurs in a two-lane traffic system.

  19. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  20. Accident or Suicide? Single-Vehicle Car Accidents and the Intent Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Dennis L.; Warner, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Brief case studies of single-vehicle car crashes are used to explore the relationship between this method of death and the intent to commit suicide. The author attempts to determine what criteria can be used to determine whether suicide was the intent, and how death by automobile crash can be determined a suicide. (JPS)

  1. Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advertising of vehicles has been studied from a safety perspective but not in terms of vehicle air pollutants. We aimed to examine the content and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution-related information, in light passenger vehicle advertisements. Methods Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period 2001–2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements. This was supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Results The advertisements studied provided some information on fuel type (52%, and engine size (39%; but hardly any provided information on fuel efficiency (3%, or emissions (4%. Over the five-year period the reported engine size increased significantly, while fuel efficiency did not improve. For the vehicles advertised, for which relevant official website data could be obtained, the average "greenhouse rating" for carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions was 5.1, with a range from 0.5 to 8.5 (on a scale with 10 being the best and 0.5 being the most polluting. The average CO2 emissions were 50% higher than the average for cars made by European manufacturers. The average "air pollution" rating for the advertised vehicles was 5.4 (on the same 1–10 scale. The yearly averages for the "greenhouse" or "air pollution" ratings did not change significantly over the five-year period. One advertised hybrid vehicle had a fuel consumption that was under half the average (4.4 versus 9.9 L/100 km, as well as the best "greenhouse" and "air pollution" ratings. Conclusion To enhance informed consumer choice and to control greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, governments should introduce regulations on the content of vehicle advertisements and marketing (as started by the European Union. Similar regulations are already in place for the marketing of many other consumer products.

  2. Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background The advertising of vehicles has been studied from a safety perspective but not in terms of vehicle air pollutants. We aimed to examine the content and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution-related information, in light passenger vehicle advertisements. Methods Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period 2001–2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements). This was supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Results The advertisements studied provided some information on fuel type (52%), and engine size (39%); but hardly any provided information on fuel efficiency (3%), or emissions (4%). Over the five-year period the reported engine size increased significantly, while fuel efficiency did not improve. For the vehicles advertised, for which relevant official website data could be obtained, the average "greenhouse rating" for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions was 5.1, with a range from 0.5 to 8.5 (on a scale with 10 being the best and 0.5 being the most polluting). The average CO2 emissions were 50% higher than the average for cars made by European manufacturers. The average "air pollution" rating for the advertised vehicles was 5.4 (on the same 1–10 scale). The yearly averages for the "greenhouse" or "air pollution" ratings did not change significantly over the five-year period. One advertised hybrid vehicle had a fuel consumption that was under half the average (4.4 versus 9.9 L/100 km), as well as the best "greenhouse" and "air pollution" ratings. Conclusion To enhance informed consumer choice and to control greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, governments should introduce regulations on the content of vehicle advertisements and marketing (as started by the European Union). Similar regulations are already in place for the marketing of many other consumer products. PMID:18445291

  3. Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2008-04-29

    The advertising of vehicles has been studied from a safety perspective but not in terms of vehicle air pollutants. We aimed to examine the content and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution-related information, in light passenger vehicle advertisements. Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period 2001-2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements). This was supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. The advertisements studied provided some information on fuel type (52%), and engine size (39%); but hardly any provided information on fuel efficiency (3%), or emissions (4%). Over the five-year period the reported engine size increased significantly, while fuel efficiency did not improve. For the vehicles advertised, for which relevant official website data could be obtained, the average "greenhouse rating" for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions was 5.1, with a range from 0.5 to 8.5 (on a scale with 10 being the best and 0.5 being the most polluting). The average CO2 emissions were 50% higher than the average for cars made by European manufacturers. The average "air pollution" rating for the advertised vehicles was 5.4 (on the same 1-10 scale). The yearly averages for the "greenhouse" or "air pollution" ratings did not change significantly over the five-year period. One advertised hybrid vehicle had a fuel consumption that was under half the average (4.4 versus 9.9 L/100 km), as well as the best "greenhouse" and "air pollution" ratings. To enhance informed consumer choice and to control greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, governments should introduce regulations on the content of vehicle advertisements and marketing (as started by the European Union). Similar regulations are already in place for the marketing of many other consumer products.

  4. Crash tests for passenger cars and their relationship to the actual accident occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, Hermann; Lutter, Gerhard; Sigmund, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Current consensus about crash tests implies that, for verification of self-protection of a vehicle or its occupants, at least three full size tests with the following specifications are necessary:(1)frontal impact against a rigid, non-moving 0 -barrier with 100% overlap;(2)frontal offset impact against a rigid, non-moving 15 -barrier with 50% overlap (impact speed between 50 and 55kmh -1 );(3)side impact of a moving deformable barrier; preferably according to EEVC-method (impact speed 50kmh -1 ).From the social general view it is not sufficient to test only the self-protection of the vehicle and to give most importance to the front of the vehicle. The other factors of passive safety, partner protection and compatibility, respectively, have to be included, as two thirds of the cost of injuries originates from car-to-car accidents, and only one third from vehicle collisions against fixed objects. It follows that at least one additional test of compatibility has to be added to those mentioned above. It has to be investigated whether this compatibility test could be a frontal impact against a controllably deformable barrier and could substitute one or even two of the first-mentioned tests. ((orig.))

  5. Parameter study for child injury mitigation in near-side impacts through FE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marianne; Pipkorn, Bengt; Lövsund, Per

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crash-related car parameters on head and chest injury measures for 3- and 12-year-old children in near-side impacts. The evaluation was made using a model of a complete passenger car that was impacted laterally by a barrier. The car model was validated in 2 crash conditions: the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the US New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) side impact tests. The Small Side Impact Dummy (SID-IIs) and the human body model 3 (HBM3) (Total HUman Model for Safety [THUMS] 3-year-old) finite element models were used for the parametric investigation (HBM3 on a booster). The car parameters were as follows: vehicle mass, side impact structure stiffness, a head air bag, a thorax-pelvis air bag, and a seat belt with pretensioner. The studied dependent variables were as follows: resultant head linear acceleration, resultant head rotational acceleration, chest viscous criterion, rib deflection, and relative velocity at head impact. The chest measurements were only considered for the SID-IIs. The head air bag had the greatest effect on the head measurements for both of the occupant models. On average, it reduced the peak head linear acceleration by 54 g for the HBM3 and 78 g for the SID-IIs. The seat belt had the second greatest effect on the head measurements; the peak head linear accelerations were reduced on average by 39 g (HBM3) and 44 g (SID-IIs). The high stiffness side structure increased the SID-IIs' head acceleration, whereas it had marginal effect on the HBM3. The vehicle mass had a marginal effect on SID-IIs' head accelerations, whereas the lower vehicle mass caused 18 g higher head acceleration for HBM3 and the greatest rotational acceleration. The thorax-pelvis air bag, vehicle mass, and seat belt pretensioner affected the chest measurements the most. The presence of a thorax-pelvis air bag, high vehicle mass, and a seat belt pretensioner all reduced the chest viscous criterion

  6. 78 FR 67213 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Porsche Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Porsche Cars North America, Inc. AGENCY... From Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has determined that... reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the 49 CFR...

  7. The contribution of concepts for shared car ownership to the solution of transport and traffic problems and the possible role of electric vehicles in these new transport concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schol, E.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Theunissen, R. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    New concepts of shared car ownership, such as Call-a-Car, can contribute to the alleviation of problems caused by traffic in the urban areas of both developed and developing countries. The effectiveness of shared car ownership as a governmental policy instrument will depend on the presence of supporting policies. Such governmental policy should be aimed at making shared car ownership attractive as a substitute for private car ownership, and not as a substitute for biking or public transport. By introducing electric vehicles in professionally operated shared car ownership organizations an extra contribution can be made to the improvement of the urban living environment. These organizations also offer the opportunity to let the electric vehicle mature commercially in a protected market environment. (author) 4 refs.

  8. A virtual observatory for photoionized nebulae: the Mexican Million Models database (3MdB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Flores-Fajardo, N.

    2015-04-01

    Photoionization models obtained with numerical codes are widely used to study the physics of the interstellar medium (planetary nebulae, HII regions, etc). Grids of models are performed to understand the effects of the different parameters used to describe the regions on the observables (mainly emission line intensities). Most of the time, only a small part of the computed results of such grids are published, and they are sometimes hard to obtain in a user-friendly format. We present here the Mexican Million Models dataBase (3MdB), an effort to resolve both of these issues in the form of a database of photoionization models, easily accessible through the MySQL protocol, and containing a lot of useful outputs from the models, such as the intensities of 178 emission lines, the ionic fractions of all the ions, etc. Some examples of the use of the 3MdB are also presented.

  9. Using in-car feedback to influence travel decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, I T [WS Atkins plc, Dublin (Ireland); O' Mahony, M M; Broderick, B M [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    1999-11-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a need to reduce private car use, thereby alleviating congested urban areas and reducing fuel consumption and emissions from transport vehicles. This paper examines one approach to achieving this aim, based on the hypothesis that car owners do not correctly perceive the full cost of a car trip. The primary objective of the research was to assess the potential for correcting this misperception through the use of a digital car running-cost meter, installed on the dashboard of a car, which displays on a real-time basis the cost of each trip. Cost meter information on marginal trip cost, external cost and the effect of driving style was provided to a sample of drivers in a small pilot action in Dublin. The findings from the data (diaries and interviews) are presented and extrapolated by means of a transport network model to assess potential energy saving. The key findings from the work are as follows. (a) There was a significant reduction in off-peak-period trips observed as a result of the car meter but there was no significant reduction in time spent in the car, distance travelled by car and cost of driving. (b) A surprising finding from the project was that 40% of the subjects who happened to be changing their vehicle shortly after being involved in the project chose more fuel-efficient vehicles. They attributed their choice in part to their increased awareness of fuel costs as a result of their involvement in the project. (author)

  10. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs.

  11. Feasible Path Generation Using Bezier Curves for Car-Like Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latip, Nor Badariyah Abdul; Omar, Rosli

    2017-08-01

    When planning a collision-free path for an autonomous vehicle, the main criteria that have to be considered are the shortest distance, lower computation time and completeness, i.e. a path can be found if one exists. Besides that, a feasible path for the autonomous vehicle is also crucial to guarantee that the vehicle can reach the target destination considering its kinematic constraints such as non-holonomic and minimum turning radius. In order to address these constraints, Bezier curves is applied. In this paper, Bezier curves are modeled and simulated using Matlab software and the feasibility of the resulting path is analyzed. Bezier curve is derived from a piece-wise linear pre-planned path. It is found that the Bezier curves has the capability of making the planned path feasible and could be embedded in a path planning algorithm for an autonomous vehicle with kinematic constraints. It is concluded that the length of segments of the pre-planned path have to be greater than a nominal value, derived from the vehicle wheelbase, maximum steering angle and maximum speed to ensure the path for the autonomous car is feasible.

  12. 77 FR 70538 - Final Decision That Certain Canadian-Certified Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    .... 126 for all passenger cars and all multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4... vehicles, U.S. Standard Canadian standard Passenger cars trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000... Protection. CMVSS 214--Side Door X X Strength. FMVSS 222--School Bus Passenger CMVSS 222--School Bus School...

  13. Investigating methods for determining mismatch in near side vehicle impacts - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Kathryn; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne; Stitzel, Joel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates vehicle mismatch in severe side-impact motor vehicle collisions. Research conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has determined that vehicle mismatch often leads to very severe injuries for occupants in the struck vehicle, because the larger striking vehicle does not engage the lower sill upon impact, resulting in severe intrusions into the occupant compartment. Previous studies have analyzed mismatched collisions according to vehicle type, not by the difference in vehicle height and weight. It is hypothesized that the combination of a heavier striking vehicle at a taller height results in more intrusion for the struck vehicle and severe injury for the near side occupant. By analyzing Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) data and occupant injury severity, it is possible to study intrusion and injuries that occur due to vehicle mismatch. CIREN enrolls seriously injured occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) across the United States. From the Toyota-Wake Forest University CIREN center, 23 near side impact cases involving two vehicles were recorded. Only 3 of these seriously injured occupant cases were not considered mismatched according to vehicle curb weight, and only 2 were not considered vehicle mismatched according to height differences. The mismatched CIREN cases had an average difference in vehicle curb weight of 737.0 kg (standard deviation of 646.8) and an average difference in vehicle height of 16.38 cm (standard deviation of 7.186). There were 13 occupants with rib fractures, 12 occupants with pelvic fractures, 9 occupants with pulmonary contusion, and 5 occupants with head injuries, among other multiple injuries. The average Injury Severity Score (ISS) for these occupants was 27, with a standard deviation of 16. The most serious injuries resulted in an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 5, which included 3 occupants. Each of these AIS 5 injuries were to different body regions on different

  14. An Improved Car-Following Model Accounting for Impact of Strong Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of strong wind on dynamic characteristic of traffic flow, an improved car-following model based on the full velocity difference model is developed in this paper. Wind force is introduced as the influence factor of car-following behavior. Among three components of wind force, lift force and side force are taken into account. The linear stability analysis is carried out and the stability condition of the newly developed model is derived. Numerical analysis is made to explore the effect of strong wind on spatial-time evolution of a small perturbation. The results show that the strong wind can significantly affect the stability of traffic flow. Driving safety in strong wind is also studied by comparing the lateral force under different wind speeds with the side friction of vehicles. Finally, the fuel consumption of vehicle in strong wind condition is explored and the results show that the fuel consumption decreased with the increase of wind speed.

  15. Traveling by Bus Instead of Car on Urban Major Roads: Safety Benefits for Vehicle Occupants, Pedestrians, and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Strauss, Jillian; Pépin, Félix; Tessier, François; Grondines, Jocelyn

    2018-04-01

    Some studies have estimated fatality and injury rates for bus occupants, but data was aggregated at the country level and made no distinction between bus types. Also, injured pedestrians and cyclists, as a result of bus travel, were overlooked. We compared injury rates for car and city bus occupants on specific urban major roads, as well as the cyclist and pedestrian injuries associated with car and bus travel. We selected ten bus routes along major urban arterials (in Montreal, Canada). Passenger-kilometers traveled were estimated from vehicle counts at intersections (2002-2010) and from bus passenger counts (2008). Police accident reports (2001-2010) provided injury data for all modes. Injury rates associated with car and bus travel were calculated for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. Injury rate ratios were also computed. The safety benefits of bus travel, defined as the number of vehicle occupant, cyclist, and pedestrian injuries saved, were estimated for each route. Overall, for all ten routes, the ratio between car and bus occupant injury rates is 3.7 (95% CI [3.4, 4.0]). The rates of pedestrian and cyclist injuries per hundred million passenger-kilometers are also significantly greater for car travel than that for bus travel: 4.1 (95% CI [3.5, 4.9]) times greater for pedestrian injuries; 5.3 (95% CI [3.8, 7.6]) times greater for cyclist injuries. Similar results were observed for fatally and severely injured vehicle occupants, cyclists, and pedestrians. At the route level, the safety benefits of bus travel increase with the difference in injury rate associated with car and bus travel but also with the amount of passenger-kilometers by bus. Results show that city bus is a safer mode than car, for vehicle occupants but also for cyclists and pedestrians traveling along these bus routes. The safety benefits of bus travel greatly vary across urban routes; this spatial variation is most likely linked to environmental factors. Understanding the

  16. Closure of the flagpole car park from 1 to 5 September

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Please note that, owing to the flag-raising ceremony to mark the accession of Romania to the status of CERN Member State, the flagpole car park will be inaccessible from the morning of 1 September 2016 until around 1 p.m. on 5 September 2016.   Users of the car park are therefore invited to remove their vehicles before 1 September and to use the Globe car park instead. ATTENTION: any vehicle left in the car park will be removed at the owners expense.

  17. The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Omarah O. Alharaki; Fahad S. Alaieri; Akram M. Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navi...

  18. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Lease Car Drivers in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we aim to get insight into preferences of Dutch lease car drivers for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Since AFVs are either not yet available on the market or have only very limited market shares, we have to rely on stated preference research. We perform a state-of-the-art conjoint analysis, based on data obtained through an online choice experiment among Dutch lease car drivers. Results show that under current tax regulations the average lease car driver is indifferent between the conventional technology, flexifuel and the hybrid car, while negative preferences exist for the plug-in hybrid, the electric and the fuel cell car. When current tax regulations would be abolished, strong negative preferences would result for all AFCs, and especially for the electric and fuel cell car. Increases in driving range, reductions in refuelling time, and reductions in additional detour time for reaching an appropriate fuel station, increase AFV preferences substantially. On average the gap between conventional technologies and AFVs remains large, however. We also find that there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences of lease car drivers, and that various market segments and potential early adopters can be identified. In this respect the most interesting finding is that preferences for electric and fuel cell cars decrease substantially, and willingness to pay for driving range increases substantially, when annual mileage increases. Annual mileage also has a substantial impact on sensitivity to monthly costs. We therefore use simulations to assess market shares of electric and fuel cell cars for different annual mileage categories. We find that people with a relatively low annual mileage are more likely to adopt than people with a relatively high annual mileage, regardless of driving range and monthly costs. For the fuel cell car we find similar results, although when driving range is high and cost differences are large, lease car

  19. Direct emission of nitrous acid (HONO) from gasoline cars in China determined by vehicle chassis dynamometer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhan; Lu, Keding; Ma, Yufang; Yang, Xinping; Zhang, Wenbin; Wu, Yusheng; Peng, Jianfei; Shuai, Shijin; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2017-11-01

    HONO plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, and while its importance is well-known, the sources of HONO are still not completely understood. As a component of ambient HONO sources, direct emission from vehicles is an area that should be extensively studied. In this study, we determined the HONO emission index for typical gasoline vehicles in the car population of China through a chassis dynamometer with different types of engines (PFI/GDI), starting conditions (cold/warm) and running styles (Beijing cycle). Emission ratios of HONO to nitrogen oxide (NOX) for the Chinese gasoline cars are determined to be in the range of (0.03-0.42) % and an averaged value is about 0.18%, which are comparable to those reported in the few studies available in Europe, the United States and Japan for gasoline cars while smaller for those of the diesel cars. The atmospheric impact of the direct HONO emission from gasoline cars was analyzed for a typical urban site in Beijing, significant contributions of the direct emission toward the HONO budget were found during morning rush hours or twilight conditions to be 8-12%.

  20. Suspension kinematic analysis of UTeM’s FV Malaysia electric vehicle racing car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Manaf, M.Z.; Latif, M.F.A.; Razak, M.S.A.; Hassan, M.Z.B.; Rosley, M.I.F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the kinematic performance of students’ racing car, namely UTeM’s FV Malaysia Electric Vehicle. An elasto-kinematic analysis approach is used to predict the car’s performance during straight line drive and curvature drive. Two suspension design factors

  1. Insights into vehicle trajectories at the handling limits: analysing open data from race car drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, John C.; Harbott, Lene K.; Gerdes, J. Christian

    2017-02-01

    Race car drivers can offer insights into vehicle control during extreme manoeuvres; however, little data from race teams is publicly available for analysis. The Revs Program at Stanford has built a collection of vehicle dynamics data acquired from vintage race cars during live racing events with the intent of making this database publicly available for future analysis. This paper discusses the data acquisition, post-processing, and storage methods used to generate the database. An analysis of available data quantifies the repeatability of professional race car driver performance by examining the statistical dispersion of their driven paths. Certain map features, such as sections with high path curvature, consistently corresponded to local minima in path dispersion, quantifying the qualitative concept that drivers anchor their racing lines at specific locations around the track. A case study explores how two professional drivers employ distinct driving styles to achieve similar lap times, supporting the idea that driving at the limits allows a family of solutions in terms of paths and speed that can be adapted based on specific spatial, temporal, or other constraints and objectives.

  2. [Road safety in Italy: epidemiology of two-wheeled motor vehicles accidents. National statistics 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anna; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Marinoni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    to describe road accidents occurred in Italy focusing, in particular, on two-wheeled motor vehicles. Analysis of road accidents based on current data referring to year 2000. Italy. In Italy, 67,127 two-wheeled motor vehicle accidents occurred in 2000. Two crash types account for 75% of the accidents: side impact and front-side impact. Per one million kilometres travelled 0.4 cars and 1.3 two-wheeled vehicles are involved (0.7 motorcycles and 2.2 mopeds). In 2000 there were 1,229 deaths and 69,543 injured riders. Males up to forty years old are the most represented. The masculinity ratio presents a decreasing trend from motorcycles to mopeds and to cars both for killed people and for injured people. The lethality rate increases with age for all types of vehicles but for mopeds this trend is much more evident. Most of the accident occur in urban road while most of the deaths happen in extra-urban road. Mopeds and motorcycles, which are a small subset of all motor vehicles (approximately 20%), are greatly overrepresented in crashes. Considering the kilometres travelled, the risk to be involved in a crash for mopeds is estimated to be 32.6 times higher than the comparable risk for cars and for motorcycles it is 17 times higher. The risk of death for riders is two times the risk for cars.

  3. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (−50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

  4. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (-50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

  5. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  6. Vehicle steering by side stick: optimising steering characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Brekelmans, J.A.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to investigate the possibilities for optimizing task performance when driving a side stick-steered vehicle. Using steer-by-wire technology, a conventional steering system was mimicked, thus yielding the possibility to modify the steering

  7. Car Travel-Related Thrombosis: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2018-06-01

    The condition sometimes referred to as "economy class syndrome," and also known as "traveler's thrombosis," is a distinctive pathological condition characterized by occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a patient who has recently experienced a long journey (i.e., ≥ 4 h). Typically, the identified travel is by airplane, but travel with other vehicles, such as trains, trucks, buses, or cars, could potentially qualify as contributing to VTE events. Although the enhanced risk of VTE after long haul flights is now widely acknowledged, albeit potentially overhyped, the risk of venous thrombosis after prolonged travel by other modes of transport, in particular, by cars, is less well appreciated. Current evidence, collected from some epidemiological studies, suggests that if any risk of VTE can be attributed to prolonged and uninterrupted car travels, and we give moderate credibility to such an association, the risk may be similar to that already proven for long haul flights. The risk is especially high in individuals undergoing uninterrupted car journeys lasting 4 hours or longer, in vehicles with a narrow seat-pitch, and in particularly would affect those with pre-existing acquired or inherited prothrombotic conditions. The putative biological mechanisms basically entail venous stasis and edema, which are often compounded by a certain degree of hypercoagulability. When these factors are combined with preexistent prothrombotic conditions, the risk may be substantially magnified. In this perspective, then, 'car thrombosis' may be regarded as a trigger rather than a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Although the current evidence is certainly not solid enough to endorse the use of general chemical prophylaxis for lowering the risk of car-related VTE, a set of possible precautionary measures, with no or very little side effects, may be suggested before planning prolonged car travels, especially for at risk individuals. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue

  8. Census study of real-life near-side crashes with modern side airbag-equipped vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Sui, Bo; Lindkvist, Mats; Krafft, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the crash characteristics, injury distribution, and injury mechanisms for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) 2+ injured belted, near-side occupants in airbag-equipped modern vehicles. Furthermore, differences in injury distribution for senior occupants compared to non-senior occupants was investigated, as well as whether the near-side occupant injury risk to the head and thorax increases or decreases with a neighboring occupant. National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 2000 to 2012 were searched for all side impacts (GAD L&R, all principal direction of force) for belted occupants in modern vehicles (model year > 1999). Rollovers were excluded, and only front seat occupants over the age of 10 were included. Twelve thousand three hundred fifty-four MAIS 2+ injured occupants seated adjacent to the intruding structure (near-side) and protected by at least one deployed side airbag were studied. To evaluate the injury risk influenced by the neighboring occupant, odds ratio with an induced exposure approach was used. The most typical crash occurred either at an intersection or in a left turn where the striking vehicle impacted the target vehicle at a 60 to 70° angle, resulting in a moderate change of velocity (delta-V) and intrusion at the B-pillar. The head, thorax, and pelvis were the most frequent body regions with rib fracture the most frequent specific injury. A majority of the head injuries included brain injuries without skull fracture, and non-senior rather than senior occupants had a higher frequency of head injuries on the whole. In approximately 50% of the cases there was a neighboring occupant influencing injury outcome. Compared to non-senior occupants, the senior occupants sustained a considerably higher rate of thoracic and pelvis injuries, which should be addressed by improved thorax side airbag protection. The influence on near-side occupant injury risk by the neighboring

  9. Optimal planning of the Nordic transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector. However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS (Efi's multi-area power market simulator) and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16 A. The complete electrification of the private passenger fleet increases the yearly power demand in the Nordic region with ca 7.5%. The profitable increases in transmission capacities are highest for dumb charging, but are very low for both dumb and spot price based charging compared to a Reference case. - Highlights: • The electric vehicle distribution is done using population and car statistics. • The 100% penetration electric vehicle demand is obtained for Nordic countries. • The optimal investments in the Nordic transmission system with electric vehicles are studied.

  10. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  11. Design Multi-Sides System Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Rafiudin; Sutresman, Onny; Mappaita, Abdullah; Amiruddin; Wiranata, Ardi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and test USV multislide forms. This system is excellent for maneuvering on the x-y-z coordinates. The disadvantage of a single side USV is that it is very difficult to maneuver to achieve very dynamic targets. While for multi sides system easily maneuvered though x-y-z coordinates. In addition to security defense purposes, multi-side system is also good for maritime intelligence, surveillance. In this case, electric deducted fan with Multi-Side system so that the vehicle can still operate even in reverse condition. Multipleside USV experiments have done with good results. In a USV study designed to use two propulsions.

  12. How does Euro NCAP results correlate to real life injury risks - a paired comparison study of car-to-car crashes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, A. [Swedish National Road Administration, Borlaenge (Sweden)]|[ Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Tingvall, C. [Monash University, Accident Research Centre (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Euro NCAP is a resource for consumers regarding vehicle crash safety. The program also promotes safety developments, and credits car manufacturers focussing on safety. This study, based on real life car to car crashes, shows that the overall indication of the safety level, provided by the crash testing, is a valid prediction, at least when looking at the star rating and severe to fatal injuries. For minor injuries no significant injury risk differences are seen. The cars with three or four stars are approximately 30% safer, compared to two star cars or cars without an Euro NCAP score, in car to car collisions. The good general correlation between injury risk, and Euro NCAP scores is not necessarily similarly good for individual car models. Pedestrian safety and child occupant protection was not studied. (orig.)

