WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle weight performance

  1. Structural Weight Estimation for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System [1], Orbit On Demand Vehicle [2], Venture Star [3], and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle[4]. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.

  2. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; E Byan, W. R.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  3. GTX Reference Vehicle Structural Verification Methods and Weight Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Dunn, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    The design of a single-stage-to-orbit air breathing propulsion system requires the simultaneous development of a reference launch vehicle in order to achieve the optimal mission performance. Accordingly, for the GTX study a 300-lb payload reference vehicle was preliminarily sized to a gross liftoff weight (GLOW) of 238,000 lb. A finite element model of the integrated vehicle/propulsion system was subjected to the trajectory environment and subsequently optimized for structural efficiency. This study involved the development of aerodynamic loads mapped to finite element models of the integrated system in order to assess vehicle margins of safety. Commercially available analysis codes were used in the process along with some internally developed spreadsheets and FORTRAN codes specific to the GTX geometry for mapping of thermal and pressure loads. A mass fraction of 0.20 for the integrated system dry weight has been the driver for a vehicle design consisting of state-of-the-art composite materials in order to meet the rigid weight requirements. This paper summarizes the methodology used for preliminary analyses and presents the current status of the weight optimization for the structural components of the integrated system.

  4. Vehicle Weight in Gipps' Car-Following Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nerem, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Car-following models are mathematical models, which describe the situation where vehicles drive behind each other on a single lane road section with no overtaking possibilities. The purpose of the models is to estimate how a vehicle reacts to the behavior of the vehicle ahead. A weakness in these models is that they do not take the weight of each vehicle into account. It can however be shown that a vehicle?s weight affects its driving behavior.The purpose of this master?s thesis is to investi...

  5. Effect of Weight Transfer on a Vehicle's Stopping Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Daniel P.; Alleman, Timothy J.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the minimum stopping distance problem is presented taking into account the effect of weight transfer on nonskidding vehicles and front- or rear-wheels-skidding vehicles. Expressions for the minimum stopping distances are given in terms of vehicle geometry and the coefficients of friction. (Author/BB)

  6. Pounds That Kill: The External Costs of Vehicle Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Michael L. Anderson; Maximilian Auffhammer

    2014-01-01

    Heavier vehicles are safer for their own occupants but more hazardous for the occupants of other vehicles. In this paper we estimate the increased probability of fatalities from being hit by a heavier vehicle in a collision. We show that, controlling for own-vehicle weight, being hit by a vehicle that is 1,000 pounds heavier results in a 47% increase in the baseline fatality probability. Estimation results further suggest that the fatality risk is even higher if the striking vehicle is a ligh...

  7. Vehicle Design Evaluation Program (VDEP). A computer program for weight sizing, economic, performance and mission analysis of fuel-conservative aircraft, multibodied aircraft and large cargo aircraft using both JP and alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center vehicle design evaluation program (VDEP-2) was expanded by (1) incorporating into the program a capability to conduct preliminary design studies on subsonic commercial transport type aircraft using both JP and such alternate fuels as hydrogen and methane;(2) incorporating an aircraft detailed mission and performance analysis capability; and (3) developing and incorporating an external loads analysis capability. The resulting computer program (VDEP-3) provides a preliminary design tool that enables the user to perform integrated sizing, structural analysis, and cost studies on subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Both versions of the VDEP-3 Program which are designated preliminary Analysis VDEP-3 and detailed Analysis VDEP utilize the same vehicle sizing subprogram which includes a detailed mission analysis capability, as well as a geometry and weight analysis for multibodied configurations.

  8. Dynamic performances analysis of a real vehicle driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Salim, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle dynamic is the effects of movement of a vehicle generated from the acceleration, braking, ride and handling activities. The dynamic behaviours are determined by the forces from tire, gravity and aerodynamic which acting on the vehicle. This paper emphasizes the analysis of vehicle dynamic performance of a real vehicle. Real driving experiment on the vehicle is conducted to determine the effect of vehicle based on roll, pitch, and yaw, longitudinal, lateral and vertical acceleration. The experiment is done using the accelerometer to record the reading of the vehicle dynamic performance when the vehicle is driven on the road. The experiment starts with weighing a car model to get the center of gravity (COG) to place the accelerometer sensor for data acquisition (DAQ). The COG of the vehicle is determined by using the weight of the vehicle. A rural route is set to launch the experiment and the road conditions are determined for the test. The dynamic performance of the vehicle are depends on the road conditions and driving maneuver. The stability of a vehicle can be controlled by the dynamic performance analysis.

  9. FORECASTING OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NEW VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Krasheninin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research work focuses on forecasting of performance evaluation of the tractive and non-tractive vehicles that will satisfy and meet the needs and requirements of the railway industry, which is constantly evolving. Methodology. Analysis of the technical condition of the existing fleet of rolling stock (tractive and non-tractive of Ukrainian Railways shows a substantial reduction that occurs in connection with its moral and physical wear and tear, as well as insufficient and limited purchase of new units of the tractive and non-tractive rolling stock in the desired quantity. In this situation there is a necessity of search of the methods for determination of rolling stock technical characteristics. One of such urgent and effective measures is to conduct forecasting of the defining characteristics of the vehicles based on the processes of their reproduction in conditions of limited resources using a continuous exponential function. The function of the growth rate of the projected figure degree for the vehicle determines the logistic characteristic that with unlimited resources has the form of an exponent, and with low ones – that of a line. Findings. The data obtained according to the proposed method allowed determining the expected (future value, that is the ratio of load to volume of the body for non-tractive rolling stock (gondola cars and weight-to-power for tractive rolling stock, the degree of forecast reliability and the standard forecast error, which show high prediction accuracy for the completed procedure. As a result, this will allow estimating the required characteristics of vehicles in the forecast year with high accuracy. Originality. The concept of forecasting the characteristics of the vehicles for decision-making on the evaluation of their prospects was proposed. Practical value. The forecasting methodology will reliably determine the technical parameters of tractive and non-tractive rolling stock, which will meet

  10. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  11. EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

  12. A Procedure for Structural Weight Estimation of Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles (Interim User's Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This is an interim user's manual for current procedures used in the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, for launch vehicle structural subsystem weight estimation based on finite element modeling and structural analysis. The process is intended to complement traditional methods of conceptual and early preliminary structural design such as the application of empirical weight estimation or application of classical engineering design equations and criteria on one dimensional "line" models. Functions of two commercially available software codes are coupled together. Vehicle modeling and analysis are done using SDRC/I-DEAS, and structural sizing is performed with the Collier Research Corp. HyperSizer program.

  13. Weights assessment for orbit-on-demand vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Martin, J. A.; Breiner, C. A.; Cerro, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Future manned, reusable earth-to-orbit vehicles may be required to reach orbit within hours or even minutes of a mission decision. A study has been conducted to consider vehicles with such a capability. In the initial phase of the study, 11 vehicles were sized for deployment of 5000 lbs to a polar orbit. From this matrix, two of the most promising concepts were resized for a modified mission and payload. A key feature of the study was the use of consistent mass estimating techniques for a broad range of concepts, allowing direct comparisons of sizes and weights.

  14. Weight savings in aerospace vehicles through propellant scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1988-01-01

    Vehicle payload benefits of scavenging hydrogen and oxygen propellants are addressed. The approach used is to select a vehicle and a mission and then select a scavenging system for detailed weight analysis. The Shuttle 2 vehicle on a Space Station rendezvous mission was chosen for study. The propellant scavenging system scavenges liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the launch propulsion tankage during orbital maneuvers and stores them in well insulated liquid accumulators for use in a cryogenic auxiliary propulsion system. The fraction of auxiliary propulsion propellant which may be scavenged for propulsive purposes is estimated to be 45.1 percent. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem dry mass, including the proposed scavenging system, an additional 20 percent for secondary structure, an additional 5 percent for electrical service, a 10 percent weight growth margin, and 15.4 percent propellant reserves and residuals is estimated to be 6331 kg. This study shows that the fraction of the on-orbit vehicle mass required by the auxiliary propulsion system of this Shuttle 2 vehicle using this technology is estimated to be 12.0 percent compared to 19.9 percent for a vehicle with an earth-storable bipropellant system. This results in a vehicle with the capability of delivering an additional 7820 kg to the Space Station.

  15. Weight savings in aerospace vehicles through propellant scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1988-05-01

    Vehicle payload benefits of scavenging hydrogen and oxygen propellants are addressed. The approach used is to select a vehicle and a mission and then select a scavenging system for detailed weight analysis. The Shuttle 2 vehicle on a Space Station rendezvous mission was chosen for study. The propellant scavenging system scavenges liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the launch propulsion tankage during orbital maneuvers and stores them in well insulated liquid accumulators for use in a cryogenic auxiliary propulsion system. The fraction of auxiliary propulsion propellant which may be scavenged for propulsive purposes is estimated to be 45.1 percent. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem dry mass, including the proposed scavenging system, an additional 20 percent for secondary structure, an additional 5 percent for electrical service, a 10 percent weight growth margin, and 15.4 percent propellant reserves and residuals is estimated to be 6331 kg. This study shows that the fraction of the on-orbit vehicle mass required by the auxiliary propulsion system of this Shuttle 2 vehicle using this technology is estimated to be 12.0 percent compared to 19.9 percent for a vehicle with an earth-storable bipropellant system. This results in a vehicle with the capability of delivering an additional 7820 kg to the Space Station.

  16. The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

  17. Optimization of vehicle weight for Mars excursion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The excursion class mission to Mars is defined as a mission with one year durations coupled with a stay time of up to 30 days. The fuel budget for such a mission is investigated. The overall figure of merit in such an assessment is the vehicle weight ratio, the ratio between the wet vehicle weight to the dry vehicle weight. It is necessary to minimize the overall fuel budget for the mission in order to maximize the benefits that could be obtained by sending humans to Mars. Assumptions used in the analysis are: each mission will depart and terminate in low-earth-orbit (LEO) (500 km circular) and the maximum stay time at Mars is 30 days. The maximum mission duration is one year (355-375 days). The mass returned to LEO is 135,000 kg, the dropoff mass left at Mars is 168,000 kg. Three propulsive techniques for atmospheric interface are investigated: aerobraking, all-chemical propulsion, and nuclear thermal propulsion. By defining the fuel requirements, the space transfer vehicle's configuration is defined.

  18. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  19. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  20. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  1. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  2. Innovations for vehicle weight savings; Innovationen zur Gewichtseinsparung bei Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.C. [Budd Technical Center, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The American auto market provides an example of the conflict between government legislation calling for fuel economy and lower emissions, which can be achieved among other things by reducing vehicle weight, and other legislative initiatives on the safety front as well as the growing demands of consumers for comfort, which add weight to the vehicle. Automakers are responding by making increasing use of lightweight materials and weight-optimized vehicle concepts. Backed by years of experience with a variety of materials, The Budd Company - an American subsidiary of the Thyssen-Krupp Group - is in an excellent position to offer customized lightweight systems solutions. From conventional steel to high-strength steels, aluminum castings, sheet and extrusions through to high-quality plastics such as SMC and SRIM, lightweight solutions for auto bodies and chassis are developed and offered to the automotive industry. The lightweighting potential of these various materials is being further exploited through the use of advanced manufacturing processes, such as the hydroforming of steel and aluminum, tailored blanks made of steel, and bonding techniques for aluminum. (orig.) [German] Das Beispiel des amerikanischen Automobilmarktes zeigt die entgegengesetzten Forderungen des Gesetzgebers zur Kraftstoff- und Emissionsreduzierung, was u.a. durch eine Verringerung des Fahrzeuggewichtes zu erreichen ist, und Gesetzesinitiativen im Bereich der Fahrzeugsicherheit sowie wachsende Komfort-Ansprueche der Kunden, die zur Gewichtserhoehung fuehren, auf. Die Fahrzeughersteller reagieren hierauf mit zunehmendem Einsatz leichter Werkstoffe und gewichtsoptimierter Leichtbau-Konzepte. Im Verbund des ThyssenKrupp Konzerns ist das amerikanische Tochterunternehmen The Budd Company aufgrund ihrer jahrelangen Erfahrungen mit einer Vielzahl von Werkstoffen in der herausragenden Position, individuelle und den jeweiligen Anforderungen entsprechende Leichtbau-Systemloesungen anbieten zu koennen. Vom

  3. Effects of Gas Turbine Component Performance on Engine and Rotary Wing Vehicle Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, further gas turbine engine studies have been performed to quantify the effects of advanced gas turbine technologies on engine weight and fuel efficiency and the subsequent effects on a civilian rotary wing vehicle size and mission fuel. The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) vehicle and mission and a previous gas turbine engine study will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. Methodology used to assess effects of different compressor and turbine component performance on engine size, weight and fuel efficiency will be presented. A process to relate engine performance to overall LCTR vehicle size and fuel use will also be given. Technology assumptions and levels of performance used in this analysis for the compressor and turbine components performances will be discussed. Optimum cycles (in terms of power specific fuel consumption) will be determined with subsequent engine weight analysis. The combination of engine weight and specific fuel consumption will be used to estimate their effect on the overall LCTR vehicle size and mission fuel usage. All results will be summarized to help suggest which component performance areas have the most effect on the overall mission.

  4. USING COUPLING WEIGHTS AND RATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKE FORCES BETWEEN THE AXLES OF WHEELED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kholodov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the coefficient of coupling weight-axle vehicles under braking and a ra-tional distribution coefficient of braking force to the front axle on the condition of maximum coupling weight.

  5. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  6. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  7. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  8. Weight Analysis of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicles for Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    In response to Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for responsive and low-cost space access, this design study provides an objective empty weight analysis of potential reusable launch vehicle (RLV) configurations...

  9. A method for determining optimum phasing of a multiphase propulsion system for a single-stage vehicle with linearized inert weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A general analytical treatment is presented of a single-stage vehicle with multiple propulsion phases. A closed-form solution for the cost and for the performance and a derivation of the optimal phasing of the propulsion are included. Linearized variations in the inert weight elements are included, and the function to be minimized can be selected. The derivation of optimal phasing results in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations for optimal fuel volumes, for which a solution method is outlined. Three specific example cases are analyzed: minimum gross lift-off weight, minimum inert weight, and a minimized general function for a two-phase vehicle. The results for the two-phase vehicle are applied to the dual-fuel rocket. Comparisons with single-fuel vehicles indicate that dual-fuel vehicles can have lower inert weight either by development of a dual-fuel engine or by parallel burning of separate engines from lift-off.

  10. 78 FR 17660 - Draft Guidance for E85 Flexible Fuel Vehicle Weighting Factor for Model Years 2016-2019 Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9792-9] Draft Guidance for E85 Flexible Fuel Vehicle... draft EPA guidance to auto manufacturers for weighting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a flexible... all federal government work days from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; generally, it is open Monday through...

  11. A Multidisciplinary Performance Analysis of a Lifting-Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Korte, J. J.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) is currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called VentureStar(TM) A team at NASA Langley Research Center participated with LMSW in the screening and evaluation of a number of early VentureStar(TM) configurations. The performance analyses that supported these initial studies were conducted to assess the effect of a lifting body shape, linear aerospike engine and metallic thermal protection system (TPS) on the weight and performance of the vehicle. These performance studies were performed in a multidisciplinary fashion that indirectly linked the trajectory optimization with weight estimation and aerothermal analysis tools. This approach was necessary to develop optimized ascent and entry trajectories that met all vehicle design constraints. Significant improvements in ascent performance were achieved when the vehicle flew a lifting trajectory and varied the engine mixture ratio during flight. Also, a considerable reduction in empty weight was possible by adjusting the total oxidizer-to-fuel and liftoff thrust-to-weight ratios. However, the optimal ascent flight profile had to be altered to ensure that the vehicle could be trimmed in pitch using only the flow diverting capability of the aerospike engine. Likewise, the optimal entry trajectory had to be tailored to meet TPS heating rate and transition constraints while satisfying a crossrange requirement.

  12. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  13. Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hannibal, Ted [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. The strategic targets were a 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. The baseline vehicle was an average of several available vehicles in this class. Mass and cost breakdowns from several sources were used, including original equipment manufacturers’ (OEMs’) input through U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office programs and public presentations, A2Mac1 LLC’s teardown information, Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. breakdowns in their respective lightweighting studies, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses. Information on lightweighting strategies in this analysis came from these same sources and the ongoing U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc. /Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, and many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs.

  14. Recommendations for Autonomous Industrial Vehicle Performance Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bostelman , Roger

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A workshop was held at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, called: “Autonomous Industrial Vehicles: From the Laboratory to the Factory Floor”. Nine research papers were presented followed by a discussion session summarized in this paper. The workshop findings are intended to be useful for developing standards within the ASTM F45 Committee for Driverless Automatic Industrial Vehicles. This paper provides feedback from the discussion listing the...

  15. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  16. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  17. Weight optimization of an aerobrake structural concept for a lunar transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lance B.; Unal, Resit; Rowell, Lawrence F.; Rehder, John J.

    1992-01-01

    An aerobrake structural concept for a lunar transfer vehicle was weight optimized through the use of the Taguchi design method, finite element analyses, and element sizing routines. Six design parameters were chosen to represent the aerobrake structural configuration. The design parameters included honeycomb core thickness, diameter-depth ratio, shape, material, number of concentric ring frames, and number of radial frames. Each parameter was assigned three levels. The aerobrake structural configuration with the minimum weight was 44 percent less than the average weight of all the remaining satisfactory experimental configurations. In addition, the results of this study have served to bolster the advocacy of the Taguchi method for aerospace vehicle design. Both reduced analysis time and an optimized design demonstrated the applicability of the Taguchi method to aerospace vehicle design.

  18. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  19. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  20. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  1. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  2. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  3. Intelligence Level Performance Standards Research for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger B; Hong, Tsai H; Messina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    United States and European safety standards have evolved to protect workers near Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV's). However, performance standards for AGV's and mobile robots have only recently begun development. Lessons can be learned from research and standards efforts for mobile robots applied to emergency response and military applications. Research challenges, tests and evaluations, and programs to develop higher intelligence levels for vehicles can also used to guide industrial AGV developments towards more adaptable and intelligent systems. These other efforts also provide useful standards development criteria for AGV performance test methods. Current standards areas being considered for AGVs are for docking, navigation, obstacle avoidance, and the ground truth systems that measure performance. This paper provides a look to the future with standards developments in both the performance of vehicles and the dynamic perception systems that measure intelligent vehicle performance.

  4. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... averages (See, Advisory Circular 120-27E, ``Aircraft Weight and Balance Control,'' June 10, 2005) and the...' needs, or they may choose to upgrade individual components, such as chassis, wheels, tires, brakes, or...

  5. Effect of Using Different Vehicle Weight Groups on the Estimated Relationship Between Mass Reduction and U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-08-22

    This report recalculates the estimated relationship between vehicle mass and societal fatality risk, using alternative groupings by vehicle weight, to test whether the trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction as case vehicle mass increases, holds over smaller increments of the range in case vehicle masses. The NHTSA baseline regression model estimates the relationship using for two weight groups for cars and light trucks; we re-estimated the mass reduction coefficients using four, six, and eight bins of vehicle mass. The estimated effect of mass reduction on societal fatality risk was not consistent over the range in vehicle masses in these weight bins. These results suggest that the relationship indicated by the NHTSA baseline model is a result of other, unmeasured attributes of the mix of vehicles in the lighter vs. heavier weight bins, and not necessarily the result of a correlation between mass reduction and societal fatality risk. An analysis of the average vehicle, driver, and crash characteristics across the various weight groupings did not reveal any strong trends that might explain the lack of a consistent trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction in heavier vehicles.

  6. Effects of weight training on power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUKAB AZEEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Harris et al. declared that some researchers claim the use of 80% of 1RM is recommended toimprove power characteristics, while others suggest 50-60% of 1RM and below. Kawamori and Haff agreed withHarris et al., stating that there is inconsistency in the optimal load to produce the highest power. They claimedthat some studies that used untrained subjects, single joint exercises, and upper-body exercises reported 30-45%of 1RM, while others using trained subjects, multi-joint exercises, and lower-body exercises reported 30-70% of1RM.Method: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training in the developing the powerperformance among 20 students between 16 to 18 years of age enrolled for physical education course for theacademic year 2010, were selected as subjects. Pre and post test was conducted for the group on 1RM of squats,bench press and dead lift. 45 minutes weight training program, twice a week, for 12 weeks was given to thesubjects. The statistical tools used were mean, SD, and ‘t’ –test.Results & Discussion: The analysis of the data reveals that the subjects with the training have shownimprovement in the performance of squats from pre to post test with the mean and S.D being (76.00, 26.59 and(93.75, 27.19 respectively. The improvement is quite encouraging and highly significant (p<0.0001.With regard to bench press exercise of the subjects the mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (53.00, 23.14and (70.25, 23.37. The data clearly speaks of an improved performance from pre to post scores of the studentswhich is highly significant at (p<0.0001. The mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (104.00, 28.31 and(135.00, 24.97 respectively with respect to dead lift exercise. There is an increase in the power of the studentswhich is encouraging and highly significant with (p<0.0001.Conclusions: It is concluded from this study, that there was a marked improvement in the performance of thestudents in

  7. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  8. Future Vehicle Technologies : high performance transportation innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, T. [Future Vehicle Technologies Inc., Maple Ridge, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) were discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to the basic BMS design considerations; safety; undisclosed information about BMS; the essence of BMS; and Future Vehicle Technologies' BMS solution. Basic BMS design considerations that were presented included the balancing methodology; prismatic/cylindrical cells; cell protection; accuracy; PCB design, size and components; communications protocol; cost of manufacture; and expandability. In terms of safety, the presentation addressed lithium fires; high voltage; high voltage ground detection; crash/rollover shutdown; complete pack shutdown capability; and heat shields, casings, and impact protection. BMS bus bar engineering considerations were discussed along with good chip design. It was concluded that FVTs advantage is a unique skillset in automotive technology and the development of speed and cost effectiveness. tabs., figs.

  9. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight reduction of vehicles and light metals; Jidosya no keryoka to keikinzoku zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Akira. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan). Component and System Development Center

    1999-08-15

    Weight reduction of vehicles (WRV) is a continuous challenge from the beginning of the vehicle history, however the purpose of WRV has been changing by social requirements. Recently automotive industry is facing is facing with the global warmin and the other environmental issues, so we are vast amount of R and D resources to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, the changes of the purpose of WRV and, the relation between fuel economy and WRV, are summarized. And also the current status of light metals usage and the future work for the related material issues, in particuar the corrosion resistance, are brifly mentioned. (author)

  11. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. Effects of Vehicle Weight and True Versus Indicated Airspeed on BVI Noise During Steady Descending Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, James H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noise measurements are analyzed for an AS350B helicopter operated at 7000 ft elevation above sea level. Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise from four, 6 degree descent conditions are investigated with descents flown at 80 knot true and indicated airspeed, as well as 4400 and 3915 pound take-off weights. BVI noise is extracted from the acquired acoustic signals by way of a previously developed time-frequency analysis technique. The BVI extraction technique is shown to provide a better localization of BVI noise, compared to the standard Fourier transform integration method. Using this technique, it was discovered that large changes in BVI noise amplitude occurred due to changes in vehicle gross weight. Changes in BVI noise amplitude were too large to be due solely to changes in the vortex strength caused by varying vehicle weight. Instead, it is suggested that vehicle weight modifies the tip-path-plane angle of attack, as well as induced inflow, resulting in large variations of BVI noise. It was also shown that defining flight conditions by true airspeed, rather than indicated airspeed, provides more consistent BVI noise signals.

  13. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  14. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  15. Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

  16. Analyzing the performance index for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D. V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. F A

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a performance index for the optimization design and optimal control problem of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is not often considered and analyzed explicitly. In literature, there is no study about proposing a method of building or evaluating whether a performance index is appropriate.

  17. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2011-05-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash. However, in many cases, the speed limit for heavy vehicle is set by only considering the vehicle size or category, mostly due to simplicity in enforcement. In this study, traffic and vehicular data for all vehicle types were collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed at Federal Route 54 in Malaysia. The first finding from the data showed that the weight variation for each vehicle category is considerable. Therefore, the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and category of heavy vehicle on free flow speed and their interaction were analyzed using statistical techniques. Empirical analysis results showed that statistically for each type of heavy vehicle, there was a significant relationship between free flow speed of a heavy vehicle and GVW. Specifically, the results suggest that the mean and variance of free flow speed decrease with an increase GVW by the amount unrelated to size and shape for all GVW range. Then, based on the 85th percentile principle, the study proposed a new concept for setting the speed limit for heavy vehicle by incorporating GVW where a different speed limit is imposed to the heavy vehicle, not only based on vehicle classification, but also according to its GVW. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  19. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  20. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  1. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  2. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  3. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  4. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND OF BOARD ON AND ON NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the t...

  5. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  6. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  7. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a ;base; load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  8. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part I. Performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications performed during the latter part of FY76 and FY76T by the Special Studies Group of the LLL Physics Department for the Office of Naval Research is reported. Smart water-traversing limbed remotely navigated vehicles are interesting because: they are the only viable small vehicle usable in high sea states; they are small and work on the ocean surface, they are much harder to detect than any other conventional craft; they have no human pilot, are capable of high-g evasion, and will continue to operate after direct hits that would have crippled a human crew; they have the prospect of providing surface platforms possessing unprecedented speed and maneuverability; unlike manned information-gathering craft, they impose almost no penalty for missions in excess of 10 hours (no need to rotate shifts of crewmen, no food/lavatory requirements, etc.) and, in their ''loitering mode'', waterbugs could perhaps perform their missions for days to weeks; they are cheap enough to use for one-way missions; they are mass-producible; they are inherently reliable--almost impossible to sink and, in the event of in-use failure, the vehicle will not be destroyed; they maximally exploit continuing technological asymmetries between the U.S. and its potential opponents; and they are economically highly cost-effective for a wide spectrum of Navy missions. (TFD)

  9. Piezo-electric automatic vehicle classification system : Oregon Department of Transportation with Castle Rock Consultants for a SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Oregon has twelve sites that are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Part of the data gathering on these sites involves vehicle weight and classification. This pilot project was to hel...

  10. Piezo-electric automatic vehicle classification system : Oregon Department of Transportation with Castle Rock Consultants for a SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance Site : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Oregon has twelve pavement test sites that are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Part of the data gathering on these sites involves vehicle weight and classification. This pilot proj...

  11. A Numerical Study on the Light-Weight Design of PTC Heater for an Electric Vehicle Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sung Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market for electric vehicles grows at a remarkable rate, various models of electric vehicles are currently in development, in parallel to the commercialization of components for diverse types of power supply. Cabin heating and heat management components are essential to electric vehicles. Any design for such components must consider the requirements for heating capacity and power density, which need to reflect both the power source and weight reduction demand of any electric vehicle. In particular, design developments in electric heaters have predominantly focused on experimental values because of structural characteristics of the heater and the variability of heat sources, requiring considerable cost and duration. To meet the ever-changing demands of the market, an improved design process for more efficient models is essential. To improve the efficacy of the design process for electric heaters, this study conducted a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis of an electric heater with specific dimensions by changing design parameters and operating conditions of key components. The CFD analysis modeled heat characteristics through the application of user-defined functions (UDFs to reflect temperature properties of Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC elements, which heat an electric heater. Three analysis models, which included fin as well as PTC elements and applied different spaces between the heat rods, were compared in terms of heating performance. In addition, the heat performance and heat output density of each analysis model was analyzed according to the variation of air flow at the inlet of the radiation section of an electric heater. Model B was selected, and a prototype was fabricated based on the model. The performance of the prototype was evaluated, and the correlation between the analysis results and the experimental ones was identified. The error rate between performance change rates was approximately 4%, which indicated

  12. Design, testing, and performance of a hybrid micro vehicle---The Hopping Rotochute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Eric W.

    The Hopping Rotochute is a new hybrid micro vehicle that has been developed to robustly explore environments with rough terrain while minimizing energy consumption over long periods of time. The device consists of a small coaxial rotor system housed inside a lightweight cage. The vehicle traverses an area by intermittently powering a small electric motor which drives the rotor system, allowing the vehicle to hop over obstacles of various shapes and sizes. A movable internal mass controls the direction of travel while the egg-like exterior shape and low mass center allows the vehicle to passively reorient itself to an upright attitude when in contact with the ground. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a radio-controlled Hopping Rotochute prototype as well as an analytical study of the flight performance of the device. The conceptual design iterations are first outlined which were driven by the mission and system requirements assigned to the vehicle. The aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical design of a prototype is then described, based on the final conceptual design, with particular emphasis on the fundamental trades that must be negotiated for this type of hopping vehicle. The fabrication and testing of this prototype is detailed as well as experimental results obtained from a motion capture system. Basic flight performance of the prototype are reported which demonstrates that the Hopping Rotochute satisfies all appointed system requirements. A dynamic model of the Hopping Rotochute is also developed in this thesis and employed to predict the flight performance of the vehicle. The dynamic model includes aerodynamic loads from the body and rotor system as well as a soft contact model to estimate the forces and moments during ground contact. The experimental methods used to estimate the dynamic model parameters are described while comparisons between measured and simulated motion are presented. Good correlation between these motions

  13. Effect of Parental Live Weight on the Reproductive Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High mortality was obtained from HM x HF and HM x LF crosses. This study concluded that light male and light female crosses gave chicks with better post hatching performance and lowest mortality rate than all other crosses. Keywords: Parental live weight, Egg weight, Hatchability, Fertility, Crosses, Japanese quail ...

  14. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  15. Operational considerations in specifying legal weight vehicles for the highway transport of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Rutenkroger, E.O.; Ratledge, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research project in which tractor manufacturers and carrier companies were interviewed to gather information on operational concerns in specifying a tractor to haul legal weight spent fuel casks. The system was assumed to operate very close to the 80,000 pound legal weight limit. Safety, performance, reliability, and maintainability of equipment were factors given particular attention. The interaction between driver fatigue, safety, and equipment was also discussed. Innovative operating strategies that could save weight were discussed. The paper concluded that operational considerations require that planners working with standard off-the-shelf tractor equipment should allow at least 17,350 pounds for the weight of the tractor as a starting point from which further weight reduction analysis can proceed. 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Routing Cooperating Vehicles to Perform Precedence-Linked Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vakhutinsky, Andrew; Wu, Cynara

    2005-01-01

    The problem of scheduling cooperating vehicles is a generalization of the classical vehicle routing problem where certain tasks are linked by precedence constraints and vehicles have varying constrained resources...

  17. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a

  18. Household motor vehicle use and weight status among Colombian adults: are we driving our way towards obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Gómez, Luis Fernando; Rutt, Candace; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C; Pratt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine the associations between household motor vehicle ownership and weight status among Colombian adults. Secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Demographic and HealthSurvey of Colombia. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured in 49,079 adults, ages 18 to 64 that resided in urban settings. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference >80 cm in women and >90 cm in men. Prevalence was 19.9% for motor vehicle ownership in household, 33.1% for BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m(2), 14.4% for BMI>30 kg/m(2), and 46% for abdominal obesity. Males reporting any household motor vehicle ownership were more likely to be overweight or obese, and to have abdominal obesity (p for genderexposure variables interaction=motor vehicle ownership is associated with overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Colombian men but not women.

  19. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  20. Effect of housing, initial weight and season on feedlot performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedlot information, submitted by Iowa cattle producers to the Iowa State University Feedlot Performance and Cost Monitoring Program, was examined to determine the effects of housing, initial weight and season interactions on beef steer performance. Feedlot information, consisting of 1225 pens of steers, contained ...

  1. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  2. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  3. Shift Performance Test and Analysis of Multipurpose Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an analysis of the gear shifting performances of a multipurpose vehicle transmission in driving condition by Ricardo's Gear Shift Quality Assessment (GSQA system. The performances of the transmission included the travel and effort of the gear shift lever and synchronizing time. The mathematic models of the transmission including the gear shift mechanism and synchronizer were developed in MATLAB. The model of the gear shift mechanism was developed to analyze the travel map of the gear shift lever and the model of the synchronizer was developed to obtain the force-time curve of the synchronizer during the slipping time. The model of the synchronizer was used to investigate the relationship between the performances of the transmission and the variation of parameters during gear shifting. The mathematic models of the gear shift mechanism and the synchronizer provided a rapid design and verification method for the transmission with ring spring.

  4. Classification of Company Performance using Weighted Probabilistic Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Hasbi; Waridi Basyiruddin Arifin, Adi; Warsito, Budi

    2018-05-01

    Classification of company performance can be judged by looking at its financial status, whether good or bad state. Classification of company performance can be achieved by some approach, either parametric or non-parametric. Neural Network is one of non-parametric methods. One of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models is Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). PNN consists of four layers, i.e. input layer, pattern layer, addition layer, and output layer. The distance function used is the euclidean distance and each class share the same values as their weights. In this study used PNN that has been modified on the weighting process between the pattern layer and the addition layer by involving the calculation of the mahalanobis distance. This model is called the Weighted Probabilistic Neural Network (WPNN). The results show that the company's performance modeling with the WPNN model has a very high accuracy that reaches 100%.

  5. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  7. Blind spot monitoring in light vehicles -- system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes findings of a small population study of blind spot monitoring systems (BSM) installed by : original vehicle manufacturers on standard production vehicles. The primary goals of these tests were to simulate real-world driving sce...

  8. Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: cognitive performance after weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Serra, Estefanía; Andrés-Perpiña, Susana; Lázaro-García, Luisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no definitive consensus on the impairment of neuropsychological functions, most studies of adults with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) find impaired functioning in cognitive domains such as visual-spatial abilities. The objective of this study is to assess the cognitive functions in adolescents with AN before and after weight recovery and to explore the relationship between cognitive performance and menstruation. Twenty-five female adolescents with AN were assessed by a neuropsychological battery while underweight and then following six months of treatment and weight recovery. Twenty-six healthy female subjects of a similar age were also evaluated at both time points. Underweight patients with AN showed worse cognitive performance than control subjects in immediate recall, organization and time taken to copy the Rey's Complex Figure Test (RCFT). After weight recovery, AN patients presented significant improvements in all tests, and differences between patients and controls disappeared. Patients with AN and persistence of amenorrhea at follow-up (n=8) performed worse on Block Design, delayed recall of Visual Reproduction and Stroop Test than patients with resumed menstruation (n=14) and the control group, though the two AN groups were similar in body mass index, age and psychopathological scale scores. Weight recovery improves cognitive functioning in adolescents with AN. The normalization of neuropsychological performance is better in patients who have recovered at least one menstrual cycle. The normalization of hormonal function seems to be essential for the normalization of cognitive performance, even in adolescents with a very short recovery time. © 2013.

  9. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Yang, Fuyuan; Lu, Languang; Hua, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  10. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

  11. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  12. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  13. Performance tests of communal electric-powered vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles within the service industry (such as the town's sanitation, its trash collection and horticultural authority) can lead to a visible environmental relief, particularly in the inner city. The RWE in Essen has been supporting the development and use of electric vehicles for over 20 years and introduced a program in 1990 for the communities(ProKom) which provides 5 million DM for over 5 years for the support of electric vehicles. In this article the communities' requirements for electric vehicles are discussed, the types of vehicles which are mediated by ProKom are introduced and the first practical experiences made are also reported. (BWI) [de

  14. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  15. Visualizations of Travel Time Performance Based on Vehicle Reidentification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley Ernest [National Renewable Energy Lab, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; Sharifi, Elham [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Technology Ventures Building, Suite 2200, 5000 College Avenue, College Park, MD 20742; Day, Christopher M. [Joint Transportation Research Program, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906; Bullock, Darcy M. [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a visual reference of the breadth of arterial performance phenomena based on travel time measures obtained from reidentification technology that has proliferated in the past 5 years. These graphical performance measures are revealed through overlay charts and statistical distribution as revealed through cumulative frequency diagrams (CFDs). With overlays of vehicle travel times from multiple days, dominant traffic patterns over a 24-h period are reinforced and reveal the traffic behavior induced primarily by the operation of traffic control at signalized intersections. A cumulative distribution function in the statistical literature provides a method for comparing traffic patterns from various time frames or locations in a compact visual format that provides intuitive feedback on arterial performance. The CFD may be accumulated hourly, by peak periods, or by time periods specific to signal timing plans that are in effect. Combined, overlay charts and CFDs provide visual tools with which to assess the quality and consistency of traffic movement for various periods throughout the day efficiently, without sacrificing detail, which is a typical byproduct of numeric-based performance measures. These methods are particularly effective for comparing before-and-after median travel times, as well as changes in interquartile range, to assess travel time reliability.

  16. Contrast model for three-dimensional vehicles in natural lighting and search performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witus, Gary; Gerhart, Grant R.; Ellis, R. Darin

    2001-09-01

    Ground vehicles in natural lighting tend to have significant and systematic variation in luminance through the presented area. This arises, in large part, from the vehicle surfaces having different orientations and shadowing relative to the source of illumination and the position of the observer. These systematic differences create the appearance of a structured 3D object. The 3D appearance is an important factor in search, figure-ground segregation, and object recognition. We present a contrast metric to predict search and detection performance that accounts for the 3D structure. The approach first computes the contrast of the front (or rear), side, and top surfaces. The vehicle contrast metric is the area-weighted sum of the absolute values of the contrasts of the component surfaces. The 3D structure contrast metric, together with target height, account for more than 80% of the variance in probability of detection and 75% of the variance in search time. When false alarm effects are discounted, they account for 89% of the variance in probability of detection and 95% of the variance in search time. The predictive power of the signature metric, when calibrated to half the data and evaluated against the other half, is 90% of the explanatory power.

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.20 - If my HHG shipment includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight additive is assessed by the...) General Rules § 302-7.20 If my HHG shipment includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier, am I responsible for payment? If your HHG...

  18. A Performance Weighted Collaborative Filtering algorithm for personalized radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongli; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Weisheng; Luo, Jiawei

    2014-10-01

    Devising an accurate prediction algorithm that can predict the difficulty level of cases for individuals and then selects suitable cases for them is essential to the development of a personalized training system. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, called Performance Weighted Collaborative Filtering (PWCF), to predict the difficulty level of each case for individuals. The main idea of PWCF is to assign an optimal weight to each rating used for predicting the difficulty level of a target case for a trainee, rather than using an equal weight for all ratings as in traditional collaborative filtering methods. The assigned weight is a function of the performance level of the trainee at which the rating was made. The PWCF method and the traditional method are compared using two datasets. The experimental data are then evaluated by means of the MAE metric. Our experimental results show that PWCF outperforms the traditional methods by 8.12% and 17.05%, respectively, over the two datasets, in terms of prediction precision. This suggests that PWCF is a viable method for the development of personalized training systems in radiology education. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Efficient adaptive constrained control with time-varying predefined performance for a hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisheng Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel low-complexity adaptive control method, capable of guaranteeing the transient and steady-state tracking performance in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and actuator saturation, is investigated for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle. In order to attenuate the negative effects of classical predefined performance function for unknown initial tracking errors, a modified predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is presented. Under the newly developed predefined performance function, two novel adaptive controllers with low-complexity computation are proposed for velocity and altitude subsystems of the hypersonic flight vehicle, respectively. Wherein, different from neural network-based approximation, a least square support vector machine with only two design parameters is utilized to approximate the unknown hypersonic dynamics. And the relevant ideal weights are obtained by solving a linear system without resorting to specialized optimization algorithms. Based on the approximation by least square support vector machine, only two adaptive scalars are required to be updated online in the parameter projection method. Besides, a new finite-time-convergent differentiator, with a quite simple structure, is proposed to estimate the unknown generated state variables in the newly established normal output-feedback formulation of altitude subsystem. Moreover, it is also employed to obtain accurate estimations for the derivatives of virtual controllers in a recursive design. This avoids the inherent drawback of backstepping — “explosion of terms” and makes the proposed control method achievable for the hypersonic flight vehicle. Further, the compensation design is employed when the saturations of the actuator occur. Finally, the numerical simulations validate the efficiency of the proposed finite-time-convergent differentiator and control method.

  20. Thermal performance of heavy-weight and light-weight steel frame construction approaches in the central Pretoria climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal for New Generation Sciences Thermal performance of heavy-weight and light-weight steel frame construction approaches in the central Pretoria climate T Kumirai and DCU Conradie Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  1. Autonomous prediction of performance-based standards for heavy vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In most countries throughout the world, heavy vehicle use on public roads are governed by prescriptive rules, typically by imposing stringent mass and dimension limits in an attempt to control vehicle safety. A recent alternative framework is a...

  2. High Performance Hybrid Upper Stage for NanoLaunch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc. (Parabilis), in collaboration with Utah State University (USU), proposes a low cost, high performance launch vehicle upper stage...

  3. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...

  4. Independent review : statistical analyses of relationship between vehicle curb weight, track width, wheelbase and fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    "NHTSA selected the vehicle footprint (the measure of a vehicles wheelbase multiplied by its average track width) as the attribute upon which to base the CAFE standards for model year 2012-2016 passenger cars and light trucks. These standards are ...

  5. The Effect of Predicted Vehicle Displacement on Ground Crew Task Performance and Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA continues to explore new launch vehicle concepts that will carry astronauts to low- Earth orbit to replace the soon-to-be retired Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle. A tall vertically stacked launch vehicle (> or =300 ft) is exposed to the natural environment while positioned on the launch pad. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding cause the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. Ground crews working high on the tower and inside the vehicle during launch preparations will be subjected to this motion while conducting critical closeout tasks such as mating fluid and electrical connectors and carrying heavy objects. NASA has not experienced performing these tasks in such environments since the Saturn V, which was serviced from a movable (but rigid) service structure; commercial launchers are likewise attended by a service structure that moves away from the vehicle for launch. There is concern that vehicle displacement may hinder ground crew operations, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability. The vehicle sway assessment objective is to replicate predicted frequencies and displacements of these tall vehicles, examine typical ground crew tasks, and provide insight into potential vehicle design considerations and ground crew performance guidelines. This paper outlines the methodology, configurations, and motion testing performed while conducting the vehicle displacement assessment that will be used as a Technical Memorandum for future vertically stacked vehicle designs.

  6. The performances of the LPG-fueled vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Todays, LPG-fueled vehicles are simply equipped with transformed classical petrol engines. The LPG consumption is greater but the emission of pollutants is greatly reduced (from 40 to 98% for the CO and from 30 to 80% for the HC and NOx, depending on the temperature of use). This short paper summarizes the environmental advantages of the LPG-fueled vehicles and the forthcoming technological evolutions expected in Europe, Japan and the USA. (J.S.)

  7. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betournay, M.C.; Miller, A.R.; Barnes, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  8. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  9. Time-domain simulation and nonlinear analysis on ride performance of four-wheel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y S; He, H; Geng, A L [School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001 (China)], E-mail: jzwbt@163.com

    2008-02-15

    A nonlinear dynamic model with eight DOFs of a four-wheel vehicle is established in this paper. After detaching the nonlinear characteristics of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, the multi-step linearizing method is used to simulate the vehicle vibration in time domain, under a correlated four-wheel road roughness model. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly built vehicle model and simulation procedure are reasonable and feasible to be used in vehicle vibration analysis. Furthermore, some nonlinear factors of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, which affect the vehicle ride performance (or comfort), are investigated under different vehicle running speeds. Some substaintial rules of the nonlinear vehicle vibrations are revealed in this paper.