  13. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  14. Developing the market for natural gas and biogas as a vehicle fuel on a regional level (MADEGASCAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard (Austrian Energy Agency (Austria)); Baumgartner, Birgit (Graz Energy Agency, Graz (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    Although natural gas as a car fuel is a more environmentally clean alternative to gasoline or diesel and gas is considerable cheaper and much safer than other fuels, costumers are still suspicious of alternative fuels and vehicles. The main reasons are a lack of awareness and information on the consumer side, as well as a low information and acceptance level among car dealers and service stations. Therefore the MADEGASCAR project directly addresses major barriers by specific actions. The project MADEGASCAR (Market development for gas driven cars including supply and distribution of biogas), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the European commission, aims at developing the market for natural gas vehicles by addressing target groups at the demand side (private car owners, fleet managers) as well as strengthening the supply and distribution infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) municipalities, car dealers, owners of fuel stations, natural gas and biogas suppliers) in 10 participating partner countries. The Unique Selling Point of the MADEGASCAR project is deployment in several regional areas instead of sole basic research. Country specific action plans, which are developed and implemented in the project, will have direct impact on regional markets but also affect car manufacturers and national regulations, resulting in long term changes. The main ambition of the MADEGASCAR project is to increase the number of gas vehicles in the partner regions by 50%.

  15. FmMDb: a versatile database of foxtail millet markers for millets and bioenergy grasses research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Suresh B

    Full Text Available The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html, a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity.

  16. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules in Maine before and after passage of a smoke-free vehicle law, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Madden, Patrick; Maines, Dorean; Coles, Carol

    2014-01-16

    This is the first study to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoke-free rules for private cars and homes before and after the passage of a smoke-free vehicle law. Data were examined for 13,461 Maine adults aged 18 or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey covering health topics. Self-reported smoke-free car and home rules, smoking behavior, and demographic variables of age, sex, education, income, and children in household were analyzed for prevalence before and after the state's smoke-free vehicle law was passed. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules was significantly higher after Maine's smoke-free vehicle law was passed in the state (P = .004 for car rules and P = .009 for home rules). Variations in smoking rules differed by smoking and demographic variables. People with household incomes of less than $20,000 saw an increase of 14.3% in smoke-free car rules; overall, those with annual incomes of less than $20,000 and those with less than a high school education reported a lower prevalence of smoke-free car rules both before and after the law was passed than did people with higher incomes and higher education levels. The prevalence of smoke-free home rules after the law was implemented was higher among those with 4 or more years of college education than among those with lower levels of education (P = .02). The prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules among Maine adults was significantly higher after the passage of a statewide smoke-free vehicle law. This apparent change in smoke-free rule prevalence may be indicative of changing social norms related to the unacceptability of secondhand smoke exposure.

  17. Beam response analysis of moving vehicle with half car modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badriyah, A.N.; Arifianto, D.; Susatio, Y.

    2016-01-01

    There were several tragedies concerning damages of bridge which seem to be sooner than the predicted period. One of hypothesis in this situation is an addition of vibration caused by long vehicle such as super long truck which has huge force transferred into the bridge and its long body causes more vibration due to phase difference of front and rear tire. The selected method which is used in this problem is using a simulation for modeling a bridge- vehicle system using half car vehicle model. The simulation is done using ANSYS Workbench 15.0 with some variation such us the thickness of beam and its supports. There are 3 kind of variation used in the thickness variety which are 2 m, 1 m, and 0.5 m. While in supports variation, we have fixed support, knife-edge support, and slider support. The results show that there is addition of vibration caused by long vehicle. It is proved by an oscillation which is showed in every response of beam's total deformation. Highest total deformation is achieved in slider support beam of 0.5 thicknesses, 1.08 mm in 1.12 second. First ripple seen in responses is at 0.84 second. Meanwhile, response of knife-edge and fixed support beam show a similarity. The ripple in this situation is caused by beat modulation from the front and rear tire. (paper)

  18. Beam response analysis of moving vehicle with half car modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badriyah, A. N.; Arifianto, D.; Susatio, Y.

    2016-11-01

    There were several tragedies concerning damages of bridge which seem to be sooner than the predicted period. One of hypothesis in this situation is an addition of vibration caused by long vehicle such as super long truck which has huge force transferred into the bridge and its long body causes more vibration due to phase difference of front and rear tire. The selected method which is used in this problem is using a simulation for modeling a bridge- vehicle system using half car vehicle model. The simulation is done using ANSYS Workbench 15.0 with some variation such us the thickness of beam and its supports. There are 3 kind of variation used in the thickness variety which are 2 m, 1 m, and 0.5 m. While in supports variation, we have fixed support, knife-edge support, and slider support. The results show that there is addition of vibration caused by long vehicle. It is proved by an oscillation which is showed in every response of beam's total deformation. Highest total deformation is achieved in slider support beam of 0.5 thicknesses, 1.08 mm in 1.12 second. First ripple seen in responses is at 0.84 second. Meanwhile, response of knife-edge and fixed support beam show a similarity. The ripple in this situation is caused by beat modulation from the front and rear tire.

  19. Can innovative business models overcome resistance to electric vehicles? Better Place and battery electric cars in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budde Christensen, Thomas; Wells, Peter; Cipcigan, Liana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the geographical and policy context for an emergent business model from Better Place to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. It argues that the combination of radically different technologies and a highly complex multi-agency operating environment theoretically provide the conditions and requirements for such an emergent business model. While focused on battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids, the paper has wider applicability to an understanding of the interplay between place, innovation and sustainability which suggests that diverse solutions are likely to be the characteristic solution rather than ubiquity and standardization. The paper argues, however, that the innovative business model, the deployment of electric vehicles, and the use of renewable energy systems, in this case largely based on wind power, while mutually supportive and contributing to wider policy aims with respect to the reduction of carbon emissions, may still fail in the face of entrenched practices. At the theoretical level it is concluded that theorization of business models needs a broader perspective beyond the typical ‘value creation, value capture’ rubric to better understand the wider role such models have in meeting societal goals, and to understand the structural impediments to organizational and technical innovation. - Highlights: ► We explore the context for an innovative emergent business model to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. ► We explore the interplay between battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids. ► We discuss the integration of electric cars in energy systems based on renewable energy sources. ► We discuss the likely success of the Better Place business model.

  20. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  1. Attractivity and acceptance of electric-powered vehicles. Results of the project OPTUM - Optimisation of the potentials of environmental reliefs of electic-powered vehicles; Attraktivitaet und Akzeptanz von Elektroautos. Ergebnisse aus dem Projekt OPTUM - Optimierung der Umweltentlastungspotenziale von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Konrad; Sunderer, Georg; Birzle-Harder, Barbara; Deffner, Jutta

    2012-07-01

    In the research project OPTUM it was analysed to what extent environmental reliefs can be gained by electric cars. For this purpose an integrated approach was pursued, taking into account both considerations on the vehicle side and interactions with the energy sector. In detail the following key questions were analysed: acceptance and attractiveness of electric vehicles, market potentials for electric vehicles, interactions with the energy sector, CO2 reduction potentials for electric mobility, economic analysis of the storage media and resource efficiency of electric mobility. In this report the results concerning the question of acceptance and attractiveness of electric vehicles are presented. In doing so, results of two empirical investigations are described which were carried out in OPTUM to determine the acceptance and attractiveness of electric vehicles. The first one is a qualitative analysis by means of focus group discussions; the second one a standardised survey among buyers of new cars. The standardised survey contained a conjoint analysis, in which the participants had to choose between conventional cars, plug-in-hybrid vehicles and all-electrical cars. The empirical analyses show: There is an enormous potential of acceptance for electric cars (plug-in-hybrids and all-electric vehicles). Depending on scenario and vehicle class, especially for all-electrical cars, a potential of acceptance exists from 12 to 25 percent. Furthermore, both empirical investigations provide indications how the potential of acceptance can be realised or even extended.

  2. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feebates promoting energy-efficient cars: Design options to address more consumers and possible counteracting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Anja; Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de; Scholz, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of countries have implemented or are evaluating feebate systems in order to reduce energy consumption of new vehicle registrations. We distinguish between absolute feebates based strictly on a vehicle's energy consumption and relative feebates normalizing energy consumption by a given car utility. This paper analyzes whether absolute or relative feebates encourage more consumers to change to vehicles with lower energy consumption. We combine an analysis of all car models on sale at the end of 2005 with survey data from 326 potential new car buyers. Analysis of the car fleet with regard to behavioral changes assumed as realistic shows that relative systems succeed better in offering more consumer groups cars that are eligible for incentives. Survey results suggest that consumers show some, but limited, willingness to change behavior to obtain an incentive. However, a relative system potentially allows people to switch to cars with higher relative efficiency without actually lowering absolute CO 2 emissions. We discuss this inherent dilemma of simultaneously addressing more consumers and limiting counteracting effects. In order to find the optimal trade-off, we suggest assessing different parameters operationalizing vehicle utility by means of micro-simulation with detailed car fleet and differentiated consumer segments

  4. Potential of a precrash lateral occupant movement in side collisions of (electric) minicars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierlinger, T; Lienkamp, M; Unger, J; Unselt, T

    2015-01-01

    In minicars, the survival space between the side structure and occupant is smaller than in conventional cars. This is an issue in side collisions. Therefore, in this article a solution is studied in which a lateral seat movement is imposed in the precrash phase. It generates a pre-acceleration and an initial velocity of the occupant, thus reducing the loads due to the side impact. The assessment of the potential is done by numerical simulations and a full-vehicle crash test. The optimal parameters of the restraint system including the precrash movement, time-to-fire of head and side airbag, etc., are found using metamodel-based optimization methods by minimizing occupant loads according to European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The metamodel-based optimization approach is able to tune the restraint system parameters. The numerical simulations show a significant averaged reduction of 22.3% in occupant loads. The results show that the lateral precrash occupant movement offers better occupant protection in side collisions.

  5. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  6. Injury and side impact air bag deployment in near and far sided motor vehicle crashes, United States, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadter, Greg; Grabowski, Jurek G; Burke, Christine; Aldaghlas, Tayseer A; Robinson, Linda; Fakhry, Samir M

    2008-12-01

    Side impact crashes, the most lethal type, account for 26% of all motor vehicle crashes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors associated with SIAB deployment and occupant injury. All passenger vehicles equipped with SIABs that were involved in a side impact crash were identified from the National Automotive Sampling System database. Crashes with multiple impacts, ejections, unbelted drivers or rollovers were excluded from the study. The outcome variables of interest were SIAB deployment and driver injury. SIAB deployment was compared in similar crashes to analyze the impact on driver's injury severity score. Other crash factors were also examined to analyze what role they play in SIAB deployment rates and injury rates, such as plane of contact, striking object and Delta-V. The data set for this study contained 247 drivers in near and far side crashes in vehicles with installed SIABs. Overall SIAB deployment was 43% in side impact crashes. A significant factor associated with both the SIAB deployment rate and the driver's injury rate was increased Delta-V. SIABs do not deploy consistently in crashes with a high Delta-V or with a lateral primary direction of force and a front plane of contact. In these two scenarios, further research is warranted on SIAB deployments. With SIAB deployment, it appears drivers are able to sustain a higher Delta-V impact without serious injury.

  7. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  8. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Side View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A side-view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic

  9. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  10. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  11. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  12. Driver Behavior During Overtaking Maneuvers from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Lane changes with the intention to overtake the vehicle in front are especially challenging scenarios for forward collision warning (FCW) designs. These overtaking maneuvers can occur at high relative vehicle speeds and often involve no brake and/or turn signal application. Therefore, overtaking presents the potential of erroneously triggering the FCW. A better understanding of driver behavior during lane change events can improve designs of this human-machine interface and increase driver acceptance of FCW. The objective of this study was to aid FCW design by characterizing driver behavior during lane change events using naturalistic driving study data. The analysis was based on data from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, collected by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. The 100-Car study contains approximately 1.2 million vehicle miles of driving and 43,000 h of data collected from 108 primary drivers. In order to identify overtaking maneuvers from a large sample of driving data, an algorithm to automatically identify overtaking events was developed. The lead vehicle and minimum time to collision (TTC) at the start of lane change events was identified using radar processing techniques developed in a previous study. The lane change identification algorithm was validated against video analysis, which manually identified 1,425 lane change events from approximately 126 full trips. Forty-five drivers with valid time series data were selected from the 100-Car study. From the sample of drivers, our algorithm identified 326,238 lane change events. A total of 90,639 lane change events were found to involve a closing lead vehicle. Lane change events were evenly distributed between left side and right side lane changes. The characterization of lane change frequency and minimum TTC was divided into 10 mph speed bins for vehicle travel speeds between 10 and 90 mph. For all lane change events with a closing lead vehicle, the results showed that drivers change

  13. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  14. Will the light truck bumper height-matching standard reduce deaths in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    In a collision between a car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup truck, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. Some of the excess risk may be due to the propensity of SUVs and pickups with high bumpers to override the lower bumpers in cars. To reduce this incompatibility, particularly in head-on collisions, in 2003 automobile manufacturers voluntarily established a bumper height-matching standard for pickups and SUVs. To assess whether height-matching bumpers in pickups and SUVs were associated with the risk of death in either car occupants or pickup and SUV occupants. Case-control study of collisions between one car and one SUV or pickup in the US during 2000-2008, in which the SUV or pickup was model year 2000-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes; one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes. Occupants of cars that crashed with SUVs or pickups with height-matching bumpers may be at slightly reduced risk of death compared to those that crashed with other SUVs or pickups (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13)). There was no evidence of a reduction in risk in head-on crashes (1.09 (0.66-1.79)). In crashes in which the SUV or pickup struck the car on the side, height-matched bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death (0.68 (0.48-0.97)). Occupants of SUVs and pickups with height-matching bumpers may also be at slightly reduced risk of death (0.91 (0.64-1.28)). Height-matching bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death among car occupants in crashes in which SUVs or pickups struck cars in the side, but there was little evidence of an effect in head-on crashes. The new bumper height-matching standard may not achieve its primary goal of reducing deaths in head-on crashes, but may modestly reduce overall deaths in crashes between cars and SUVs or pickups because of unanticipated benefits to car occupants in side crashes, and a

  15. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  16. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  17. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  18. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis Dept.

    2011-09-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  19. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  20. Integrated guidance and control design of a flight vehicle with side-window detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu ZHENG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guidance and control problem of a flight vehicle with side-window detection. In order to guarantee the target remaining in the seeker's sight of view, the line of sight and the attitude of the flight vehicle should be under some constraints caused by the side-window, which leads to coupling between the guidance and the attitude dynamics model. To deal with the side-window constraints and the coupling, a novel Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC design approach is proposed. Firstly, the relative motion equations are derived in the body-Line of Sight (LOS coordinate system. And the guidance and control problem of the flight vehicle is formulated into an IGC problem with state constraints. Then, based on the singular perturbation method, the IGC problem is decomposed into the control design of the quasi-steady-state subsystem and the boundary-layer subsystem which can be designed separately. Finally, the receding horizon control is applied to the control design for the two subsystems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: Integrated guidance and control, Receding horizon control, Side-window detection, Singular perturbation, Terminal guidance

  1. Pathways to Decarbonise the European Car Fleet: A Scenario Analysis Using the Backcasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Höltl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses decarbonisation scenarios for the European passenger car fleet in 2050. The scenarios have been developed using the backcasting approach and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of passenger cars to a level defined in the Transport White paper that is 60% below 1990 levels. Considering the emission levels of 2010, a yearly reduction of 1.7% is required in order to achieve the target. Car emissions were decomposed into the main emission factors of mobility, efficiency and carbon intensity. How these factors change over time depends on various external factors: the pace of technological improvements, the future role of cars in society’s mobility system and the priority given to decarbonising energy demand. The analysis showed that if car mobility and ownership continue to increase as expected in a ‘business as usual’ case, a share of 97% plug-in hybrid or battery electric vehicles might be required by 2050, together with a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emission from electricity production. A transition to more advanced car technology such as automated driving, advanced batteries or lightweight materials in vehicle production would raise vehicle efficiency. Should car mobility continue at a high level, an early technology transition will be required.

  2. Prototipe Critting Badot (Car Security System Monitoring Based On STNK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruloh, Agan; Kurniawan, Deny; Subekti, Massus

    2017-01-01

    The crime of burglary vehicle accompanied also by forgery vehicle registration certificate of vehicle number.For it, needed CRITING BADOT (Car Security System Monitoring Based On Stnk), an apparatus capable of preventing motor vehicle theft by means of technology RFID and SMS Gateway, blends the ignition and vehicle registration into a single entity, change the key of the car being contact id card, capable of being on the monitoring of the position the car.This tool requires the driver to be ...

  3. Fiscal Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from New Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Cowi A/S

    2002-01-01

    Model based calculations constitute the core output of this study. The calculations assess the extent to which vehicle related taxes (mainly acquisition taxes and ownership taxes) can be effective means to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars. More specifically, the model calculations have assessed the ability of vehicle taxes to support the target to reduce average CO2 emissions from new cars down to a level of 120 g/km. This is the agreed target of the Community Strategy to reduce CO2 emissio...

  4. Effects of vehicle ventilation system, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking on the concentration of toluene and ethylbenzene in Pride cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rismanchian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The ventilation condition, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking were not significantly impressive on the toluene and ethylbenzene concentrations inside the cars. However, simultaneous usage of the vehicle ventilation system and natural ventilation (windows could lead to little decrease in toluene concentration levels inside the car, while smoking consumption by passengers can increase them.

  5. The effects of revised barrier and dummy specification in the side impact test procedure of EURO NCAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waagmeester, C.D.; Zuljar, R.; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Ratingen, M.R. van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the effects of potential changes to the side impact test in EuroNCAP are studied. Research in Europe has come to the point that enhanced alternatives will soon become available for the test tools used, in the form of the EUROSID-2 (ES-2), Q child dummies and the progressive MDB

  6. Optimal Planning of the Nordic Transmission System with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector....... However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments...... of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16A. The complete...

  7. SAMe prevents the induction of the immunoproteasome and preserves the 26S proteasome in the DDC-induced MDB mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Li, Jun; French, Barbara A; French, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) form in the liver of alcoholic patients. This occurs because of the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated cytokeratins, which hypothetically is due to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway's (UPP) failure to degrade the cytokeratins. The experimental model of MDB formation was used in which MDBs were induced by refeeding DDC to drug-primed mice. The gene expression and protein levels of LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1, the catalytic subunits in the immunoproteasome, as well as FAT10, were increased in the liver cells forming MDBs but not in the intervening normal hepatocytes. Chymotrypsin-like activity of the UPP was decreased by DDC refeeding, indicating that a switch from the UPP to the immunoproteasome had occurred at the expense of the 26S proteasome. The failure of the UPP to digest cytokeratins would explain MDB aggregate formation. SAMe prevented the decrease in UPP activity, the increase in LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1 protein levels and MDB formation induced by DDC. DDC refeeding also induced the TNFalpha and IFNgamma receptors. SAMe prevented the increase in the TNFalpha and IFNgamma receptors, supporting the idea that TNFalpha and IFNgamma were responsible for the up regulation of LMP2, LPM7, and FAT10. These results support the conclusion that MDBs form in FAT10 over-expressing hepatocytes where the up regulation of the immunoproteasome occurs at the expense of the 26S proteasome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  9. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel reforming technologies are developed and will shortly be demonstrated in a prototype, as well. The presentation will cover concepts of fuel cell vehicles with an emphasis on system technology, the related testing procedures and results as well as an outline of market entry strategies.

  10. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  12. The anti-CO2 tax upsets the automotive fleets management. Car makers must adapt themselves. Deluxe cars spared. Small and medium size companies tempted by the long duration rental. At Biogen, medical visitors chose their vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larmor, P.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year 2006, the pollution level is now taken into consideration in the calculation of the society vehicles tax. This measure completely upsets the management and allocation rules of provided cars. Therefore, the government foresees to relax its position. Car makers will have to propose new versions of their models with pollution levels in agreement with the tax categories imposed by the new regulation. Small and medium size companies are now tempted by long duration car rental contracts. Therefore, car rental companies foresee interesting opportunities with this fiscality stiffening. This press-kit analyzes the situation from the different points of view: fleet managers, car makers, users, company managers, car hirers. (J.S.)

  13. Modelling future private car energy demand in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted measures influencing vehicle technology are increasingly a tool of energy policy makers within the EU as a means of meeting energy efficiency, renewable energy, climate change and energy security goals. This paper develops the modelling capacity for analysing and evaluating such legislation, with a focus on private car energy demand. We populate a baseline car stock and car activity model for Ireland to 2025 using historical car stock data. The model takes account of the lifetime survival profile of different car types, the trends in vehicle activity over the fleet and the fuel price and income elasticities of new car sales and total fleet activity. The impacts of many policy alternatives may only be simulated by such a bottom-up approach, which can aid policy development and evaluation. The level of detail achieved provides specific insights into the technological drivers of energy consumption, thus aiding planning for meeting climate targets. This paper focuses on the methodology and baseline scenario. Baseline results for Ireland forecast a decline in private car energy demand growth (0.2%, compared with 4% in the period 2000–2008), caused by the relative growth in fleet efficiency compared with activity. - Highlights: ► Bottom-up private car energy forecasting model developed. ► The demographic and technological distribution of vehicle activity is a key veriable. ► Irish car energy demand growth predicted to slow steadily. ► Change in vehicle taxation forecast to save 10% energy.

  14. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  15. Relationship Between Vehicle Size and Fatality Risk in Model Year 1985-93 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Fatality rates per million exposure years are computed by make, model and model year, : based on the crash experience of model year 1985-93 passenger cars and light trucks (pickups) vans : and sport utility vehicles) in the United States during calen...

  16. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  17. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2016-03-01

    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  18. Experimental study on transportation safety of package in side collision of heavy duty truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, M.; Sasaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    The accidents in road transportation of package may be collision, fall and fire. It is necessary to examine all cases very carefully because collision might be caused by other vehicle. Collisions are classified into head-on collision, rear-end collision, side collision. A lot of experiments and analyses are reported on head-on collision, so the behavior of vehicle and package may be predicted without difficulty. Rear-end collisions bring about less impact and may be applied corresponding to the head-on collisions. About side collisions, few experiments or analyses are reported, and most of them are about passenger cars not about trucks. So it becomes important to study the transportation safety of package carried on a heavy duty truck when hit on the side by another truck similar in size

  19. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  20. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  1. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  2. The Impact of Drive Cycles and Auxiliary Power on Passenger Car Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the advancement of zero emission transportation and current discussions on the reliability of nominal passenger car fuel economy, this article considers the procedure for assessing the potential for reducing the fuel consumption of passenger cars by using electric power to operate them. The analysis compares internal combustion engines, hybrid and fully electric concepts utilizing batteries and fuel cells. The starting point for the newly developed, simulation-based fuel consumption analysis is a longitudinal vehicle model. Mechanical power requirements on the drive side incorporate a large variety of standardized drive cycles to simulate typical patterns of car usage. The power requirements of electric heating and air conditioning are also included in the simulation, as these are especially relevant to electric powertrains. Moreover, on-board grid-load profiles are considered in the assessment. Fuel consumption is optimized by applying concept-specific operating strategies. The results show that the combination of low average driving speed and elevated onboard power requirements have severe impacts on the fuel efficiency of all powertrain configurations analyzed. In particular, the operational range of battery-electric vehicles is strongly affected by this due to the limited storage capacity of today’s batteries. The analysis confirms the significance of considering different load patterns of vehicle usage related to driving profiles and onboard electrical and thermal loads.

  3. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  4. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  5. Autonomous vehicles: from paradigms to technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Silviu

    2017-10-01

    Mobility is a basic necessity of contemporary society and it is a key factor in global economic development. The basic requirements for the transport of people and goods are: safety and duration of travel, but also a number of additional criteria are very important: energy saving, pollution, passenger comfort. Due to advances in hardware and software, automation has penetrated massively in transport systems both on infrastructure and on vehicles, but man is still the key element in vehicle driving. However, the classic concept of ‘human-in-the-loop’ in terms of ‘hands on’ in driving the cars is competing aside from the self-driving startups working towards so-called ‘Level 4 autonomy’, which is defined as “a self-driving system that does not requires human intervention in most scenarios”. In this paper, a conceptual synthesis of the autonomous vehicle issue is made in connection with the artificial intelligence paradigm. It presents a classification of the tasks that take place during the driving of the vehicle and its modeling from the perspective of traditional control engineering and artificial intelligence. The issue of autonomous vehicle management is addressed on three levels: navigation, movement in traffic, respectively effective maneuver and vehicle dynamics control. Each level is then described in terms of specific tasks, such as: route selection, planning and reconfiguration, recognition of traffic signs and reaction to signaling and traffic events, as well as control of effective speed, distance and direction. The approach will lead to a better understanding of the way technology is moving when talking about autonomous cars, smart/intelligent cars or intelligent transport systems. Keywords: self-driving vehicle, artificial intelligence, deep learning, intelligent transport systems.

  6. Exposure to in-vehicle respirable particulate matter in passenger vehicles under different ventilation conditions and seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the in-vehicle particulate matter (PM concentration in a number of passenger vehicles under various ventilation modes, land use land cover (LULC in different seasons in megacity Delhi, India. In-vehicle monitoring was conducted in buses, cars and autos (three-wheeler using air-conditioned (AC and Non-AC during peak and off-peak hours. The site selected is a ∼15 km long stretch from Punjabi Bagh to Safdarjung Hospital, based on diversity in LULC, availability of vehicles and heavy traffic flow along the direction of travelling. In-vehicle PM was measured using GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and categorised in three classes (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. The study found that concentration of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in winters as compared to summers. It was observed that PM concentration was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in Non-AC travel modes compared to AC modes. PM concentrations were high near industrial and commercial areas and during traffic congestion showing the influence of LULC. It is also important to highlight that PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in case of taxis (cars compared to personal cars which varied from 2.5 to 3.5 times higher in case of AC mode and ∼1.5 times in case of Non-AC mode. Exposures to PM concentration were highest in case of Non-AC bus compared AC-Bus, Non-AC cars, autos and AC-cars. PM concentrations in case of autos and Non-AC cars were almost comparable without any significant (p > 0.05 difference. Regression analysis showed significant correlation between ambient and in-vehicle concentration for PM2.5. Regional deposition fractions were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection model to show the deposition in head air-pass, trachea-bronchial and alveolar regions. It was found that deposition of PM1 was highest in the alveolar region.