  10. Time-domain simulation and nonlinear analysis on ride performance of four-wheel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y S; He, H; Geng, A L

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model with eight DOFs of a four-wheel vehicle is established in this paper. After detaching the nonlinear characteristics of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, the multi-step linearizing method is used to simulate the vehicle vibration in time domain, under a correlated four-wheel road roughness model. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly built vehicle model and simulation procedure are reasonable and feasible to be used in vehicle vibration analysis. Furthermore, some nonlinear factors of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, which affect the vehicle ride performance (or comfort), are investigated under different vehicle running speeds. Some substaintial rules of the nonlinear vehicle vibrations are revealed in this paper

  11. Energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence to improve flight vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chinmay Karsandas

    Small 'bird-sized' Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have now become practical due to technological advances in embedded electronics, miniature sensors and actuators, and propulsion systems. Birds are known to take advantage of wind currents to conserve energy and fly long distances without flapping their wings. This dissertation explores the possibility of improving the performance of small UAVs by extracting the energy available in atmospheric turbulence. An aircraft can gain energy from vertical gusts by increasing its lift in regions of updraft and reducing its lift in downdrafts - a concept that has been known for decades. Starting with a simple model of a glider flying through a sinusoidal gust, a parametric optimization approach is used to compute the minimum gust amplitude and optimal control input required for the glider to sustain flight without losing energy. For small UAVs using optimal control inputs, sinusoidal gusts with amplitude of 10--15% of the cruise speed are sufficient to keep the aircraft aloft. The method is then modified and extended to include random gusts that are representative of natural turbulence. A procedure to design optimal control laws for energy extraction from realistic gust profiles is developed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). A feedback control law is designed to perform well over a variety of random gusts, and not be tailored for one particular gust. A small UAV flying in vertical turbulence is shown to obtain average energy savings of 35--40% with the use of a simple control law. The design procedure is also extended to determine optimal control laws for sinusoidal as well as turbulent lateral gusts. The theoretical work is complemented by experimental validation using a small autonomous UAV. The development of a lightweight autopilot and UAV platform is presented. Flight test results show that active control of the lift of an autonomous glider resulted in approximately 46% average energy savings compared to glides with fixed

  12. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  13. Comparison of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Performance Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a farm management technology that involves sensing and then responding to the observed variability in the field. Remote sensing is one of the tools of precision agriculture. The emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV have paved the way to accessible remote sensing tools for farmers. This paper describes the development of an image processing approach to compare two popular off-the-shelf sUAVs: 3DR Iris+ and DJI Phantom 2. Both units are equipped with a camera gimbal attached with a GoPro camera. The comparison of the two sUAV involves a hovering test and a rectilinear motion test. In the hovering test, the sUAV was allowed to hover over a known object and images were taken every quarter of a second for two minutes. For the image processing evaluation, the position of the object in the images was measured and this was used to assess the stability of the sUAV while hovering. In the rectilinear test, the sUAV was allowed to follow a straight path and images of a lined track were acquired. The lines on the images were then measured on how accurate the sUAV followed the path. The hovering test results show that the 3DR Iris+ had a maximum position deviation of 0.64 m (0.126 m root mean square RMS displacement while the DJI Phantom 2 had a maximum deviation of 0.79 m (0.150 m RMS displacement. In the rectilinear motion test, the maximum displacement for the 3DR Iris+ and the DJI phantom 2 were 0.85 m (0.134 m RMS displacement and 0.73 m (0.372 m RMS displacement. These results demonstrated that the two sUAVs performed well in both the hovering test and the rectilinear motion test and thus demonstrated that both sUAVs can be used for civilian applications such as agricultural monitoring. The results also showed that the developed image processing approach can be used to evaluate performance of a sUAV and has the potential to be used as another feedback control parameter for autonomous navigation.

  14. Assesment of Dutch longer and heavier vehicles with a performance based approach and its applicability to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kural, K.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Pauwelussen, J.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The volume of goods transported as well as the number of commercial vehicles in Europe has increased substantially over the past decade. The sixteen years old European directive on vehicle weights and dimensions does not fully reflect on these circumstances and allows commercial vehicles up to

  15. Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

    1994-01-01

    New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

  16. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that

  17. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles: Roundabouts Design and Safety Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Deluka Tibljaš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs. Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.

  18. The association of weight percentile and motor vehicle crash injury among 3 to 8 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Nelson, Kyle A; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3-8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3-8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98-11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3-8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines.

  19. Design of an efficient, low weight battery electric vehicle based on a VW Lupo 3L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Oorschot, van P.F.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    A battery electric vehicle is being developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology, which will beused in future research projects regarding electric mobility. Energy storage in batteries is still at least 25 times heavier and has 10 times the volume in comparison to fossil fuel. This leads to

  20. Performance of a Battery Electric Vehicle in the Cold Climate and Hilly Terrain of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-23

    The goal of this research project was to determine the performance of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) in the cold climate and hilly terrain of Vermont. For this study, a 2005 Toyota Echo was converted from an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle...

  1. An exploratory investigation of weight estimation techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The three basic methods of weight prediction (fixed-fraction, statistical correlation, and point stress analysis) and some of the computer programs that have been developed to implement them are discussed. A modified version of the WAATS (Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems) program is presented, along with input data forms and an example problem.

  2. A light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles - The first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suomalainen, Juha; Anders, Niels; Iqbal, Shahzad; Franke, Jappe; Wenting, Philip; Bartholomeus, Harm; Becker, Rolf; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    Research opportunities using UAV remote sensing techniques are limited by the payload of the platform. Therefore small UAV's are typically not suitable for hyperspectral imaging due to the weight of the mapping system. In this research, we are developing a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system

  3. Operational considerations in specifying legal weight vehicles for the highway transport of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Rutenkroger, E.O.; Ratledge, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research project in which tractor manufacturers and carrier companies were interviewed to gather information on operational concerns in specifying a tractor to haul legal weight spent fuel casks. The interaction between driver fatigue,safety, and equipment is discussed, as are innovative operating strategies that could save weight

  4. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  5. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  6. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  7. Performance test of remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat. Countermeasure performance for CBRN-environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Masahiro; Uemura, Keisuke; Morishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A research of 'remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat' was triggered by the nuclear accident that successively happened after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This project focuses on the remote controlled engineering system that can be used for multi purposes such as debris/obstacle clearing operation or various reconnaissance operation, under CBRN threat. For the remote-controlled engineering vehicle, we conducted a series of validation tests for countermeasure performance for CBRN-environment. As a result, it is proved that the vehicle possess required performances for CBRN threat. (author)

  8. Fuel Economy and Performance of Mild Hybrids with Ultracapacitors: Simulations and Vehicle Test Results (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2009-06-01

    NREL worked with GM and demonstrated equivalent performance in the Saturn Vue Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid vehicle whether running with its stock batteries or a retrofit ultracapacitor system.

  9. Performance measures to characterize directional corridor travel time delay based on probe vehicle data : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Anonymous probe vehicle data are currently being collected on roadways throughout the United States. These data are being incorporated into local and statewide mobility reports to measure the performance of freeways and arterial systems. Predefined s...

  10. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  11. Neuropsychological performance in solvent-exposed vehicle collision repair workers in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Keer, Samuel; Glass, Bill; McLean, Dave; Harding, Elizabeth; Babbage, Duncan; Leathem, Janet; Brinkmann, Yanis; Prezant, Bradley; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers. Methods The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study. Results Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1.5, 95% CI -2.4, -0.5;...

  12. CO2 emissions from new cars and vehicle weight in Europe; How the EU regulation could have been avoided and how to reach it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    A segment- and fuel-disaggregated analysis of the production data of the new European vehicle market during the last decade helps to understand the sharp increase in average weight, and to introduce an indicator linking CO 2 emissions to a vehicle's unit of weight. Using this indicator, simulations are made to calculate the average CO 2 emissions if the average weight had stayed constant from 1995 to 2005. If the weight had remained constant, the 2008 target of 1998s voluntary agreement (VA) would have been met, and the recently approved regulation would probably have been unnecessary. Then, CO 2 emissions are projected to 2015 using different vehicle characteristics and market penetration. Five scenarios have been introduced to study the different opportunities that could arise by 2015, including a backcasting scenario showing what is needed to reach the goal set by the recently approved EU climate package regulations. The analysis concludes that powertrain technologies alone are unlikely to bring the sufficient break in trends to reach set targets. Acting on average weight, through unitary vehicle weight or segment shifting, of new vehicles is key in reducing the average CO 2 emissions in the short and medium term.

  13. Driving towards obesity: a systematized literature review on the association between motor vehicle travel time and distance and weight status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Virk, Jagdeep S

    2014-09-01

    Higher levels of sedentary behavior are associated with adverse health outcomes. Over-reliance on private motor vehicles for transportation is a potential contributor to the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to review evidence on the relationship between motor vehicle travel distance and time and weight status among adults. Keywords associated with driving and weight status were entered into four databases (PubMed Medline Transportation Research Information Database and Web of Science) and retrieved article titles and abstracts screened for relevance. Relevant articles were assessed for their eligibility for inclusion in the review (English-language articles a sample ≥ 16 years of age included a measure of time or distance traveling in a motor vehicle and weight status and estimated the association between driving and weight status). The database search yielded 2781 articles, from which 88 were deemed relevant and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies included in the review, 8 found a statistically significant positive association between time and distance traveled in a motor vehicle and weight status. Multilevel interventions that make alternatives to driving private motor vehicles more convenient, such as walking and cycling, are needed to promote healthy weight in the adult population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-performance-vehicle technology. [fighter aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion needs of high performance military aircraft are discussed. Inlet performance, nozzle performance and cooling, and afterburner performance are covered. It is concluded that nonaxisymmetric nozzles provide cleaner external lines and enhanced maneuverability, but the internal flows are more complex. Swirl afterburners show promise for enhanced performance in the high altitude, low Mach number region.

  15. Optimization of Steering System of Forklift Vehicle for Idle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design process for the steering system of a forklift vehicle. An efficient procedure for minimizing the engine-induced idle vibration is developed in this study. Reciprocating unbalance and gas pressure torque as two major sources of engine excitation are studied. Using the field vibration tests and FEM analysis, the cause and characteristics of steering system’s idle vibration are recognized. So as to distribute the characteristic modes based on the optimization strategy, global sensitivity analysis of the main parameters is also carried out to achieve the optimal combination of the optimization factors. Based on all analysis above, some structure modifications for optimization are presented to control the idle vibration. The effectiveness and rationality of the improvements are also verified through experimental prototyping testing. This study also makes it possible to provide a design guideline using CAE (computer aided engineering analysis for some other objects.

  16. Prioritization and selection of electrical vehicle systems to improve its performances: An AHP approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrode, E.; Muerza, V.; Arroyo, J.B.

    2016-07-01

    In the study of the improvement of urban transport in terms of energy efficiency and environmental improvement, one of the best options is the use of electric vehicles for both passengers and freight distribution. Depending on the type of transport operation to be performed, it is necessary to select the most appropriate vehicle that meets the necessary requirements, so that the result is an improvement in energy efficiency and low environmental impact. It is therefore necessary to design architectures for electric vehicles, specially adapted to the different scenarios in which are to be used, and where they can optimize the transport operation in both reducing energy consumption and reducing emissions, maintaining a cost competitive with current vehicle operation. The electrical vehicles (EV) are composed of different systems. A typical EV structure involves five subsystems: (i) drive system, (ii) power system, (iii) control system, (iv) vehicle structure and (v) auxiliary systems. This paper focuses on the development of a multicriteria decision procedure based on the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), to prioritize among the five vehicle systems, in which the design efforts should be guided to improve the vehicle. (Author)

  17. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  18. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  19. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  20. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boyi Xiao; Huazhong Lu; Hailin Wang; Jiageng Ruan; Nong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other impr...

  1. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multi...

  2. Performance-based standards (PBS) vehicles for transport in the agricultural sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available manufacturers start designing vehicles on an ad hoc basis. It should be borne in mind that PBS vehicle designs include certain safety features, and must be loaded in the correct manner. The RTMS approach offers the most suitable way of ensuring.... The objectives of the Performance-Based Standards (PBS) philosophy are to utilise technology to reduce road damage, improve safety, increase payloads and reduce costs. To overcome the limitations of prescriptive legislation, is has been proposed that PBS...

  3. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  4. On the performance of social network and likelihood-based expert weighting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; ElSaadany, Susie; Huang Xinzheng

    2008-01-01

    Using expert judgment data from the TU Delft's expert judgment database, we compare the performance of different weighting schemes, namely equal weighting, performance-based weighting from the classical model [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.], social network (SN) weighting and likelihood weighting. The picture that emerges with regard to SN weights is rather mixed. SN theory does not provide an alternative to performance-based combination of expert judgments, since the statistical accuracy of the SN decision maker is sometimes unacceptably low. On the other hand, it does outperform equal weighting in the majority of cases. The results here, though not overwhelmingly positive, do nonetheless motivate further research into social interaction methods for nominating and weighting experts. Indeed, a full expert judgment study with performance measurement requires an investment in time and effort, with a view to securing external validation. If high confidence in a comparable level of validation can be obtained by less intensive methods, this would be very welcome, and would facilitate the application of structured expert judgment in situations where the resources for a full study are not available. Likelihood weights are just as resource intensive as performance-based weights, and the evidence presented here suggests that they are inferior to performance-based weights with regard to those scoring variables which are optimized in performance weights (calibration and information). Perhaps surprisingly, they are also inferior with regard to likelihood. Their use is further discouraged by the fact that they constitute a strongly improper scoring rule

  5. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  6. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    in a linear scaling with vehicle weight. • Counter-examples to linear scaling, such as torsion rods , account only for a small fraction (< 10%) of...at the maximum cabin height comes out to be 61 cm which is consistent with previous designs. We wish to keep as much flexibility for the designer...the ground via the track shoe(s). If we assume the track is perfectly flexible , one can estimate the sinkage by:10 0 = 6 5 √

  7. Improving the road wear performance of heavy vehicles in South Africa using a performance-based standards approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of the world to achieve regional harmonisation and effective road use have had limited success. Another approach is to consider performance-based standards (PBS); in this case standards specify the performance required from the operation of a vehicle on a...

  8. Improving stability and curving passing performance for railway vehicles with a variable stiffness MRF rubber joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B. J.; Sun, S. S.; Li, W. H.

    2017-03-01

    With the growing need for effective intercity transport, the need for more advanced rail vehicle technology has never been greater. The conflicting primary longitudinal suspension requirements of high speed stability and curving performance limit the development of rail vehicle technology. This paper presents a novel magnetorheological fluid based joint with variable stiffness characteristics for the purpose of overcoming this parameter conflict. Firstly, the joint design and working principle is developed. Following this, a prototype is tested by MTS to characterize its variable stiffness properties under a range of conditions. Lastly, the performance of the proposed MRF rubber joint with regard to improving train stability and curving performance is numerically evaluated.

  9. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Other questions have been raised about reduced fuel economy and engine performance and pollution of ground water due to the use of MTBE in gasoline. The book provides conclusions and recommendations about each major topic addressed in the government's report.

  10. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad; Melanz, Daniel; Lamb, David; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Letherwood, Michael; Jain, Abhinandan; Quadrelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics-based simulation of light tracked vehicles operating on rough deformable terrain. The focus is on small autonomous vehicles, which weigh less than 100 lb and move on deformable and rough terrain that is feature rich and no longer representable using a continuum approach. A scenario of interest is, for instance, the simulation of a reconnaissance mission for a high mobility lightweight robot where objects such as a boulder or a ditch that could otherwise be considered small for a truck or tank, become major obstacles that can impede the mobility of the light autonomous vehicle and negatively impact the success of its mission. Analyzing and gauging the mobility and performance of these light vehicles is accomplished through a modeling and simulation capability called Chrono::Engine. Chrono::Engine relies on parallel execution on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards.

  11. The economic performance of supply chain(s) served by the mega freight transport vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic performances of supply chain(s) served by different including the mega freight transport vehicles. These performances are considered as a dimension of the supply chain’s sustainability together with the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational,

  12. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  13. A field study of human factors and vehicle performance associated with PHEV adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.; Maksimovic, D.; Tomac, W.A.; Coburn, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Smart-grid and electric-vehicle technologies are rapidly diffusing, yet important policy implications remain to be fully analyzed. This multi-year field study sought to fill part of this gap by exploring human adaptation to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) performance and vehicle charging in smart-grid environments. Homes were equipped with smart meters in a smart-grid experiment conducted by the local utility. Study households were organized by either standard or time-of-use electricity pricing, and randomly assigned to “managed” or “unmanaged” charging scenarios. Using a mixed-methods approach, study data were collected through vehicle data loggers, smart-plugs interviews, and questionnaires. The paper describes vehicle operations and performance; the ways in which households managed PHEV charging; and the manner in which they responded to smart-grid, smart-plug, and dashboard feedback. Findings indicate that households actively managed PHEV charging; however, they preferred flexible charging scenarios. Charging-management decisions were influenced by electricity-pricing. Online feedback on household- and vehicle-electricity consumption was generally ignored, but drivers responded to dashboard feedback as they drove. These results provide empirical bases for government and corporate policymakers to improve policy decisions relative to PHEV impacts on electricity loads, design of smart-grid feedback, and design of charging infrastructures. - Highlights: •Utility pricing is the most important factor in vehicle-charging management. •Web-based energy feedback systems are ineffective in changing energy behavior. •Time-of-use pricing motivates off-peak vehicle charging. •PHEV charging infrastructure should be Placed in commercial/Multifamily buildings. •Charging systems need to be as unobtrusive as possible, requiring little of people.

  14. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) Operational Environment on Soldier Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles; Tauson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness and performance of soldiers in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Three different vehicle configurations were tested: oblique, (3 seats at a 20-degree angle from the direction of travel); perpendicular, (3 seats at a 90 degree angle); and 4-forward, (all seats faced forward). In all vehicles, the front seat faced forward. Sixteen men and eight women participated for 15 days: 2 days of classroom instruction; 12 days of field tests in the C2V, and 15 minutes of post-field test performance measures. Conditions for field tests were: an initial Park; four Moves (i.e., travel over a mixed terrain); and four Short-halts following movement. NASA task batteries, mood and symptom scales, and physiological data were collected during field tests. Motion sickness symptoms ranging from slight to severe were reported for all subjects. Conclusions were: (1) there was no difference between vehicle configurations; (2) there was a negative impact on crew performance and health when subjects attended to visual screens during vehicle movement; and (3) symptoms and performance degradation were not mitigated by intermittent short-halts.

  15. Vehicle safety performance improvements using a performance-based standards approach: four case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available programme is to gain practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. The Smart Truck demonstration vehicles have been designed...

  16. Monitoring household waste recycling centres performance using mean bin weight analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Sarah; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a modelling approach used to investigate the significance of key factors (vehicle type, compaction type, site design, temporal effects) in influencing the variability in observed nett amenity bin weights produced by household waste recycling centres (HWRCs). This new method can help to quickly identify sites that are producing significantly lighter bins, enabling detailed back-end analyses to be efficiently targeted and best practice in HWRC operation identified. Tested on weigh ticket data from nine HWRCs across West Sussex, UK, the model suggests that compaction technique, vehicle type, month and site design explained 76% of the variability in the observed nett amenity weights. For each factor, a weighting coefficient was calculated to generate a predicted nett weight for each bin transaction and three sites were subsequently identified as having similar characteristics but returned significantly different mean nett bin weights. Waste and site audits were then conducted at the three sites to try and determine the possible sources of the remaining variability. Significant differences were identified in the proportions of contained waste (bagged), wood, and dry recyclables entering the amenity waste stream, particularly at one site where significantly less contaminated waste and dry recyclables were observed.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Super Heavy-Weight Vehicles on Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Scott M.; Akinci, Necip Onder; Liu, Judy; Bowman, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    A permit truck which exceeds the predefined limit of 108 kips is defined as a superload in Indiana. This study was conducted to examine the long-term effects of superload trucks on the performance of typical slab-on-girder bridges and to assess the likelihood of causing immediate damage. Typical steel and prestressed concrete slab-on-girder type bridges were analyzed using both beam line analysis and detailed finite element models. Furthermore, one prestressed concrete bridge and one steel br...

  18. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  19. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  20. Remote software upload techniques in future vehicles and their performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Irina

    could benefit from it. However, like the unicast RSU, the security requirements of multicast communication, i.e., authenticity, confidentiality and integrity of the software transmitted and access control of the group members is challenging. In this thesis, an infrastructure-based mobile multicasting for RSU in vehicle ECUs is proposed where an ECU receives the software from a remote software distribution center using the road side BSs as gateways. The Vehicular Software Distribution Network (VSDN) is divided into small regions administered by a Regional Group Manager (RGM). Two multicast Group Key Management (GKM) techniques are proposed based on the degree of trust on the BSs named Fully-trusted (FT) and Semi-trusted (ST) systems. Analytical models are developed to find the multicast session establishment latency and handover latency for these two protocols. The average latency to perform mutual authentication of the software vendor and a vehicle, and to send the multicast session key by the software provider during multicast session initialization, and the handoff latency during multicast session is calculated. Analytical and simulation results show that the link establishment latency per vehicle of our proposed schemes is in the range of few seconds and the ST system requires few ms higher time than the FT system. The handoff latency is also in the range of few seconds and in some cases ST system requires less handoff time than the FT system. Thus, it is possible to build an efficient GKM protocol without putting too much trust on the BSs.

  1. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of successful initiatives in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the introduction of a performance-based standards (PBS) approach in the heavy vehicle sector in South Africa was identified by the Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  2. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.; Besselink, I.G.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper

  3. Assessing Constraints on Soldier Cognitive and Perceptual Motor Performance During Vehicle Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    vehicle systems are biomechanical (Sirouspour & Salcudean, 2003; Sövényi & Gillespie, 2007), cognitive (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997), and psychomotor...vs. velocity), pedals for braking/acceleration Environmental constraints associated with the support surface (Seat): Damping, inclination...steering and secondarily, performance differences between a joystick and pedals for throttle and brake control. Eleven participants com- pleted three

  4. Performance of batteries for electric vehicles on short and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Faaij, André P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  5. Performance of Batteries for electric vehicles on shorter and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  6. Field weakening performance of flux-switching machines for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flux-switching machines (FSMs) are a viable candidate for electric propulsion of hybrid/electric vehicles. This paper investigates the field weakening performance of FSMs. The investigation starts with general torque and voltage expressions, which reveal the relationships between certain parameters

  7. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  8. Performance of an area variable MOS varicap weighted programmable CCD transversal filter

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, A.B.; Shankarnarayan, L.; Kapur, N.; Wallinga, Hans

    1981-01-01

    The performance of an electrically programmable CCD transversal filter (PTF) is presented in which tap-weight multiplication is performed by a novel and compact on chip voltage controlled area variable MOS varicap.

  9. Competitive Learning Neural Network Ensemble Weighted by Predicted Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble approaches have been shown to enhance classification by combining the outputs from a set of voting classifiers. Diversity in error patterns among base classifiers promotes ensemble performance. Multi-task learning is an important characteristic for Neural Network classifiers. Introducing a secondary output unit that receives different…

  10. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  11. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  12. Modeling Driving Performance Using In-Vehicle Speech Data From a Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jonny; Charlton, Judith L; Koppel, Sjaan; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Cross, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to (a) describe the development and application of an automated approach for processing in-vehicle speech data from a naturalistic driving study (NDS), (b) examine the influence of child passenger presence on driving performance, and (c) model this relationship using in-vehicle speech data. Parent drivers frequently engage in child-related secondary behaviors, but the impact on driving performance is unknown. Applying automated speech-processing techniques to NDS audio data would facilitate the analysis of in-vehicle driver-child interactions and their influence on driving performance. Speech activity detection and speaker diarization algorithms were applied to audio data from a Melbourne-based NDS involving 42 families. Multilevel models were developed to evaluate the effect of speech activity and the presence of child passengers on driving performance. Speech activity was significantly associated with velocity and steering angle variability. Child passenger presence alone was not associated with changes in driving performance. However, speech activity in the presence of two child passengers was associated with the most variability in driving performance. The effects of in-vehicle speech on driving performance in the presence of child passengers appear to be heterogeneous, and multiple factors may need to be considered in evaluating their impact. This goal can potentially be achieved within large-scale NDS through the automated processing of observational data, including speech. Speech-processing algorithms enable new perspectives on driving performance to be gained from existing NDS data, and variables that were once labor-intensive to process can be readily utilized in future research. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a hybrid vehicle which fully meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Program is documented. Topics addressed include the general layout and styling, the power train specifications with discussion of each major component, vehicle weight and weight breakdown, vehicle performance, measures of energy consumption, and initial cost and ownership cost. Alternative design options considered and their relationship to the design adopted, computer simulation used, and maintenance and reliability considerations are also discussed.

  14. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  15. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  16. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  17. Impact of Automation on Drivers' Performance in Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, B; Mann, D D

    2015-04-01

    Drivers' inadequate mental workload has been reported as one of the negative effects of driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation. The increasing trend of automation in agricultural vehicles raises some concerns about drivers' mental workload in such vehicles. Thus, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering task automation (VSTA) and implement control and monitoring task automation (ICMTA) were investigated using a tractor-air seeder system as a case study. Two performance parameters (reaction time and accuracy of actions) were measured to assess drivers' perceived mental workload. Experiments were conducted using the tractor driving simulator (TDS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. According to the results, reaction time and number of errors made by drivers both decreased as the automation level increased. Correlations were found among performance parameters and subjective mental workload reported by the drivers.

  18. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV Traction Considering Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Anh Huynh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs. Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis.

  19. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  20. Performance Improvement of Inertial Navigation System by Using Magnetometer with Vehicle Dynamic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehee Won

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A navigation algorithm is proposed to increase the inertial navigation performance of a ground vehicle using magnetic measurements and dynamic constraints. The navigation solutions are estimated based on inertial measurements such as acceleration and angular velocity measurements. To improve the inertial navigation performance, a three-axis magnetometer is used to provide the heading angle, and nonholonomic constraints (NHCs are introduced to increase the correlation between the velocity and the attitude equation. The NHCs provide a velocity feedback to the attitude, which makes the navigation solution more robust. Additionally, an acceleration-based roll and pitch estimation is applied to decrease the drift when the acceleration is within certain boundaries. The magnetometer and NHCs are combined with an extended Kalman filter. An experimental test was conducted to verify the proposed method, and a comprehensive analysis of the performance in terms of the position, velocity, and attitude showed that the navigation performance could be improved by using the magnetometer and NHCs. Moreover, the proposed method could improve the estimation performance for the position, velocity, and attitude without any additional hardware except an inertial sensor and magnetometer. Therefore, this method would be effective for ground vehicles, indoor navigation, mobile robots, vehicle navigation in urban canyons, or navigation in any global navigation satellite system-denied environment.

  1. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  2. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  3. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  4. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  5. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  6. Economic Comparison of Electric Vehicles Performing Unidirectional and Bidirectional Frequency Control in Denmark with Practical Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    the EV is plugged into the network ready to support the system frequency. Performing unidirectional frequency control with Electric Vehicles (EVs) requires little hardware implementation in the household but has the limit that the service only can be performed until the battery is fully charged....... Bidirectional V2G frequency control requires an external charger but also enables the EV to perform services at higher powers, during the entire period the EV is parked. The yearly revenue is in both cases calculated using some assumptions that are then verified in 2 experiments. Both EVs are discharged...

  7. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Cairney, John; Eisenmann, Joe; Pfeiffer, Karin; Gould, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years) were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP), body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), motor performance (MP), and perceived athletic competence (PAC) of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model) were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  8. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Morrison

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP, body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status (SES, motor performance (MP, and perceived athletic competence (PAC of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  9. Modeling take-over performance in level 3 conditionally automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Happee, Riender; Bengler, Klaus

    2017-11-28

    Taking over vehicle control from a Level 3 conditionally automated vehicle can be a demanding task for a driver. The take-over determines the controllability of automated vehicle functions and thereby also traffic safety. This paper presents models predicting the main take-over performance variables take-over time, minimum time-to-collision, brake application and crash probability. These variables are considered in relation to the situational and driver-related factors time-budget, traffic density, non-driving-related task, repetition, the current lane and driver's age. Regression models were developed using 753 take-over situations recorded in a series of driving simulator experiments. The models were validated with data from five other driving simulator experiments of mostly unrelated authors with another 729 take-over situations. The models accurately captured take-over time, time-to-collision and crash probability, and moderately predicted the brake application. Especially the time-budget, traffic density and the repetition strongly influenced the take-over performance, while the non-driving-related tasks, the lane and drivers' age explained a minor portion of the variance in the take-over performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysing the effects of air flow on a formula prototype vehicle to optimize its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth; Ashok, B.

    2017-11-01

    FSAE (Formula Society of Automotive Engineers) is an_engineering design competition which challenges students to design and build their own Formula Style race-car. The race-car is being judged on basis of various criteria namely, design, cost, business and performance. For the race-car to participate in the dynamic events and traverse through different sorts of challenging tracks in the least time possible, the tyres must generate appropriate amount of lateral and longitudinal force. The car must not topple even at high speeds and needs to manoeuvre quickly. To achieve the above-mentioned criterion, there is a need of implementing aerodynamics in the car. The optimum amount of downforce necessary to execute a smooth and rapid active behaviour of our car with maximum achievable performance is to be measured keeping vehicle dynamics into consideration. In this paper, vehicle dynamics and aerodynamics are related to an extent where all the above criterion can be achieved successfully, thereby bringing about a trade-off without any sort of compromises in either of them. The co-ordination between aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics has been depicted with a detailed methodology, accompanied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the wings and the full body of the car using STAR CCM+. Further the results has been discussed properly in the later sections of this paper. With a systematic approach, thoroughly done with several iterations on MATLAB followed by CFD simulations and analysis, the desired performance was accomplished.

  11. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  12. A semi-active suspension control algorithm for vehicle comprehensive vertical dynamics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shida; Zhuang, Ye; Liu, Weiping; Chen, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Comprehensive performance of the vehicle, including ride qualities and road-holding, is essentially of great value in practice. Many up-to-date semi-active control algorithms improve vehicle dynamics performance effectively. However, it is hard to improve comprehensive performance for the conflict between ride qualities and road-holding around the second-order resonance. Hence, a new control algorithm is proposed to achieve a good trade-off between ride qualities and road-holding. In this paper, the properties of the invariant points are analysed, which gives an insight into the performance conflicting around the second-order resonance. Based on it, a new control algorithm is proposed. The algorithm employs a novel frequency selector to balance suspension ride and handling performance by adopting a medium damping around the second-order resonance. The results of this study show that the proposed control algorithm could improve the performance of ride qualities and suspension working space up to 18.3% and 8.2%, respectively, with little loss of road-holding compared to the passive suspension. Consequently, the comprehensive performance can be improved by 6.6%. Hence, the proposed algorithm is of great potential to be implemented in practice.

  13. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  14. Monitoring results of PBS vehicles in South Africa in terms of productivity, safety and road wear performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a Performance-Based Standards (PBS) research programme for heavy vehicles in South Africa, a need was identified to design, manufacture and operate a number of PBS or Smart Truck demonstration vehicles in order to gain practical...

  15. Optimum differential terms for lateral motion control performance on the vehicle; Yokoundo seigyo seino ni oyobosu hisenkei bibunko no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamori, A [Japan Consumer Information Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakaya, H [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As general knowledge, the lateral control performance of vehicle improves as differential terms increases. But subjective rating has its limits of effect. The coefficient of differential terms and saturated steer angle velocity were set up using the experimental vehicle in several steps. Consequently, the optimum range, that subjective and objective rating were compatible, were made clear. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  17. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  18. Performance of clustering techniques for solving multi depot vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro-Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem considering multiple depots is classified as NP-hard. MDVRP determines simultaneously the routes of a set of vehicles and aims to meet a set of clients with a known demand. The objective function of the problem is to minimize the total distance traveled by the routes given that all customers must be served considering capacity constraints in depots and vehicles. This paper presents a hybrid methodology that combines agglomerative clustering techniques to generate initial solutions with an iterated local search algorithm (ILS to solve the problem. Although previous studies clustering methods have been proposed like strategies to generate initial solutions, in this work the search is intensified on the information generated after applying the clustering technique. Besides an extensive analysis on the performance of techniques, and their effect in the final solution is performed. The operation of the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to solve the problem regarding the quality of the answers and computational times obtained on request evaluated literature

  19. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  20. Impact of molecular weight on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules as delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Sanchez, Gloria; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-10-05

    The molecular weight of chitosan is one of its most determinant characteristics, which affects its processability and its performance as a biomaterial. However, information about the effect of this parameter on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules is scarce. In this work, the impact of chitosan molecular weight on its electrosprayability was studied and correlated with its effect on the viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity of solutions. A Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that the morphology of the electrosprayed chitosan materials could be correctly predicted using these three parameters for almost 85% of the samples. The suitability of using electrosprayed chitosan capsules as carriers for bioactive agents was also assessed by loading them with a model active compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This encapsulation, with an estimated efficiency of around 80% in terms of preserved antioxidant activity, showed the potential to prolong the antiviral activity of EGCG against murine norovirus via gradual bioactive release combined with its protection against degradation in simulated physiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs

  2. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance for a Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Vehicle at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Breanna J.; Braden, Ellen M.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Cerimele, Christopher J.; Lu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to mature the design of the Mid-Lift-to-Drag ratio Rigid Vehicle (MRV) candidate of the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture study, end-to-end six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulations are needed to ensure a successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) design. The EMC study is assessing different vehicle and mission architectures to determine which candidate would be best to deliver a 20 metric ton payload to the surface of Mars. Due to the large mass payload and the relatively low atmospheric density of Mars, all candidates of the EMC study propose to use Supersonic Retro-Propulsion (SRP) throughout the descent and landing phase, as opposed to parachutes, in order to decelerate to a subsonic touchdown. This paper presents a 6DOF entry-to-landing performance and controllability study with sensitivities to dispersions, particularly in the powered descent and landing phases.

  4. Effort to increase an engine performance using electrical ignition system for motor vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Bandem Adnyana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing engine performances using electrical ignition system on motor vehicle. In accordance with the development oftechnology, improvisation of automotive is created in order to increase the performance of engine. The method to increase thisperformance has been done by modify the ignition system, where the conventional method of ignition system which uses contactbreaker substituted by using capacitor. The improvisation of ignition system has been tested by increasing the speed and load onstationary condition. Results show that the improvisation of ignition system by using capacitor increases the effective power andreduce the specific fuel consumption of engine and reduce the gas emission of CO.

  5. Integrated model of assisted parking system and performance evaluation with entropy weight extended analytic hierarchy process and two-tuple linguistic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating comprehensive performance of assisted parking system has been a very important issue for car companies for years, because the overall performance of assisted parking system directly influences car intellectualization and customers’ degree of satisfaction. Therefore, this article proposes two-tuple linguistic analytic hierarchy process to evaluate assisted parking system so as to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. The performance evaluation attributes for assisted parking system are established initially. Subsequently, the information entropy theory is proposed to improve the evaluation attribute weight determined by analytic hierarchy process for the influencing factors of the randomness in parking test process. Furthermore, the evaluation attribute measure values of comprehensive performance are calculated and the assisted parking system evaluation results are obtained with ordered weighted averaging operator. Finally, numerical examples of vehicle types equipped with eight different assisted parking systems and computational results are presented.

  6. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk magnet, it is

  7. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jsywang@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk

  8. The effects of high frequency current ripple on electric vehicle battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Kotub; Moore, Andrew D.; Barai, Anup; Marco, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study into the impact of current ripple on li-ion battery degradation. • 15 cells exercised with 1200 cycles coupled AC–DC signals, at 5 frequencies. • Results highlight a greater spread of degradation for cells exposed to AC excitation. • Implications for BMS control, thermal management and system integration. - Abstract: The power electronic subsystems within electric vehicle (EV) powertrains are required to manage both the energy flows within the vehicle and the delivery of torque by the electrical machine. Such systems are known to generate undesired electrical noise on the high voltage bus. High frequency current oscillations, or ripple, if unhindered will enter the vehicle’s battery system. Real-world measurements of the current on the high voltage bus of a series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) show that significant current perturbations ranging from 10 Hz to in excess of 10 kHz are present. Little is reported within the academic literature about the potential impact on battery system performance and the rate of degradation associated with exposing the battery to coupled direct current (DC) and alternating currents (AC). This paper documents an experimental investigation that studies the long-term impact of current ripple on battery performance degradation. Initial results highlight that both capacity fade and impedance rise progressively increase as the frequency of the superimposed AC current increases. A further conclusion is that the spread of degradation for cells cycled with a coupled AC–DC signal is considerably more than for cells exercised with a traditional DC waveform. The underlying causality for this degradation is not yet understood. However, this has important implications for the battery management system (BMS). Increased variations in cell capacity and impedance will cause differential current flows and heat generation within the battery pack that if not properly managed will further reduce battery life

  9. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A longitudinal study of childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end of each grade. Weight and height were measured at the beginning of each grade. A weight change variable was created based on each child's weight status difference at grades 1 and 6. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting academic performance at grade 6 was developed with adjustment for individual characteristics and family factors. A latent growth curve (LGC) showed the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and in academic performance across a 6-year period. BMI in children increased significantly across 6 years. The rate of increase in BMI over 6 years was higher for children with higher baseline BMIs than it was for children with lower baseline BMIs. However, BMI changes were not significantly associated with changes of academic performance. There was no significant relationship between initial obesity or change in weight status and subsequent academic performance. It appears that either being or becoming overweight/obese did not impact academic achievement for these Taiwanese children. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  11. Driving Performance After Self-Regulated Control Transitions in Highly Automated Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Alexander; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed. Twenty-six drivers drove two scenarios with an automated driving feature activated. Drivers were asked to read a newspaper or monitor the system and relinquish or resume control from the automation when prompted by vehicle systems. Driving performance in terms of lane positioning and steering behavior was assessed for 20 seconds post resuming control to capture the resulting level of control. It was found that lane positioning was virtually unaffected for the duration of the 20-second time span in both automated conditions compared to the manual baseline when drivers resumed manual control; however, significant increases in the standard deviation of steering input were found for both automated conditions compared to baseline. No significant differences were found between the two automated conditions. The results indicate that when drivers self-paced the transfer back to manual control they exhibit less of the detrimental effects observed in system-paced conditions. It was shown that self-paced transitions could reduce the risk of accidents near the edge of the operational design domain. Vehicle manufacturers must consider these benefits when designing contemporary systems.

  12. Design of a 200kW electric powertrain for a high performance electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martinez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of designing the electric powertrain of a high performance electric vehicle capable of running a quarter mile in 10 seconds, firstly it is necessary to calculate the required energy, torque, and power in order to size and select the suitable storage components and electric motors. Secondly, an assessment of the powertrain arrangement is needed to choose the best internal configuration of the vehicle and guarantee the highest efficiency possible. Finally, a design of the power conversion stages, specifically the DC-DC converter that interfaces the storage unit with the electric motors, is required as well. This paper shows the energy calculation procedure based on a longitudinal dynamic model of the vehicle and the selection method of the storage components and motors needed for this application, as well as the design of two 100kW interleaved boost converters with coupled inductors. In addition, a novel operation of the interleaved boost converter is proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. As a result, the designed converter achieved a power density of 24,2kW/kg with an efficiency of 98 %, which was validated by experimental tests of a low power prototype.

  13. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other improved regenerative braking strategies. The performance simulation was performed using standard driving cycles (NEDC, LA92, and JP1015 and a real-world-based urban cycle in China. The tested braking strategies satisfied the general safety requirements of Europe (as specified in ECE-13H, and the emergency braking scenario and economic potential were tested. The simulation results demonstrated the differences in the braking force distribution performance of these three regenerative braking strategies, the feasibility of the braking methods for the proposed driving cycles and the energy economic potential of the three strategies.

  14. The impact of weighted basketball balls in improving certain physical performances via wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Benzidane

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite of control group which used the same program with real weight basketball. All the tests practised (pre or post test  were conducted with the same team and in the same condition based on endurance test (1000 m, speed test (30 m, push the medical ball and dribbling to test the agility. After statistically processing, it was clear that weighted basketball balls as ingrate tool led to the increase of physical performance intended to study. In the opposite of traditional method.

  15. Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera White

    2012-04-01

    This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

  16. Depressive symptoms and poorer performance on the Stroop Task are associated with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Emma J; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2018-03-15

    Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight. Poorer Stroop and WCST performance associated with higher BMI whereas poorer IGT and WCST performance associated with higher body fat (%; all p's≤0.05). Stroop interference (p=0.04; p=0.05) and IDS-SR (p=0.06; p=0.02) associated with increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr). In a multivariate linear model Stroop interference (β=0.40, p<0.01; β=0.35, p<0.01) and IDS-SR (β=0.38, p<0.01; β=0.37, p<0.01) independently predicted increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr) even after controlling for baseline weight and glucose levels. Poorer response inhibition and depressive symptoms, but not glucose levels, predicted weight gain. Evaluating neurocognitive and mood deficits could improve current treatment strategies for weight loss. Clinical Trial Registration Numbers NCT00523627, NCT00342732, NCT01224704. clinicaltrials.gov. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Net Shape Spin Formed Cryogenic Aluminum Lithium Cryogenic Tank Domes for Lower Cost Higher Performance Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Hoffman, Eric; Domack, Marcia; Brewster, Jeb; Russell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of lower cost (simplified manufacturing and lower part count) and higher performance (higher strength to weight alloys) the NASA Technical Maturation Program in 2006 funded a proposal to investigate spin forming of space launch vehicle cryogenic tank domes. The project funding continued under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program through completion in FY12. The first phase of the project involved spin forming of eight, 1 meter diameter "path finder" domes. Half of these were processed using a concave spin form process (MT Aerospace, Augsburg Germany) and the other half using a convex process (Spincraft, Boston MA). The convex process has been used to produce the Ares Common Bulkhead and the concave process has been used to produce dome caps for the Space Shuttle light weight external tank and domes for the NASDA H2. Aluminum Lithium material was chosen because of its higher strength to weight ratio than the Aluminum 2219 baseline. Aluminum lithium, in order to obtain the desired temper (T8), requires a cold stretch after the solution heat treatment and quench. This requirement favors the concave spin form process which was selected for scale up. This paper describes the results of processing four, 5.5 meter diameter (upper stage scale) net shaped spin formed Aluminum Lithium domes. In order to allow scalability beyond the limits of foundry and rolling mills (about 12 foot width) the circular blank contained one friction stir weld (heavy lifter scales require a flat blank containing two welds). Mechanical properties data (tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, and simulated service testing) for the parent metal and weld will also be discussed.

  18. The impact of weighted basketball balls in improving certain physical performances via wheelchair basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Benzidane, Houcine; Mokrani, Djamel; Zerf, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players) for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite...