  7. A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.

  8. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  10. PAC-Car I - A highly efficient vehicle with hydrogen fuel cell; PAC-Car I - Vehicule ultra efficient a pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L.; Paganelli, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFZ), Institut fuer Mess- und Regeltechnik, ETH Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Santin, J.-J. [UVHC - Campus du Mont Houy, Valenciennes (France)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents a very low energy consumption vehicle developed for the 2003 edition of the Shell Eco-marathon race. Innovating developments were needed for most of its components, which are not yet available on the market. The chemical energy of hydrogen gas is first converted into electrical energy by a 900 W Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). The car is driven by two DC powered electrical motors, which get their energy from a power electronic converter supplied by the fuel cell. Hydrogen is stored as metal hydride, in the solid state. The report gives a detailed description of the fuel cell, the control system principles as well as a presentation of the hydrogen tank. Various pictures show the vehicle and some of its mechanical details. Performance monitoring indicated a fuel consumption of only 15.9 grams of hydrogen per 100 km; this corresponds to an equivalent of 1694 km for the consumption of one litre of lead-free 95 gasoline in a usual internal combustion engine. However, as the vehicle used for the race had not been specifically developed for the fuel cell based equipment and the research efforts were focused on the advanced propulsion systems, the overall performance could still be significantly improved by optimising the vehicle itself.

  11. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Trends in Aggregate Vehicle Emissions: Do We Need To Emissions Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Kahn

    1995-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are falling. As the oldest vehicles in the fleet are scrapped and are replaced by cleaner vehicles, aggregate emissions decline. Given this trend, must costly used car regulation continue? The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires more stringent used car testing without considering the counter-factual of how aggregate emissions would evolve in the absence of more regulation. This paper use data on vehicle scrappage rates, vehicle emissions by model year, and county air quality leve...

  13. Application Side Casing on Open Deck RoRo to Improve Ship Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin; K. A. P Utama, I.; Chen, Jeng-Horng

    2018-03-01

    RoRo is a vessel that can transport passengers, cargo, container and cars. Open Car Deck is favourite RoRo Vessel in developing countries due to its small GT, small tax and spacious car deck, but it has poor survival of stability. Many accident involve Open Car Deck RoRo which cause fatalities and victim. In order to ensure the safety of the ship, IMO had applied intact stability criteria IS Code 2008 which adapted from Rahola’s Research, but since 2008 IMO improved criteria become probabilistic damage stability SOLAS 2009. The RoRo type Open Car Deck has wide Breadth (B), small Draft (D) and small freeboard. It has difficulties to satisfy the ship’s stability criteria. Side Casings which has been applied in some RoRo have be known reduce freeboard or improve ship’s safety. In this paper investigated the effect side casings to survival of intact dan damage ship’s stability. Calculation has been conducted for four ships without, existing and full side casings. The investigation results shows that defect stability of Open Deck RoRo can be reduce with fitting side casing.

  14. Vehicle energy consumption - A contribution to the Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis (CEESA) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaltz, E.

    2011-01-15

    In this report simulation models of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) have been developed. The models have two features: they both design the vehicles and calculates the energy consumption, efficiency, mass, volume, and cost due to a given drive cycle. The vehicles are designed to fulfill a drive cycle which consist of city, road, and motorway driving, as it is desired that the vehicles should have the same performance as traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. For this reason its also chosen to use a midsize car, i.e. a Toyota Avensis, as reference vehicle. The simulation models consist of several sub-models, which have been modeled by use of data sheets. The models have therefore not been verified be experimental results, which is strongly recommenced for future work. The energy consumption per km and efficiency are significant better for the BEV than for the FCHEV. The average energy consumption per km is 304.1 Wh/km and 635.7 Wh/km for the BEV and FCHEV, respectively. The average tank-to-wheel efficiency of the BEV and FCHEV are 54.0% and 23.4%, respectively. For the total car mass and cost and volume of the power system, the results are two-sided. For short distance the BEV is lighter, has smaller volume of the power system, and are cheaper than the FCHEV. However, when the traveling distance increases the difference becomes smaller, and at long distances the FCHEV are the lightest, smallest, and cheapest. (Author)

  15. Tyre influences on untripped vehicle rollover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Lupker, H.A.; Koppenaal, C.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicle rollover can be initiated by steering actions that occur at vehicle evasive manoeuvres or high speed cornering of commercial vehicles. This untripped vehicle rollover is more difficult to reproduce for passenger cars then for commercial vehicles. For passenger cars it occurs closer to the

  16. Cartalk 2000: development of a co-operative ADAS based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P.L.J.; Hallouzi, R.; Dagli, I.; Cseh, C.; Schäfers, L.; Nelisse, M.W.; Bruin, D. de

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) benefit from using vehicle-to-vehicle communication. In the 5th framework EC project CarTALK2000 co-operative ADAS are designed, tested and evaluated with respect to increasing traffic safety, efficiency and driving comfort. Communication based longitudinal

  17. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  19. The best selled car. ''Twizy'' leads the sales statistics of electrically powered vehicles - a test report; Der Meistverkaufte. Renaults ''Twizy'' fuehrt die E-Mobil-Verkaufsstatistik an - ein Fahrbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, Philippe

    2013-02-15

    Four wheels, two seats, one steering wheel: What does it require more for a small, electrically powered city car? Nothing, says the manufacturer. Two side windows, that is our opinion. With a maximum speed of 80 kilometers per hour and a range of 100 kilometers, the vehicle is certainly ideal for many applications over short distances in the city. PHOTON now uses the ''Twizy'' for almost a year, and gained consistently good experiences.

  20. The future of end-of-life vehicles (elv in Malaysia – A feasibility study among car users in Klang valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jawi Zulhaidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In its bid to become a developed nation in a few years’ time, Malaysia has to consider various prevailing socio-economic and sociotechnical issues in the country. In the transportation sector per se, the ELV policy and initiative is one of the lacking parts in the country’s automotive ecosystem – in which a successful ELV program will not only cater the environmental concern but also help the safer car initiative for road users. This particular paper discusses what is regarded as the preliminary findings on the ELV policy from the Malaysia’s automotive ecosystem study database. From a total of 484 respondents, 268 or 55.4% had agreed to the proposal to introduce an age limit for passenger vehicles in Malaysia. The majority of those who gave their nod to the policy choose 10 years of vehicle age as the limit (38.9%, and a staggering 79.8% of them supposed that the age limit should be between 5 to 10 years. Further analysis based on the Multiple Logistic Regression found out that from a total of nine important variables related to car users’ profile and ownership status, the significant predictors to “the agreement to introduce vehicle age limit” were age, income and car status (new or used. Thus, this finding might be beneficial for the policymakers to strategize the ELV policy that sooner or later should be implemented in the Malaysia’s “developed country” environment.

  1. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF. Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in electric field, and the interaction of the attractive potential energy and the repellent potential energy between vehicles simplifies the various influence factors on the target vehicle in actual following behavior. Consequently, it can make a better analysis of the following behavior under the lateral separation. Then, the proposed model has been demonstrated in simulation environment, through which the space-time trajectories and the potential energy change regulation are obtained. Simulations verify that the following vehicle's behavior is vulnerable to be affected by lateral distance, where the attractive potential energy tends to become repellent potential energy as the longitudinal distance decreases. The search results prove that the proposed model quantifies the relations between headway and potential energy and better reflects the following process in real-world situation.

  2. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    the purchase of alternative energy vehicles in an effort to achieve 10% EV (electric vehicle) penetration in the country's road fleet by 2020. The replacement of ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles with EV equivalents poses challenges for grid operators while simultaneously offering opportunities...

  3. Prospects for electric cars: electric vehicle impact assessment study. Final report, 15 December 1975--30 April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.

    1978-11-01

    The characteristics of future electric cars were projected by means of parametric models of weight, cost, and performance. They included urban ranges as much as two to four times those of recent electric cars: up to 150 km for improved lead-acid batteries, 250 km for nickel-zinc batteries, and 450 km for lithium-sulfur batteries. From data tapes of major travel surveys in Los Angeles and Washington, these ranges were found to be sufficient for most needs of all three major groups of drivers: secondary and primary drivers at multi-driper households, and drivers at one-driver households. Even with the longest design ranges, however, the electric cars would be incapable of occasional long trips now made by conventional cars, and only at the shortest design ranges would they be competitive in cost. Through modeling of supply and demand for over 200 U.S. utilities it was projected that, by the year 2000, almost 60% of US cars could be electrified, only 17% of the recharging power would come from petroleum. Modeling of air pollutant emissions for 24 large urban regions showed that electrification of all cars would reduce regional hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions by roughly half, but increase sulfur oxide emissions some 20%. Traffic noise would be significantly reduced, even after major quieting of conventional vehicles. Identified resources of battery materials suffice for tens of millions of electric cars, but not necessarily for complete electrification of all US autos. Economic impacts aside from added costs for motorists would be relatively minor.

  4. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  5. Identification of Visual Cues and Quantification of Drivers' Perception of Proximity Risk to the Lead Vehicle in Car-Following Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Takayuki; Yamamura, Tomohiro; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Kuge, Nobuyuki; Boer, Erwin Roeland

    Longitudinal vehicle control and/or warning technologies that operate in accordance with drivers' subjective perception of risk need to be developed for driver-support systems, if such systems are to be used fully to achieve safer, more comfortable driving. In order to accomplish this goal, it is necessary to identify the visual cues utilized by drivers in their perception of risk when closing on the vehicle ahead in a car-following situation. It is also necessary to quantify the relation between the physical parameters defining the spatial relationship to the vehicle ahead and psychological metrics with regard to the risk perceived by the driver. This paper presents the results of an empirical study on quantification and formulization of drivers' subjective perception of risk based on experiments performed with a fixed-base driving simulator at the Nissan Research Center. Experiments were carried out to investigate the subjective perception of risk relative to the headway distance and closing velocity to the vehicle ahead using the magnitude estimation method. The experimental results showed that drivers' perception of risk was strongly affected by two variables: time headway, i.e., the distance to the lead vehicle divided by the following vehicle's velocity, and time to collision, i.e., the distance to the lead vehicle divided by relative velocity. It was also found that an equation for estimating drivers' perception of risk can be formulated as the summation of the time headway inverse and the time to collision inverse and that this expression can be applied to various approaching situations. Furthermore, the validity of this equation was examined based on real-world driver behavior data measured with an instrumented vehicle.

  6. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  7. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  8. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  9. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  10. Tanadgusix Foundation Hydrogen / Plug In Electric Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Martin [TDX Power Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2013-09-27

    TDX Foundation undertook this project in an effort to evaluate alternative transportation options and their application in the community of Saint Paul, Alaska an isolated island community in the Bering Sea. Both hydrogen and electric vehicle technology was evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. Hydrogen technology was found to be cost prohibitive. TDX demonstrated the implementation of various types of electric vehicles on St. Paul Island, including side-by-side all terrain vehicles, a Chevrolet Volt (sedan), and a Ford Transit Connect (small van). Results show that electric vehicles are a promising solution for transportation needs on St. Paul Island. Limited battery range and high charging time requirements result in decreased usability, even on a small, isolated island. These limitations were minimized by the installation of enhanced charging stations for the car and van. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), TDX was able to identify suitable technologies and demonstrate their applicability in the rural Alaskan environment. TDX and UAF partnered to engage and educate the entire community of Saint Paul – fom school children to elders – through presentation of research, findings, demonstrations, first hand operation of alternative fuel vehicles.

  11. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  12. The effect on road load due to variations in valid coast down tests for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van; Ligterink, N.E.; Cuelenaere, R.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world CO2 emissions of passenger cars very often deviate from the Type Approval value. The Type Approval value for CO2 emissions of passenger cars is based on a chassis dynamometer test in a laboratory. The total vehicle resistance of a vehicle, or 'road load', is simulated on the chassis

  13. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  14. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  15. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  16. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  17. Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

  18. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  19. Rage against the machine? Google's self-driving cars versus human drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Kidd, David G

    2017-12-01

    Automated driving represents both challenges and opportunities in highway safety. Google has been developing self-driving cars and testing them under employee supervision on public roads since 2009. These vehicles have been involved in several crashes, and it is of interest how this testing program compares to human drivers in terms of safety. Google car crashes were coded by type and severity based on narratives released by Google. Crash rates per million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were computed for crashes deemed severe enough to be reportable to police. These were compared with police-reported crash rates for human drivers. Crash types also were compared. Google cars had a much lower rate of police-reportable crashes per million VMT than human drivers in Mountain View, Calif., during 2009-2015 (2.19 vs 6.06), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most common type of collision involving Google cars was when they got rear-ended by another (human-driven) vehicle. Google cars shared responsibility for only one crash. These results suggest Google self-driving cars, while a test program, are safer than conventional human-driven passenger vehicles; however, currently there is insufficient information to fully examine the extent to which disengagements affected these results. Results suggest that highly-automated vehicles can perform more safely than human drivers in certain conditions, but will continue to be involved in crashes with conventionally-driven vehicles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  1. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car tran...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  2. Injuries resulting from car surfing--United States, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    "Car surfing" is a term introduced in the mid-1980s to describe a thrill-seeking activity that involves riding on the exterior of a moving motor vehicle while it is being driven by another person. Although reports of car-surfing injuries have been published in the United States, no study to date has analyzed these events from a national perspective. Because traditional public health datasets do not collect morbidity or mortality data on this practice, CDC searched U.S. newspaper reports to provide an initial characterization of car-surfing injuries on a national scale. That analysis identified 58 reports of car-surfing deaths and 41 reports of nonfatal injury from 1990 through August 2008. Most reports of car-surfing injuries came from newspapers in the Midwest and South (75%), and most of the injuries were among males (70%) and persons aged 15-19 years (69%). The first identified newspaper reports about car-surfing injuries were published in the early 1990s, and new reports have been published every year since then. Parents and teens should be aware of the potentially lethal consequences of car surfing, which can occur even at low vehicle speeds, sometimes resulting from unanticipated movements of the vehicle, such as swerving or braking.

  3. Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: An analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Pasaoglu, Guzay; Thiel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the future German power system and makes projections of the BEVs hourly load profile by car size (‘mini’, ‘small’, ‘compact’ and ‘large’). By means of a power plant dispatching optimisation model, the study assesses the optimal BEV charging/discharging strategies in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) schemes. The results show that the 2% rise in power demand required to power these BEVs does not hamper system stability provided an optimal G2V scheme is applied. Moreover, such BEV deployment can contribute to further integrating wind and solar power generation. Applying a V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants, leading to a higher integration of intermittent renewables and resulting in a decrease in system costs. However, the evaluation of the profitability of BEVs shows that applying a V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to the high cost of investing in batteries. Some BEV owners would make modest profits (€6 a year), but a higher number would sustain losses, for reasons of scale. For BEVs to become part of the power system, further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners. - Highlights: • Optimal strategies for charging/discharging battery electric vehicles are assessed. • G2V scheme improves the stability of the future German power system. • V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants. • V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to high batteries investment cost. • Further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners

  4. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  5. Dynamics control of autonomous vehicle at driving limits and experiment on an autonomous formula racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamics controller for autonomous vehicle to simultaneously control it to the driving limits and follow the desired path is proposed. The dynamics controller consists of longitudinal and lateral controllers. In longitudinal controller, the G-G diagram is utilized to describe the driving and handling limits of the vehicle. The accurate G-G diagram is obtained based on phase plane approach and a nonlinear vehicle dynamic model with accurate tyre model. In lateral controller, the tyre cornering stiffness is estimated to improve the robustness of the controller. The stability analysis of the closed-looped error dynamics shows that the controller remains stable against parameters uncertainties in extreme condition such as tyre saturation. Finally, an electric autonomous Formula race car developed by the authors is used to validate the proposed controller. The autonomous driving experiment on an oval race track shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller.

  6. Experience with solar and electric cars. Erfahrungen mit Solar- und Elektroautomobilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissmueller, G [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience with electric vehicles is promising. It is desirable that innovative designers should produce a reasonably-priced safe small car orientated towards the demand, optimized for electric drive and which can be produced by mass-production, using new materials and fashionable design, so that the electric car will become the first vehicle in each family or in a car-sharing pool. Long distance traffic will be reserved for other vehicles until the distant future. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of crashes using FE vehicle models. Relations between vehicle types and crash characteristics; Yugen yoso model wo mochiita sharyo no shototsu kaiseki. Sharyo type to shototsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, O. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the crash characteristics of vehicles under the condition of real-world accidents. This paper pays attention to the differences in the crash characteristics of a vehicle colliding with a vehicle which is a different type. Vehicles on the market can be divided broadly into two vehicle structures, monocoque structure and frame structure. Monocoque structure is mainly used for passenger vehicles and frame structure is for recreational vehicles (RV). In recent years, RV has been a large seller on the market. So accidents between passenger vehicles and a RVs occur frequently. The analysis of experimental data and computer simulation, which is predicated on the experimental data, was carried out for this study. In the analysis of experimental data, barrier force data from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) were analyzed. The FE passenger vehicle model which is based on systematic validation tests was used for the computer simulation of car-to-car collisions. (author)

  8. Distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation in the composite braking case for four-wheel drive hybrid electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Zhou, L.-J.; Zhang, J.-T.; Zhu, Q.; Hedrick, J.-K.

    2017-05-01

    Considering the controllability and observability of the braking torques of the hub motor, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG), and hydraulic brake for four-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid electric cars, a distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation algorithm for different braking situations has been proposed by fully utilising the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) sensor signals and multiple powersource signals. Firstly, the simulation platform of a 4WD hybrid electric car was established, which integrates an electronic-hydraulic composited braking system model and its control strategy, a nonlinear seven degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model, and the Burckhardt tyre model. Secondly, combining the braking torque signals with the ESP signals, self-adaptive unscented Kalman sub-filter and main-filter adaptable to the observation noise were, respectively, designed. Thirdly, the fusion rules for the sub-filters and master filter were proposed herein, and the estimation results were compared with the simulated value of a real vehicle speed. Finally, based on the hardware in-the-loop platform and by picking up the regenerative motor torque signals and wheel cylinder pressure signals, the proposed speed estimation algorithm was tested under the case of moderate braking on the highly adhesive road, and the case of Antilock Braking System (ABS) action on the slippery road, as well as the case of ABS action on the icy road. Test results show that the presented vehicle speed estimation algorithm has not only a high precision but also a strong adaptability in the composite braking case.

  9. The Norwegian support and subsidy policy of electric cars. Should it be adopted by other countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Skonhoft, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Norwegian policy to promote the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is unusually powerful. • Numerical examples show that the policy means an approximate tax relief for a EV owner about 8000 USD/year. • The same time an average EV is might imply an emission reduction of less than 1 tonne CO 2 . • The policy might cause small emission reductions at high costs. • The policy might have the unfortunate side-effect that households buy more cars and drive more. - Abstract: As a result of generous policies to increase the use of electric vehicles (EVs), the sales of EVs in Norway are rapidly increasing. This in sharp contrast to most other rich countries without such generous policies. Due to the subsidies, driving an EV implies very low costs to the owner on the margin, probably leading to more driving at the expense of public transport and cycling. Moreover, because most EVs’ driving range is low, the policy gives Norwegian households incentives to purchase a second car, again stimulating the use of private cars instead of public transport and cycling. These effects are analysed in light of possible greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits as well as other possible benefits of utilizing EVs versus conventional cars. We discuss whether the EV policy can be justified, as well as whether this policy should be implemented by other countries

  10. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  11. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  12. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  13. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  14. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  15. Autonomous Vehicles: A Policy Roadmap for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    autonomous vehicle , vehicles , self - driving car , automated...the fault of the autonomous vehicle .6 In other words, human error was the fault in all of the collisions and the self - driving car has NEVER caused a...32 David Shamah, “As Google Dreams of Driverless Cars , IDF Deploys Them: Self Driving Vehicles Are not New for the Israeli Army, and a

  16. The sustainable car company - or the comeback of the electric car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sticher, Georg; Rizoulis, Dimitrios [The Boston Consulting Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Every day there are article published about the future of propulsion technology. Opinions are diverging: 'We'll sell nothing but hybrids by 2020' says one automotive executive; whereas for another power train executive ''Hybrids are a violation of physics'. The topic has moved beyond specialized automotive magazines and is strongly emotionalized: Hollywood stars appear driving hybrid vehicles and a documentary film charges the automotive industry as guilty for conspiring against and 'killing the electric car'. Those emotional discussions are largely driven by the announcement of many new vehicles powered by hybrid-electric power trains, fuel cells or batteries. The public is overwhelmed by announcements and can hardly tell concept vehicles from production announcements apart. One core aspect of sustainability is the reduction of CO2 emissions and the increase of vehicle efficiency. The electrification of the vehicle will have to be an integral part of every OEMs and suppliers' portfolio. But without adequate incentives of consumers to purchase the cars and of utilities and/or private investors to provide the necessary infrastructure, the emergence of the electric vehicle may be off to another false start. We do want to offer a structured, multi-stakeholder view in an attempt to de-mystify this rather complex topic. To this, we will present facts on what drives the need for change in the propulsion systems market, what are the viable technological options, what market scenario is likely for 2020 and what does this entail for the major stakeholders. (orig.)

  17. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  18. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  19. The European New Car Assessment Programme: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ratingen, Michiel; Williams, Aled; Lie, Anders; Seeck, Andre; Castaing, Pierre; Kolke, Reinhard; Adriaenssens, Guido; Miller, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Established in 1997, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) provides consumers with a safety performance assessment for the majority of the most popular cars in Europe. Thanks to its rigorous crash tests, Euro NCAP has rapidly become an important driver safety improvement to new cars. After ten years of rating vehicles, Euro NCAP felt that a change was necessary to stay in tune with rapidly emerging driver assistance and crash avoidance systems and to respond to shifting priorities in road safety. A new overall rating system was introduced that combines the most important aspects of vehicle safety under a single star rating. The overall rating system has allowed Euro NCAP to continue to push for better fitment and higher performance for vehicles sold on the European market. In the coming years, the safety rating is expected to play an important role in the support of the roll-out of highly automated vehicles.

  20. The CERN car stickers for 2008 are now available

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2008 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the following documents: the 2007 sticker for the vehicle in question, the "carte grise" registration paper of the vehicle in question (photocopies accepted). If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2008 sticker using the request form on the Web.NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2007. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  1. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  2. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  3. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  4. Potential air pollutant emission from private vehicles based on vehicle route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Handayani, W.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2017-06-01

    Air emissions related to the transportation sector has been identified as the second largest emitter of ambient air quality in Indonesia. This is due to large numbers of private vehicles commuting within the city as well as inter-city. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Semarang city involving 711 private vehicles consisting of cars and motorcycles. The survey was conducted in random parking lots across the Semarang districts and in vehicle workshops. Based on the parking lot survey, the average distance private cars travelled in kilometers (VKT) was 17,737 km/year. The machine start-up number of cars during weekdays; weekends were on average 5.19 and 3.79 respectively. For motorcycles the average of kilometers travelled was 27,092 km/year. The machine start-up number of motorcycles during weekdays and weekends were on average 5.84 and 3.98, respectively. The vehicle workshop survey showed the average kilometers travelled to be 9,510 km/year for motorcycles, while for private cars the average kilometers travelled was 21,347 km/year. Odometer readings for private cars showed a maximum of 3,046,509 km and a minimum of 700 km. Meanwhile, for motorcycles, odometer readings showed a maximum of 973,164 km and a minimum of roughly 54.24 km. Air pollutant emissions on East-West routes were generally higher than those on South-North routes. Motorcycles contribute significantly to urban air pollution, more so than cars. In this study, traffic congestion and traffic volume contributed much more to air pollution than the impact of fluctuating terrain.

  5. Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Williams, Robert H.; Larson, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the 'societal lifecycle cost' of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered--including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted--including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine

  6. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  7. Fuel consumption of business passenger cars and plug-in vehicles; Praktijkverbruik van zakelijke personenauto's en plug-in voertuigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2013-05-15

    TNO investigates the use and fuel consumption of private cars since 2008. In this report the results for 2012 are presented. In part 1 the most recent results of statistical analyses of fuel card data, which are used by business-type drivers of passenger cars, are presented. The second part contains the results of an analysis of available fuel consumption data of so-called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and range-extender electric vehicles that have entered the market in 2012 [Dutch] TNO doet al sinds 2008 onderzoek naar het praktijkverbruik van personenauto's. In dit rapport worden de resultaten over 2012 weergegeven. Het eerste deel presenteert de meest recente resultaten van statistische analyses van tankpasdata van door zakelijke rijders gebruikte personenvoertuigen. Het tweede deel bevat de resultaten van een analyse van beschikbare verbruiksgegevens van zogenoemde 'plug-in hybrides' en 'range-extender' elektrische voertuigen die in 2012 op de markt zijn gekomen.

  8. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  9. Climate effects of non-compliant Volkswagen diesel cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Lund, Marianne T.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje

    2018-04-01

    On-road operations of Volkswagen light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with defeat devices cause emissions of NOx up to 40 times above emission standards. Higher on-road NOx emissions are a widespread problem not limited to Volkswagen vehicles, but the Volkswagen violations brought this issue under the spotlight. While several studies investigated the health impacts of high NOx emissions, the climatic impacts have not been quantified. Here we show that such diesel cars generate a larger warming on the time scale of several years but a smaller warming on the decadal time scale during actual on-road operations than in vehicle certification tests. The difference in longer-term warming levels, however, depends on underlying driving conditions. Furthermore, in the presence of defeat devices, the climatic advantage of ‘clean diesel’ cars over gasoline cars, in terms of global-mean temperature change, is in our view not necessarily the case.