  19. New approach to enhance and evaluate the performance of vehicle-infrastructure integration and its communication systems, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Initial research studied the use of wireless local area networks (WLAN) protocols in Inter-Vehicle Communications : (IVC) environments. The protocols performance was evaluated in terms of measuring throughput, jitter time and : delay time. This re...

  20. Orion Crew Module / Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Peter A.; Haddock, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    An Orion Crew Module Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and a Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing were designed during a summer 2014 internship in Kennedy Space Centers Structures and Mechanisms Design Branch. The simulator is a structure that supports ballast, which will be integrated into an existing Orion mock-up to simulate the mass properties of the Exploration Mission-1 flight vehicle in both fueled and unfueled states. The simulator mimics these configurations through the use of approximately 40,000 lbf of steel and water ballast, and a steel support structure. Draining four water tanks, which house the water ballast, transitions the simulator from the fueled to unfueled mass properties. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the simulator to verify and validate equipment used to maneuver and transport the Orion spacecraft in its fueled and unfueled configurations. The second design comprises a cantilevered tripod hoist structure that provides the capability to position a large Orion Service Module Umbilical in proximity to the Vehicle Motion Simulator. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the Vehicle Motion Simulator, with the hoist structure attached, to test the Orion Service Module Umbilical for proper operation prior to installation on the Mobile Launcher. Overall, these two designs provide NASA engineers viable concepts worthy of fabricating and placing into service to prepare for the launch of Orion in 2017.

  1. A Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM) For Vehicle Mobility And Deterministic Performance Analysis In Terramechanics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Shahyar

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and efficient tire models for deformable terrain operations are essential for performing vehicle simulations. Assessment of the forces and moments that occur at the tire-terrain interface, and the effect of the tire motion on properties of the terrain are crucial in understanding the performance of a vehicle. In order to model the dynamic behavior of the tire on different terrains, a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the computat...

  2. The environmental performance of current and future passenger vehicles: Life cycle assessment based on a novel scenario analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Hofer, Johannes; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Del Duce, Andrea; Simons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of current and future passenger vehicles. • We include gasoline, diesel and natural gas as well as battery and fuel cell cars. • An integrated vehicle simulation framework guarantees consistency. • Only electric cars with “clean” electricity and H_2 allow for pollution mitigation. • Complete LCA is mandatory for environmental evaluation of vehicle technologies. - Abstract: This paper contains an evaluation of the environmental performance of a comprehensive set of current and future mid-size passenger vehicles. We present a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based on a novel integrated vehicle simulation framework, which allows for consistency in vehicle parameter settings and consideration of future technological progress. Conventional and hybrid gasoline, diesel and natural gas cars as well as battery and fuel cell electric vehicles (BEV and FCV) are analyzed, taking into account electricity and hydrogen production chains from fossil, nuclear and renewable energy resources. Our results show that a substantial mitigation of climate change can be obtained with electric passenger vehicles, provided that non-fossil energy resources are used for electricity and hydrogen production. However, in terms of other environmental burdens such as acidification, particulate matter formation, and toxicity, BEV may in some cases and FCV are likely to perform worse than modern fossil fueled cars as a consequence of emissions along vehicle and fuel production chains. Therefore, the electrification of road transportation should be accompanied by an integration of life cycle management in vehicle manufacturing chains as well as energy and transport policies in order to counter potential environmental drawbacks.

  3. Experimental analysis on the performance of lithium based batteries for road full electric and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Clemente; Veneri, Ottorino

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance analysis for lithium storage technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries. • Actual capacity of lithium technologies analyzed almost close to their nominal capacity also for high discharging current. • The charging efficiency for Li[NiCoMn]O 2 positively affects the regenerative breaking and fast recharging operations. • The analyzed battery packs follow dynamic power requirements on performed road driving cycles. • Experimental results demonstrate driving range is much higher when battery packs are based on lithium technology. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental evaluation regarding the real performance of lithium based energy storage systems for automotive applications. In particular real working operations of different lithium based storage system technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries, are compared in this work from the point of view of their application in supplying full electric and hybrid vehicles, taking as a reference the well-known behavior of lead acid batteries. For this purpose, the experimental tests carried out in laboratory are firstly performed on single storage modules in stationary conditions. In this case the related results are obtained by means of a bidirectional cycle tester based on the IGBT technology, and consent to evaluate, compare and contrast charge/discharge characteristics and efficiency at constant values of current/voltage/power for each storage technology analyzed. Then, lithium battery packs are tested in supplying a 1.8 kW electric power train using a laboratory test bench, based on a 48 V DC bus and specifically configured to simulate working operations of electric vehicles on the road. For this other experimentation the test bench is equipped with an electric brake and acquisition/control system, able to represent in laboratory the real vehicle conditions and road characteristics on predefined driving cycles at different slopes. The obtained

  4. A Simple Analytic Model for Estimating Mars Ascent Vehicle Mass and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) is a crucial component in any sample return campaign. In this paper we present a universal model for a two-stage MAV along with the analytic equations and simple parametric relationships necessary to quickly estimate MAV mass and performance. Ascent trajectories can be modeled as two-burn transfers from the surface with appropriate loss estimations for finite burns, steering, and drag. Minimizing lift-off mass is achieved by balancing optimized staging and an optimized path-to-orbit. This model allows designers to quickly find optimized solutions and to see the effects of design choices.

  5. Tracking error constrained robust adaptive neural prescribed performance control for flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.

  6. The effect of charging time on the comparative environmental performance of different vehicle types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossin, Enda; Doherty, Peter J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental performance of a PHEV and equivalent ICE were analysed using LCA. • Charging behaviour and electricity profiles of Australia’s NEM grid were included. • A methodology to model the marginal electricity supply mix was developed. • PHEVs charged from the NEM present greenhouse gas benefits. • Burden shifts towards other environmental indicators may occur, but are uncertain. - Abstract: This study combines electricity supply mix profiles and observed charging behaviour to compare the environmental performance of a petrol-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a class-equivalent internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle over the full life cycle. Environmental performance is compared using a suite of indicators across the life cycle, accounting for both marginal and average electricity supply mixes for Australia’s National Energy Market (NEM) grid. The use of average emission factors for the NEM grid can serve as a good proxy for accounting charging behaviour, provided that there is a strong correlation between the time of charging and total electricity demand. Compared with an equivalent ICE, PHEVs charged from Australia’s NEM can reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the life cycle. Potential burden shifts towards acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity impacts may occur, but these impacts are uncertain due to modelling limitations. This study has the potential to inform both short and long term forecasts of the environmental impacts associated with EV deployment in Australia and provides a better understanding the temporal variations in emissions associated with electricity use in the short term.

  7. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  8. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  9. Evaluation of odometry algorithm performances using a railway vehicle dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Malvezzi, M.; Vettori, G.; Rindi, A.

    2012-05-01

    In modern railway Automatic Train Protection and Automatic Train Control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. Simplified two-dimensional models of railway vehicles have been usually used for Hardware in the Loop test rig testing of conventional odometry algorithms and of on-board safety relevant subsystems (like the Wheel Slide Protection braking system) in which the train speed is estimated from the measures of the wheel angular speed. Two-dimensional models are not suitable to develop solutions like the inertial type localisation algorithms (using 3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes) and the introduction of Global Positioning System (or similar) or the magnetometer. In order to test these algorithms correctly and increase odometry performances, a three-dimensional multibody model of a railway vehicle has been developed, using Matlab-Simulink™, including an efficient contact model which can simulate degraded adhesion conditions (the development and prototyping of odometry algorithms involve the simulation of realistic environmental conditions). In this paper, the authors show how a 3D railway vehicle model, able to simulate the complex interactions arising between different on-board subsystems, can be useful to evaluate the odometry algorithm and safety relevant to on-board subsystem performances.

  10. Practical implementation of the concept of converted electric vehicle with advanced traction and dynamic performance and environmental safety indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.; Grishchenko, A. G.; Golubchik, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to describe the implementation of the technical solutions have been developed, with regard to structure, composition, and characteristics, for an experimental prototype of an electric vehicle which has been converted from a conventional vehicle. The methodology of the study results is based on the practical implementation of the developed concept of the conversion of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles. The main components of electric propulsion system of the experimental prototype of electric vehicle are developed and manufactured on the basis of computational researches, taking into account the criteria and principles of conversion within the framework of presented work. The article describes a schematic and a design of power conversion and commutation electrical equipment, traction battery, electromechanical transmission. These results can serve as guidance material in the design and implementation of electric propulsion system (EPS) components of electric vehicles, facilitate the development of optimal technical solutions in the development and manufacture of vehicles, including those aimed at autonomy of operation and the use of perspective driver assistance systems. As part of this work, was suggested a rational structure for an electric vehicle experimental prototype, including technical performance characteristics of the components of EPS.

  11. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation

    2008-07-01

    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  12. Investigation of crew performance in a multi-vehicle supervisory control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. A.; Plamondon, B. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.; Kirlik, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Crew information processing and decision making in a supervisory control task which is loosely based on the mission of future generation helicopters is measured and represented. Subjects control the motion and activities of their own vehicle and direct the activities of four additional craft. The task involves searching an uncertain environment for cargo and enemies, returning cargo to home base and destroying enemies while attempting to avoid destruction of the scout and the supervised vehicles. A series of experiments with two-person crews and one-person crews were performed. Resulting crew performance was modeled with the objective of describing and understanding the information processing strategies utilized. Of particular interest are problem simplification strategies under time stress and high work load, simplification and compensation in the one-person cases, crew coordination in the two-person cases, and the relationship between strategy and errors in all cases. The results should provide some insight into the effective use of aids, particularly aids based on artificial intelligence, for similar tasks. The simulation is described which is used for the study and some preliminary results from the first two-person crew study are discussed.

  13. Vehicle driving cycle performance of the spark-less di-ji hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Alberto A. [School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, PO Box663, Ballarat, VIC 3353 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The paper describes coupled CFD combustion simulations and CAE engine performance computations to describe the operation over the full range of load and speed of an always lean burn, Direct Injection Jet Ignition (DI-JI) hydrogen engine. Jet ignition pre-chambers and direct injection are enablers of high efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected. Towards the end of the compression stroke, a small quantity of hydrogen is injected within the spark-less pre-chamber of the DI-JI engine, where it mixes with the air entering from the main chamber and auto-ignites because of the high temperature of the hot glow plug. Then, jets of partially combusted hot gases enter the main chamber igniting there in the bulk, over multiple ignition points, lean stratified mixtures of air and fuel. Engine maps of brake specific fuel consumption vs. speed and brake mean effective pressure are computed first. CAE vehicle simulations are finally performed evaluating the fuel consumption over emission cycles of a vehicle equipped with this engine. (author)

  14. Tribological Performance Optimization of Electroless Ni-P-W Coating Using Weighted Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is an experimental approach to deposit electroless Ni-P-W coating on mild steel substrate and find out the optimum combination of various tribological performances on the basis of minimum friction and wear, using weighted principal component analysis (WPCA. In this study three main tribological parameters are chosen viz. load (A, speed (B and time(C. The responses are coefficient of friction and wear depth. Here Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA method is adopted to convert the multi-responses into single performance index called multiple performance index (MPI and Taguchi L27 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and to find the optimum combination of tribological parameters for minimum coefficient of friction and wear depth. ANOVA is performed to find the significance of the each tribological process parameters and their interactions. The EDX analysis, SEM and XRD are performed to study the composition and structural aspects.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance association is mediated by weight status in adolescents: DADOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Valls, María Reyes; Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-04-28

    The aim of our study was to examine the mediation effect of weight status on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and academic performance (AP). Two hundred sixty-nine adolescents (140 boys) aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years old from the DADOS study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test and estimated maximum oxygen uptake was used in the analysis. AP was assessed through the final academic grades and the Science Research Associates Test of Educational Abilities for assessing reasoning, verbal, and numeric abilities. Weight status was assessed by body mass index (kg/m 2 ). Boot-strapped mediation procedures were performed and indirect effects (IE) with confidence intervals (CI) not including zero were considered statistically significant. Mediation analysis revealed that weight status acted as a mediator of the relationship of CRF with reasoning ability (IE = 0.039; CI = 0.001; 0.091) and the final grades in Math (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.002; 0.025), Language (IE = 0.013; CI = 0.004; 0.027), and GPA (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.003; 0.023). Our data show that the influence of CRF on academic performance is mediated by weight status in adolescents. We suggest that our data could be considered by educators, families, and policy makers, so that active lifestyles might be promoted when designing programs aimed to improve AP among adolescents. What is Known: • Academic performance is associated with both, cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status. • The role of weight status in the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance is poorly understood. What is New: • We support the scarce research investigating the mediating role of weight status as mechanism in the association between fitness and academic performance in youth. • Previous knowledge is expanded by suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness is related to weight status which in turn may

  16. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  17. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  18. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  19. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  20. Chain-loaded variable resistance warm-up improves free-weight maximal back squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Giakas, Giannis; Seitz, Laurent B; Kay, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p  .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.

  1. Determination of low molecular weight thiols using monobromobimane fluorescent labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of monobromobimane derivatives of low molecular weight thiols in extracts of biological samples. Typical problems encountered in the development and application of these methods are discussed. Analysis of mung bean extract is used as an example.

  2. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Indresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine amino transferase (ALT and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05 decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 313-317

  3. Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun; Marple, Dan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) driven in cold weather experience two major drawbacks of Li-ion batteries: drastic power loss (up to 10-fold at -30 °C) and restriction of regenerative braking at temperatures below 5-10 °C. Both factors greatly reduce cruise range, exacerbating drivers' range anxiety in winter. While preheating the battery before driving is a practice widely adopted to maintain battery power and EV drivability, it is time-consuming (on the order of 40 min) and prohibits instantaneous mobility. Here we reveal a control strategy that can rapidly restore EV battery power and permit full regeneration while driving at temperatures as low as -40 °C. The strategy involves heating the battery internally during regenerative braking and rest periods of driving. We show that this technique fully restores room-temperature battery power and regeneration in 13, 33, 46, 56 and 112 s into uninterrupted driving in 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 °C environments, respectively. Correspondingly, the strategy significantly increases cruise range of a vehicle operated at cold temperatures, e.g. 49% at -40 °C in simulated US06 driving cycle tests. The present work suggests that smart batteries with embedded sensing/actuation can leapfrog in performance.

  4. A Performance Improvement Method for Low-Cost Land Vehicle GPS/MEMS-INS Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global positioning system (GPS technology is well suited for attitude determination. However, in land vehicle application, low-cost single frequency GPS receivers which have low measurement quality are often used, and external factors such as multipath and low satellite visibility in the densely built-up urban environment further degrade the quality of the GPS measurements. Due to the low-quality receivers used and the challenging urban environment, the success rate of the single epoch ambiguity resolution for dynamic attitude determination is usually quite low. In this paper, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS—inertial navigation system (INS-aided ambiguity resolution method is proposed to improve the GPS attitude determination performance, which is particularly suitable for land vehicle attitude determination. First, the INS calculated baseline vector is augmented with the GPS carrier phase and code measurements. This improves the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP, resulting in better quality of the unconstrained float solution. Second, the undesirable float solutions caused by large measurement errors are further filtered and replaced using the INS-aided ambiguity function method (AFM. The fixed solutions are then obtained by the constrained least squares ambiguity decorrelation (CLAMBDA algorithm. Finally, the GPS/MEMS-INS integration is realized by the use of a Kalman filter. Theoretical analysis of the ADOP is given and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the float ambiguity solution, leading to high success rate and better accuracy of attitude determination.

  5. Design optimization of electric vehicle battery cooling plates for thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Anthony; Kim, Il Yong

    The performance of high-energy battery cells utilized in electric vehicles (EVs) is greatly improved by adequate temperature control. An efficient thermal management system is also desirable to avoid diverting excessive power from the primary vehicle functions. In a battery cell stack, cooling can be provided by including cooling plates: thin metal fabrications which include one or more internal channels through which a coolant is pumped. Heat is conducted from the battery cells into the cooling plate, and transported away by the coolant. The operating characteristics of the cooling plate are determined in part by the geometry of the channel; its route, width, length, etc. In this study, a serpentine-channel cooling plate is modeled parametrically and its characteristics assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Objective functions of pressure drop, average temperature, and temperature uniformity are defined and numerical optimization is carried out by allowing the channel width and position to vary. The optimization results indicate that a single design can satisfy both pressure and average temperature objectives, but at the expense of temperature uniformity.

  6. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  7. A Performance Improvement Method for Low-Cost Land Vehicle GPS/MEMS-INS Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Li, Ercui; Qin, Honglei; Ling, Keck Voon; Xue, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology is well suited for attitude determination. However, in land vehicle application, low-cost single frequency GPS receivers which have low measurement quality are often used, and external factors such as multipath and low satellite visibility in the densely built-up urban environment further degrade the quality of the GPS measurements. Due to the low-quality receivers used and the challenging urban environment, the success rate of the single epoch ambiguity resolution for dynamic attitude determination is usually quite low. In this paper, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)—inertial navigation system (INS)-aided ambiguity resolution method is proposed to improve the GPS attitude determination performance, which is particularly suitable for land vehicle attitude determination. First, the INS calculated baseline vector is augmented with the GPS carrier phase and code measurements. This improves the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP), resulting in better quality of the unconstrained float solution. Second, the undesirable float solutions caused by large measurement errors are further filtered and replaced using the INS-aided ambiguity function method (AFM). The fixed solutions are then obtained by the constrained least squares ambiguity decorrelation (CLAMBDA) algorithm. Finally, the GPS/MEMS-INS integration is realized by the use of a Kalman filter. Theoretical analysis of the ADOP is given and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the float ambiguity solution, leading to high success rate and better accuracy of attitude determination. PMID:25760057

  8. Neuropsychological performance in solvent-exposed vehicle collision repair workers in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Keer

    Full Text Available To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers.The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study.Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1.5, 95% CI -2.4, -0.5; digit span total: -1.7, CI -3.3, -0.0; coding: -6.1, CI -9.9, -2.8; total attention scale: -9.3, CI -15.9, -2.8 and the RBANS total scale (-5.1, CI -9.1, -1.2. Additional tests also showed deficits in visual attention and reaction time (Trails B: -11.5, CI -22.4, -0.5 and motor speed/dexterity (coin rotation dominant hand & non-dominant: -2.9, CI -5.3, -0.4 and -3.1, CI -5.6, -0.7 respectively. The strongest associations were observed in panel beaters. Applying dichotomised RBANS outcomes based on the lowest percentile scores of a normative comparison group showed strongly increased risks for attention (5th percentile: OR 20.1, 95% CI 1.5, 263.3; 10th percentile: 8.8, CI 1.7, 46.2; and 20th percentile: 5.1, CI 1.5, 17.6, respectively. Those employed in the industry for ≤ 17 years (the median work duration generally had lower scores in the attention domain scale and RBANS total scale compared to those employed >17 years suggesting a healthy worker survivor bias, but trends were inconsistent for other domains.This study has found significant deficits in cognitive performance in collision repair workers despite low current airborne exposures in New Zealand.

  9. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  10. Construction and performance analysis of variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for asynchronous OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Yang, Meng-jie; Zhang, Xiu-rong; Chen, Mei-juan; He, Dong-dong; Fan, Qing-bin

    2014-07-01

    A construction scheme of variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (VW-OOCs) for asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed. According to the actual situation, the code family can be obtained by programming in Matlab with the given code weight and corresponding capacity. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived by taking account of the effects of shot noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) bulk, thermal noise and surface leakage currents. The OCDMA system with the VW-OOCs is designed and improved. The study shows that the VW-OOCs have excellent performance of BER. Despite of coming from the same code family or not, the codes with larger weight have lower BER compared with the other codes in the same conditions. By taking simulation, the conclusion is consistent with the analysis of BER in theory. And the ideal eye diagrams are obtained by the optical hard limiter.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Speech Recognition Systems as a Next-Generation Pilot-Vehicle Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    During the flight trials known as Gulfstream-V Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation (GV-SITE), a Speech Recognition System (SRS) was used by the evaluation pilots. The SRS system was intended to be an intuitive interface for display control (rather than knobs, buttons, etc.). This paper describes the performance of the current "state of the art" Speech Recognition System (SRS). The commercially available technology was evaluated as an application for possible inclusion in commercial aircraft flight decks as a crew-to-vehicle interface. Specifically, the technology is to be used as an interface from aircrew to the onboard displays, controls, and flight management tasks. A flight test of a SRS as well as a laboratory test was conducted.

  12. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  13. Vehicle Detection with Occlusion Handling, Tracking, and OC-SVM Classification: A High Performance Vision-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Pupo, Roxana; Sierra-Romero, Alberto; Torres-Roman, Deni; Shkvarko, Yuriy V.; Romero-Delgado, Misael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a high performance vision-based system with a single static camera for traffic surveillance, for moving vehicle detection with occlusion handling, tracking, counting, and One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM) classification. In this approach, moving objects are first segmented from the background using the adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). After that, several geometric features are extracted, such as vehicle area, height, width, centroid, and bounding box. As occlusion is present, an algorithm was implemented to reduce it. The tracking is performed with adaptive Kalman filter. Finally, the selected geometric features: estimated area, height, and width are used by different classifiers in order to sort vehicles into three classes: small, midsize, and large. Extensive experimental results in eight real traffic videos with more than 4000 ground truth vehicles have shown that the improved system can run in real time under an occlusion index of 0.312 and classify vehicles with a global detection rate or recall, precision, and F-measure of up to 98.190%, and an F-measure of up to 99.051% for midsize vehicles. PMID:29382078

  14. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  15. Operational Modal Analysis and the Performance Assessment of Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort, road holding and safety of passenger cars are mainly influenced by an appropriate design of suspension systems. Improvements of the dynamic behaviour can be achieved by implementing semi-active or active suspension systems. In these cases, the correct design of a well-performing suspension control strategy is of fundamental importance to obtain satisfying results. Operational Modal Analysis allows the experimental structural identification in those that are the real operating conditions: Moving from output-only data, leading to modal models linearised around the more interesting working points and, in the case of controlled systems, providing the needed information for the optimal design and verification of the controller performance. All these characters are needed for the experimental assessment of vehicle suspension systems. In the paper two suspension architectures are considered equipping the same car type. The former is a semi-active commercial system, the latter a novel prototypic active system. For the assessment of suspension performance, two different kinds of tests have been considered, proving ground tests on different road profiles and laboratory four poster rig tests. By OMA-processing the signals acquired in the different testing conditions and by comparing the results, it is shown how this tool can be effectively utilised to verify the operation and the performance of those systems, by only carrying out a simple, cost-effective road test.

  16. Identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalilazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research is identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations. According to widespread permeation of technology, especially social media in different organizational dimensions and functional view to this phenomenon in knowledge management, performance measurement of this kind of media in order to meet organizational goals seems necessary. KM2.0 key performance indicators in this article has been identified and weighted through Delphi methodology, via questionnaire in three rounds. KM2.0 KPIs which are identified and weighted in this article are applicable in organizations that are eager to implement KM2.0 initiative and they can measure the performance of KM2.0 activities therefore this research is applicable in goal oriented approach. According to the results, KM2.0 participation process consists of 3 stages and 8 steps as mentioned below: First stage which is presence, consists of 3 steps which are registration, visit and download. Second stage which is feedback consists of 3 steps which are conversation, applause and amplification. Finally, third stage which is creation consists of 2 steps which are codification and personalization. Ultimate contribution of this research is identifying and weighting KPIs of KM2.0 in conceptual framework of KM2.0. Based on developing a conceptual framework and participation process in KM2.0 and listing related KPIs as an applicable solution in order to measure and improve the performance of organizational social media, this research has unique innovation among related and other articles.

  17. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  18. Environmental performance of advanced hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfélix, Javier; Messagie, Maarten; Omar, Noshin; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Hennige, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impact of advanced energy storage systems is assessed. • The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment following the ISO 14040 and 14044. • Twelve impact categories are assessed to avoid burden shifting. • Increasing the efficiency and extending the lifetime benefits the environmental performance. • The results show that there are hot spots where to act and reduce the overall impact. - Abstract: In this paper the environmental performance of an advanced hybrid energy storage system, comprising high power and high energy lithium iron phosphate cells, is compared with a stand alone battery concept composed of lithium manganese oxide cells. The methodology used to analyse the environmental impacts is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The manufacturing, use phase and end-of-life of the battery packs are assessed for twelve impact categories. The functional unit is 1 km driven under European average conditions. The present study assesses the environmental performance of the two battery packs for two scenarios: scenario 1 with a vehicle total drive range of 150,000 km and scenario 2 with total driving range of the car of 300,000 km. The results of scenario 1 show that the increased efficiency of the hybrid system reduces, in general, the environmental impact during the use stage, although the manufacturing stage has higher impact than the benchmark. Scenario 2 shows how the extended lifetime of the hybrid system benefits the emissions per km driven

  19. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  20. Green Suppliers Performance Evaluation in Belt and Road Using Fuzzy Weighted Average with Social Media Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ping Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision model for selecting a suitable supplier is a key to reducing the environmental impact in green supply chain management for high-tech companies. Traditional fuzzy weight average (FWA adopts linguistic variable to determine weight by experts. However, the weights of FWA have not considered the public voice, meaning the viewpoints of consumers in green supply chain management. This paper focuses on developing a novel decision model for green supplier selection in the One Belt and One Road (OBOR initiative through a fuzzy weighted average approach with social media. The proposed decision model uses the membership grade of the criteria and sub-criteria and its relative weights, which consider the volume of social media, to establish an analysis matrix of green supplier selection. Then, the proposed fuzzy weighted average approach is considered as an aggregating tool to calculate a synthetic score for each green supplier in the Belt and Road initiative. The final score of the green supplier is ordered by a non-fuzzy performance value ranking method to help the consumer make a decision. A case of green supplier selection in the light-emitting diode (LED industry is used to demonstrate the proposed decision model. The findings demonstrate (1 the consumer’s main concerns are the “Quality” and “Green products” in LED industry, hence, the ranking of suitable supplier in FWA with social media information model obtained the difference result with tradition FWA; (2 OBOR in the LED industry is not fervently discussed in searches of Google and Twitter; and (3 the FWA with social media information could objectively analyze the green supplier selection because the novel model considers the viewpoints of the consumer.

  1. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis, the VIPA Experience: Reconnecting with Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Today's NASA is facing significant challenges and changes. The Exploration initiative indicates a large increase in projects with limited increase in budget. The Columbia report has criticized NASA for its lack of insight and technical integration impacting its ability to provide safety. The Aldridge report is advocating NASA find new ways of doing business. Very early in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program a small team of engineers at MSFC were asked to propose a process for performing a system level assessment of a launch vehicle. The request was aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a "smart buyer." Out of this effort the VIPA team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and many integration attempts is that VIPA focuses on using experienced people from various disciplines and a process which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. Most previous attempts have focused on developing an all encompassing software tool. In addition, VIPA anchored its process formulation in the experience of its members and in early developmental Space Shuttle experience. The primary reference for this is NASA-TP-2001-210092, "Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned," and discussions with its authors. The foundations of VIPA's process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to drive detailed analysis earlier in the design process. Analyses and techniques typically done in later design phases, are brought forward using improved computing technology. The intent is to allow the identification of significant sensitivities, trades, and design issues much earlier in the program. This process is driven by the T-model for Technical Integration described in the aforementioned reference. VIPA's approach to performing system level technical integration is discussed in detail. Proposed definitions are offered to clarify this discussion and the general systems integration dialog. VIPA

  3. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  4. Performance analysis of the electric vehicle air conditioner by replacing hydrocarbon refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal comfort in passenger cabins needs an automotive air-conditioning system. The electric vehicle air conditioner system is driven by an electric compressor which includes a compressor and an electric motor. Almost air-conditioning system uses CFC-12, CFC-22 and HFC-134a as refrigerant. However, CFC-12 and CFC-22 will damage the ozone layer. The extreme huge global warming potentials (GWP) values of CFC-12, CFC-22, and HFC-134a represent the serious greenhouse effect of Earth. This article shows new experimental measurements and analysis by using a mixture of HC-134 to replace HFC-134a. The result is a refrigerating effect, the coefficient of performance and energy factor increase along with cooling capacity, both for HFC-134a and HC-134. The refrigerating effect of HC-134 is almost twice higher than HFC-134a. The coefficient of performance value of HC-134 is also 36.42% greater than HFC-134a. Then, the energy factor value of HC-134 is 3.78% greater than HFC-134a.

  5. Performance Characteristics of PTC Elements for an Electric Vehicle Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC heater has a simple structure and a swift response. Therefore, for cabin heating in electric vehicles (EVs, such heaters are used either on their own or with a heat pump system. In this study, the sintering process in the manufacturing of PTC elements for an EV heating system was improved to enhance surface uniformity. The electrode production process entailing thin-film sputtering deposition was applied to ensure the high heating performance of PTC elements and reduce the electrode thickness. The allowable voltage and surface heat temperature of the high-voltage PTC elements with thin-film electrodes were 800 V and 172 °C, respectively. The electrode layer thickness was uniform at approximately 3.8 μm or less, approximately 69% less electrode materials were required compared to that before process improvement. Furthermore, a heater for the EV heating system was manufactured using the developed high-voltage PTC elements to verify performance and reliability.

  6. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO 2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO 2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies

  7. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  8. Assessment of modern smartphone sensors performance on vehicle localization in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Theodoros; Danezis, Chris

    2017-09-01

    The advent of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) initiated a revolution in Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) applications. Besides the enormous impact on geospatial data acquisition and reality capture, satellite navigation has penetrated everyday life, a fact which is proved by the increasing degree of human reliance on GNSS-enabled smart devices to perform casual activities. Nevertheless, GNSS does not perform well in all cases. Specifically, in GNSS-challenging environments, such as urban canyons or forested areas, navigation performance may be significantly degraded or even nullified. Consequently, positioning is achieved by combining GNSS with additional heterogeneous information or sensors, such as inertial sensors. To date, most smartphones are equipped with at least accelerometers and gyroscopes, besides GNSS chipsets. In the frame of this research, difficult localization scenarios were investigated to assess the performance of these low-cost inertial sensors with respect to higher grade GNSS and IMU systems. Four state-of-the-art smartphones were mounted on a specifically designed on-purpose build platform along with reference equipment. The platform was installed on top of a vehicle, which was driven by a predefined trajectory that included several GNSS-challenging parts. Consequently, positioning and inertial readings were acquired by smartphones and compared to the information collected by the reference equipment. The results indicated that although the smartphone GNSS receivers have increased sensitivity, they were unable to produce an acceptable solution for more than 30% of the driven course. However, all smartphones managed to identify, up to a satisfactory degree, distinct driving features, such as curves or bumps.

  9. Effect of prematurity and low birth weight in visual abilities and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Roche, T; Altemir, I; Giménez, G; Prieto, E; González, I; Peña-Segura, J L; Castillo, O; Pueyo, V

    2016-12-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight are known risk factors for cognitive and developmental impairments, and school failure. Visual perceptual and visual motor skills seem to be among the most affected cognitive domains in these children. To assess the influence of prematurity and low birth weight in visual cognitive skills and school performance. We performed a prospective cohort study, which included 80 boys and girls in an age range from 5 to 13. Subjects were grouped by gestational age at birth (preterm, birth weight (small for gestational age (SGA), school performance in children. Figure-ground skill and visual motor integration were significantly decreased in the preterm birth group, compared with term control subjects (figure-ground: 45.7 vs 66.5, p=0.012; visual motor integration, TVAS: (9.9 vs 11.8, p=0.018), while outcomes of visual memory (29.0 vs 47.7, p=0.012), form constancy (33.3 vs 52.8, p=0.019), figure-ground (37.4 vs 65.6, p=0.001), and visual closure (43.7 vs 62.6 p=0.016) testing were lower in the SGA (vs AGA) group. Visual cognitive difficulties corresponded with worse performance in mathematics (r=0.414, p=0.004) and reading (r=0.343, p=0.018). Specific patterns of visual perceptual and visual motor deficits are displayed by children born preterm or SGA, which hinder mathematics and reading performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of sonic boom overpressure trends with respect to weight, altitude, Mach number, and vehicle shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Kathy E.; Mack, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses trends in nose shock overpressure generated by two conceptual Mach 2.0 configurations. One configuration was designed for high aerodynamic efficiency, while the other was designed to produce a low boom, shaped-overpressure signature. Aerodynamic lift, sonic boom minimization, and Mach-sliced/area-rule codes were used to analyze and compute the sonic boom characteristics of both configurations with respect to cruise Mach number, weight, and altitude. The influence of these parameters on the overpressure and the overpressure trends are discussed and conclusions are given.

  11. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  12. On the Performance of Linear Decreasing Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization for Global Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasomwan, Martins Akugbe; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2013-01-01

    Linear decreasing inertia weight (LDIW) strategy was introduced to improve on the performance of the original particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, linear decreasing inertia weight PSO (LDIW-PSO) algorithm is known to have the shortcoming of premature convergence in solving complex (multipeak) optimization problems due to lack of enough momentum for particles to do exploitation as the algorithm approaches its terminal point. Researchers have tried to address this shortcoming by modifying LDIW-PSO or proposing new PSO variants. Some of these variants have been claimed to outperform LDIW-PSO. The major goal of this paper is to experimentally establish the fact that LDIW-PSO is very much efficient if its parameters are properly set. First, an experiment was conducted to acquire a percentage value of the search space limits to compute the particle velocity limits in LDIW-PSO based on commonly used benchmark global optimization problems. Second, using the experimentally obtained values, five well-known benchmark optimization problems were used to show the outstanding performance of LDIW-PSO over some of its competitors which have in the past claimed superiority over it. Two other recent PSO variants with different inertia weight strategies were also compared with LDIW-PSO with the latter outperforming both in the simulation experiments conducted. PMID:24324383

  13. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  14. The effects of motor vehicle accidents on careers and the work performance of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Diedericks

    2014-04-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to research on the effects of the injuries by investigating the relationship between the severity of the injuries and the careers and growth potential of victims. Motivation for the study: Employers could use the information on the effects of the injuries on the careers of victims to plan interventions and job accommodations to retain employees and to manage their well-being and performance. Research design, approach and method: The author conducted a quantitative survey on a purposive sample (N = 199 of adult victims of motor vehicle accidents in 2010 in South Africa. She used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse the data. Main findings: The author observed a number of significant relationships between the effects of the different injuries on the careers and growth potential of victims. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations and managers need to recognise the physical and psychological effects of injuries victims sustain in motor accidents and the associated responsibility of organisations to accommodate these employees. Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study can add to the literature and provide insights into the consequences of the injuries. They also provide information that can assist organisations to create an awareness of job accommodation and employee wellness of accident victims.

  15. A Computational Study of the Effect of Winglets on the Performance of Micro-Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönttinen, Jarmo T.; Reed, Helen L.; Squires, Kyle D.; Saric, William S.

    2003-11-01

    Since mid-1990's an increased interest in developing Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) has been expressed by military and civilian entities. An MAV is required to have a nominal maximum dimension of 6 inches and to fly at 5 to 20 m/s, which leads to chord Reynolds numbers of 50,000 to 200,000. Despite a wide variety of research projects in universities, companies, and government agencies, the MAV-design problem remains unsolved to a satisfactory manner. The current study uses the Finite Volume solver Cobalt to computationally investigate the effect of winglets on the performance of MAVs. Historically the effectiveness of winglets is addressed in terms of drag reduction. For MAVs, the increase in lift obtained through the addition of winglets is more important as this increase is required to enable low-speed flight. The current results show that winglets can lead to an increase in lift that is sufficiently large to improve the lift-to-drag-ratio as well despite the increased form drag that is typically larger than the decrease in the induced drag.

  16. South African performance based standards (PBS) vehicle to transport steel pipes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dessein, T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available measures the vehicle?s rollover stability. Rearward Amplification (RA) ? Measures the degree to which the lateral accelerations experienced by trailing units are amplified in comparison to that of the towing unit in a high speed evasive single lane...-speed 90? turn high-speed travel along a 1.0km long straight road with uneven road surface a pulse-steer test HVTT11: A South African PBS Vehicle to Transport Pipes 10 a constant radius turn at slowly increasing speed an evasive lane change...

  17. Adolescent Weight Status and Self-Reported School Performance in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Do

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old and high school (16–18 years old students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1 overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2 overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3 the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  18. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  19. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  20. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  1. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  2. Applying a new unequally weighted feature fusion method to improve CAD performance of classifying breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari Khuzani, Abolfazl; Danala, Gopichandh; Heidari, Morteza; Du, Yue; Mashhadi, Najmeh; Qiu, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Higher recall rates are a major challenge in mammography screening. Thus, developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast lesions can play an important role to improve efficacy of mammography screening. Objective of this study is to develop and test a unique image feature fusion framework to improve performance in classifying suspicious mass-like breast lesions depicting on mammograms. The image dataset consists of 302 suspicious masses detected on both craniocaudal and mediolateral-oblique view images. Amongst them, 151 were malignant and 151 were benign. The study consists of following 3 image processing and feature analysis steps. First, an adaptive region growing segmentation algorithm was used to automatically segment mass regions. Second, a set of 70 image features related to spatial and frequency characteristics of mass regions were initially computed. Third, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based machine learning classifier combined with a bat optimization algorithm was used to optimally fuse the selected image features based on predefined assessment performance index. An area under ROC curve (AUC) with was used as a performance assessment index. Applying CAD scheme to the testing dataset, AUC was 0.75+/-0.04, which was significantly higher than using a single best feature (AUC=0.69+/-0.05) or the classifier with equally weighted features (AUC=0.73+/-0.05). This study demonstrated that comparing to the conventional equal-weighted approach, using an unequal-weighted feature fusion approach had potential to significantly improve accuracy in classifying between malignant and benign breast masses.

  3. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  4. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  5. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  6. Financial indicators to evaluate the economic performance of feedlot steers with different slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edom de Avila Fabricio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate various financial indicators, estimated deterministically (considering historical quotes twelve consecutive years - 2003 to 2014, on the economic feasibility of finishing steers commercialized with different weights, using the simulation technique. Performance data steers were simulated with average initial weight of 350kg, fed in feedlot and slaughtered with 410, 440, 470, 500, 530, 560 and 590kg. The feeding period varies from 46 to 185 days, respectively. Based in various economic indicators, the viability of the investment decreased linearly according to the increase in slaughter weight. The coefficient of simple linear regression and means from lowest to highest slaughter weight were, respectively: net present value (-0.538 and R$ 67.37, R$ 65.28, R$ 32.14, R$ -7.34, R$ 8.01, R$ -12.38, R$ -23.41; index benefit: cost (-0.0003 and R$ 1.042, R$ 1.039, R$ 1.014, R$ 1.006, R$ 1.003, R$ 0.995, R$ 0.991; additional return on investment (-0.009 and 1.38, 1.29, 0.35, 0.11, 0.05, -0.08, -0.13% per month; internal rate of return (-0.009 and 2.21, 2.10, 1.28, 0.80, 0.93, 0.78, 0.73% per month. Feedlot use as termination option to obtain the direct benefits of this technology is an alternative investment with low economic return.

  7. Ultra-light-weight high torque density brushless PM machine design: considering driving-cycle of a four-wheel drive race car (EVER15-138)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Beernaert, T.F.; Velden, van der H.H.F.; Parfant, A.G.P.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the design of an ultra-light-weight power and torque dense motor to enhance the performance of a light-weight electric racing vehicle. Such a racing vehicle is to compete in formula student racing events. The state-of-the-art powertrain in these vehicles are axial-field machines

  8. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  10. Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, M; Colella, D; Robazza, C; Bortoli, L; Capranica, L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical self-perception, body image and motor performance in Italian middle school students. Two hundred and sixty children were categorized into normal-weight (n=103), overweight (n=86) or obese (n=71) groups. Perceived coordination, body fat and sports competence were assessed using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, while body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings. Individuals' perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Tests involving the standing long jump, 2 kg medicine-ball throw, 10 × 5 m shuttle-run and 20 and 30 m sprints were also administered. Girls, when compared with boys, and overweight and obese participants, when compared with normal-weight peers, reported lower perceived and actual physical competence, higher perceived body fat and greater body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction mediated all the associations between body mass index (BMI) and the different aspects of physical self-perception in boys, but not in girls. The same pattern of results was found for physical self-perception as a mediator of the relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction. In conclusion, obesity proved to have adverse effects on both motor performance and physical self-perception. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Modeling of electronic power steering system for IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on its performance via CARSIM software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Esmail; Zamani, Mohammad; Sharbati, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The point of this article is introducing the usage of electronic power steering (ESP) system in IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on it's benefit's. Also the operation of electronic steering system and it's performance in IKCO SAMAND vehicle have been described. The optimization of IC engine efficiency and it's fuel consumption have been simulated via ADVISOR software used in MATLAB software. Usually, mechanical steering systems and hydraulic steering systems are producing inside IRAN that the mechanical types have not accepted because of it's too many disadvantages. The hydraulic steering systems, that have been replaced with mechanical types, indeed have the same features with mechanical types but with a difference which they have a hydraulic booster to facilitate the rotation of steering wheel. Beside advantages in hydraulic systems, they are some disadvantages in this system that one of the most important of them is reducing the output power of engine. To restore this power dissipated, we use ESP systems. In this article output diagrams given by software, are showing that IKCO SAMAND vehicle which equipped with ESP system, exerts less torque and power on steering wheel. This improves the safety of driver and also performance of the vehicle at high speeds and reduces fuel consumption beside increasing the efficiency of IC engine.