  10. Not fully charged: Welfare effects of tax incentives for employer-provided electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitropoulos, A.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Koster, P.R.; Rietveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    More than 15 million cars are provided as fringe benefits by employers in Europe. The company car market is the driving force of changes in European car fleets and one of the main channels for the penetration of low emission vehicles. Policies in support of low emission vehicles through this channel

  11. The Research of Car-Following Model Based on Real-Time Maximum Deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of real-time maximum deceleration in car-following. The real-time maximum acceleration is estimated with vehicle dynamics. It is known that an intelligent driver model (IDM can control adaptive cruise control (ACC well. The disadvantages of IDM at high and constant speed are analyzed. A new car-following model which is applied to ACC is established accordingly to modify the desired minimum gap and structure of the IDM. We simulated the new car-following model and IDM under two different kinds of road conditions. In the first, the vehicles drive on a single road, taking dry asphalt road as the example in this paper. In the second, vehicles drive onto a different road, and this paper analyzed the situation in which vehicles drive from a dry asphalt road onto an icy road. From the simulation, we found that the new car-following model can not only ensure driving security and comfort but also control the steady driving of the vehicle with a smaller time headway than IDM.

  12. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  13. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  14. Using the centre of percussion to design a steering controller for an autonomous race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritayakirana, Krisada; Gerdes, J. Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how a race car driver controls a vehicle at its friction limits can provide insights into the development of vehicle safety systems. In this paper, a race car driver's behaviour inspires the design of an autonomous racing controller. The resulting controller uses the vehicle's centre of percussion (COP) to design feedforward and feedback steering. At the COP, the effects of rotation and translation from the rear tire force cancel each other out; consequently, the feedforward steering command is robust to the disturbances from the rear tire force. Using the COP also simplifies the equations of motion, as the vehicle's lateral motion is decoupled from the vehicle's yaw motion and highlights the challenge of controlling a vehicle when the rear tires are highly saturated. The resulting dynamics can be controlled with a linear state feedback based on a lane-keeping system with additional yaw damping. Utilising Lyapunov theory, the closed-loop system is shown to remain stable even when the rear tires are highly saturated. The experimental results demonstrate that an autonomous vehicle can operate at its limits while maintaining a minimal lateral error.

  15. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Simulating demand for electric vehicles using revealed preference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Áine; Lyons, Seán; Mariuzzo, Franco; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have modelled the market for new cars in Ireland with the aim of quantifying the values placed on a range of observable car characteristics. Mid-sized petrol cars with a manual transmission sell best. Price and perhaps fuel cost are negatively associated with sales, and acceleration and perhaps range are positively associated. Hybrid cars are popular. The values of car characteristics are then used to simulate the likely market shares of three new electric vehicles. Electric vehicles tend to be more expensive even after tax breaks and subsidies are applied, but we assume their market shares would benefit from an “environmental” premium similar to those of hybrid cars. The “environmental” premium and the level of subsidies would need to be raised to incredible levels to reach the government target of 10% market penetration of all-electric vehicles. -- Highlights: •Market values placed on a range of observable car characteristics are quantified. •We simulate market shares of electrical vehicles from values of car characteristics. •We assume electric vehicles will benefit from an “environmental” premium. •Large premium not enough to reach government targets for market penetration. •Very high subsidies required to reach government targets for market penetration

  17. Attuning in-car user interfaces to the momentary cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cars, trucks and busses are more and more equipped with functions and services that drivers are supposed to operate and understand. The most important developments in this area are the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS). In order to make sure that the

  18. INTER-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD CAR AND MOTORCYCLE OWNERSHIP BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro SANKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates household car and motorcycle ownership in Nagoya metropolitan area of Japan. Bivariate ordered probit models of household vehicle ownership were developed using the data from the case study area at three time points, 1981, 1991, and 2001. The accessibility that is generally known to be correlated with vehicle ownership decisions is incorporated as an input for the proposed vehicle ownership model to investigate the potential relationship between them. The mode choice models for the area were first estimated to quantify the accessibility indexes that were later integrated into the vehicle ownership models. Inter-temporal comparison and temporal transferability analysis were conducted. Some of the major findings suggest: 1 that age and gender differences have become less important in modal choices and car ownership as motorization proceeds; 2 that the accessibility seems to have a significant correlation with vehicle ownership; 3 that car and motorcycle ownership may not be independent and may have a complementary relationship; and 4 that the deep insights concerning the model selection are obtained from the viewpoints of the temporal transferability.

  19. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  20. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are conducting a joint rulemaking to redesign and add information to the current fuel economy label that is posted on the window sticker of all new cars and light- duty trucks sold in the U.S. The redesigned label will provide new information to American consumers about the fuel economy and consumption, fuel costs, and environmental impacts associated with purchasing new vehicles beginning with model year 2012 cars and trucks. This action will also develop new labels for certain advanced technology vehicles, which are poised to enter the U.S. market, in particular plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. NHTSA and EPA are proposing these changes because the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 imposes several new labeling requirements, because the agencies believe that the current labels can be improved to help consumers make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, and because the time is right to develop new labels for advanced technology vehicles that are being commercialized. This proposal is also consistent with the recent joint rulemaking by EPA and NHTSA that established harmonized federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pickup trucks for model years 2012-2016.

  1. CAR PARKS P3 AND P4 AT GENEVA AIRPORT: PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO PERSONS HOLDING DIPLOMATIC STATUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the international organisations in Geneva (hereinafter referred to as the «Swiss Mission») has informed CERN that the privileges granted to drivers of vehicles bearing diplomatic registration plates with respect to the use of Car-Park P3, situated at the «Departures» level of Geneva International Airport, have been renewed for an indefinite duration, subject to the following conditions: Vehicles bearing Swiss or French diplomatic plates are authorised to park for one hour in Car-Park P3 free of charge. The white entrance ticket entitles the holder to 15 minutes' free parking. Should the period of stay exceed 15 minutes but remain within one hour, drivers of vehicles bearing diplomatic plates should proceed to the car-parks control centre («Centre de Contrôle») at the Arrivals level, which is open 24 hours a day, and exchange their white entrance ticket for a pink exit pass free of charge by presen...

  2. Car-following Behavior Model Learning Using Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yihuan; Lin, Q.; Wang, Jun; Verwer, S.E.; Dochain, D.; Henrion, D.; Peaucelle, D.

    Learning driving behavior is fundamental for autonomous vehicles to “understand” traffic situations. This paper proposes a novel method for learning a behavioral model of car-following using automata learning algorithms. The model is interpretable for car-following behavior analysis. Frequent common

  3. Do We Blindly Trust Self-Driving Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal Andersen, Kamilla; Köslich, Simon; Pedersen, Bjarke Maigaard Kjær

    2017-01-01

    - to-day activities, such as driving a car, we carried out a series of experiments with an autonomous car simulator. Partici- pants (N=73) engaged in a scenario with no, correct or false audible information regarding the state of traffic around the self-driving vehicle, and were told they could assume...

  4. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  5. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  6. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  7. Research on some auxiliary mechanisms used in passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Daniela; Iozsa, Daniel; Antonescu, Ovidiu; Fratila, Gh.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on the topological structure and geometrical analysis of the planar mechanisms with articulated bars, which are used for actuating the doors of cars. The main five types of car doors with rotate movement (folding) are presented, being described both as constructive structure and mode of operation, through suitable kinematic schemes. Some innovative solutions for vehicle door actuating mechanisms aim to use as little space as possible, which is beneficial for car parking. There are three types of car door movements: rotation, sliding and planar rotational-sliding. Most of the cars are equipped with folding doors, where the rotate movement is limited and operates horizontally. Almost all sliding doors are placed on the rear of the car (only for passengers, not for driver). Unlike rotate doors, the sliding doors require a minimum lateral space, which is an advantage, especially in parking places. In the end of the paper, a kinematic analysis of the canopy 4-bar mechanism has been performed, in order to increase the passenger comfort on the access into the vehicle.

  8. The influence of tyre transient side force properties on vehicle lateral acceleration for a time-varying vertical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshimichi

    2018-05-01

    The tyre model which formerly developed by the author et al. and describes the tyre transient responses of side force and aligning moment under the time-varying vertical force was implemented to the vehicle dynamics simulation software and the influence of tyre side force transient property on the vehicle behaviour was investigated. The vehicle responses with/without tyre transient property on sinusoidally undulated road surfaces were simulated and compared. It was found that the average lateral acceleration of the vehicle at the sinusoidal steering wheel angle input decreases on the undulated road of long wavelength (3 m) for both cases, but when the wavelength becomes shorter (1 m), the average lateral acceleration increases only in the case that the transient property is considered. The cause of those changes is explained by using the tyre-related variables. Also the steady-state turning behaviour of the vehicle on undulated roads are shown and discussed.

  9. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  10. A demand-side approach to the optimal deployment of electric vehicle charging stations in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrenacci, N.; Ragona, R.; Valenti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A demand-side approach to the location of charging infrastructure problem is discussed in the paper. • The analysis is based on a large data-set of private vehicle travels within the urban area of Rome. • Cluster analysis is applied to the data to find the optimal location zones for charging infrastructures. • The daily energy demand and the average number of users per day are calculated for each and every charging infrastructure. - Abstract: Despite all the acknowledged advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction, energy efficiency and noise reduction, the electric mobility market is below expectations. In fact, electric vehicles have limitations that pose several important challenges for achieving a sustainable mobility system: among them, the availability of an adequate charging infrastructure is recognized as a fundamental requirement and appropriate approaches to optimize public and private investments in this field are to be delineated. In this paper we consider actual data on conventional private vehicle usage in the urban area of Rome to carry out a strategy for the optimal allocation of charging infrastructures into portions (subareas) of the urban area, based on an analysis of a driver sample under the assumption of a complete switch to an equivalent fleet of electric vehicles. Moreover, the energy requirement for each one of the subareas is estimated in terms of the electric energy used by the equivalent fleet of electric vehicles to reach their destination. The model can be easily generalized to other problems regarding facility allocation based on user demand.

  11. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  12. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  13. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  14. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  15. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  17. An extended car-following model to describe connected traffic dynamics under cyberattacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wu, Xinkai; Qin, Hongmao; Wang, Yunpeng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the impacts of the potential cyberattacks on vehicles are modeled through an extended car-following model. To better understand the mechanism of traffic disturbance under cyberattacks, the linear and nonlinear stability analysis are conducted respectively. Particularly, linear stability analysis is performed to obtain different neutral stability conditions with various parameters; and nonlinear stability analysis is carried out by using reductive perturbation method to derive the soliton solution of the modified Korteweg de Vries equation (mKdV) near the critical point, which is used to draw coexisting stability lines. Furthermore, by applying linear and nonlinear stability analysis, traffic flow state can be divided into three states, i.e., stable, metastable and unstable states which are useful to describe shockwave dynamics and driving behaviors under cyberattacks. The theoretical results show that the proposed car-following model is capable of successfully describing the car-following behavior of connected vehicles with cyberattacks. Finally, numerical simulation using real values has confirmed the validity of theoretical analysis. The results further demonstrate our model can be used to help avoid collisions and relieve traffic congestion with cybersecurity threats.

  18. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  19. A Bumpy Ride for Electric Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue, first through this article by Pierre Bonnaure that assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process, and then with an article by Veronique Lamblin offering a general overview of electric road vehicles. (author)

  20. Sustainable procurement of official cars for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notenboom, M.

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop more strict sustainability criteria for procurement policy for official cars for the Dutch government, to examine the effects of alternative scenarios and to provide recommendations that can be used by the Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment to stimulate the government in using more ambitious criteria in their latest tender for official cars. These recommendations involve both the government?s choice of vehicles and the government?s use of these vehicles. [nl

  1. 78 FR 59866 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... further commented that additional consideration should be given to autonomous vehicle controls that may... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0076] New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Car Assessment Program (NCAP) that the agency announced in its June 26, 2013 request for comments (78...

  2. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  3. A rental car strategy for commercialization of hydrogen in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Avenue, Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Kuby, Michael; Clancy, James [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This article proposes a hydrogen rental-car strategy for transitioning from fleets to consumers in Orlando, Florida. Orlando is the No. 1 tourist destination in the United States, but most car renters visit only a few destinations. A hydrogen rental-car fleet serving this cluster of destinations could provide visitors with a positive first exposure to hydrogen vehicles with minimal commitment, creating hydrogen advocates and potential early adopters in their home regions. The rental-car business combines the logistical advantages of a fleet operation with outreach to many consumers. A hydrogen-powered rental-car fleet at the Orlando International Airport could provide guaranteed demand, supporting an initial rollout of refueling stations. We surveyed 435 rental-car customers in Orlando to understand the idea from the consumer point of view. We analyzed the bundles of destinations visited by the respondents and found that only three stations - an existing station at the Orlando International Airport plus new stations near the theme parks and in downtown Orlando - could serve 64% of renters. Half of all respondents indicated a willingness to pay more to rent a hydrogen car, and this subset of customers ranked the ability to use a pollution-free car as the most important factor in their decision. We then identify the major barriers to a hydrogen rental-car business model from the corporate point of view and propose a number of potential solutions. The most significant barrier appears to be the fleet purchase costs, which we think can be offset by the benefits of free media coverage and contained by beginning with converted internal-combustion vehicles and converting eventually to fuel-cell vehicles. We also outline possible synergies with NASA, Disney, refueling stations, manufacturers and state government. (author)

  4. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Vehicle Detection for RCTA/ANS (Autonomous Navigation System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Shane; Bajracharya, Max; Matthies, Larry H.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    Using a stereo camera pair, imagery is acquired and processed through the JPLV stereo processing pipeline. From this stereo data, large 3D blobs are found. These blobs are then described and classified by their shape to determine which are vehicles and which are not. Prior vehicle detection algorithms are either targeted to specific domains, such as following lead cars, or are intensity- based methods that involve learning typical vehicle appearances from a large corpus of training data. In order to detect vehicles, the JPL Vehicle Detection (JVD) algorithm goes through the following steps: 1. Take as input a left disparity image and left rectified image from JPLV stereo. 2. Project the disparity data onto a two-dimensional Cartesian map. 3. Perform some post-processing of the map built in the previous step in order to clean it up. 4. Take the processed map and find peaks. For each peak, grow it out into a map blob. These map blobs represent large, roughly vehicle-sized objects in the scene. 5. Take these map blobs and reject those that do not meet certain criteria. Build descriptors for the ones that remain. Pass these descriptors onto a classifier, which determines if the blob is a vehicle or not. The probability of detection is the probability that if a vehicle is present in the image, is visible, and un-occluded, then it will be detected by the JVD algorithm. In order to estimate this probability, eight sequences were ground-truthed from the RCTA (Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances) program, totaling over 4,000 frames with 15 unique vehicles. Since these vehicles were observed at varying ranges, one is able to find the probability of detection as a function of range. At the time of this reporting, the JVD algorithm was tuned to perform best at cars seen from the front, rear, or either side, and perform poorly on vehicles seen from oblique angles.

  7. Who can best influence the quality of teenagers' cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Because young drivers' vehicles have been found to offer poor occupant protection in many countries, this study sought to identify the most appropriate audience for information and publicity designed to change purchasing preferences to improve these vehicles and resultant injury outcomes. An analysis of New Zealand vehicles crashed by drivers aged 19 years or less linked to data on the owner of the vehicle was undertaken. Details on the crashed vehicles were merged with licensing information to identify the owner's age group. It was presumed that most vehicles driven by teens but owned by someone aged 30 to 59 would be owned by a parent of the teen. Only 14 percent of vehicles crashed by teens were owned by teens. Generally, older vehicles with poor crashworthiness were provided for the teenage driver, whatever the age group of the owner. However, cars crashed by teens but owned by their parents were on average almost 2 years younger and had relatively superior crashworthiness than the teenager-owned and crashed vehicles, although their crashworthiness was still poor compared to vehicles driven by older drivers. Evidently, parents are key people in making vehicle purchasing decisions regarding the cars that teenagers drive and should be the main audience for measures to improve the poor secondary safety performance of teenagers' vehicles.

  8. Possible use of electric cars as balancing instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirez, Andreas; Luickx, Patrick; Woitrin, Dominique

    2010-09-15

    A massive introduction of electric cars is foreseeable in the mid to long term. Implementing a 'vehicle-to-grid' setting makes it possible to use these cars to deliver ancillary services to the electricity system. In this paper, the possibility of delivering active reserves in the Belgian control area is analyzed. We assume one million electric cars that can be connected to the Belgian grid. Based on our simulation, electric cars could be used for delivering all primary, all secondary and part of the tertiary reserves. Using electric cars as a balancing instrument would facilitate absorbing intermittent energy into the electricity system.

  9. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  10. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  11. Increasing Road Infrastructure Capacity Through the Use of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    considerably in recent years. In many urban areas, individuals have foregone purchasing vehicles and have instead joined car - sharing programs like...lots throughout the metropolitan area.107 Car sharing has expanded to include bike-sharing programs like Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC.108...vehicles could also enhance ride-sharing and car - sharing services, in which a user could request a vehicle via a mobile device to drive directly to the

  12. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  13. Fuel cell cars in a microgrid for synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, F.; Park Lee, H.; van de Wouw, N.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Lukszo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Fuel cell electric vehicles convert chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity to power their motor. Since cars are used for transport only during a small part of the time, energy stored in the on-board hydrogen tanks of fuel cell vehicles can be used to provide power when cars are parked. In

  14. Fuel cell cars in a microgrid for synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, F.; Park Lee, E.; van de Wouw, N.; de Schutter, B.; Lukszo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Fuel cell electric vehicles convert chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity to power their motor. Since cars are used for transport only during a small part of the time, energy stored in the on-board hydrogen tanks of fuel cell vehicles can be used to provide power when cars are parked. In this

  15. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  16. Cooperative maneuvering in close environments among cybercars and dual-mode cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanés, V.; Alonso, J.; Bouraoui, L.; Ploeg, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) experiments implementing cooperative maneuvering for three different vehicles driving automatically. The cars used were cybercars from the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique

  17. Switching CAR T cells on and off: a novel modular platform for retargeting of T cells to AML blasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartellieri, M; Feldmann, A; Koristka, S; Arndt, C; Loff, S; Ehninger, A; Bonin, M von; Bejestani, E P; Ehninger, G; Bachmann, M P

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells (CAR T cells) resulted in encouraging clinical trials in indolent B-cell malignancies. However, they also show the limitations of this fascinating technology: CAR T cells can lead to even life-threatening off-tumor, on-target side effects if CAR T cells crossreact with healthy tissues. Here, we describe a novel modular universal CAR platform technology termed UniCAR that reduces the risk of on-target side effects by a rapid and reversible control of CAR T-cell reactivity. The UniCAR system consists of two components: (1) a CAR for an inert manipulation of T cells and (2) specific targeting modules (TMs) for redirecting UniCAR T cells in an individualized time- and target-dependent manner. UniCAR T cells can be armed against different tumor targets simply by replacement of the respective TM for (1) targeting more than one antigen simultaneously or subsequently to enhance efficacy and (2) reducing the risk for development of antigen-loss tumor variants under treatment. Here we provide ‘proof of concept' for retargeting of UniCAR T cells to CD33- and/or CD123-positive acute myeloid leukemia blasts in vitro and in vivo

  18. MMSE Estimator for Children’s Speech with Car and Weather Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayuthi, V.

    2018-04-01

    Previous research mentioned that most people need and use vehicles for various purposes, in this recent time and future, as a means of traveling. Many ways can be done in a vehicle, such as for enjoying entertainment, and doing work, so vehicles not just only as a means of traveling. In this study, we will examine the children’s speech from a girl in the vehicle that affected by noise disturbances from the sound source of car noise and the weather sound noise around it, in this case, the rainy weather noise. Vehicle sounds may be from car engine or car air conditioner. The minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimator is used as an attempt to obtain or detect the children’s clear speech by representing simulation research as random process signal that factored by the autocorrelation of both the child’s voice and the disturbance noise signal. This MMSE estimator can be considered as wiener filter as the clear sound are reconstructed again. We expected that the results of this study can help as the basis for development of entertainment or communication technology for passengers of vehicles in the future, particularly using MMSE estimators.

  19. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  20. A video-based approach to calibrating car-following parameters in VISSIM for urban traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic simulation models need to be calibrated to represent realistic local traffic conditions. Traditional calibration methods are conducted by searching for the model parameter set that minimizes the discrepancies of certain macroscopic metrics between simulation results and field observations. However, this process could easily lead to inappropriate selection of calibration parameters and thus erroneous simulation results. This paper proposes a video-based approach to incorporate direct measurements of car-following parameters into the process of VISSIM model calibration. The proposed method applies automated video processing techniques to extract vehicle trajectory data and utilizes the trajectory data to determine values of certain car-following parameters in VISSIM. This paper first describes the calibration procedure step by step, and then applies the method to a case study of simulating traffic at a signalized intersection in VISSIM. From the field-collected video footage, trajectories of 1229 through-movement vehicles were extracted and analyzed to calibrate three car-following parameters regarding desired speed, desired acceleration, and safe following distance, respectively. The case study demonstrates the advantages and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of electrical vehicles. Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taszka, Stephane; Domergue, Silvano; Poret, Mathilde; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-07-01

    This study aims at assessing technologies of electrical or hybrid vehicle from a social-economic point of view as well as from a user's point of view by 2020 and 2030, and thus at identifying relevant fields for these technologies. After having recalled some elements of context (Paris agreement, climate change issues for which transport is an important matter of concern, necessity to reduce CO 2 emissions, atmospheric pollution, and sound pollutions), and envisaged solutions (technological advances in engines and motorizations, evolution of mobility behaviours, use of alternate fuels and more particularly of electric and hybrid vehicles), the authors report a social-economic analysis which compares costs and benefits while taking environmental externalities into account, and an analysis of consumer's or user's point of view by using a total cost of ownership (TCO) approach which takes taxation into account. Four technologies are thus studied: thermal vehicles (petrol and diesel), hybrid vehicles, reloadable hybrid vehicles, and fully electrical vehicles. The implemented methodology and general hypotheses are presented. Results are presented and discussed. They show that an electric vehicle could be already profitable in a dense urban environment in 2020, and hybrid technology in 2030. A mixed use (electric propulsion in urban environment, thermal propulsion for inter-urban trips) seems to be the best solution before these both horizons. The study also reports some elements of assessment of the 'smart grid' value of electric vehicle batteries. Appendices propose detailed assessments and indications of sources of pollutant emissions

  3. The role of instrumental, hedonic and symbolic attributes in the intention to adopt electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Anable, Jillian; Skippon, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to understand how private car drivers’ perception of vehicle attributes may affect their intention to adopt electric vehicles (EVs). Data are obtained from a national online survey of potential EV adopters in the UK. The results indicate that instrumental attributes are important largely...... to have positive perceptions of EV attributes. Perceptions of EV attributes are only very weakly associated with car-authority identity....

  4. An automatic window opening system to prevent drowning in vehicles sinking in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G.; Percher, Michael; Brunet, Pierre; Richard, Yanik; Alexander, Marion; Bellemare, Alixandra; Rawal, Yash; Amassian, Aram; Mcdonald, Gerren

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Every year about 400 people die in submersed vehicles in North America and this number increases to 2,000–5,000 in all industrialized nations. The best way to survive is to quickly exit through the windows. An Automatic Window Opening System (AWOS; patent protected) was designed to sense when a vehicle is in water and to open the electric windows, but only when the vehicle is upright. Methods: The AWOS consists of a Detection Module (DM), in the engine compartment, and a Power Window Control Module (PWCM) inside the driver’s door. The DM contains a Water Sensor, a Level Sensor and a Microcontroller Unit (MCU). The Level Sensor provides the angular orientation of the car using a 3-axis acceleration sensor and prevents automatic window opening if the car is outside the orientation range (±20° in the roll axis, ±30° in the pitch axis, with a 2 s delay). Systems were installed on two cars and one SUV. A crane lowered vehicles in water either straight down (static tests) or by swinging the vehicles to produce forward movement (dynamic tests). Results: In all tests, when the vehicles landed upright, windows opened immediately and effectively. When vehicles landed inverted, or at a very steep angle, the system did not engage until an upright and level position was attained. Conclusions: This system may help decrease drowning deaths in sinking vehicles. If occupants do not know, or forget, what to do, the open window could hopefully prompt them to exit safely through that window.

  5. An automatic window opening system to prevent drowning in vehicles sinking in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G.

    2017-07-12

    Objective: Every year about 400 people die in submersed vehicles in North America and this number increases to 2,000–5,000 in all industrialized nations. The best way to survive is to quickly exit through the windows. An Automatic Window Opening System (AWOS; patent protected) was designed to sense when a vehicle is in water and to open the electric windows, but only when the vehicle is upright. Methods: The AWOS consists of a Detection Module (DM), in the engine compartment, and a Power Window Control Module (PWCM) inside the driver’s door. The DM contains a Water Sensor, a Level Sensor and a Microcontroller Unit (MCU). The Level Sensor provides the angular orientation of the car using a 3-axis acceleration sensor and prevents automatic window opening if the car is outside the orientation range (±20° in the roll axis, ±30° in the pitch axis, with a 2 s delay). Systems were installed on two cars and one SUV. A crane lowered vehicles in water either straight down (static tests) or by swinging the vehicles to produce forward movement (dynamic tests). Results: In all tests, when the vehicles landed upright, windows opened immediately and effectively. When vehicles landed inverted, or at a very steep angle, the system did not engage until an upright and level position was attained. Conclusions: This system may help decrease drowning deaths in sinking vehicles. If occupants do not know, or forget, what to do, the open window could hopefully prompt them to exit safely through that window.

  6. Estimation of the terrestrial gamma-ray levels from car-borne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A place to place variation of the gamma-radiation has been measured. The terrestrial gamma-ray levels were obtained with a portable Nal(Tl) detector. Gamma-ray levels were measured inside a car for a distance of about 220 km, from Norman up to Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Simultaneous measurements have also been carried out outside the vehicle and at distances 1 m and 5 m from the car. A series of data was collected every 1 mile (∼ 1.6 km). The measurements were also repeated different time under different conditions. The measured car-borne levels were correlated with the outdoor equivalent levels at 1 m above flat ground. The result permits a good estimation of the outdoor gamma-ray levels from the car measurements after the correction due to the vehicle shielding

  7. Analysis of Vehicle-Following Heterogeneity Using Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-organizing feature map (SOM was used to represent vehicle-following and to analyze the heterogeneities in vehicle-following behavior. The SOM was constructed in such a way that the prototype vectors represented vehicle-following stimuli (the follower’s velocity, relative velocity, and gap while the output signals represented the response (the follower’s acceleration. Vehicle trajectories collected at a northbound segment of Interstate 80 Freeway at Emeryville, CA, were used to train the SOM. The trajectory information of two selected pairs of passenger cars was then fed into the trained SOM to identify similar stimuli experienced by the followers. The observed responses, when the stimuli were classified by the SOM into the same category, were compared to discover the interdriver heterogeneity. The acceleration profile of another passenger car was analyzed in the same fashion to observe the interdriver heterogeneity. The distribution of responses derived from data sets of car-following-car and car-following-truck, respectively, was compared to ascertain inter-vehicle-type heterogeneity.

  8. Real-time pedestrian detection with the videos of car camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians in the vehicle path are in danger of being hit, thus causing severe injury to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. Therefore, real-time pedestrian detection with the video of vehicle-mounted camera is of great significance to vehicle–pedestrian collision warning and traffic safety of self-driving car. In this article, a real-time scheme was proposed based on integral channel features and graphics processing unit. The proposed method does not need to resize the input image. Moreover, the computationally expensive convolution of the detectors and the input image was converted into the dot product of two larger matrixes, which can be computed effectively using a graphics processing unit. The experiments showed that the proposed method could be employed to detect pedestrians in the video of car camera at 20+ frames per second with acceptable error rates. Thus, it can be applied in real-time detection tasks with the videos of car camera.

  9. Students To Race Solar-Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 1999 — Middle school students from across the state next week will race model solar cars designed Race Solar-Powered Vehicles For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five

  10. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  11. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  12. Analysing the effects of air flow on a formula prototype vehicle to optimize its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth; Ashok, B.

    2017-11-01

    FSAE (Formula Society of Automotive Engineers) is an_engineering design competition which challenges students to design and build their own Formula Style race-car. The race-car is being judged on basis of various criteria namely, design, cost, business and performance. For the race-car to participate in the dynamic events and traverse through different sorts of challenging tracks in the least time possible, the tyres must generate appropriate amount of lateral and longitudinal force. The car must not topple even at high speeds and needs to manoeuvre quickly. To achieve the above-mentioned criterion, there is a need of implementing aerodynamics in the car. The optimum amount of downforce necessary to execute a smooth and rapid active behaviour of our car with maximum achievable performance is to be measured keeping vehicle dynamics into consideration. In this paper, vehicle dynamics and aerodynamics are related to an extent where all the above criterion can be achieved successfully, thereby bringing about a trade-off without any sort of compromises in either of them. The co-ordination between aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics has been depicted with a detailed methodology, accompanied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the wings and the full body of the car using STAR CCM+. Further the results has been discussed properly in the later sections of this paper. With a systematic approach, thoroughly done with several iterations on MATLAB followed by CFD simulations and analysis, the desired performance was accomplished.

  13. Impact of mobile phone use on car-following behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuzzaman, Mohammad; Haque, Md Mazharul; Zheng, Zuduo; Washington, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Multitasking, such as the concurrent use of a mobile phone and operating a motor vehicle, is a significant distraction that impairs driving performance and is becoming a leading cause of motor vehicle crashes. This study investigates the impact of mobile phone conversations on car-following behaviour. The CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator was used to test a group of young Australian drivers aged 18-26 years on a car-following task in three randomised phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to examine the effect of mobile phone distraction on selected car-following variables such as driving speed, spacing, and time headway. Overall, drivers tended to select slower driving speeds, larger vehicle spacings, and longer time headways when they were engaged in either hands-free or handheld phone conversations, suggesting possible risk compensatory behaviour. In addition, phone conversations while driving influenced car-following behaviour such that variability was increased in driving speeds, vehicle spacings, and acceleration and decelerations. To further investigate car-following behaviour of distracted drivers, driver time headways were modelled using Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE). After controlling for various exogenous factors, the model predicts an increase of 0.33s in time headway when a driver is engaged in hands-free phone conversation and a 0.75s increase for handheld phone conversation. The findings will improve the collective understanding of distraction on driving performance, in particular car following behaviour which is most critical in the determination of rear-end crashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    preferable unit of exposure to a serious crash than the number of registered vehicles. However, because there are relatively few fatalities in the states providing crash data, we calculate casualty risks, which are the sum of fatalities and serious or incapacitating injuries, per vehicle involved in a crash reported to the police. We can account for driver age/gender and driving location effects by excluding from analysis crashes (and casualties) involving young males and the elderly, and occurring in very rural or very urban counties. Using state data on all police-reported crashes in five states, we find that excluding crashes involving young male and elderly drivers has little effect on casualty risk; however, excluding crashes that occurred in the most rural and most urban counties (based on population density) increases casualty risk for all vehicle types except pickups. This suggests that risks for pickups are overstated unless they account for the population density of the county in which the crashes occur. After removing crashes involving young males and elderly drivers, and those occurring in the most rural and most urban counties, we find that casualty risk in all light-duty vehicles tends to increase with increasing weight or footprint; however, the correlation (R{sup 2}) between casualty risk and vehicle weight is 0.31, while the correlation with footprint is 0.23. These relationships are stronger for cars than for light trucks. The correlation between casualty risk in frontal crashes and light-duty vehicle wheelbase is 0.12, while the correlation between casualty risk in left side crashes and track width is 0.36. We calculated separately the casualty risks vehicles impose on drivers of the other vehicles with which they crash. The correlation between casualty risk imposed by light trucks on drivers of other vehicles and light truck footprint is 0.15, while the correlation with light truck footprint is 0.33; risk imposed on others increases as light truck weight

  15. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  16. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  17. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  18. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  19. CAR-T cell therapy in ovarian cancer: from the bench to the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Cai, Han; Zhao, Ling; Ning, Li; Lang, Jinghe

    2017-09-08

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and is responsible for most gynecological cancer deaths. Apart from conventional surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells as a representative of adoptive cellular immunotherapy have received considerable attention in the research field of cancer treatment. CARs combine antigen specificity and T-cell-activating properties in a single fusion molecule. Several preclinical experiments and clinical trials have confirmed that adoptive cell immunotherapy using typical CAR-engineered T cells for OC is a promising treatment approach with striking clinical efficacy; moreover, the emerging CAR-Ts targeting various antigens also exert great potential. However, such therapies have side effects and toxicities, such as cytokine-associated and "on-target, off-tumor" toxicities. In this review, we systematically detail and highlight the present knowledge of CAR-Ts including the constructions, vectors, clinical applications, development challenges, and solutions of CAR-T-cell therapy for OC. We hope to provide new insight into OC treatment for the future.

  20. Measuring the Impact of Economic Crisis to the Greek Vehicle Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia A. Nanaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fallout of the global economic crisis has impacted Greece severely as the austerity measures that were implemented since 2009 have had a devastating effect on poverty and the level of living. The financial agreement of the Greek government with the International Monetary Fund (IMF gave rise to a deep recession phase in the Greek market that started in early 2008. The automobile industry is among the sectors that have been severely affected by the economic crisis. Given that the demand for cars fell sharply and that the Greek car market is facing serious problems, mapping and understanding them can provide useful input to the Greek vehicle market. Regression analysis is being employed, and the interrelations of different variables, such as net disposable income, unemployment rate, fuel prices, the Greek crisis, loans directed to the vehicle market, as well as the inflation rate for the period of 2000–2016, are investigated. Analyzing the factors affecting car sales can provide policy-makers with knowledge in order to take legislative and economic measures, so as to boost sales of new environmental friendly vehicles not only in Greece, but in all EU states.

  1. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  2. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  3. Factors affecting pelvic and thoracic forces in near-side impact crashes: a study of US-NCAP, NASS, and CIREN data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Allan F; Kaufman, Robert; Mack, Christopher; Mock, Charles

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify variables related to vehicle design which are associated with pelvic and thoracic accelerations as measured by the driver's (near side) crash dummy during new car assessment program (NCAP) testing of motor vehicles. Vehicle specific parameters were analyzed using NCAP side impact test results. Data from national automotive sampling system, crashworthiness data system (NASS-CDS) and crash injury research and engineering network (CIREN) (both National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) injury databases) were assessed to confirm NCAP test observations. In addition, door armrest stiffness measurements were performed using a mechanical tester on a sample of 40 vehicles. NCAP data showed that of 10 variables tested using multiple linear regression, vehicle weight and door crush correlated with pelvic acceleration of the driver's crash dummy (overall, r2=0.58, p=0.002, n=165). For thoracic trauma index (TTI) vehicle weight and peak door velocity correlated, significantly (overall, r2=0.41, p=0.03, n=165). Mean TTI was 63.7 g with no side airbag (n=108) and 55.6 g with a thoracic side airbag (n=54), p=0.01. The mean vehicle weight and door crush between airbag and no airbag groups were not significantly different. NASS-CDS data demonstrated a direct relationship between increased door crush and increased abbreviated injury score (AIS). CIREN data showed that occupants who sustained pelvic injuries had a median AIS of 3 with 24.9 cm of door crush, with abdominal injuries, a median AIS of 3 and 30 cm of crush, and with thoracic injuries, a median AIS of 4 and 34 cm of door crush. In addition, the frequency of bilateral pelvic injuries was significantly higher for subjects in CIREN crashes who were in a vehicle with a center console, but only if door intrusion was greater than 15 cm. This information may be useful in design of vehicles with greater protection in side impact crashes.

  4. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  5. Study on Emission Measurement of Vehicle on Road Based on Binomial Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Sumarni Hamid; Selintung, Mary; Ramli, Muhammad Isran; Sumi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to evaluate emission measurement of on road vehicle. In this regard, the research develops failure probability model of vehicle emission test for passenger car which utilize binomial logit model. The model focuses on failure of CO and HC emission test for gasoline cars category and Opacity emission test for diesel-fuel cars category as dependent variables, while vehicle age, engine size, brand and type of the cars as independent variables. In order to imp...

  6. The advancement of electric vehicles - case: Tesla Motors. Disruptive technology requiring systemic innovating

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles have existed for over 100 years as a disruptive innovation. Even though they have always been easier to use, quieter and cleaner, gasoline cars have beaten it in price, range and faster fueling. As gasoline cars have been the technological standard for the past 150 years there has been no motivation by car manufacturers to advance electric vehicles. By producing electric vehicles Tesla Motors has appropriately become the first successful startup car manufacturer in over 100 ...

  7. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  8. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts and...

  9. Flame spread and smoke temperature of full-scale fire test of car fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale experiments using two 4-door sedan passenger cars, placed side by side in the reverse direction, were carried out to establish the burning behavior and describe the spread of fire to adjacent car. The temperature was measured by thermocouples. Radiant heat flux was measured with heat flux gauge placed at a distance of 5 m, at the right side of the car. Four cameras were placed inside the car and in the fire test room recording burning behavior during the test. Engine compartment was ignited by a sponge dipped with little gasoline. During the experiment, the ignition was initiated in the engine compartment of car I and approximately 20 min were enough time for fire to spread into the second car. Fully-developed burning of two cars occurred at 29 min. It was observed that the flame spread through car roof faster than through the bottom of car compartment. The fire followed a slow rate spread from engine compartment to car cab. The temperature inside the car peaked at the point of 900 °C. The peak smoke temperatures at every location were measured at the range of 89–285 °C. The smoke production at the time of 11 min to 15 min 50 s of fire was 1.76 m3/s, which was obtained through indirect calculation method.

  10. Fuel cell cars in a microgrid for synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Farid; Park Lee, Esther; Wouw, Nathan van de; De Schutter, Bart; Lukszo, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept of a flexible energy system that uses fuel cell cars as dispatchable power plants. • Synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks by operating of fuel cell cars in a microgrid. • A robust min-max model predictive control scheme for optimal dispatch of the fuel cell cars. • A novel model predictive control scheme to govern the system operation. - Abstract: Fuel cell electric vehicles convert chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity to power their motor. Since cars are used for transport only during a small part of the time, energy stored in the on-board hydrogen tanks of fuel cell vehicles can be used to provide power when cars are parked. In this paper, we present a community microgrid with photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, and fuel cell electric vehicles that are used to provide vehicle-to-grid power when renewable power generation is scarce. Excess renewable power generation is used to produce hydrogen, which is stored in a refilling station. A central control system is designed to operate the system in such a way that the operational costs are minimized. To this end, a hybrid model for the system is derived, in which both the characteristics of the fuel cell vehicles and their traveling schedules are considered. The operational costs of the system are formulated considering the presence of uncertainty in the prediction of the load and renewable energy generation. A robust min-max model predictive control scheme is developed and finally, a case study illustrates the performance of the designed system.

  11. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  12. Steering Angle Control of Car for Dubins Path-tracking Using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma Rahma Putri, Dian; Subchan; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2018-03-01

    Car as one of transportation is inseparable from technological developments. About ten years, there are a lot of research and development on lane keeping system(LKS) which is a system that automaticaly controls the steering to keep the vehicle especially car always on track. This system can be developed for unmanned cars. Unmanned system car requires navigation, guidance and control which is able to direct the vehicle to move toward the desired path. The guidance system is represented by using Dubins-Path that will be controlled by using Model Predictive Control. The control objective is to keep the car’s movement that represented by dinamic lateral motion model so car can move according to the path appropriately. The simulation control on the four types of trajectories that generate the value for steering angle and steering angle changes are at the specified interval.

  13. Automatic Parking of Self-Driving CAR Based on LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Wei, Y.; Guo, I. Y.

    2017-09-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle's dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  14. Vehicle positioning based on UWB technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kang, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase of the number of urban cars, the vehicle internet is becoming a trend of smart transportion. In such vehicle network, accurate location is very crucial in many new applications such as autopilot, semi-autopilot and Car-to-x communications. UWB technology has been used for indoor closed range positioning and ranging widely, while UWB outdoor positioning and ranging research is relatively less. This paper proposed UWB as the vehicle positioning technology and developed a method based on two-way-ranging (TWR) to solve the ranging problem between vehicles. At the same time, the improved TOA method was used to locate vehicles, which has higher precision compared with traditional GPS or LBS. A hardware module is introduced and the simulation results show that the modules are capable of precise positioning for vehicles in vehicle network.

  15. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  16. In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, L.; Mellios, G.; Tsokolis, D.; Keller, M.; Hausberger, S.; Ligterink, N.E.; Dilara, P.

    2014-01-01

    In-use fuel consumption data of 924 passenger cars (611 petrol, 313 diesel) were collected from various European sources and were evaluated in comparison to their corresponding type-approval values. The analysis indicated that the average in-use fuel consumption was higher than the type-approval one by 11% for petrol cars and 16% for diesel cars. Comparison of this dataset with the Travelcard database in the Netherlands showed that the deviation increased for late model years and in particular for cars with low type-approval values. The deviation was higher than 60% for vehicles registered in 2012 within the 90–100 gCO 2 /km bin. Unrealistic vehicle resistances used in type-approval were identified as one of the prime reasons of the difference. A simplified linear model developed in the study may be used to predict in-use fuel consumption based on data publicly available. The model utilizes the fuel consumption measured in type-approval, the mass, and the engine capacity to provide in-use fuel consumption. This may be either used to correct fuel consumption factors currently utilized by emission models (e.g. COPERT, HBEFA, VERSIT+, and others) or could be used independently to make projections on how fuel consumption may develop on the basis of changing future passenger cars characteristics. - Highlights: • In-use fuel consumption of petrol and diesel passenger cars is 11% and 16% higher than type-approval, respectively. • The relative difference between in-use and type-approval increases for late model and vehicles with low consumption. • Unrealistically low vehicle resistances are identified as a prime reason of low type-approval fuel consumption. • A model developed predicts in-use consumption on the basis of type-approval consumption, vehicle mass, and engine capacity

  17. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  18. Electric vehicles in China: emissions and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuguang; Cherry, Christopher R; J Bechle, Matthew; Wu, Ye; Marshall, Julian D

    2012-02-21

    E-bikes in China are the single largest adoption of alternative fuel vehicles in history, with more than 100 million e-bikes purchased in the past decade and vehicle ownership about 2× larger for e-bikes as for conventional cars; e-car sales, too, are rapidly growing. We compare emissions (CO(2), PM(2.5), NO(X), HC) and environmental health impacts (primary PM(2.5)) from the use of conventional vehicles (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in 34 major cities in China. CO(2) emissions (g km(-1)) vary and are an order of magnitude greater for e-cars (135-274) and CVs (150-180) than for e-bikes (14-27). PM(2.5) emission factors generally are lower for CVs (gasoline or diesel) than comparable EVs. However, intake fraction is often greater for CVs than for EVs because combustion emissions are generally closer to population centers for CVs (tailpipe emissions) than for EVs (power plant emissions). For most cities, the net result is that primary PM(2.5) environmental health impacts per passenger-km are greater for e-cars than for gasoline cars (3.6× on average), lower than for diesel cars (2.5× on average), and equal to diesel buses. In contrast, e-bikes yield lower environmental health impacts per passenger-km than the three CVs investigated: gasoline cars (2×), diesel cars (10×), and diesel buses (5×). Our findings highlight the importance of considering exposures, and especially the proximity of emissions to people, when evaluating environmental health impacts for EVs.

  19. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model (SAE 2016-01-0910)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  20. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  1. Improving car passengers' comfort and experience by supporting the use of handheld devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.A.T. van; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Kamp, I.; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a demand for interiors to support other activities in a car than controlling the vehicle. Currently, this is the case for the car passengers and-in the future-autonomous driving cars will also facilitate drivers to perform other activities. One of these activities is working

  2. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  3. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  4. Increasing the competitiveness of e-vehicles in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figenbaum, Erik; Fearnley, Nils; Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Hjorthol, Randi; Kolbenstvedt, Marika; Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Iversen, Lykke Møller

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 EU White Paper on Transport sets ambitious goals for phasing out conventionally fuelled cars in cities. Take-up and expansion of electric vehicles (e-vehicles, or electromobility) are one way to achieve this, as proposed by, i.a., the European Green Cars Initiative, the EU Action Plan on

  5. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  6. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  7. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 510, 511, 512, 520, 523, 525, 526, and 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0159] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    vehicles. Hydrogen car image Key Components of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Car Battery (auxiliary): In an Using Hydrogen? Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? on Facebook Tweet about

  9. On the way to 130 g CO2/km-Estimating the future characteristics of the average European passenger car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Samaras, Zissis

    2010-01-01

    A new average CO 2 emissions limit for passenger cars was introduced in EU in 2009 imposing gradual average CO 2 emissions reduction to 130 g/km until 2015. This paper attempts to study possible changes in vehicle characteristics for meeting this limit taking into account the average European passenger car of 2007-2008. For this purpose first the most important factors affecting vehicle fuel consumption over the reference cycle (NEDC) are identified. At a second step, the CO 2 benefit from the optimisation of these factors is quantified, through simulations of 6 different passenger cars commonly found in the European fleet. For the simulations Advisor 2002 was employed and validated against published type approval data. The analysis indicated that substantial reductions in vehicle weight, tyre rolling resistance and engine efficiency are necessary to reach even the 2008 target. A 10% reduction in average vehicle weight combined with 10% better aerodynamic characteristics, 20% reduced tyre rolling resistance and a 7.5% increase in average powertrain efficiency can lead to CO 2 reductions of approximately 13% (about 138 g/km based on 2007-2008 fleet-wide performance). Complying with the 130 g/km within the next six-year timeframe will be a rather difficult task and additional technical measures appear to be necessary.

  10. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  11. Emission consequences of introducing bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Mentz; Møller, Flemming; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the direct vehicle emission impact of the future use of bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars in Denmark arising from the vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission differences between neat gasoline (E0) and E5/E85 gasoline-ethanol fuel blends derived from emission......% in 2030. As predicted by the vehicle specific emission differences the calculated emission impacts of using bio ethanol are small for NOx, VOC and CO. Instead, for FS, BS1 and BS2 large emission reductions are due to the gradually cleaner new sold gasoline cars and the decline in total mileage until...

  12. Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gacovski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combi­nation of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.

  13. Advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigell, Annika Stensson; Rothhämel, Malte; Pauwelussen, Joop; Kural, Karel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents state-of-the art within advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety. The most common accidents with heavy trucks involved are truck against passenger cars. Safety critical situations are for example loss of control (such as rollover and lateral stability) and a majority of these occur during speed when cornering. Other critical situations are avoidance manoeuvre and road edge recovery. The dynamic behaviour of heavy trucks have significant differences compared to passenger cars and as a consequence, successful application of vehicle dynamic functions for enhanced safety of trucks might differ from the functions in passenger cars. Here, the differences between vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars are clarified. Advanced vehicle dynamics solutions with the perspective of road safety of trucks are presented, beginning with the topic vehicle stability, followed by the steering system, the braking system and driver assistance systems that differ in some way from that of passenger cars as well.

  14. Improving car passengers' comfort and experience by supporting the use of handheld devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, S.A.T.; Van Mastrigt, S.; Kamp, I.; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a demand for interiors to support other activities in a car than controlling the vehicle. Currently, this is the case for the car passengers and – in the future – autonomous driving cars will also facilitate drivers to perform other activities. One of these activities is working

  15. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

  16. Young drivers and their cars: Safe and sound or the perfect storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2018-01-01

    Consistent with the experiences in high-income countries, young drivers remain overrepresented in road trauma statistics in low- and middle-income countries. This article pursues the emerging interest of approaching the young driver problem from a systems thinking perspective in order to design and deliver robust countermeasures. Specifically, the focus of this paper is the cars driven by young drivers. The study of vehicles' characteristics and their interaction with driving behaviour is, more often than not, considered a minor concern when developing countermeasures in young drivers' safety not only in developed nations, but especially in developing nations. Participants completed an online survey containing the 44-item Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale Spanish version (BYNDS-Sp), in addition to providing information regarding their vehicle, any crash involvement, and driving offences. Based on the vehicle model information, the assessment of vehicle safety was conducted for three safety programs (ANCAP, Latin NCAP, U.S. NCAP). Young drivers in Colombia reported a breadth of risky driving behaviours worth targeting in broader interventions. For example, interventions can target speeding, particularly as three quarters of the participants drove small-medium cars associated with poorer road safety outcomes. Moreover, risky driving exposure was highly prevalent amongst the young driver participants, demonstrating the need for them to be driving the safest vehicles possible. It is noteworthy that few cars were able to be assessed by the Latin NCAP (with half of the cars rated having only 0-2 star ratings), and that there was considerable discrepancy between ANCAP, U.S. NCAP, and Latin NCAP ratings. The need for system-wide strategies to increase young driver road safety-such as improved vehicle safety-is vital to improve road safety outcomes in jurisdictions such as Colombia. Such improvements may also require systemic changes such as enhanced vehicle safety

  17. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the charging...

  18. Concept of Seikan car train; Yuro tunnel ni manabu Seikan car train koso (rail ni doroteki kino wo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirama, H.

    1997-08-15

    This paper summarizes an idea of operating a car train in the Seikan tunnel. Advantages expected from realization of this idea include assurance of mass transportation, enhancement in safety, reduction of transportation time, completion of a nationwide traffic network, and reduction of the transportation cost. A total traffic amount as sought from quantity of cargoes and number of passengers is estimated to be about 400 cars a day, and the number of trains to be operated assuming a car loading rate at 50% would be 28 trains a day. According to the profitability of this operation derived by using as calculation bases the fare revenue, expenditures and depreciation, the operation would turn into black ink in five years, clearing cumulative deficits in 17 years. In order to realize this operation, it is a prerequisite that the regulation on limitation of vehicle size (maximum width and height of vehicles) be mitigated as lax as in Eurotunnel. In addition, introduction of self-running freight cars and improvement of access roads will be necessary. Estimated economic effects may include time saving profit of 500 million yen annually, tax revenue effect of 200 million yen annually, and production inducing effect of 1.9 billion yen annually. Other expected effects may include employment effect, improvement in information transmitting function, and acceleration of different projects. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. AN AUTOMATIC CAR ANTI-THEFT ALARM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Enokela; E.J. Ibanga

    2007-01-01

    The theft of cars and other automobiles by criminals has become so frequent in our society as to be classified as alarming. Most of the thefts are organized by gangs of robbers but sometimes individuals engage in this activity. The result usually, however, is that the persons from whom the vehicles have been stolen are left to grieve as many of these vehicles are never recovered. This paper describes a simple alarm system that can be easily installed in all kinds of vehicles. The system desc...

  20. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  1. An Iterative Algorithm for the Management of an Electric Car-Rental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Conejero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of a car-rental service becomes more complex as long as one-way bookings between different depots are accepted. These bookings can increase the operational costs due to the necessity of moving vehicles from one depot to another by the company staff in order to attend previously accepted bookings. We present an iterative model based on flows on networks for the acceptance of bookings by a car-rental service that permits one-way reservations. Our model lets us also recover the movement of the fleet of vehicles between the depots over the time. In addition, it also permits including restrictions on the amount of cars managed at every single depot. These results can be of interest for an electric car-rental service that operates at different depots within a city or region.

  2. From laboratory to road: Modeling the divergence between official and real-world fuel consumption and CO_2 emission values in the German passenger car market for the years 2001–2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietge, Uwe; Mock, Peter; Franco, Vicente; Zacharof, Nikiforos

    2017-01-01

    Official fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission values of European passenger cars are widely recognized to be unrepresentative of real-world driving. The divergence between official and real-world values undermines national vehicle taxation schemes and EU-wide CO_2 standards for passenger cars, particularly since the divergence increases with new model generations. This study examines real-world fuel consumption data from more than 130,000 vehicles to investigate the development of the divergence. The analysis validates and refines a regression model developed by , which estimates real-world fuel consumption of cars based on readily available vehicle characteristics, namely official fuel consumption values, vehicle mass, and engine capacity. The regression model yielded coefficients of determination of 0.87 or higher, but was found to underestimate fuel consumption of newer vehicles and company cars. This study proposes to add vehicle build year as a regressor to account for the increasing divergence between official and real-world fuel consumption figures. - Highlights: • Real-world fuel consumption of new cars in Germany is 36% higher than official values. • The divergence between official and real-world fuel consumption has grown over time. • A simple regression accounts for ≥87% of the variance in real-world fuel consumption values. • Vehicle age must be included in the model to account for the growing divergence.