  12. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  14. High performance cone-beam spiral backprojection with voxel-specific weighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmann, Sven; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam spiral backprojection is computationally highly demanding. At first sight, the backprojection requirements are similar to those of cone-beam backprojection from circular scans such as it is performed in the widely used Feldkamp algorithm. However, there is an additional complication: the illumination of each voxel, i.e. the range of angles the voxel is seen by the x-ray cone, is a complex function of the voxel position. In general, one needs to multiply a voxel-specific weight w(x, y, z, α) prior to adding a projection from angle α to a voxel at position x, y, z. Often, the weight function has no analytically closed form and must be numerically determined. Storage of the weights is prohibitive since the amount of memory required equals the number of voxels per spiral rotation times the number of projections a voxel receives contributions and therefore is in the order of up to 10 12 floating point values for typical spiral scans. We propose a new algorithm that combines the spiral symmetry with the ability of today's 64 bit operating systems to store large amounts of precomputed weights, even above the 4 GB limit. Our trick is to backproject into slices that are rotated in the same manner as the spiral trajectory rotates. Using the spiral symmetry in this way allows one to exploit data-level paralellism and thereby to achieve a very high level of vectorization. An additional postprocessing step rotates these slices back to normal images. Our new backprojection algorithm achieves up to 17 giga voxel updates per second on our systems that are equipped with four standard Intel X7460 hexa core CPUs (Intel Xeon 7300 platform, 2.66 GHz, Intel Corporation). This equals the reconstruction of 344 images per second assuming that each slice consists of 512 x 512 pixels and receives contributions from 512 projections. Thereby, it is an order of magnitude faster than a highly optimized code that does not make use of the spiral symmetry. In its present version, the

  15. High performance cone-beam spiral backprojection with voxel-specific weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckmann, Sven; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Cone-beam spiral backprojection is computationally highly demanding. At first sight, the backprojection requirements are similar to those of cone-beam backprojection from circular scans such as it is performed in the widely used Feldkamp algorithm. However, there is an additional complication: the illumination of each voxel, i.e. the range of angles the voxel is seen by the x-ray cone, is a complex function of the voxel position. In general, one needs to multiply a voxel-specific weight w(x, y, z, α) prior to adding a projection from angle α to a voxel at position x, y, z. Often, the weight function has no analytically closed form and must be numerically determined. Storage of the weights is prohibitive since the amount of memory required equals the number of voxels per spiral rotation times the number of projections a voxel receives contributions and therefore is in the order of up to 1012 floating point values for typical spiral scans. We propose a new algorithm that combines the spiral symmetry with the ability of today's 64 bit operating systems to store large amounts of precomputed weights, even above the 4 GB limit. Our trick is to backproject into slices that are rotated in the same manner as the spiral trajectory rotates. Using the spiral symmetry in this way allows one to exploit data-level paralellism and thereby to achieve a very high level of vectorization. An additional postprocessing step rotates these slices back to normal images. Our new backprojection algorithm achieves up to 17 giga voxel updates per second on our systems that are equipped with four standard Intel X7460 hexa core CPUs (Intel Xeon 7300 platform, 2.66 GHz, Intel Corporation). This equals the reconstruction of 344 images per second assuming that each slice consists of 512 × 512 pixels and receives contributions from 512 projections. Thereby, it is an order of magnitude faster than a highly optimized code that does not make use of the spiral symmetry. In its present version, the

  16. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) is advantageous because of zero emission, but their market penetration is limited by one disadvantage, i.e., energy storage. Battery EVs (BEVs) have a limited range, and their batteries take a long time to charge, compared with the time it takes to refuel the tank...... of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...... in start/stop city cycles. Simulations with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) showed that efficiency fell by at least 15% for the FC hybrid EV (FCHEV) when compared with BEVs....

  17. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF REFRIGERATED VEHICLES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PERISHABLE FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio G.N. Novaes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of refrigerated products along the distribution process must be kept within close limits to ensure optimum food safety levels and high product quality. The variation of product temperature along the vehicle routing sequence is represented by non-linear functions. The temperature variability is also correlated with the time required for the refrigerated unit to recover after cargo unloading, due to the cargo discharging process. The vehicle routing optimization methods employed in traditional cargo distribution problems are generally based on the Travelling Salesman Problem with the objective of minimizing travelled distance or time. The thermal quality of routing alternatives is evaluated in this analysis with Process Capability Indices (PCI. Since temperature does not vary linearly with time, a Simulated Annealing algorithm was developed to get the optimal solution in which the minimum vehicle traveling distance is searched, but respecting the quality level expressed by a required minimum PCI value.

  18. Vehicle technologies program Government Performance and Results Act (GPA) report for fiscal year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Stephens, T. S.; Birky, A. K. (Energy Systems); (DOE-EERE); (TA Engineering)

    2012-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has defined milestones for its Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP). This report provides estimates of the benefits that would accrue from achieving these milestones relative to a base case that represents a future in which there is no VTP-supported vehicle technology development. Improvements in the fuel economy and reductions in the cost of light- and heavy-duty vehicles were estimated by using Argonne National Laboratory's Autonomie powertrain simulation software and doing some additional analysis. Argonne also estimated the fraction of the fuel economy improvements that were attributable to VTP-supported development in four 'subsystem' technology areas: batteries and electric drives, advanced combustion engines, fuels and lubricants, and materials (i.e., reducing vehicle mass, called 'lightweighting'). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MA{sup 3}T (Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies) tool was used to project the market penetration of light-duty vehicles, and TA Engineering's TRUCK tool was used to project the penetrations of medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Argonne's VISION transportation energy accounting model was used to estimate total fuel savings, reductions in primary energy consumption, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that would result from achieving VTP milestones. These projections indicate that by 2030, the on-road fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles would improve by more than 20%, and that this positive impact would be accompanied by a reduction in oil consumption of nearly 2 million barrels per day and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of more than 300 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. These benefits would have a significant economic value in the U.S. transportation sector and reduce its dependency on oil and its vulnerability to oil price shocks.

  19. Influence of variable resistance loading on subsequent free weight maximal back squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Giakas, Giannis; Kay, Anthony D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potentiating effects of variable resistance (VR) exercise during a warm-up on subsequent free-weight resistance (FWR) maximal squat performance. In the first session, 16 recreationally active men (age = 26.0 ± 7.8 years; height = 1.7 ± 0.2 m; mass = 82.6 ± 12.7 kg) were familiarized with the experimental protocols and tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat lift. The subjects then visited the laboratory on 2 further occasions under either control or experimental conditions. During these conditions, 2 sets of 3 repetitions of either FWR (control) or VR (experimental) squat lifts at 85% of 1RM were performed; during the experimental condition, 35% of the load was generated from band tension. After a 5-minute rest, 1RM, 3D knee joint kinematics, and vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus electromyogram (EMG) signals were recorded simultaneously. No subject increased 1RM after FWR, however, 13 of 16 (81%) subjects increased 1RM after VR (mean = 7.7%; p 0.05) or EMG amplitudes (mean = 5.9%; p > 0.05) occurred. Preconditioning using VR significantly increased 1RM without detectable changes in knee extensor muscle activity or knee flexion angle, although eccentric and concentric velocities were reduced. Thus, VR seems to potentiate the neuromuscular system to enhance subsequent maximal lifting performance. Athletes could thus use VR during warm-up routines to maximize squat performance.

  20. Performance modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles with on-board energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The concept of energy harvesting in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has received much attention in recent years. Solar powered flight of small aircraft dates back to the 1970s when the first fully solar flight of an unmanned aircraft took place. Currently, research has begun to investigate harvesting ambient vibration energy during the flight of UAVs. The authors have recently developed multifunctional piezoelectric self-charging structures in which piezoelectric devices are combined with thin-film lithium batteries and a substrate layer in order to simultaneously harvest energy, store energy, and carry structural load. When integrated into mass and volume critical applications, such as unmanned aircraft, multifunctional devices can provide great benefit over conventional harvesting systems. A critical aspect of integrating any energy harvesting system into a UAV, however, is the potential effect that the additional system has on the performance of the aircraft. Added mass and increased drag can significantly degrade the flight performance of an aircraft, therefore, it is important to ensure that the addition of an energy harvesting system does not adversely affect the efficiency of a host aircraft. In this work, a system level approach is taken to examine the effects of adding both solar and piezoelectric vibration harvesting to a UAV test platform. A formulation recently presented in the literature is applied to describe the changes to the flight endurance of a UAV based on the power available from added harvesters and the mass of the harvesters. Details of the derivation of the flight endurance model are reviewed and the formulation is applied to an EasyGlider remote control foam hobbyist airplane, which is selected as the test platform for this study. A theoretical study is performed in which the normalized change in flight endurance is calculated based on the addition of flexible thin-film solar panels to the upper surface of the wings, as well as the addition

  1. Change in weight status and academic performance among senior high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how the changes in weight status across the spectrum of a senior high school study are associated with academic performance measured by the university entrance exam scores. A unique dataset which compiles a national health examination profile and the General Scholastic Ability Test data bank in Taiwan was constructed. The final sample comprised 149,240 senior high school students of which 70,662 were males and 78,578 were female students. The school-level fixed effect models were estimated. Students who were either (a) not overweight in the first year but overweight in the third year of senior high school, (b) overweight in both the first and third year, or (c) overweight in the first year but not overweight in the third year, were more likely to score lower on the university entrance exam, compared with their never-overweight counterparts. The findings differ by gender and test subjects. The change in weight status during senior high school period is associated with subsequent university entrance exam outcome. Students who start senior high school being overweight should be paid attention. School-based programs and practices need to be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight among students.

  2. DSRC versus 4G-LTE for Connected Vehicle Applications: A Study on Field Experiments of Vehicular Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC and 4G-LTE are two widely used candidate schemes for Connected Vehicle (CV applications. It is thus of great necessity to compare these two most viable communication standards and clarify which one can meet the requirements of most V2X scenarios with respect to road safety, traffic efficiency, and infotainment. To the best of our knowledge, almost all the existing studies on comparing the feasibility of DRSC or LTE in V2X applications use software-based simulations, which may not represent realistic constraints. In this paper, a Connected Vehicle test-bed is established, which integrates the DSRC roadside units, 4G-LTE cellular communication stations, and vehicular on-board terminals. Three Connected Vehicle application scenarios are set as Collision Avoidance, Traffic Text Message Broadcast, and Multimedia File Download, respectively. A software tool is developed to record GPS positions/velocities of the test vehicles and record certain wireless communication performance indicators. The experiments have been carried out under different conditions. According to our results, 4G-LTE is more preferred for the nonsafety applications, such as traffic information transmission, file download, or Internet accessing, which does not necessarily require the high-speed real-time communication, while for the safety applications, such as Collision Avoidance or electronic traffic sign, DSRC outperforms the 4G-LTE.

  3. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-05

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns.

  4. Map-Based Power-Split Strategy Design with Predictive Performance Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a map-based optimal energy management strategy is proposed to improve the consumption economy of a plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle. In the design of the maps, which provide both the torque split between engine and motor and the gear shift, not only the current vehicle speed and power demand, but also the optimality based on the predicted trajectory of vehicle dynamics are considered. To seek the optimality, the equivalent consumption, which trades off the fuel and electricity usages, is chosen as the cost function. Moreover, in order to decrease the model errors in the process of optimization conducted in the discrete time domain, the variational integrator is employed to calculate the evolution of the vehicle dynamics. To evaluate the proposed energy management strategy, the simulation results performed on a professional GT-Suit simulator are demonstrated and the comparison to a real-time optimization method is also given to show the advantage of the proposed off-line optimization approach.

  5. Reproductive performance and body weight changes in draught cows in a smallholder semi-arid farming area of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonyo, M; Kusina, N T; Hamudikuwanda, H; Nyoni, O

    2000-12-01

    The reproductive performance of 46 cows in a semi-arid, smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe was monitored for a year. Half the cows were used throughout the monitoring period for various draught purposes, including ploughing and procurement of farm produce for marketing using carts. All the cows lost body weight between July and October, after which the cows that were not worked gained weight until June of the following year. In contrast, the cows that were worked continued to lose body weight until January, throughout the time during which they were used to provide draught power, after which they gained weight. Body weights were significantly higher (p draught purposes caused loss of body weight and reduced ovarian activity and conception rates.

  6. Actuator and sensor selection for an active vehicle suspension aimed at robust performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van de M.M.J.; Philips, P.P.H.H.; Jager, de A.G.

    1998-01-01

    A recently presented method for actuator and sensor selection for linear control systems is applied and evaluated for an active vehicle suspension control problem. The aim is to eliminate the actuator/sensor combinations for which no controller exists that achieves a specified level of robust

  7. Visualizing weighted networks: a performance comparison of adjacency matrices versus node-link diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Osesina, O. Isaac; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    Ensuring the proper and effective ways to visualize network data is important for many areas of academia, applied sciences, the military, and the public. Fields such as social network analysis, genetics, biochemistry, intelligence, cybersecurity, neural network modeling, transit systems, communications, etc. often deal with large, complex network datasets that can be difficult to interact with, study, and use. There have been surprisingly few human factors performance studies on the relative effectiveness of different graph drawings or network diagram techniques to convey information to a viewer. This is particularly true for weighted networks which include the strength of connections between nodes, not just information about which nodes are linked to other nodes. We describe a human factors study in which participants performed four separate network analysis tasks (finding a direct link between given nodes, finding an interconnected node between given nodes, estimating link strengths, and estimating the most densely interconnected nodes) on two different network visualizations: an adjacency matrix with a heat-map versus a node-link diagram. The results should help shed light on effective methods of visualizing network data for some representative analysis tasks, with the ultimate goal of improving usability and performance for viewers of network data displays.

  8. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  9. Genetic relationships between carcass cut weights predicted from video image analysis and other performance traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Amer, P R; Cromie, A R; Näsholm, A; Berry, D P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic associations between a range of carcass-related traits including wholesale cut weights predicted from video image analysis (VIA) technology, and a range of pre-slaughter performance traits in commercial Irish cattle. Predicted carcass cut weights comprised of cut weights based on retail value: lower value cuts (LVC), medium value cuts (MVC), high value cuts (HVC) and very high value cuts (VHVC), as well as total meat, fat and bone weights. Four main sources of data were used in the genetic analyses: price data of live animals collected from livestock auctions, live-weight data and linear type collected from both commercial and pedigree farms as well as from livestock auctions and weanling quality recorded on-farm. Heritability of carcass cut weights ranged from 0.21 to 0.39. Genetic correlations between the cut traits and the other performance traits were estimated using a series of bivariate sire linear mixed models where carcass cut weights were phenotypically adjusted to a constant carcass weight. Strongest positive genetic correlations were obtained between predicted carcass cut weights and carcass value (min r g(MVC) = 0.35; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.69), and animal price at both weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.37; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.66) and post weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.50; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.67). Moderate genetic correlations were obtained between carcass cut weights and calf price (min r g(HVC) = 0.34; max r g(LVC) = 0.45), weanling quality (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.12; max r (g(VHVC)) = 0.49), linear scores for muscularity at both weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = -0.06; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.46), post weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = 0.23; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.44). The genetic correlations between total meat weight were consistent with those observed with the predicted wholesale cut weights. Total fat and total bone weights were generally negatively correlated with carcass value, auction

  10. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  11. Vehicle logo recognition using multi-level fusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wei; Xiao, Jianli

    2018-04-01

    Vehicle logo recognition plays an important role in manufacturer identification and vehicle recognition. This paper proposes a new vehicle logo recognition algorithm. It has a hierarchical framework, which consists of two fusion levels. At the first level, a feature fusion model is employed to map the original features to a higher dimension feature space. In this space, the vehicle logos become more recognizable. At the second level, a weighted voting strategy is proposed to promote the accuracy and the robustness of the recognition results. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, extensive experiments are performed, which demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high recognition accuracy and work robustly.

  12. Performance Assessment of Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP Product over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S. Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Error characterization is vital for the advancement of precipitation algorithms, the evaluation of numerical model outputs, and their integration in various hydro-meteorological applications. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA has been a benchmark for successive Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM based products. This has given way to the evolution of many multi-satellite precipitation products. This study evaluates the performance of the newly released multi-satellite Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP product, whose temporal variability was determined based on several data products including TMPA 3B42 RT. The evaluation was conducted over India with respect to the IMD-gauge-based rainfall for pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon seasons at daily scale for a 35-year (1979–2013 period. The rainfall climatology is examined over India and over four geographical extents within India known to be subject to uniform rainfall. The performance evaluation of rainfall time series was carried out. In addition to this, the performance of the product over different rainfall classes was evaluated along with the contribution of each class to the total rainfall. Further, seasonal evaluation of the MSWEP products was based on the categorical and volumetric indices from the contingency table. Upon evaluation it was observed that the MSWEP products show large errors in detecting the higher quantiles of rainfall (>75th and > 95th quantiles. The MSWEP precipitation product available at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution matched well with the daily IMD rainfall over India. Overall results suggest that a suitable region and season-dependent bias correction is essential before its integration in hydrological applications. While the MSWEP was observed to perform well for daily rainfall, it suffered from poor detection capabilities for higher quantiles, making

  13. Acute Effects of the Elevation Training Mask on Strength Performance in Recreational Weight lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Dominy, Trevor A; Camic, Clayton L; Wright, Glenn; Doberstein, Scott; Jones, Margaret T; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Jagim, AR, Dominy, TA, Camic, CL, Wright, G, Doberstein, S, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Acute effects of the elevation training mask on strength performance in recreational weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 482-489, 2018-The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) is a novel device that purportedly simulates altitude training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the ETM on resistance exercise performance, metabolic stress markers, and ratings of mental fatigue. Twenty male recreational weight lifters completed 2 training sessions of back squat and bench press (6 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of 5-repetition maximum and seventh set to failure) as well as a maximal effort sprint test (18% body mass) with the mask (ETM) and without the mask (NM). Training evaluation included baseline and postexercise blood lactate and oxygen saturation measures. Performance evaluation included peak and average velocity bar velocity, total volume load, total work, total repetitions completed, and sprint performance. Adverse side effects were reported in 12% (n = 3) of participants, which included feelings of light headedness, anxiety, and discomfort. No differences were found in repetitions or total workload in back squat (p = 0.07) or bench press (p = 0.08) between conditions. A lower peak velocity was identified during the back squat, bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition (p = 0.04). Blood lactate values were lower after bench press and sprint during the ETM condition (p bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition compared with the NM condition (p velocity during training bouts and negatively influence ratings of alertness and focus for task.

  14. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  15. Emission measurement of diesel vehicles in Hong Kong through on-road remote sensing: Performance review and identification of high-emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Organ, Bruce; Zhou, John L; Surawski, Nic C; Hong, Guang; Chan, Edward F C; Yam, Yat Shing

    2018-06-01

    A two-year remote sensing measurement program was carried out in Hong Kong to obtain a large dataset of on-road diesel vehicle emissions. Analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of vehicle manufacture year (1949-2015) and engine size (0.4-20 L) on the emission rates and high-emitters. The results showed that CO emission rates of larger engine size vehicles were higher than those of small vehicles during the study period, while HC and NO were higher before manufacture year 2006 and then became similar levels between manufacture years 2006 and 2015. CO, HC and NO of all vehicles showed an unexpectedly increasing trend during 1998-2004, in particular ≥6001 cc vehicles. However, they all decreased steadily in the last decade (2005-2015), except for NO of ≥6001 cc vehicles during 2013-2015. The distributions of CO and HC emission rates were highly skewed as the dirtiest 10% vehicles emitted much higher emissions than all the other vehicles. Moreover, this skewness became more significant for larger engine size or newer vehicles. The results indicated that remote sensing technology would be very effective to screen the CO and HC high-emitters and thus control the on-road vehicle emissions, but less effective for controlling NO emissions. No clear correlation was observed between the manufacture year and percentage of high-emitters for ≤3000 cc vehicles. However, the percentage of high-emitters decreased with newer manufacture year for larger vehicles. In addition, high-emitters of different pollutants were relatively independent, in particular NO emissions, indicating that high-emitter screening criteria should be defined on a CO-or-HC-or-NO basis, rather than a CO-and-HC-and-NO basis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  17. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  18. Performance enhancement of low-cost, high-accuracy, state estimation for vehicle collision prevention system using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, Kamal; Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.; Jaradat, Mohammad A.; Jarrah, Mohammad Amin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a low-cost navigation system that fuses the measurements of the inertial navigation system (INS) and the global positioning system (GPS) receiver is developed. First, the system's dynamics are obtained based on a vehicle's kinematic model. Second, the INS and GPS measurements are fused using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach. Subsequently, an artificial intelligence based approach for the fusion of INS/GPS measurements is developed based on an Input-Delayed Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (IDANFIS). Experimental tests are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the two sensor fusion approaches. It is found that the use of the proposed IDANFIS approach achieves a reduction in the integration development time and an improvement in the estimation accuracy of the vehicle's position and velocity compared to the EKF based approach.

  19. Geographically weighted negative binomial regression applied to zonal level safety performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos José Timbó Lima; Cunto, Flávio; da Silva, Alan Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes. Two approaches were adopted for the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) model to allow discrete data to be modeled in a non-stationary form and to take note of the overdispersion of the data: the first examines the constant overdispersion for all the traffic zones and the second includes the variable for each spatial unit. This research conducts a comparative analysis between non-spatial global crash prediction models and spatial local GWPR and GWNBR at the level of traffic zones in Fortaleza/Brazil. A geographic database of 126 traffic zones was compiled from the available data on exposure, network characteristics, socioeconomic factors and land use. The models were calibrated by using the frequency of injury crashes as a dependent variable and the results showed that GWPR and GWNBR achieved a better performance than GLM for the average residuals and likelihood as well as reducing the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals, and the GWNBR model was more able to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  1. Comparing autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and vessel-based tracking performance for locating acoustically tagged fish

    OpenAIRE

    Eiler, John H.; Grothues, Thomas M.; Dobarro, Joseph A.; Masuda, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV’s) are increasingly used to collect physical, chemical, and biological information in the marine environment. Recent efforts include merging AUV technology with acoustic telemetry to provide information on the distribution and movements of marine fish. We compared surface vessel and AUV tracking capabilities under rigorous conditions in coastal waters near Juneau, Alaska. Tracking surveys were conducted with a REMUS 100 AUV equipped with an integrated acous...

  2. Mobility Performance of Towed and Self-Propelled Artillery and Related Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    K A means not applicable. (Sheet 5 of 6) (Set5 f6 Table oi (Concluded) Vehicle Characteristics Dimes- NO. Identification sions MIO9AI M107 MI1OE2...A/I *4W 0.,.ArAO.,fl 0 a,..,ntOC..=C a 04fl0040C.AA/ a anaaoaco,, aCCA % 00000 4................4..... 4--------.4 0r,..0o.atCa 4 NNCCSC0N .nrc.. 0

  3. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Propulsion requirements for reusable single-stage-to-orbit rocket vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Engelund, Walter C.; Lepsch, Roger

    1994-05-01

    The conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle using a wide variety of evolutionary technologies has recently been completed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The employment of new propulsion system technologies is critical to the design of a reasonably sized, operationally efficient SSTO vehicle. This paper presents the propulsion system requirements identified for this near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle. Sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in specific impulse and sea-level thrust-to-weight ratio are examined. The results of a variety of vehicle/propulsion system trades performed on the near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle are also presented.