  3. Benchmarking of regenerative braking for a fully electric car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varocky, B.J.; Nijmeijer, H.; Jansen, S.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Mansvelder, R.; Mansvelders, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Short range of electric vehicles is one of the stumbling blocks in the way of electric cars to gaining wide user acceptance and becoming a major market player. The possibility to recover vehicle energy otherwise lost as heat during braking is an inherent advantage of a hybrid electric or a fully

  4. Modelling of Fire in an Open Car Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Timea; Dederichs, Anne Simone; Giuliani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Steel car parks exhibit high vulnerability to fire, as a consequence of the degradation of the steel mechanical properties at high temperatures and of the combustible type and amount. Real fire accidents in open car parks demonstrated a much faster and extended fire spread than predictions......, assuming that a fire spread rate of 12 min and consider at most 3-4 vehicles on fire at the same time. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) is applied in this current paper to study fire spread between cars. The outcomes of the investigations show that the fire spread is strongly influenced by the geometrical...... layout and that the distance between cars plays a determinant role on the fire spread rate and ignition of adjacent cars. In particular it was found that the fire spread can be faster than 12 minutes in the case of the cars parked 40 and 60 cm from each other....

  5. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  6. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  7. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  8. Real-world European driving cycles, for measuring pollutant emissions from high- and low-powered cars

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; JOUMARD, Robert; VIDON, Robert; TASSEL, Patrick; PERRET, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from cars are usually measured on a test bench using driving cycles. However, the use of one unique set of driving cycles to test all cars can be seen as a weak point of emission estimation, as vehicles could conceivably be tested differently depending on their performance levels and usage characteristics. A specific study was then conducted to characterize driving conditions and vehicle usage as a function of vehicle categories, as well as to derive driving cycles special...

  9. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  10. Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Fortmann, Addie L; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Romero, Romina A; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-05-01

    Some car rental companies in California and other states in the USA have established non-smoking policies for their vehicles. This study examined the effectiveness of these policies in maintaining smoke-free rental cars. A stratified random sample of 250 cars (non-smoker, smoker and unknown designation) was examined in San Diego County, California, USA. Dust, surfaces and the air of each vehicle cabin were sampled and analysed for residual tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke (THS)), and each car was inspected for visual and olfactory signs of tobacco use. Customer service representatives were informally interviewed about smoking policies. A majority of putative non-smoker cars had nicotine in dust, on surfaces, in air and other signs of tobacco use. Independent of a car's smoking status, older and higher mileage cars had higher levels of THS pollution in dust and on surfaces (pcars, non-smoker cars had lower levels of nicotine on surfaces (pcars was associated with lower levels of THS pollutants in dust and air (pcars compared with smoker cars. However, policies failed in providing smoke-free rental cars; THS levels were not as low as those found in private cars of non-smokers with in-car smoking bans. Major obstacles include inconsistent communication with customers and the lack of routine monitoring and enforcement strategies. Strengthening policies and their implementation would allow car rental companies to reduce costs, better serve their customers and make a constructive contribution to tobacco control efforts.

  11. Driving Cars by Means of Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Pérez, Diego; Sanjuan, Óscar; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of: 10th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, PPSN 2008. Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are an important issue. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the safety of the car, reducing emission or fuel consumption or optimizing driver comfort during long journeys. Car raci...

  12. Evaluation of the feasibility of using fuel cells in passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selwood, P G

    2001-07-01

    This project was conceived to evaluate the commercial prospects for fuel cell powered passenger cars in the UK and Western Europe, over the time-frame to 2010. First of all the existing market place was examined and reasons for buying particular vehicles and or size of vehicle was established. The conclusion was that there was a market potential of 32,250 pa in UK (244,000 pa Western Europe) of a 'C' Sector sized car using a fuel cell engine provided it sold at no more that 1000 pounds sterling above the conventional price. (author)

  13. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  14. A General Overview of Electric Road Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamblin, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue with two articles: the first of these by Pierre Bonnaure, above, assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process; this second article by Veronique Lamblin offers a general over - view of electric road vehicles (passenger cars, heavy good vehicles, bicycles etc.) throughout the world. (author)

  15. Requirements for change in consumer car buying practices - observations from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickelgren, Mikael (Center for Consumer Science, School of Economics, Business and Law Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden)); Sprei, Frances; Karlsson, Sten (Physical Resource Theory, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The Swedish car fleet today consists of the largest, heaviest, most powerful and most fuel consuming automobiles in Europe. This cannot be explained by demographics, national income, geography, and climate reasons only. Beyond the reasons for the current state of affairs the main focus for the present study is to learn more on how the individual car buyer deliberates when considering buying a new automobile. A main question is what would make the car buyer consider an alternative motor vehicle to what has usually been the preferred choice, especially in regard to car size, engine choice and the type of fuel (energy source) used to propel the vehicle. Around the individual consumer there are a number of stakeholders that have a vested interest in affecting the choice of the individual consumer. Among these stakeholders we find car producers, car dealers, importers, the government represented by many different agents, the automobile industry organizations, environmental organizations, and representatives for the media. These stakeholders are all taking action in pursuing their interests and achieving their goals, which by nature are in conflict towards other stakeholders. The study maps the way these stakeholders act to affect the development of the new car market. All this is taking place in the midst of the present debate on global warming and the way human beings affect the climate, which enhances the interest from most parties and stakeholders to navigate in these turbulent times of changing consumer preferences and car buying patterns.

  16. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  17. Is investing in an electric car worthwhile from a consumers' perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaínhas, José; Cunha, Jorge; Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles (EV) has long been proposed as a viable alternative to conventional cars and as a means of tackling transportation challenges related to the increasing reliance on fossil fuel and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. However, considerable barriers to its effective market uptake still persist. One of the most important ones is the cost of EV compared to other options in the same car market segment. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the investment in an EV pays-off in different car market segments. Comparisons between internal combustion engine cars and battery EV (BEV) were undertaken, evaluating the excess cost for the consumer. The evaluation is complemented by a probabilistic risk analysis. The car market segment is found to be a relevant aspect with the results suggesting that the acquisition of BEV for the higher end car market segment can easily become a financially attractive option. On the other hand, the cost argument for acquiring a BEV on the lower/middle car market segment is still not as convincing. The analysis was undertaken assuming the current Portuguese market conditions, but the results are deemed to be pertinent for other markets and regions. - Highlights: • A comparison between ICE vehicles and BEV is established. • The excess cost for the consumer was evaluated for two cars market segments. • A probability risk analysis of the results was presented. • The car market segment is found to be a relevant aspect for the comparison.

  18. Risk comparison of LPG and petrol vehicles in public car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Steen, M. van der

    1998-01-01

    LPG is generally considered as a clean fuel for cars in comparison with petrol. Although from an environmentally point of view LPG may be favoured, a further introduction of the use of the fuel is hindered by legislative measures. In some countries cars running on LPG are not allowed to enter public

  19. Quantifying the contribution of individual vehicles to NO2 pollution in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Kanatschnig, Florian; Horbanski, Martin; Friedrich, Axel; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx) emissions by road vehicles are the mayor contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollutant in mega and other cities. However emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle and its engine, the age and condition of the vehicle, driving properties and many more. Even if data of the manufacturer exists how much NOx different vehicle types emit, reliable data under real driving conditions are rare and often missing. Especially data showing the degree to which different cars contribute to observed NOx levels are missing. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding / replacing these. As this is only a small amount of vehicles (typically less than 10% of the vehicles make 90% of the emissions), such a small investment can significantly improve air quality. In order to perform measurements of NOx we applied a high speed NO2 CE-DOAS (Cavity-Enhanced DOAS) instrument in a car which was modified for this application. It measured directly the NO2 concentration behind followed vehicles while driving, with a time resolution of 2 s and an accuracy of ~1ppb. Even if such observations depend on many parameters like mixing-in of ambient air, distance, solar radiation, ozone concentration, background concentration etc., it delivers valuable data under real driving conditions. The instrument was applied in the city of Mainz, Germany to investigate within 7 days (March / April 2014) the NOx emission of 728 vehicles and to quantify the main emitters. Therefore the measured NO2 concentration in comparison to the background concentrations was quantified. Observed vehicles were separated in 4 categories: cars, busses, trucks, and motorcycles. We observed NO2 levels from a few ppb (within the background variation) up to 7000ppb NO2 above the background level. Strong variations within the same

  20. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  1. The contribution to the greenhouse effect by passenger cars and heating is increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Between 1990 and 1998, the domestic sector contribution to the greenhouse effect increased from 25 % to 27 %. During this period, there was a 20 % rise in greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars. These emissions amounted to 20 million tonnes of carbon equivalent out of a total of 175 million tonnes in 1998 (all sectors taken together). Carbon dioxide emissions from the tertiary sector increased by 2,3 % annually between 1980 and 1998, particularly as a result of increased road freight transport. Although technological progress has been made on fuel consumption of vehicles, greater use of passenger cars combined with decreasing running costs has led to gross emissions in France being 2 % more in 1998 than in 1990. In 1998, the transport sector (passenger cars and freight transport) was responsible for three-quarters of this increase. (author)

  2. Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions during the production of a passenger car in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly-rising oil demand and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road vehicles in China, passenger cars in particular, have attracted worldwide attention. As most studies to date were focused on the vehicle operation stage, the present study attempts to evaluate the energy demand and GHG emissions during the vehicle production process, which usually consists of two major stages-material production and vehicle assembly. Energy demand and GHG emissions in the material production stage are estimated using the following data: the mass of the vehicle, the distribution of material used by mass, and energy demand and GHG emissions associated with the production of each material. Energy demand in the vehicle assembly stage is estimated as a linear function of the vehicle mass, while the associated GHG emission is estimated according to the primary energy sources. It is concluded that the primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions during the production of a medium-sized passenger car in China are 69,108 MJ, 14,545 MJ and 6575 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq). Primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions in China's passenger car fleets in 2005 would be increased by 22%, 5% and 30%, respectively, if the vehicle production stage were included.

  3. Design of lightweight magnesium car body structure under crash and vibration constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Kiani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Car body design in view of structural performance and lightweighting is a challenging task due to all the performance targets that must be satisfied such as vehicle safety and ride quality. In this paper, material replacement along with multidisciplinary design optimization strategy is proposed to develop a lightweight car body structure that satisfies the crash and vibration criteria while minimizing weight. Through finite element simulations, full frontal, offset frontal, and side crashes of a full car model are evaluated for peak acceleration, intrusion distance, and the internal energy absorbed by the structural parts. In addition, the first three fundamental natural frequencies are combined with the crash metrics to form the design constraints. The wall thicknesses of twenty-two parts are considered as the design variables. Latin Hypercube Sampling is used to sample the design space, while Radial Basis Function methodology is used to develop surrogate models for the selected crash responses at multiple sites as well as the first three fundamental natural frequencies. A nonlinear surrogate-based optimization problem is formulated for mass minimization under crash and vibration constraints. Using Sequential Quadratic Programming, the design optimization problem is solved with the results verified by finite element simulations. The performance of the optimum design with magnesium parts shows significant weight reduction and better performance compared to the baseline design.

  4. Automobile scrap regulation. Give-away presents. Polluting cars and trade-in for cleaner cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annema, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A scrap regulation for old vehicles has been in place in the Netherlands for almost one year now. Has it been an effective instrument? What are the societal costs and benefits? Is it a fair regulation? Was it a good idea to introduce the car scrap regulation? The answer to all these questions is: doubtful. [nl

  5. Risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance using a combined steering torque overlay and differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyung; Yi, Kyongsu; Yoo, Hyunjae; Chong, Hyokjin; Ko, Bongchul

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance. The proposed risk management algorithm consists of a supervisor and a coordinator. The supervisor is designed to monitor collision risks between the subject vehicle and approaching vehicle in the adjacent lane. An appropriate criterion of intervention, which satisfies high acceptance to drivers through the consideration of a realistic traffic, has been determined based on the analysis of the kinematics of the vehicles in longitudinal and lateral directions. In order to assist the driver actively and increase driver's safety, a coordinator is designed to combine lateral control using a steering torque overlay by motor-driven power steering and differential braking by vehicle stability control. In order to prevent the collision while limiting actuator's control inputs and vehicle dynamics to safe values for the assurance of the driver's comfort, the Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequalities based optimisation methods have been used. The proposed risk management algorithm has been evaluated via simulation using CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink.

  6. Numerical method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management: Application to a medium-upper segment passenger car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caresana, F.; Bilancia, M.; Bartolini, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant reductions in vehicle fuel consumption can be obtained through a greater control of the thermal status of the engine, especially under partial load conditions. Different systems have been proposed to implement this concept, referred to as improved engine thermal management. The amount of fuel saved depends on the components and layout of the engine cooling plant and on the performance of its control system. In this work, a method was developed to calculate the theoretical minimum fuel consumption of a passenger car and used as a reference in comparing different engine cooling system concepts. A high-medium class car was taken as an example and simulated on standard cycles. Models for power train and cooling system components were developed and linked to simulate the vehicle. A preliminary analysis of the engine was performed using AVL's Boost program. The fuel consumption of the complete vehicle, equipped with a conventional cooling plant, was determined on standard cycles and compared with that of a vehicle equipped with a 'perfect' cooling system, to calculate the theoretical reduction in fuel consumption. - Highlights: → We propose a method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management. → A conventional cooling system is compared to a 'perfect' one to estimate fuel economy. → We tested the method in an upper-medium segment passenger car.

  7. The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

  8. The electric car controversy. A social-constructivist interpretation of the California zero-emission vehicle mandate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelberg, H

    1998-07-01

    This study focuses the socio-technical dynamics of the attempted reintroduction of electric cars in California. The underlying question is whether or not it is possible to open up an entrenched technological area as car technology, and achieve a radical change. With the perspectives of social constructivist approaches to technological change, this study examines how a large technological controversy was initiated by regulatory action of the air agency in California, the California Air Resources Board, how this controversy developed and stabilized, and how it was ended by the air agency and the auto industry. Based on mainly secondary sources, the definitions that were established on electric cars and gasoline cars at the turn of the 20th century are highlighted, thus showing the existence of two types of automobiles: the city car and the endurance car. The city car did not survive, and was not defined as being a real car. Based on mainly primary sources, the recent electric car controversy is examined, suggesting that the air agency could not force the car industry to re-introduce the city car, and consequently the efforts were directed towards the development of more advanced batteries that could give the electric car a performance close to that of the gasoline car. It also display that electric car technology was enhanced due to the mandate. In ending the controversy, the agency, due to political forces, changed from 'command-and-control' to a 'partnership' strategy. The California Air Resources Board postponed the mandate (from 1998 to 2003), due to the fact that large volume production of advanced batteries was not expected to be in place by 1998. This regulatory relief removed the principal obstacle on behalf of auto manufacturers of not to accept mandated markets, and led General Motors to start to market their purpose built electric sports car by late 1996, and Toyota to promote electric- and electric hybrid car technologies. Thus car technology was re-opened.

  9. The electric car controversy. A social-constructivist interpretation of the California zero-emission vehicle mandate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelberg, H.

    1998-07-01

    This study focuses the socio-technical dynamics of the attempted reintroduction of electric cars in California. The underlying question is whether or not it is possible to open up an entrenched technological area as car technology, and achieve a radical change. With the perspectives of social constructivist approaches to technological change, this study examines how a large technological controversy was initiated by regulatory action of the air agency in California, the California Air Resources Board, how this controversy developed and stabilized, and how it was ended by the air agency and the auto industry. Based on mainly secondary sources, the definitions that were established on electric cars and gasoline cars at the turn of the 20th century are highlighted, thus showing the existence of two types of automobiles: the city car and the endurance car. The city car did not survive, and was not defined as being a real car. Based on mainly primary sources, the recent electric car controversy is examined, suggesting that the air agency could not force the car industry to re-introduce the city car, and consequently the efforts were directed towards the development of more advanced batteries that could give the electric car a performance close to that of the gasoline car. It also display that electric car technology was enhanced due to the mandate. In ending the controversy, the agency, due to political forces, changed from 'command-and-control' to a 'partnership' strategy. The California Air Resources Board postponed the mandate (from 1998 to 2003), due to the fact that large volume production of advanced batteries was not expected to be in place by 1998. This regulatory relief removed the principal obstacle on behalf of auto manufacturers of not to accept mandated markets, and led General Motors to start to market their purpose built electric sports car by late 1996, and Toyota to promote electric- and electric hybrid car technologies. Thus car

  10. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates of diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Vonk, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In real-world conditions, modern Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles produce an average of ten times less nitrogen oxide (NOx)emissions than previous generations of Euro IV and Euro V heavy-duty vehicles. However, Euro 6 passenger cars and light commercial vehicles present an entirely different picture since, despite a continual tightening of European emissions limits, the real-world NOx emissions of new diesel passenger cars and light commercial vehicles have remained virtually unchanged over the la...

  11. Periodic vehicle inspection (MOT). [previously: Periodic Vehicle Inspection of cars (MOT).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s the periodic vehicle inspection (MOT) of various categories of vehicles was introduced in the Netherlands. This fact sheet will discuss the legal framework of this measure and the research carried out into its effects on road safety, also in an international context. For instance, the

  12. CFD analysis for road vehicles - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mihai NEGRUS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study on the influence of the lower part of road vehicles on the global drag characteristics. Reducing overall drag by redesigning the lower part of the road vehicles has a potential of almost 20% in the overall drag breakdown, mainly due to the viscous effects and the fluidic interaction of the flow under the car with the typical bluff body flow pattern behind the vehicle. A special parameterization is proposed for the global shape of the sedan car, with respect to the lower part of the body, taking into account most of the specificities of the system. For such a complex interaction, CFD analysis is probably the only efficient tool in order to assess specific design parameterization of a generic car shape. Building on the credibility of such instruments is one of the major goals of this paper. Also, with respect to a target sedan car configuration, examples of successful design strategies are presented. Based on the CFD results, possible strategies to be used in order to reduce viscous drag and global drag characteristics are proposed.

  13. Spectral analysis of Floating Car Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gössel, F.; Michler, E.; Wrase, B.

    2003-01-01

    Floating Car Data (FCD) are one important data source in traffic telematic systems. The original variable in these systems is the vehicle velocity. The paper analyses the measured value “vehicle velocity" by methods of information technology. Consequences for processing, transmission and storage of FCD under condition of limited resources are discussed. Starting point of the investigation is the analysis of spectral characteristics of velocity-time-profiles. The spectra are determined by...

  14. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  15. Trajectory generation for car-like robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, H.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous robots or remotely operated vehicles have raised high hopes in the military and industrial communities because of the potential safety improvement and gain of productivity they may provide. Waste management on nuclear sites, pallet manipulation in factories, interventions on battlefields, etc., are actively studied. A lot of these applications require powerful four-wheel vehicles, the kinematics of which is similar to that of a car. Such vehicles have three degrees of freedom: the (x,y) positions in a plane and the orientation of the vehicle. Path planning is often understood as only changing the position of the vehicle, whereas the tasks performed by this kind of robot require a perfect orientation of the vehicle: forklifting a pallet or docking at a loading or unloading station requires accuracy in the orientation of the vehicle. It is this requirement and the kinematic constraints of the motion mode that have led to the path-planning algorithm presented in this paper

  16. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  17. The car and fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romm, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of the technical literature on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and discussions with experts in vehicle technology and energy analysis. It is derived from analysis provided to the bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy. The urgent need to reverse the business-as-usual growth path in global warming pollution in the next two decades to avoid serious if not catastrophic climate change necessitates action to make our vehicles far less polluting. In the near-term, by far the most cost-effective strategy for reducing emissions and fuel use is efficiency. The car of the near future is the hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle, because it can reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions 30 to 50% with no change in vehicle class and hence no loss of jobs or compromise on safety or performance. It will likely become the dominant vehicle platform by the year 2020. Ultimately, we will need to replace gasoline with a zero-carbon fuel. All AFV pathways require technology advances and strong government action to succeed. Hydrogen is the most challenging of all alternative fuels, particularly because of the enormous effort needed to change our existing gasoline infrastructure. The most promising AFV pathway is a hybrid that can be connected to the electric grid. These so-called plug-in hybrids or e-hybrids will likely travel three to four times as far on a kilowatt-hour of renewable electricity as fuel cell vehicles. Ideally these advanced hybrids would also be a flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on a blend of biofuels and gasoline. Such a car could travel 500 miles on 1 gal of gasoline (and 5 gal of cellulosic ethanol) and have under one-tenth the greenhouse gas emissions of current hybrids

  18. Study of Car Acceleration and Deceleration Characteristics at Dangerous Route FT050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N.; Prasetijo, J.; Daniel, B. D.; Abdullah, M. A. E.; Ismail, I.

    2018-04-01

    Individual vehicle acceleration and deceleration are important to generate vehicles speed profile. This study covered acceleration and deceleration characteristics of passenger car in Federal Route FT050 Jalan Batu Pahat-Ayer Hitam that was the top ranking dangerous road. Global Positioning System was used to record 10 cars speed to develop speed profile with clustering zone. At the acceleration manoeuver, the acceleration rate becomes lower as the drivers get near to desired speed. While, at deceleration manoeuver, vehicles with high speed needs more time to stop compare to low speed vehicle. This is because, the drivers need to accelerate more from zero speed to achieve desired speed and drivers need more distance and time to stop their vehicles. However, it was found out that 30% to 50% are driving in dangerous condition that was proven in clustering acceleration and deceleration speed profile. As conclusion, this excessive drivers are the factor that creating high risk in rear-end collision that inline FT050 as dangerous road in Malaysia

  19. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  20. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  1. Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Han, Yong; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-11-01

    The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,863 in 2010. Pedestrians account for the highest number (1,714, 35%), and vehicle occupants the second highest (1,602, 33%). Pedestrian protection is a key countermeasure to reduce casualties in traffic accidents. A striking vehicle's impact velocity could be considered a parameter influencing the severity of injury and possibility of death in pedestrian crashes. A collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) using a sensor to detect pedestrians could be effective for reducing the vehicle/pedestrian impact velocity. Currently in Japan, cars equipped with the CDMBS also have vision sensors such as a stereo camera for pedestrian detection. However, the ability of vision sensors in production cars to properly detect pedestrians has not yet been established. The effect of reducing impact velocity on the pedestrian injury risk has also not been determined. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CDMBS in detecting pedestrians when it is installed in production cars. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of reducing impact velocity on mitigating pedestrian injury. Firstly, impact experiments were performed using a car with the CDMBS in which the car collided with a pedestrian surrogate. In these tests, the velocity was chosen for the various test runs to be 20, 40 and 60 km/h, respectively, which were based on the velocity distribution in real-world pedestrian crashes. The results indicated that the impact velocity reduction ranged approximately from 10 to 15 km/h at the standing location of a pedestrian surrogate at both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions. These results show that the system has the potential to reduce pedestrian casualties from car-to-pedestrian contacts. Secondly, finite-element analyses were performed simulating vehicle-to- pedestrian impacts with the THUMS pedestrian models. The vehicle models selected for the study included a medium sedan

  2. The effect of vehicle characteristics on road accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, I S

    2016-01-01

    The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents investigates whether vehicle characteristics related to handling and stability contribute to road accidents. Using multiple regression analysis, this book addresses driver and vehicle effects separately in order to define both the magnitude of the handling/accident causation problem as well as the relative importance of the various performance measures. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with detailed studies of accidents to determine the circumstances which lead to loss of control or overturning of a car on the road, and which accidents are likely to be influenced by the handling and stability characteristics of cars. Accident rates for these types of accident are then examined for the more popular models of car. Measures of vehicle handling and stability related to accident rates are also discussed. This text will be a useful resource for motorists and road engineers as well as transportation officials.

  3. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  4. Evaluation of the feasibility of using fuel cells in passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selwood, P.G.

    2001-07-01

    This project was conceived to evaluate the commercial prospects for fuel cell powered passenger cars in the UK and Western Europe, over the time-frame to 2010. First of all the existing market place was examined and reasons for buying particular vehicles and or size of vehicle was established. The conclusion was that there was a market potential of 32,250 pa in UK (244,000 pa Western Europe) of a 'C' Sector sized car using a fuel cell engine provided it sold at no more that 1000 pounds sterling above the conventional price. (author)

  5. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  6. Min-Max control of fuel-cell-car-based smart energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, F.; van de Wouw, N.; de Schutter, B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the idea of using fuel cell vehicles as the future way of producing electricity has emerged. A fuel cell car has all the necessary devices on board to convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity. This paper considers a scenario where a parking lot for fuel cell cars acts as a

  7. Min-max control of fuel-cell-car-based smart energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, F.; van de Wouw, N.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Rantzer, Anders; Bagterp Jørgensen, John; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the idea of using fuel cell vehicles as the future way of producing electricity has emerged. A fuel cell car has all the necessary devices on board to convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity. This paper considers a scenario where a parking lot for fuel cell cars acts as a

  8. Structure and impacts of fuel economy standards for passenger cars in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, David Vance; An Feng; Wang Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By the end of 2006, there were about 24 million total passenger cars on the roads in China, nearly three times as many as in 2001. To slow the increase in energy consumption by these cars, China began implementing passenger car fuel economy standards in two phases beginning in 2005. Phase 1 fuel consumption limits resulted in a sales-weighted new passenger car average fuel consumption decrease of about 11%, from just over 9 l/100 km to approximately 8 l/100 km, from 2002 to 2006. However, we project that upon completion of Phase 2 limits in 2009, the average fuel consumption of new passenger cars in China may drop only by an additional 1%, to approximately 7.9 l/100 km. This is due to the fact that a majority of cars sold in 2006 already meets the stricter second phase fuel consumption limits. Simultaneously, other trends in the Chinese vehicle market, including increases in average curb weight and increases in standards-exempt imported vehicles, threaten to offset the efficiency gains achieved from 2002 to 2006. It is clear that additional efforts and policies beyond Phase 2 fuel consumption limits are required to slow and, ultimately, reverse the trend of rapidly rising energy consumption and greenhouse gases from China's transportation sector.

  9. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Yao Zhiliang; He Kebin; Yu Xin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of idling car exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNabola, A; Broderick, B M; Gill, L W [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the effect of maintaining a 2 metre distance between vehicles on commuter pollution exposure levels. Air quality samples were recorded inside cars on a busy road in Dublin. A turbulent dispersion model was used to predict the exposure levels from idling cars. Samples were recorded along the route by keeping a distance of approximately 2 metres by sight to the car in front, and then a second time keeping a distance of approximately 1 meter. Traffic numbers were recorded during each sample from local authority loops. Meteorological and idling time data were also recorded for a total of 10 pairs of samples. Experiments were then conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}). A calibrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was then used to predict car exposure levels under varying conditions. Key parameters included ventilation rates; wind speed; and distance. The calibrated numerical model demonstrated that the pollution concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 metres of the preceding exhaust. Maintaining a distance of 2 metres to the preceding vehicle showed a reduction in VOCs and particulate matter of approximately 30 to 40 per cent. It was concluded that further research is needed to determine if modified driving behaviours will promote higher levels of traffic congestion. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 11 figs.

  11. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical,

  12. Modeling and simulation of cars in frontal collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, S. C.; Perescu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crâştiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Protection of cars, mainly drivers and passengers in a collision are very important issues worldwide. Statistics given by “World Health Organization” are alarming rate of increase in the number of road accidents, most claiming with serious injury, human and material loss. For these reasons has been a continuous development of protection systems, especially car causing three quarters of all accidents. Mathematical modeling and simulation of a car behavior during a frontal collision leads to new solutions in the development of protective systems. This paper presents several structural models of a vehicle during a frontal collision and its behavior is analyzed by numerical simulation using Simulink.

  13. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  14. Experimental and numerical study of the flow field around a small car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerodynamic study of a small car, which participated in Shell Ecomarathon Europe competition in the Urban Concept Hydrogen class. The goal is to understand the flow field around the vehicle. First, the flow is studied numerically using computational aerodynamics. The numerical simulation is carried out by means of CFD Fluent in order to obtain the drag force experienced by the vehicle and also the flow field. Then the flow field around the car is studied in a wind tunnel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV. The comparison of the flow fields obtained numerically and experimentally shows good correspondence. The obtained results are very helpful for future car development and permit to improve the drag and to obtain a good stability.

  15. Deriving vehicle-to-grid business models from consumer preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnsack, René; van den Hoed, Robert; Oude Reimer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Combining electric cars with utility services seems to be a natural fit and holds the promise to tackle various mobility as well as electricity challenges at the same time. So far no viable business model for vehicle-to-grid technology has emerged, raising the question which characteristics a

  16. The impact of the EU car CO_2 regulation on the energy system and the role of electro-mobility to achieve transport decarbonisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Christian; Nijs, Wouter; Simoes, Sofia; Schmidt, Johannes; Zyl, Arnold van; Schmid, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the impact of the current and an alternative stricter EU CO_2 car legislation on transport related CO_2 emissions, on the uptake of electric vehicles (EV), on the reduction of oil consumption, and on total energy system costs beyond 2020. We apply a TIMES based energy system model for Europe. Results for 2030 show that a stricter target of 70 g CO_2/km for cars could reduce total transport CO_2 emissions by 5% and oil dependence by more than 2% compared to the current legislation. The stricter regulatory CO_2 car target is met by a deployment of more efficient internal combustion engine cars and higher shares of EV Total system costs increase by less than 1%. The analysis indicates that EV deployment and the decarbonisation of the power system including higher shares of variable renewables can be synergistic. Our sensitivity analysis shows that the deployment of EV would sharply increase between 2020 and 2030 at learning rates above 12.5%, reaching shares above 30% in 2030. Finally, the study highlights that, besides legislating cars, policies for other transport sectors and modes are needed to curb transport related CO_2 emission growth by 2030. - Highlights: •Car CO_2 regulation effective policy to reduce transport CO_2 emissions. •Learning rate above 12.5% can lead to sharp increase in electric vehicle deployment. •Electric vehicles can foster the deployment of variable renewable electricity. •Policies for other modes needed to curb transport CO_2 growth.

  17. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  18. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  19. The TNO Vehicle Dynamics Database (VDD): a tool for comparision of vehicle dynamics behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleuskens, R.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    TNO has started a database containing data of vehicle dynamics properties of passenger cars, based on the results of eight objective ISO driving tests. From this database, car manufacturers and their suppliers can get the required information for design and marketing purposes in a fast and

  20. ICT-Platform to Transform Car Dealerships to Regional Providers of Sustainable Mobility Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wagner vom Berg

    2017-02-01

    implementation only, based on own efforts, is difficult for car dealerships because of the dealership’s lack of know-how as well as tight IT budgets. However, this approach appears particularly successful in rural areas where public transport services are heavily declining. For full implementation, the presented ICT support is imperative. Recommendation for Researchers: The research on the retailer level, especially in combination with a digital trans-formation by the use of ICT systems, is still fragmentary. Research in this area that both addresses sustainability goals on a general level and supports economical goals on the company level of automotive retailers would be useful. Impact on Society: Creation of sustainable offers as a substitute or supplement for mobility based on their own car is a promising way to reduce negative effects of mobility. Enhancement of the mobility of the people in rural areas is leading to a more active lifestyle by reaching the leisure facilities, workplaces and educational institutions in a sustainable manner. Future Research: In terms of the fast changing mobility landscape, especially on a technical level with the development of autonomous vehicles and digitalization of entire businesses new solutions are becoming accessible, that have to be integrated in further research.

  1. Unusual contact marks: connecting the hubcap to the wheel of the car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok; Klein, Asne; Volkov, Nikolay; Shor, Yaron; Vinokurov, Asya

    2002-05-01

    A case of homicide and attempted homicide is described. The comparison of tire-marks linked the suspect's vehicle to the scene of crime only with low certainty. However, the comparison of the pressure mark on the hubcap found at the scene, with the balance weight on one of the wheels of the suspect's car, connected the suspect to the scene of crime with high certainty.

  2. INTERFACING VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION WITH GSM NETWORKS TO PREVENT THE THEFT OF THE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC by means of white Light Emitting Diode (LED is an alternate and most promising technology for existing Radio Frequency (RF communication. We proposed one of the important applications of VLC to prevent the theft of the vehicle. Every year approximately 36,000 vehicles worth Rs.115 crores are stolen in India. In critical road condition, only 15,000 are traced and many spare parts of vehicle are found missing. Even the existing technologies have some disadvantages related to the problem stated. In our paper, we dealt with the data communication through LED. One of the optical wireless communication having short range is called as VLC whose visible light spectrum starts from 380 nm and ends at 780 nm and it has an incomparable data rate of 10GB/s whereas the speed is 1MB/s on Bluetooth and for Infra Red (IR the speed is 4MB/s. We try to achieve the communication through VLC between 1 car - car to prevent the accident and 2 car - tollgate and received signal from tollgate is transmitted to Global System for Mobile communication (GSM network using microcontroller to prevent the theft of vehicle. To enhance the security of VLC, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm is used and the result is illustrated with the help of LabVIEW.

  3. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  4. Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.

  5. Estimate of Annual Ultraviolet-A Exposures in Cars in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Kimlin, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The annual solar UVA exposures in four cars were estimated by measuring the UVA irradiances in the vehicles in each of the four seasons and in the morning, noon and afternoon. For the cars with untinted windows the maximum UVA irradiances in cars do not necessarily occur at noon when the outside irradiances are at their highest. Additionally, they do not occur in summer. The range of annual UVA exposures between 9:00 and 15:00 EST is 1918 to 6177 J.cm -2 for the cars without the after-market window tint. These correspond to 5% to 17% of the ambient UVA on a horizontal plane over the same period outside the cars. The range is for the different sites in the car. For the car with the after-market window tint, the range of the annual UVA exposures was 489 to 2969 J.cm -2 or 1% to 8% of the ambient UVA. (author)

  6. Psychological determinants of fuel consumption of purchased new cars

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, A; Gutscher, H; Scholz, R W

    2011-01-01

    With regard to reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of road transport consumers' adoption of fuel-efficient vehicles is crucial. However, facing the ongoing trend of increasing car size and power, fuel consumption is apparently of lesser importance to most buyers. For the design of effective measures to change behavior and promote fuel-efficient cars, psychological factors should be considered. Drawing from psychological research on environmental behavior, we propose a model which inte...

  7. Autonomous cars and dynamic bottleneck congestion: The effects on capacity, value of time and preference heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Autonomous cars’ are cars that can drive themselves without human control. Autonomous cars can safely drive closer together than cars driven by humans, thereby possibly increasing road capacity. By allowing drivers to perform other activities in the vehicle, they may reduce the value of travel time

  8. 78 FR 74225 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Importation 1. Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0033 Nonconforming Vehicles: 1996 Chevrolet Impala Passenger Cars Substantially Similar U.S. Certified Vehicles: 1996 Chevrolet Impala Passenger Cars Notice of Petition Published...

  9. Roof strength and injury risk in rollover crashes of passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Teoh, Eric R

    2009-12-01

    A 2009 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety found that midsize SUVs with stronger roofs, as measured in quasi-static tests, had lower risk of ejection and lower risk of injury for nonejected drivers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a similar association exists for other vehicle groups. Twelve small passenger cars were evaluated according to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 test conditions. Crash databases in 14 states provided more than 20,000 single-vehicle rollover crashes involving these vehicles. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of roof strength on the rate of driver injury while assessing and controlling for the effects of driver age, vehicle stability, state, and other factors where necessary. Small cars with stronger roofs had lower overall rates of serious injury, lower rates of ejection, and lower rates of injury for nonejected drivers. Although the effect on ejection was somewhat smaller for cars than for SUVs, the overall pattern of injury results was consistent. For roof strength-to-weight ratio measured within 5 in. (SWR(5)), a one-unit increase (e.g., from 2.0 to 3.0) was associated with a 22 percent reduction in risk of incapacitating or fatal driver injury in single-vehicle rollovers. This compares with a 24 percent reduction estimated for a similar change in roof strength among midsize SUVs. The association between vehicle roof strength and occupant injury risk in rollover crashes appears robust across different vehicle groups and across roof SWR(5) values, varying from just more than 1.5 to just less than 4.0. If roofs were to increase in strength by one SWR(5), a 20-25 percent reduction in risk of serious injury in rollovers would be expected. Still, even if all vehicle roofs were as strong as the strongest roof measured, many rollover injuries still would occur, indicating the need for additional research and countermeasures.

  10. Company car study 2011. Reduction of environmental impacts by influencing the selection process of company cars; Tyoesuhdeautotutkimus 2011. Ympaeristoehaittojen vaehentaeminen autonvalinnan ohjauksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify: What kinds of operational models directing towards eco-friendlier company car use there are and which are in use. What kinds of practical impacts these operational models have had. What is the demand for company car use and what changes have taken place from the viewpoint of companies and beneficiaries. What factors should the best company car taxation include in terms of directiveness (from the environmental point of view). The main objective is to find directive factors in company car use which would result in smaller environmental impacts and which company car users could commit themselves to. The main target groups of the study were the recipients of company car benefits, and enterprises using company cars. Company cars are mainly used for two reasons: in many organisations, work is carried out where the customer is, in which case company cars are used for reducing travel costs. On the other hand, a company car is a significant means for attracting and motivating employees, especially skilled experts and management staff. Company cars also play a significant role in the replacement rate of Finnish motor vehicles. The car selection rules of organisations determine the roles that entitle an employee to have a company car and how they can choose their car. Factors restricting the choice are usually CO{sub 2} and the price and make of the car. The CO{sub 2} limit is used by about 70% of organisations. According to this study, the average emission limit is 168 g/km, depending on the company and the position of the beneficiary. However, the average CO{sub 2} emissions of new company cars are currently about 140 g/km, and therefore the emission limits of organisations have not followed the development of motor technology. In entrepreneurship, environmental issues will be regarded as very important in the future, and there is also a notion for this to be reflected in the guidelines for selecting company cars. Emissions reduction

  11. Cars and fuels for tomorrow: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, Max; Nilsson, Lars J.; Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    Light duty vehicles, i.e. passenger cars and light trucks, account for approximately half of global transportation energy demand and, thus, a major share of carbon dioxide and other emissions from the transport sector. Energy consumption in the transport sector is expected to grow in the future, especially in developing countries. Cars with alternative powertrains to internal combustion engines (notably battery, hybrid and fuel-cell powertrains), in combination with potentially low carbon electricity or alternative fuels (notably hydrogen and methanol), can reduce energy demand by at least 50%, and carbon dioxide and regulated emissions much further. This article presents a comparative technical and economic assessment of promising future fuel/vehicle combinations. There are several promising technologies but no obvious winners. However, the electric drivetrain is a common denominator in the alternative powertrains and continued cost reductions are important for widespread deployment in future vehicles. Development paths from current fossil fuel based systems to future carbon-neutral supply systems appear to be flexible and a gradual phasing-in of new powertrains and carbon-neutral fluid fuels or electricity is technically possible. Technology development drivers and vehicle manufacturers are found mainly in industrialised countries, but developing countries represent a growing market and may have an increasingly important role in shaping the future. (author)

  12. Solar powered vehicles: From dream to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The initiatives of the 'Schweizer Vereinigung fuer Sonnenenergie' (Swiss Association for Solar Energy) has added new impetus worldwide for the utilisation of solar energy. The Association organised the 'Tour de Sol', a race for vehicles propelled with the aid of solar energy. Solar vehicles with and without supplementary power, both standard production models and prototypes were eligible for the race. Before the start of the race, the solar-powered vehicles were 'filled up' with solar energy at a 'solar filling station'. The winner in the 'standard' section (a 2-seater small car for short distances) weighed in at 240 kg and attained a top speed of 100 km/h and a range of 150 km. The rear-wheel drive of this battery-powered vehicle was provided by 2 permanent magnet motors. A newly-developed nickel-zinc battery from the USA was available to power the twin engines. The energy requirement was the equivalent of less than 1 liter of petrol per 100 km.

  13. Sorting on the Used-Car Market After the Volkswagen Emission Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, Anthony; Lechner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure of the VW emission manipulation scandal caused a quasi-experimental market shock in the observable quality of VW diesel vehicles. We consider a classical model for adverse selection and sorting to derive an empirically testable hypothesis about the impact of observable quality on the supply of used cars. We test the hypothesis with data collected from an online car selling platform which reflects about 50% of the German used-car market. The empirical approach is based on a cond...

  14. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  15. Car Theft in Poland as a Part of the Risk in Auto Accident and Theft Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wieteska, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The problem of car theft has been observed for many years. The largest scale of this phenomenon occurred in the 1990’s. In this paper, the issue is discussed in social, ethical and economic aspects. We present the scale of the phenomenon of the theft of passenger vehicles in Poland in the years 2001–2012 in terms of the number of vehicles, type of stolen vehicles and the accident areas. In addition, we present the cause of theft and selected ways to protect cars from it. We als...

  16. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  17. IMPROVING CAR NAVIGATION WITH A VISION-BASED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The real-time acquisition of the accurate positions is very important for the proper operations of driver assistance systems or autonomous vehicles. Since the current systems mostly depend on a GPS and map-matching technique, they show poor and unreliable performance in blockage and weak areas of GPS signals. In this study, we propose a vision oriented car navigation method based on sensor fusion with a GPS and in-vehicle sensors. We employed a single photo resection process to derive the position and attitude of the camera and thus those of the car. This image georeferencing results are combined with other sensory data under the sensor fusion framework for more accurate estimation of the positions using an extended Kalman filter. The proposed system estimated the positions with an accuracy of 15 m although GPS signals are not available at all during the entire test drive of 15 minutes. The proposed vision based system can be effectively utilized for the low-cost but high-accurate and reliable navigation systems required for intelligent or autonomous vehicles.

  18. Improving Car Navigation with a Vision-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2015-08-01

    The real-time acquisition of the accurate positions is very important for the proper operations of driver assistance systems or autonomous vehicles. Since the current systems mostly depend on a GPS and map-matching technique, they show poor and unreliable performance in blockage and weak areas of GPS signals. In this study, we propose a vision oriented car navigation method based on sensor fusion with a GPS and in-vehicle sensors. We employed a single photo resection process to derive the position and attitude of the camera and thus those of the car. This image georeferencing results are combined with other sensory data under the sensor fusion framework for more accurate estimation of the positions using an extended Kalman filter. The proposed system estimated the positions with an accuracy of 15 m although GPS signals are not available at all during the entire test drive of 15 minutes. The proposed vision based system can be effectively utilized for the low-cost but high-accurate and reliable navigation systems required for intelligent or autonomous vehicles.

  19. Greeley's Maplewood Middle School Stellar in Solar Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado entered the 20-meter race, which gave students the opportunity to show off their engineering and design skills by building and racing model solar-powered vehicles. Trophies for the fastest cars were

  20. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  1. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  2. Small car exposure data project. Phase 1 : methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    The Small Car Exposure Data Project represents the first phase of an effort to build a data : base of exposure variables for crash-avoidance studies. Among these are: (1) vehicle make, : model, year, body style, wheel base, weight, and horsepower; (2...

  3. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the Federal...

  4. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J; Reyner, L

    1999-05-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.

  5. Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Kılıç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey. Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.  In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases. Key words: Animal vehicle collision; death; disability; horse; injury; motorway.  

  6. System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Shi, P.

    2004-01-01

    A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  7. A dynamical model of car-following with the consideration of the multiple information of preceding cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, G.H.; Sun, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    An improved multiple car-following (MCF) model is proposed, based on the full velocity difference (FVD) model, but taking into consideration multiple information inputs from preceding vehicles. The linear stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Through nonlinear analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed model is theoretically an improvement over others, while retaining many strong points in the previous ones by adjusting the information of the multiple leading vehicles.

  8. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  9. An integral evaluation of dieselisation policies for households' cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the transport sector is a priority for Great Britain and other European countries as part of their agreements made in the Kyoto protocol and the Voluntary Agreement. To achieve these goals, it has been proposed to increase the market share of diesel vehicles which are more efficient than petrol ones. Based on partial approaches, previous research concluded that increasing the share of diesel vehicles will decrease CO 2 emissions (see ; ). Unlike these approaches, I use an integral approach based on discrete choice models to analyse diesel vehicle penetration in a broader context of transport in Great Britain. I provide for the first time, empirical evidence which is in line with argument that only improvements in vehicle efficiency will not be enough to achieve their goals of mitigation of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The model shows the technical limitations that the penetration of diesel vehicles faces and that a combination of improvements in public transportation and taxes on fuel prices is the most effective policy combination to reduce the total amount of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions among the analysed dieselisation polices. - Highlights: → Unlike other approaches, I use an integral one to analyse diesel vehicle penetration. → It is needed to make diesel cars lighter and accessible to all kind of drivers. → Having more diesel vehicles will not reduce the amount of energy and CO 2 emissions. → It provides empirical evidence of the effect of improving vehicle efficiency. → Taxing petrol cars and improving public transportation is the more efficient policy.

  10. 75 FR 59674 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Side...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... 567). A vehicle manufacturer, distributor, dealer, or repair business generally may not knowingly make... modifications that may be made. Under the regulation, a motor vehicle repair business that modifies a vehicle to... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0133] RIN 2127-AK77 Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To...

  11. A New Car-Following Model considering Driving Characteristics and Preceding Vehicle’s Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many improved car-following models based on the full velocity difference (FVD model have been developed. But these models do not consider the acceleration of leading vehicle. Some of them consider individual anticipation behavior of drivers, but they either do not quantitatively determine the types of driving or artificially divide the driving types rather than deriving them from actual traffic data. In this paper, driver’s driving styles are firstly categorized based on actual traffic data via data mining and clustering algorithm. Secondly, a new car-following model based on FVD model is developed, taking into account individual anticipation effects and the acceleration of leading vehicle. The effect of driving characteristics and leading vehicle’s acceleration on car-following behavior is further analyzed via numerical simulation. The results show that considering the acceleration of preceding vehicle in the model improves the stability of traffic flow and different driving characteristics have different influence on the stability of traffic flow.

  12. EU limits for CO2 emissions of passenger cars. Roads to the 95 g/km target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smokers, R.; Fraga, F.; Verbeek, M.; Bleuanus, S.; Sharpe, R.; Dekker, D.; Verbeek, R.; Willems, F.; Foster, D. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Hill, N.; Norris, J.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Kampman, B.; Den Boer, E.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Schilling, S.; Gruhlke, A. [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik Oekopol, Hamburg (Netherlands); Breemersch, T.; De Ceuster, G.; Vanherle, K. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Wrigley, S.; Owen, N.; Johnson, A. [Ricardo UK, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); De Vleesschauwer, T.; Valla, V.; Anand, G. [IHS Global Insight, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this project is to support and advise the European Commission on options for lowering of the CO2 limit values of passenger cars and how they can be realised. The following main tasks were performed: (1) state-of-the-art vehicle emission reduction options for 2020; (2) evaluation of other utility parameters in addition to vehicle mass; (3) modalities for achieving 95 g/km; and (4) further aspects, including borrowing and banking of credits, life cycle aspects and rebound aspects.

  13. Fuel Options for Vehicles in Korea and Role of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all vehicles in Korea are powered by gasoline or diesel and they are emitting about 25% of nationwide total carbon dioxide emission. With jetting up price of oil and concerns about global warming by use of fossil fuel, transition to the hydrogen economy gains more and more interest. As alternatives to the current fossil powered vehicles, hybrid, hydrogen, electricity powered vehicles are considered. In short term we will reduce dependence upon fossil fuel by using hybrid cars. However, in the long term, we have to escape from the dependence on fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear-driven hydrogen or electricity powered cars are the alternatives. In this study, we estimated the operation cost of cars powered by hydrogen and electricity from nuclear power and studied about the major blocks on the way to independence from fossil fuels. In the analysis, we put the capital cost of car aside

  14. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  15. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  16. The feasibility of long range battery electric cars in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Mike; Andrews, Deborah; Anderson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand transport accounts for over 40% of the carbon emissions with private cars accounting for 25%. In the Ministry of Economic Development's recently released 'New Zealand Energy Strategy to 2050', it proposed the wide scale deployment of electric vehicles as a means of reducing carbon emissions from transport. However, New Zealand's lack of public transport infrastructure and its subsequent reliance on private car use for longer journeys could mean that many existing battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not have the performance to replace conventionally fuelled cars. As such, this paper discusses the potential for BEVs in New Zealand, with particular reference to the development of the University of Waikato's long-range UltraCommuter BEV. It is shown that to achieve a long range at higher speeds, BEVs should be designed specifically rather than retrofitting existing vehicles to electric. Furthermore, the electrical energy supply for a mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs is discussed and conservatively calculated, along with the number of wind turbines to achieve this. The results show that approximately 1350 MW of wind turbines would be needed to supply the mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs, or 54% of the energy produced from NZ's planned and installed wind farms.

  17. Backpropagation Neural Ensemble for Localizing and Recognizing Non-Standardized Malaysia’s Car Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Kim On; Teo Kein Yau; Rayner Alfred; Jason Teo; Patricia Anthony; Wang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a research project that autonomously localizes and recognizes non-standardized Malaysian’s car plates using conventional Backpropagation algorithm (BPP) in combination with Ensemble Neural Network (ENN). We compared the results with the results obtained using simple Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN). This research aims to solve four main issues; (1) localization of car plates that has the same colour with the vehicle colour, (2) detection and recognition of car pla...

  18. On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.; Kazimi, Camilla

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently the stated reason for special measures aimed at controlling motor vehicles. In the United States, motor vehicle emission standards are set explicitly in clean air legislation, while policies at several levels of government are designed to reduce the use of cars for particular purposes like commuting. In Europe, high fuel taxes and subsidies to urban mass transit and intercity rail travel in large part aim to reduce car use.

  19. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  20. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    B. Lee; Y. Wei; I. Y. Guo

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on...

  1. Steering levies on the purchase of new cars for the reduction of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, P. de; Mueller, M.; Peters, A.; Hauser, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the background, mechanisms and prognoses for the reduction of CO 2 emissions of new cars. This report focuses on policy measures - specifically the collection of budget-neutral so-called 'feebates' - that aim to influence the behaviour of buyers of new cars as a means of enhancing energy efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions. Both the European Union and Switzerland are pursuing a three-pillar strategy in which agreements with manufacturers and importers (pillar 1) are supplemented by the provision of more detailed information for customers in the form of energy labels for new vehicles as well as catalogues listing levels of fuel consumption (pillar 2). Pillar 3 concerns measures aimed at influencing car buying behaviour, generally based on the use of the energy label for new vehicles in order to realise the existing potentials for reducing CO 2 emissions. The report takes a look at Switzerland's car market, buying behaviour, information on efficient vehicles, acceptance factors and incentive schemes. The findings of the study are presented and commented on.

  2. Searching plutonium from a travelling vehicle by neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, W.; Koeble, T.; Hilger, P.; Engelen, J.

    2001-01-01

    For the search and detection of concealed nuclear material and neutron sources we have equipped a conventional car with a neutron measurement system. It consists of six neutron slab counters on each side. Each slab counter has a size of approx. 25x50x9 cm 3 and contains 6 He-3 tubes embedded in polyethylene covered by stainless steel. The active length of the tubes is 33 cm and the diameter 2.54 cm. The efficiency of all six slab counters on each side is 0.66 % for the detection of Cf-252 fission neutrons emitted from a point source in a distance of 100 cm from the center of the detectors. The complete system is mounted in a square steel rod assembly so that it can be fixed in most vehicles easily. Between the racks for the detectors we have fastened a voltage converter and the electronics. A view of this system installed into a car is shown. The pulses of the six modules on each side are summed passively and each side is analyzed separately. The results can be displayed on a handheld PC in the front of the car or in case of a covered search the data can be stored in a non-volatile memory in the electronics. For a clear location these data will be synchronized with a GPS signal. A measurement performed with a car equipped with this neutron detection system is shown. We placed a small neutron source (Cf-252) two meters away from the driving way of the car. The neutron intensity corresponds to less than 10 g reactor plutonium with a burn up of 30 GWd/t. The results show a very clear signal on the right side whereas the signal from the left row of the detector modules is only slightly above background. In addition we have performed measurements in practical operation. The typical neutron background was 10 cps on the test site. A neutron source (Cf-252) was hidden inside a house in the ground floor approx. I m above the floor. The neutron intensity of this source was 1.86 10 5 n/s (in 4π). This corresponds to about 530 g reactor plutonium (burn up of 30 GWd/t) or even

  3. Safer passenger car front shapes for pedestrians: A computational approach to reduce overall pedestrian injury risk in realistic impact scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle front shape has a significant influence on pedestrian injuries and the optimal design for overall pedestrian protection remains an elusive goal, especially considering the variability of vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios. Therefore this study aims to develop and evaluate an efficient framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection accounting for the broad range of real world impact scenarios and their distributions in recent accident data. Firstly, a framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection was developed based on coupling of multi-body simulations and a genetic algorithm. This framework was then applied for optimizing passenger car front shape for pedestrian protection, and its predictions were evaluated using accident data and kinematic analyses. The results indicate that the optimization shows a good convergence and predictions of the optimization framework are corroborated when compared to the available accident data, and the optimization framework can distinguish 'good' and 'poor' vehicle front shapes for pedestrian safety. Thus, it is feasible and reliable to use the optimization framework for vehicle front shape optimization for reducing overall pedestrian injury risk. The results also show the importance of considering the broad range of impact scenarios in vehicle front shape optimization. A safe passenger car for overall pedestrian protection should have a wide and flat bumper (covering pedestrians' legs from the lower leg up to the shaft of the upper leg with generally even contacts), a bonnet leading edge height around 750mm, a short bonnet (17° or car front shape for head and leg protection are generally consistent, but partially conflict with pelvis protection. In particular, both head and leg injury risk increase with increasing bumper lower height and depth, and decrease with increasing bonnet leading edge height, while pelvis injury risk increases with increasing bonnet leading

  4. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles. The assessments are done from a life cycle perspective. The effect on human health, resources and ecosystems is considered when calculating the environmental impact. The total cost of ownership (TCO model includes the purchase price, registration and road taxes, insurance, fuel or electricity cost, maintenance, tires replacement, technical control, battery leasing and battery replacement. In the presented analysis different vehicle technologies and fuels are compared (petrol, diesel, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, battery electric vehicles (BEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs on their level of environmental impact and cost per kilometer. The analysis shows a lower environmental impact for electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles have a higher total cost of ownership compared to conventional vehicles, even though the fuel operating costs are significantly lower. The purchase cost of electric vehicles is highly linked to the size of the battery pack, and not to the size of the electric vehicle. This explains the relative high cost for the electric city cars and the comparable cost for the medium and premium cars.

  5. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO_2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO_2-reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO_2-reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO_2-reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  6. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  7. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monorails and systems. 1192.175 Section 1192.175 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a... steel-wheel-on-steel-rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e...

  8. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  9. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  10. Pc-based car license plate reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuyoshi; Marubayashi, Eisaku; Kawashima, Harumi; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Shio, Akio

    1994-03-01

    A PC-based car license plate recognition system has been developed. The system recognizes Chinese characters and Japanese phonetic hiragana characters as well as six digits on Japanese license plates. The system consists of a CCD camera, vehicle sensors, a strobe unit, a monitoring center, and an i486-based PC. The PC includes in its extension slots: a vehicle detector board, a strobe emitter board, and an image grabber board. When a passing vehicle is detected by the vehicle sensors, the strobe emits a pulse of light. The light pulse is synchronized with the time the vehicle image is frozen on an image grabber board. The recognition process is composed of three steps: image thresholding, character region extraction, and matching-based character recognition. The recognition software can handle obscured characters. Experimental results for hundreds of outdoor images showed high recognition performance within relatively short performance times. The results confirmed that the system is applicable to a wide variety of applications such as automatic vehicle identification and travel time measurement.

  11. Car transfer and wheelchair loading techniques in independent drivers with paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lighthall Haubert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Car transfers and wheelchair (WC loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%. Just over half (52% of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (66% prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%. Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that driver’s of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver’s seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver’s seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62% to load their WC frame and, overall, most loaded their fame into the back (62% vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53% vs. 17%. Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 seconds was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation.

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  13. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Emergency Phycisians Toggle navigation Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Emergency Care or Urgent Care? When ... being left alone in a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car ...

  14. The impact of fiscal and other measures on new passenger car sales and CO2 emissions intensity. Evidence from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Lisa; Convery, Frank; Ferreira, Susana

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national fiscal measures in the EU (EU15) on passenger car sales and the CO 2 emissions intensity of the new car fleet over the period 1995-2004. CO 2 emissions and energy consumption from road transport have been increasing in the EU and as a result since 1999 the EU has attempted to implement a high profile policy strategy to address this problem at European level. Less prominent is the fact that Member States apply vehicle and fuel taxes, which may also be having an impact on the quantity of passenger cars sold and their CO 2 emissions intensity. Diesel vehicle sales have increased appreciably in many countries over the same period and this study makes a first attempt to examine whether Member State fiscal measures have influenced this phenomenon. This work uses a panel dataset to investigate the relationship between national vehicle and fuel taxes on new passenger car sales and the fleet CO 2 emissions intensity in EU15 over a 10-year period. Our results show that national vehicle and fuel taxes have had an impact on passenger car sales and fleet CO 2 emissions intensity and that different taxes have disparate effects. (author)

  15. Trial of car-sharing scheme at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 6 July, a sample group of approximately 500 users started a six-month trial of a new car-sharing scheme. The project is an initiative of the General Infrastructure Services Department (GS), in collaboration with the Physics Department (PH) and Hertz car rentals.   One of the Hertz share cars.   How many times have you found yourself searching fruitlessly for a parking space? How many times have you decided against using your car to run a short errand because you were worried about being able to find another parking space? Over the last 50 years, the number of users at CERN has grown steadily, and it is gratifying that the total number now exceeds 10,000. Other contributing factors include the re-start of the LHC and the introduction of the new tram line in May 2011, which is expected to lead to people parking their vehicles at CERN for the purpose of taking the tram into Geneva.. This is why transportation has become an important priority. The present trial is an integral part of CERN...

  16. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  17. Nonintrusive biological signal monitoring in a car to evaluate a driver's stress and health state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Lee, Haet Bit; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-03-01

    Nonintrusive monitoring of a driver's physiological signals was introduced and evaluated in a car as a test of extending the concept of ubiquitous healthcare to vehicles. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and respiration were measured in the ubiquitous healthcare car (U-car) using nonintrusively installed sensors on the steering wheel, driver's seat, and seat belt. Measured signals were transmitted to the embedded computer via Bluetooth(R) communication and processed. We collected and analyzed physiological signals during driving in order to estimate a driver's stress state while using this system. In order to compare the effect of stress on physical and mental conditions, two categories of stresses were defined. Experimental results show that a driver's physiological signals were measured with acceptable quality for analysis without interrupting driving, and they were changed meaningfully due to elicited stress. This nonintrusive monitoring can be used to evaluate a driver's state of health and stress.

  18. Analysis of the Use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in Conjunction with Manned Aircraft to Counter Active Terrorists in Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    146 wounded when car bombs shattered two synagogues in Istanbul. Authorities identified two men from southeast Turkey as the suicide bombers...Qaeda with twin car bombs, leaving behind an official toll of 52 deaths and 146 injuries [18]. B. CURRENT COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS AND PROBLEMS 1...a UAV is “a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or

  19. CO_2 labelling of passenger cars in Europe: Status, challenges, and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, Gary; Weiss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Directive 1999/94/EC requires Member States of the European Union (EU) to ensure that consumers are informed about the fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions of new passenger cars. The European Commission is currently evaluating the directive. In support of this effort, we assess the status of car labelling in the EU. We find that all EU Member States have formally implemented national car labelling schemes. However, relevant information is not presented to consumers in a uniform manner. Only 13 Member States have implemented graphic labels that differ in their design, metrics, and classification of vehicles. The fuel consumption data displayed to consumers underrate yearly fuel costs in the order of several hundred Euros per car. We argue that car labelling can be made more effective if Member States adopt: (i) a uniform label that mirrors, as far as feasible, the design of the EU energy label, (ii) data and classification metrics that accurately reflect the fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions observed by consumers, and (iii) a labelling scale that allows differentiation between efficient hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles. By following these recommendations, the European car labelling can receive wider recognition and foster well-informed consumer choices. - Highlights: •Car labelling Directive 1999/94 implemented by all 28 EU Member States. •National labelling schemes vary from each other in design and amount of information displayed to consumers. •Future revisions should ensure labelling accurately reflects on-road energy use and CO_2 emissions of cars. •Expansion of labelling scale toward zero CO_2 emissions would allow differentiating between hybrid and plug-in hybrid cars.

  20. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  1. Car-to-Pedestrian Communication Safety System Based on the Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Environment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the unparalleled growth of motor vehicles, traffic accident between pedestrians and vehicles is one of the most serious issues in the word-wild. Plenty of injuries and fatalities are caused by the traffic accidents and crashes. The connected vehicular ad hoc network as an emerging approach which has the potential to reduce and even avoid accidents have been focused on by many researchers. A large number of car-to-pedestrian communication safety systems based on the vehicular ad hoc network are researching and developing. However, to our limited knowledge, a systematic review about the car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network has not be written. The purpose and goal of this review is to systematically evaluate and access the reliability of car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network environment and provide some recommendations for the future works according to throwing some light on the previous literatures. A quality evaluation was developed through established items and instruments tailored to this review. Future works are needed to focus on developing a valid as well as effective communication safety system based on the vehicular ad hoc network to protect the vulnerable road users.

  2. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  3. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  4. Improving car-carrier safety through Performance-Based Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, the author discusses aspects of his MSc research, including outlining the development and application of a low-speed vehicle manoeuvrability model and presenting the PBS assessment results for one particular car-carrier design....

  5. The simulation of emergent dispatch of cars for intelligent driving autos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ziao

    2018-03-01

    It is widely acknowledged that it is important for the development of intelligent cars to be widely accepted by the majority of car users. While most of the intelligent cars have the system of monitoring itself whether it is on the good situation to drive, it is also clear that studies should be performed on the way of cars for the emergent rescue of the intelligent vehicles. In this study, writer focus mainly on how to derive a separate system for the car caring teams to arrive as soon as they get the signal sent out by the intelligent driving autos. This simulation measure the time for the rescuing team to arrive, the cost it spent on arriving on the site of car problem happens, also how long the queue is when the rescuing auto is waiting to cross a road. This can be definitely in great use when there are a team of intelligent cars with one car immediately having problems causing it's not moving and can be helpful in other situations. Through this way, the interconnection of cars can be a safety net for the drivers encountering difficulties in any time.

  6. Passenger vehicles that minimize the costs of ownership and environmental damages in the Indian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Patwardhan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Full costs (private and social) are evaluated for Indian passenger cars. • Diesel has low ownership costs, but higher climate and health damages. • Compressed natural gas cars have lower costs and damages than petrol cars. • Electric cars have higher damages due to electricity generation emissions. • CNG and less carbon intensive electricity minimizes Indian cars’ full cost. - Abstract: Rapid expansion of population and income growth in developing countries, such as India, is increasing the demand for many goods and services, including four-wheeled passenger cars. Passenger cars provide personal mobility; however, they also have negative implications for human wellbeing from increased air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, we evaluate the range of passenger vehicles available in the Indian market to identify options that minimize costs, human health effects and climate damages. Our approach is to compare alternative fuel/powertrain vehicles with similar conventional gasoline fueled vehicles and assess the differences in full (private and societal) costs for each pair. Private costs are the combination of capital costs and the discounted expected future fuel costs over the vehicle lifetime. The costs to human health from air quality are calculated using intake fractions to estimate exposure and literature values for the damage costs adjusted by benefits transfer methods. We use the Social Cost of Carbon to estimate climate damages. We find that, on average, the net present value (NPV) of the full costs of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are lower than comparable gasoline vehicles, while, diesel vehicles have higher costs. Presently, electric vehicles have higher private costs (due to high capital costs) and societal costs (due to electricity generation emissions). Either a less carbon intensive electricity grid or an increase in the CNG fleet would minimize total costs, human health effects and GHG emissions from the

  7. 77 FR 60170 - Americans With Disabilities Act: Proposed Circular Chapter, Vehicle Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... specifications in Part 38 by vehicle type. The section begins by emphasizing that an accessible bus or rail car... With Disabilities Act: Proposed Circular Chapter, Vehicle Acquisition AGENCY: Federal Transit... buses and rail cars they acquire meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT...

  8. Exposure of motorcycle, car and bus commuters to carbon monoxide on a main road in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchter, Oded; Oz, Meirav; Brenner, Shmuel; Yaakov, Yaron; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    Short-term personal exposure of passengers in different types of motor vehicles to carbon monoxide was investigated in an intensively used main road in Israel's Tel Aviv metropolitan area. According to monitoring stations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) along the road, at a height of 3 m above pedestrian level, in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, are currently very low. However, these measurements do not reflect the actual exposure of commuters, which were the main objective of this study. Four vehicle types/travel modes were investigated: private cars with closed windows, private cars with open windows, motorcycles, and buses. The commuter CO average exposure was the accumulative exposure divided by the duration of the sampling taken along the route, for each type of vehicles. The results showed that commuters in cars with closed windows were exposed to the highest mean CO level, 27.2 ppm, for a period of 38 min; those in a car with open windows, to 19.7 ppm for 38 min; motorcycle riders, to 12.8 ppm, for 17 min; and bus users were exposed to the lowest mean pollution level, of only 3.6 ppm, for 25 min. Thus, CO values of 1 to 3 ppm, as measured at an MEP adjacent monitoring station, may indicate the exposure to CO pollution of area residents, but do not represent the actual exposure of commuters on the congested main road.

  9. O bipartidarismo no Brasil e a trajetória do MDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro O. Soares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de retomar a trajetória do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (MDB a partir do contexto da ditadura militar instaurada em 1964. Busca identificar alguns momentos centrais que vivenciou o partido no período: o seu nascimento com o sistema bipartidário imposto pelos militares; a dificuldade nos anos iniciais de se firmar como oposição; a virada do partido representada pela vitória nas eleições de 1974; e, por fim as reações do regime. Além disto, relacionar este fenômeno brasileiro à sua cultura política anti-partidária e antidemocrática. O bipartidarismo presente no regime militar de 1964 teria sido não apenas uma representação do autoritarismo político nacional, mas também a demonstração de que, no mais das vezes, este autoritarismo tem sido camuflado por signos aparentemente democráticos. Ainda que durante o regime de 1964 este mascaramento tenha ficado óbvio, é importante pensá-lo para trazer à tona a questão: há uma cultura política democrática em formação no Brasil, ou seguimos mantendo a democracia como simples ferramenta da engenharia política institucional, utilizada de forma instrumental para a eleição de “supostos representantes do povo”?

  10. Discrimination of side-window glass of Korean autos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-Woo; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Min, Ji-Sook; Choi, Man-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin

    2016-07-15

    Fragments of glass from cars are often found at crime scenes and can be crucial evidence for solving the crime. The glass fragments are important as trace evidence at crime scenes related to car accidents and burgled homes. By identifying the origin of glass fragments, it is possible to infer the identity of a suspect. Our results represent a promising approach to a thorough forensic investigation of car glass. Thirty-five samples from the side windows of cars produced and used in South Korea were collected from the official agencies of five car manufacturers and from two glassmakers. In addition, 120 samples from side mirrors were collected from the same suppliers as well as from small businesses. Their chemical compositions (including Pb isotopes) were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed. The percentages of major elements (Si, Ca, and Fe) in side-window glass varied within narrow ranges (30.0 ± 2.36%, 5.93 ± 0.52%, and 0.33 ± 0.05%, respectively), while the differences among Pb isotope ratios were not significant. In contrast, light rare earth elements (LREEs) were different from each glassmaker. From the LDA, the types of side-window glass were successfully discriminated according to car manufacturer, glassmaker, and even glass thickness. However, glass from side mirrors cannot be used for good forensic identifiers. Discrimination techniques for side-window glass, although not for side mirrors, using chemical compositions combined with multivariate statistical analyses provide evidence for forensic investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dreams of pneumatic servo and rail way cars in 2010; 2010 nen noyume kukiatsu servo to tetsudo sharyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K. [Tokyo Precision Instruments Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes pneumatic servo and railway cars. The comfort of railway cars is improved by reducing excess transverse centrifugal force, and longitudinal, transverse and vertical vibration. Pneumatic system plays a large role in the comfort. Pneumatic system is used for doors because of certain open/shut operation and protecting a hand caught in a door from excess tightening pressure. Pneumatic system is also used for mechanical brakes. Pneumatic spring for car suspensions improves the comfort considerably. The orifice and auxiliary tank of a pneumatic spring reduce a spring constant, and give damping to the vibration system of car bodies and springs. To reduce an outward excess centrifugal force by tilting a car body inward at curve, a body tilting equipment is used which is adopted for a pendulum car with pneumatic servo control, and a tilting car with height control of both side pneumatic springs. For transverse damping, semi-active equipment using oil damper is in wide use, while that using pneumatic servo is also in rial use. (NEDO)

  12. Fuel economy of new passenger cars in Mexico: Trends from 1988 to 2008 and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Chávez-Baeza, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in fuel economy (kilometers per liter) of new passenger vehicles in Mexico over a period of 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Results show that in this period, fuel economy of the new passenger vehicle fleet, including multipurpose vehicles (a category similar to sport utility vehicles, SUVs), increased by only 6.3%. A simple Laspeyres index analysis was developed to evaluate both the impact of changes in vehicle sales structure by category and the changes in fuel economy. Results show that increased sales of heavier, multipurpose vehicles in place of subcompact and compact vehicles, impacted negatively on the fleet average fuel economy. If the structure of sales had continued in the same proportions across all categories as in 1988, fuel economy would have increased by 11.0%, instead of the actual 6.3%. This result coincides with trends in other countries. The paper also presents different scenarios of passenger car fuel economy for the year 2020, and its implications for gasoline consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results may influence the new passenger vehicle fuel economy standard that is currently under discussion in Mexico.

  13. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  14. Vertical bending strength and torsional rigidity analysis of formula student car chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazimi, Hashfi; Ubaidillah, Setiyawan, Adi Eka Putra; Ramdhani, Hanief Cahya; Saputra, Murnanda Zaesy; Imaduddin, Fitrian

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) is a competition for students to construct formula student car. One of an essential part of a formula student car is its chassis. Chassis is an internal vehicle frame which holds all another part of the vehicle and secures the driver. The team have to design their chassis and tests their design to achieve the best chassis that fulfill the regulation. This paper contains chassis design from Bengawan FSAE Team and some FEA tests to find out the Tensile Strength, Torsional Rigidity, and Von Misses Stress of Formula SAE car. Torsional rigidity was found by applying the static torsional test. The results from torsional rigidity test are a maximum deformation of 9.9512 mm with 1.7064 safety factor, and 35.935 MPa maximum Von Misses Stress. Moreover, then the result of the vertical bending strength test is 8.1214 mm max deformation with safety factor 4.2717, and 29.226 MPa maximum Von Misses Stress.

  15. Fault prevention by early stage symptoms detection for automatic vehicle transmission using pattern recognition and curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Cruz, Febus Reidj G.; Abu, Jon Ervin A.; Siño, Carlo G.; Ubaldo, Paolo E.; Zulueta, Christelle Jianne T.

    2017-06-01

    Automobiles have become essential parts of our everyday lives. It can correlate many factors that may affect a vehicle primarily those which may inconvenient or in some cases harm lives or properties. Thus, focusing on detecting an automatic transmission vehicle engine, body and other parts that cause vibration and sound may help prevent car problems using MATLAB. By using sound, vibration, and temperature sensors to detect the defects of the car and with the help of the transmitter and receiver to gather data wirelessly, it is easy to install on to the vehicle. A technique utilized from Toyota Balintawak Philippines that every car is treated as panels(a, b, c, d, and e) 'a' being from the hood until the front wheel of the car and 'e' the rear shield to the back of the car, this was applied on how to properly place the sensors so that precise data could be gathered. Data gathered would be compared to the normal graph taken from the normal status or performance of a vehicle, data that would surpass 50% of the normal graph would be considered that a problem has occurred. The system is designed to prevent car accidents by determining the current status or performance of the vehicle, also keeping people away from harm.

  16. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  17. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2005-09-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  18. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  19. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  20. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.

  1. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  2. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  3. Intelligent Transport Systems 80211-based Roadside-to-Vehicle Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz; Chakraborty, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the nuts and bolts of wireless network access for computers on-board vehicles, this volume shows how in-car computerization now does much more than merely act as a glorified map-reader. Wireless communication is transforming road travel in ways previously undreamt of, allowing vehicles to “talk” to a wider network and monitor road conditions, potential delays and traffic congestion, all automatically. Toll payments can be made without opening the driver’s window on a cold day, while vehicles might themselves take active steps to avoid collisions. It is the connection between on-board computers and wireless access points, ubiquitous in most cities now, that is a key area of research. Moving vehicles transfer their communications to new points as they progress, and this causes delays, known as “handover latency.” In this book, new stochastic models are developed to map the disruption when connecting to 802.11 WLAN points. It details the application of stochastic tools to analyzing communic...

  4. Content analysis of television advertising for cars and minivans: 1983-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Susan A; Hardy, Andrew P; Williams, Allan F

    2003-11-01

    Very little systematic information is available about the predominant advertising themes automobile manufacturers have depicted over the years. The goal of the present study was to analyze television vehicle advertising to understand how cars and passenger vans are being portrayed in the media and how this has changed over time. A virtually complete sample (561) of car and passenger van advertisements from 1998, and a sample of advertisements from 1983 (98), 1988 (96), and 1993 (95), was analyzed for content. Performance, most often exemplified as speed, power, and maneuverability, was the primary theme in 17% of advertisements in 1998 and was depicted in half of all advertisements. Performance was also the most frequent theme over time. Sales incentives also was a popular theme in each year studied, and was predominant in 1993. Safety was mentioned infrequently, except in 1993; a time when manufacturers were competing to install airbags in their vehicles. A focus on vehicle performance in advertising that does not depict the potential negative consequences can have the deleterious effects of glamorizing and legitimizing high-speed travel. Furthermore, manufacturers are missing an opportunity to promote vehicle safety, a feature that consumers have indicated is very important to them.

  5. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    price of the hybrid vehicle. Many consumers will view the idea of paying more initially to save on gasoline costs down the road as not worthwhile...braking and electricity generation from an ICE. Similar to the HEV, upon purchase of a PHEV, the consumer may take advantage of the green vehicle tax ... electric cards and Hybrids? (2015, November 3). Retrieved from Plug’n Drive website: https://www.plugndrive.ca/whats- the-difference-between- electric - cars

  6. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  7. Vehicle to Grid Implementation and Battery Management Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuchen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVehicle to Grid Implementation and Battery Management OptimizationbyYuchen ZhaoMaster of Science, Graduate Program in Electrical EngineeringUniversity of California, Riverside, September 2017Dr. Matthew Barth, Chairperson The need for energy independence and rising environmental pollution concerns are factors that drive the growing popularity of electric vehicles (EV), including electric and plug-in hybrid cars. Studies indicate the for 90% of the Americans who use...

  8. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egebaeck, K.E.; Laurikko, J.; Ryden, C.

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm's Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV's and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, (Sweden); Laurikko, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Ryden, C. [Tima, (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm`s Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV`s and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  11. Development and validation of a Kalman filter-based model for vehicle slip angle estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadola, M.; Chindamo, D.; Romano, M.; Padula, F.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that vehicle slip angle is one of the most difficult parameters to measure on a vehicle during testing or racing activities. Moreover, the appropriate sensor is very expensive and it is often difficult to fit to a car, especially on race cars. We propose here a strategy to eliminate the need for this sensor by using a mathematical tool which gives a good estimation of the vehicle slip angle. A single-track car model, coupled with an extended Kalman filter, was used in order to achieve the result. Moreover, a tuning procedure is proposed that takes into consideration both nonlinear and saturation characteristics typical of vehicle lateral dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been proven by both simulation results and real-world data.

  12. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  13. New vehicle fuel economy in the UK: Impact of the recession and recent policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia

    2014-01-01

    Interests in vehicle fuel economy have increased in the past few years with the implementations of more stringent CAFE standard in USA and mandatory carbon emission standard in the EU. We seek to understand the effects of recent policies such as restructuring of Vehicle Excise Duties and EU standard on new vehicle fuel economy in the UK. In the past few years there have been substantial fluctuations in income and fuel prices, offering an interesting testing ground to understand their impact on the demand for fuel economy in vehicles. We use a monthly dataset to find that the emission standard is the largest driver for fuel economy improvements in recent years. Also, contrary to some recent findings in Europe and in UK, we find that income has an effect and that the recession had some role in improving the fuel economy. The effects of fuel prices were relatively small. Restructuring of the VED also improved new vehicle fuel economy in the UK, but the scrappage scheme had no significant effect. Results indicate that both supply and demand side policies are effective in improving fuel economy, although quantitatively the emission standard appears more effective due to its stringency. It is also important to consider the effects of income while devising demand side policies. - Highlights: • Econometric modelling and simulation of new vehicle fuel economy in UK. • EU carbon standard is the largest reason behind improving fuel economy. • Recession and associated reduction in income also had a role. • Fuel price has some impact on new car fuel economy, but small. • VED restructuring had an impact, but scrappage scheme's impact was insignificant

  14. Calculating the Insulated Car Roof Opening System Components and Strength Analysis of Car Design in Its Various Embodiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kopytov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Opening roof cars can be used in transportation of a diversity of goods that require weather protection. Their operation allows us to fulfill the tasks of the Ministry of Railways that is to ensure both the qualitative and lossless transportation of various national economy and special loads and the significant improvement in the technical and economic indexes of the industry. Thus, there are three embodiment options of the opening roofs: single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along one car side; double-leaf roof with axial of rotation of its flaps along both car sides; single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along the car end wall. The work analyses and compares the first two options of the opening systems of t