  5. Effect of light intensity on ovarian gene expression, reproductive performance and body weight of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangzhan; Wu, Zhenyu; Li, Fuchang; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinglin; Zhang, Di; Sun, Chaoran

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the experiment was to find the minimum light intensity which could improve reproduction by examining its effect on ovarian gene expression, reproductive performance and body weight of rabbit does with three different light intensities: 60 (L), 80 (M), and 100 (H)lx. A total of 144 Rex-rabbits submitted to a 49-day reproductive regimen were used in this study. Ovaries were collected and relative abundance of mRNA for ovarian proteins of interest was examined with real-time PCR. Amount of protein for proteins of interest was examined by immunohistochemistry. Reproductive performance and doe bodyweight of the first three consecutive reproductive periods after initiation of the light intensity treatments were evaluated. The results provided evidence that light intensity had no effect on relative abundance of estradiol receptor-α (ER-α), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (GnRHR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) mRNA. The relative abundance of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA was, however, greater in Group L than M and H (Plight intensities (P>0.05). The bodyweight of the does in Group L was greater than the other two groups at first insemination, second insemination and the second postpartum period (P0.05). These observations suggest that light intensity between 60 and 100lx has no effect on the reproductive performance of rabbit does, however, the amounts of GHR mRNA and growth hormone (GH) protein were affected and the greater light intensity had a negative effect on bodyweight between the time of the first insemination and the second partum period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  7. Older members perform better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program compared to younger members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Jonasson, Josefine; Svensson, Madeleine; Linné, Yvonne; Rossner, Stephan; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2009-01-01

    New technology offers increased opportunities for weight control. However, it is not clear whether older people with less computer training can make use of this tool. Our objective was to examine how members above the age of 65 years performed in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program, compared to younger members. Data from members (n = 23,233) of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program were analyzed. We restricted our study to active participants accessing the weight club, during a 6-month period (n = 4,440). The number of logins, food intake, and weight records were examined. Participants were divided into age tertiles separately for men and women. The oldest tertile was further subdivided into two groups: above and below the age of 65 years. Participants aged 65 or older were more likely to remain active in the weight club for at least 6 months compared to younger age groups. They had the highest frequency of recordings of food intake and current weight. Among women, those older than 65 years had on average the highest percentage of weight loss (5.6 kg, 6.8%). Men above 65 years of age had the highest number of logins, on average 161 times during the 6-month period. Older participants are performing equally well or even better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program than younger participants. Internet-based programs could be a promising and attractive option for older adults requiring assistance in losing weight. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparison of predictive performance of data mining algorithms in predicting body weight in Mengali rams of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Celik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed at comparing predictive performance of some data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID, MARS, MLP, and RBF in biometrical data of Mengali rams. To compare the predictive capability of the algorithms, the biometrical data regarding body (body length, withers height, and heart girth and testicular (testicular length, scrotal length, and scrotal circumference measurements of Mengali rams in predicting live body weight were evaluated by most goodness of fit criteria. In addition, age was considered as a continuous independent variable. In this context, MARS data mining algorithm was used for the first time to predict body weight in two forms, without (MARS_1 and with interaction (MARS_2 terms. The superiority order in the predictive accuracy of the algorithms was found as CART > CHAID ≈ Exhaustive CHAID > MARS_2 > MARS_1 > RBF > MLP. Moreover, all tested algorithms provided a strong predictive accuracy for estimating body weight. However, MARS is the only algorithm that generated a prediction equation for body weight. Therefore, it is hoped that the available results might present a valuable contribution in terms of predicting body weight and describing the relationship between the body weight and body and testicular measurements in revealing breed standards and the conservation of indigenous gene sources for Mengali sheep breeding. Therefore, it will be possible to perform more profitable and productive sheep production. Use of data mining algorithms is useful for revealing the relationship between body weight and testicular traits in describing breed standards of Mengali sheep.

  9. Measurement of vehicle emissions and power performance of an engine dedicated to gasoline converted to natural gas vehicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Meneses Oscar Febo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research work reports the factorial experiment carried out in the Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Research (IIME of the Major Saint Andrew University (UMSA, the purpose was to evaluate vehicle power and emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, as well as other gases with harmful effects on human health, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons generated by an internal combustion engine dedicated to gasoline and converted to bi-fuel CNG. For experimentation, a test stand was assembled with a motor commonly used in light transport vehicles in the city of La Paz, and converted to CNG in two types of transformation technology, third and fifth generation, the first being subsidized by the Bolivian State. The results allowed to determine that emissions depend on the operating regime and that the vehicles converted to CNG do not significantly reduce the emission of GHG issued per unit time in relation to original operation with gasoline, this is because they generate higher emission gas flows in the same operating regimes. Emission of other gases harmful to health are significantly superior when converting to the engine with technology of 3rd generation without use of mixer. Being also its performance of lower power, it falls between 87 and 75% of the original value. It is evident that the type of technology and mode of conversion applied influences the emissions and vehicular power.

  10. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.

  11. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubak, G.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H 2 -O 2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  12. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  13. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  14. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  15. Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneka, Anastasia G; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Missailidou, Victoria; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Georgiadis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    To determine the time course of performance responses after an acute bout of plyometric exercise combined with high and low intensity weight training, a 3-group (including a control group), repeated-measures design was employed. Changes in performance were monitored through jumping ability by measuring countermovement and squat jumping, and strength performance assessment through isometric and isokinetic testing of knee extensors (at two different velocities). Participants in both experimental groups performed a plyometric protocol consisting of 50 jumps over 50 cm hurdles and 50 drop jumps from a 50 cm plyometric box. Additionally, each group performed two basic weight exercises consisting of leg presses and leg extensions at 90-95% of maximum muscle strength for the high intensity group and 60% of maximum muscle strength for the low intensity group. The results of the study suggest that an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise combined with weight exercise induces time-dependent changes in performance, which are also dependent on the nature of exercise protocol and testing procedures. In conclusion, acute plyometric exercise with weight exercise may induce a substantial decline in jumping performance for as long as 72 hours but not in other forms of muscle strength.

  16. FY 2000 report on the survey of technology to reduce vehicle weight by applying new materials; 2000 nendo shinzairyo no tekiyo ni yoru jidosha keiryoka gijutsu no chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to the technology to reduce vehicle weight with the aim of energy conservation, survey was made of the present situation and technical subjects. Further survey was conducted on the applicability of ferrous and aluminum mesoscopic system control materials (super metal) under development. The application of high-tensile steel to vehicles is rapidly being developed as a means of weight reduction. To increase a rate of the use of high-tensile steel, limits of forming, characteristic improvement and rigidity need to be removed. Further, concerning the application of aluminum, subjects are press formability and joining. In regard to the development of ferrous super metal, characteristics with high ductility were obtained despite of such high strength as tensile strength of 930MPa, uniform elongation of 17%, and total elongation of 27%, which indicated that the super metal has an applicability to vehicle use thin steel sheets. The ferrous super metal, which enables the production of high-tensile steel sheet with no use of much alloy elements, is a material with high recycling ability. The aluminum super metal has also an applicability to vehicles. (NEDO)

  17. Design of magnetic flywheel control for performance improvement of fuel cells used in vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chung-Neng; Chen, Yui-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Because hydrogen can be extracted naturally and stored for a long time, different types of fuel cells have been developed to generate clean power, particularly for use in vehicles. However, the power demand of a running vehicle leads to unstable and irregular loading of fuel cells. This not only reduces fuel cell lifespan and efficiency but also affects driving safety when the slow output response cannot satisfy an abrupt increase in power demand. Magnetic flywheels with characteristics such as high energy density, high-speed charging ability, and low loss have been extensively used in Formula One cars. This study developed a hybrid powertrain in which a magnetic flywheel system (MFS) is integrated with the fuel cells to solve the aforementioned problems. Moreover, an auto-tuning proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller based on the controls of a multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system and particle swarm optimization was designed for MFS control. Furthermore, MATLAB/Simulink simulations considering an FTP-75 urban driving cycle were conducted, and a variability improvement of approximately 27.3% in fuel cell output was achieved. - Highlights: • A hybrid powertrain integrating the magnetic flywheel and fuel cells is proposed. • An auto-tuning PID controller is designed for MFS control. • The MIMO-ANFIS and PSO based optimal control is realized. • A 27.3% improvement in the output variability of fuel cell is achieved under control.

  18. Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Chen; Liu Menglin; Xing Huawei; Zhou, Tong; Yin Wensheng; Zong Jun; Han Zhenghe

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5 m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS coils made of Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape were used to provide the magnetic motive force. Several questions relating to the unique characteristics of the HTS material in a controlled magnetic circuit are discussed. The most important consideration for such applications is that the anisotropic critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag tape depends strongly on the magnetic field. The commercially available FEA software ANSYS was used to simulate the field distribution along the magnetic circuit and HTS coil winding, and thereby identify how the magnetic circuit alters the field distribution in the coil winding and therefore also the critical current. A general optimization process is described for finding the best position in the U-shape iron core to hold the HTS coils. In this process the critical current of the HTS tape and the force-current characteristic of the magnetic circuit are considered synthetically. The results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of HTS material in a typical maglev system and other similar controllability applications

  19. Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: guchen@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu Menglin [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xing Huawei [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yin Wensheng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zong Jun [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100176 (China); Han Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-06-15

    A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5 m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS coils made of Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape were used to provide the magnetic motive force. Several questions relating to the unique characteristics of the HTS material in a controlled magnetic circuit are discussed. The most important consideration for such applications is that the anisotropic critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag tape depends strongly on the magnetic field. The commercially available FEA software ANSYS was used to simulate the field distribution along the magnetic circuit and HTS coil winding, and thereby identify how the magnetic circuit alters the field distribution in the coil winding and therefore also the critical current. A general optimization process is described for finding the best position in the U-shape iron core to hold the HTS coils. In this process the critical current of the HTS tape and the force-current characteristic of the magnetic circuit are considered synthetically. The results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of HTS material in a typical maglev system and other similar controllability applications.

  20. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  1. Dynamics of subway networks based on vehicles operation timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-mei; Jia, Li-min; Wang, Yan-hui

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a subway network is represented as a dynamic, directed and weighted graph, in which vertices represent subway stations and weights of edges represent the number of vehicles passing through the edges by considering vehicles operation timetable. Meanwhile the definitions of static and dynamic metrics which can represent vertices' and edges' local and global attributes are proposed. Based on the model and metrics, standard deviation is further introduced to study the dynamic properties (heterogeneity and vulnerability) of subway networks. Through a detailed analysis of the Beijing subway network, we conclude that with the existing network structure, the heterogeneity and vulnerability of the Beijing subway network varies over time when the vehicle operation timetable is taken into consideration, and the distribution of edge weights affects the performance of the network. In other words, although the vehicles operation timetable is restrained by the physical structure of the network, it determines the performances and properties of the Beijing subway network.

  2. Literature Review of Shear Performance of Light-weight Steel Framing Wall Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuangnan; Liu, Shen; Liu, Hong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review of light-weight steel framing wall panels was carried out. The structure and force characteristics of light-weight steel framing wall panels were introduced. The testing and theoretical research results on the shear behaviour of light-weight steel framing wall panels were summarized in the domestic and foreign. And combined with the existing standards in China, the author's views and ideas are put forward to the problems in the research field of this kind of structural system.

  3. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  4. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  5. Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John Peter

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

  6. Behaviour and growth performance of low-birth-weight piglets cross-fostered in multiparous sows with piglets of higher birth weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour, pre-weaning survival rate and growth performance of low birth weight (BW piglets cross-fostered with piglets of higher weights. Piglets were transferred to 60 foster sows, and divided in three groups (G; n=20: G1- 12 low BW piglets (0.80 - 1.25kg; G2- six low BW piglets and six intermediate BW piglets (1.40 - 1.60kg, and G3- six low BW piglets and six high BW piglets (>1.70kg. For the analysis, groups G2 and G3 were subdivided in LG2 (six G2 light piglets; IG2 (six G2 intermediate piglets, LG3 (six G3 light piglets, and HG3 (six G3 heavy piglets. Behavioural observations were carried out on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 (visual direct observation and on days 3 and 5 (video recording after birth. The percentage of missed nursings was higher in LG3 piglets than in LG1, IG2 and HG3 piglets, on days 1 and 2. On day 4, light piglets (LG1, LG2 and LG3 missed more nursings than IG2 and HG3 piglets. On day 3, video recording showed a higher percentage of missed nursings in LG1, LG2, and LG3 piglets as compared to HG3 piglets. On day 1, the number of fights during nursing was higher in IG2 than in LG1 and LG3 piglets. Also on day 1, number of fights and percentage of piglets engaged in fights, during 15min after nursing, were higher in LG1, LG3 and HG3 than in LG2 piglets. More playful behaviours were observed on day 2 in IG2 and HG3 piglets compared to LG1, LG2 and LG3 piglets. Light piglets (LG1, LG2, and LG3 presented similar body weight on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 after birth, regardless of being mixed with piglets of higher weights or not; however, the survival rate until day 16 was most compromised in LG3 piglets compared to the other groups. Despite the lack of influence of littermates' weight on the growth of low BW piglets, their survival rate indicates that they should not be mixed with high BW piglets.

  7. Performance evaluation of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Won, Jong Phil [Thermal Management Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Park, Yong Sun; Lim, Tae Won [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi 449-912 (Korea); Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A relation between the heat release from a fuel cell stack and an air conditioning system's performance was investigated. The air conditioning system installed in a fuel cell vehicle can be used for stack cooling when additional stack heat release is required over a fixed radiator capacity during high vehicle power generation. This study investigated the performance of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner at various operating conditions. Also, the heat releasing effectiveness and mutual interference were analyzed and compared with those for the conventional radiator cooling system with/without cabin cooling. When the radiator coolant inlet temperature and flow rate were 65 C and 80 L/min, respectively, for the outdoor air inlet speed of 5 m/s, the heat release of the stack cooling system with the aid of CO{sub 2} air conditioner increased up to 36% more than that of the conventional radiator cooling system with cabin cooling. Furthermore, this increased by 7% versus the case without cabin cooling. (author)

  8. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  9. Effect of Mach number on thermoelectric performance of SiC ceramics nose-tip for supersonic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper focus on the effects of Mach number on thermoelectric energy conversion for the limitation of aero-heating and the feasibility of energy harvesting on supersonic vehicles. A model of nose-tip structure constructed with SiC ceramics is developed to numerically study the thermoelectric performance in a supersonic flow field by employing the computational fluid dynamics and the thermal conduction theory. Results are given in the cases of different Mach numbers. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance in each case is predicted with and without Thomson heat, respectively. Due to the increase of Mach number, both the temperature difference and the conductive heat flux between the hot side and the cold side of nose tip are increased. This results in the growth of the thermoelectric power generated and the energy conversion efficiency. With respect to the Thomson effect, over 50% of total power generated converts to Thomson heat, which greatly reduces the thermoelectric power and efficiency. However, whether the Thomson effect is considered or not, with the Mach number increasing from 2.5 to 4.5, the thermoelectric performance can be effectively improved. -- Highlights: • Thermoelectric SiC nose-tip structure for aerodynamic heat harvesting of high-speed vehicles is studied. • Thermoelectric performance is predicted based on numerical methods and experimental thermoelectric parameters. • The effects of Mach number on thermoelectric performance are studied in the present paper. • Results with respect to the Thomson effect are also explored. • Output power and energy efficiency of the thermoelectric nose-tip are increased with the increase of Mach number

  10. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  11. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  12. Myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer: diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 1.5-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechichi, Gilda; Sironi, Sandro; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Signorelli, Mauro; Perego, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial cancer. In this prospective study, 47 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging and total hysterectomy. The MR protocol included spin-echo multishot T2-weighted, dynamic T1-weighted and DW images acquired with b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm 2 . Myometrial tumour spread was classified as superficial (<50%) or deep (≥50% myometrial thickness). Postoperative histopathological findings served as a reference standard. Indices of diagnostic performance were assessed for each sequence. At histopathological examination, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 34 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 13. In the assessment of tumour invasion, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of T2-weighted images were 92.3%, 76.5%, 60.0% and 96.3%, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic images were 69.2%, 61.8%, 40.9% and 84.0%, and for DW images 84.6%, 70.6%, 52.4% and 92.3%. T2-weighted and DW imaging proved to be the most accurate techniques for tumour spread determination. DW imaging proved to be accurate in assessing myometrial invasion, and it could replace dynamic imaging as an adjunct to routine T2-weighted imaging for preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  13. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  14. Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

    2001-01-01

    Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration

  15. Improvement of Network Performance by In-Vehicle Routing Using Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdien A. Klunder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study which gives insight into the size of improvement that is possible with individual in-car routing advice based on the actual traffic situation derived from floating car data (FCD. It also gives an idea about the required penetration rate of floating car data needed to achieve a certain degree of improvement. The study uses real loop detector data from the region of Amsterdam collected for over a year, a route generating algorithm for in-car routing advice, and emulated floating car data to generate the routing advice. The case with in-car routing advice has been compared to the base case, where drivers base their routing decisions on average knowledge of travel times in the network. The improvement in total delay using the in-vehicle system is dependent on penetration rate and accuracy of the floating car data and varies from 2.0% to 3.4% for 10% penetration rate. This leads to yearly savings of about 15 million euros if delay is monetarised using standard prices for value of time (VOT.

  16. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  17. The Research of Vehicle Water Management Performance and Development%整车水管理性能开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 杨志广

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the description of the definition of water management performance, summarizes the definition of each subsidiary performance in vehicle water management performance and related test methods, analyzes the process of water leakage problems through the product development, discusses the importance of vehicle water management performance and product design details, as well as the vehicle water management performance development of product structure design.%简要介绍了整车水管理性能定义及相关试验方法,并通过对整车产品开发过程中渗漏水的几个问题进行分析,论述了整车水管理性能的特殊性和产品结构设计的细节,以及整车水管理性能开发对产品结构设计的意义。

  18. Effects of feed form and dietary coarse ground corn on broiler live performance, body weight uniformity, relative gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2015-07-01

    In this 14-d cage study, the effects of feed form (mash and crumble) and 6 coarse ground corn ( CC: ) inclusions [0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% CC that replaced fine corn ( FC: )] on broiler live performance, BW uniformity, gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference were investigated. The geometric mean diameter by mass ( DGW: ) of mash diets increased from 422 μm to 431, 471, 509, 542, and 640 μm, respectively, as the percentage of CC increased. Feed intake and BW were decreased by CC and mash at 7 d. Interactions between feed form and CC were observed for feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ) at 7 d of age (P nitrogen was increased (P < 0.01) by crumble diets. These data demonstrated that pelleting and crumbling reduced the impact of CC, produced a more consistent feed intake, and reduced selective feeding, and that CC stimulated gizzard weight in a linear manner in mash diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  20. Lack of Effect of Typical Rapid-Weight-Loss Practices on Balance and Anaerobic Performance in Apprentice Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; Dolan, Eimear; O Brien, Kate; McGoldrick, Adrian; Warrington, Giles

    2015-11-01

    Balance and anaerobic performance are key attributes related to horse-racing performance, but research on the impact of making weight for racing on these parameters remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss in preparation for racing on balance and anaerobic performance in a group of jockeys. Twelve apprentice male jockeys and 12 age- and gender-matched controls completed 2 trials separated by 48 h. In both trials, body mass, hydration status, balance, and anaerobic performance were assessed. Between the trials, the jockeys reduced body mass by 4% using weight-loss methods typically adopted in preparation for racing, while controls maintained body mass through typical daily dietary and physical activity habits. Apprentice jockeys decreased mean body mass by 4.2% ± 0.3% (P balance, on the left or right side, or in peak power, mean power, or fatigue index were reported between the trials in either group. Results from this study indicate that a 4% reduction in body mass in 48 h through the typical methods employed for racing, in association with an increase in dehydration, resulted in no impairments in balance or anaerobic performance. Further research is required to evaluate performance in a sport-specific setting and to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms involved.

  1. Amending heavy-weight high performance concrete demystified to deleterious milieux in nuclear vicinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, W.M.K.S

    2010-01-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite, known since the dawn of history, whose constituents are not copiously incongruent with each other; a matter that makes it cumbersome to keep identical values of its attributes at all manufacturing attempts; attempts that do not necessarily demystify similitude in behavior, results, and serviceability conditions. The main thrive of the dissertation at hand is to attempt to manipulate a meta-cognitive strategy that is oriented to extend and to build up on the investigation previously developed in the master thesis of the same researcher in 2006, where both certain local aggregates blended together with diverse additives were manipulated to produce heavy-weight high-performance concrete. HWHP concrete is meant to be directly employed in lining nuclear facilities, such as the core of peaceful nuclear power stations as well as nuclear waste disposal stores. This means that the proposed HWHP concrete is presumed to unfold two simultaneous roles: a structure material and an attenuation shielding material; that is manufactured out of both the Egyptian ores abundantly found in the desert, along with industrial wastes that can pollute the environment. Therefore, it is plausible to produce a sound green concrete of an economic value at low cost that can be employed in peaceful nuclear reactors. The dissertation hosts seven chapters that are divided according to the following scheme:Chapter 1: It demonstrates literature survey about diverse types of concrete, especially those produced in various research endeavours carried out in Egyptian institutes. Chapter 2: It provides the reader with a summary about basic concepts of nuclear radiation, such as atomic structure, radioactivity and its modes of decay.Chapter 3: It proposes a definition of various types of concretes, along with required characteristics of ingredients employed in HWHPCs. It also shows effects of various relentless conditions.Chapter 4: It first lists properties of the

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Sensing and Computing Subsystem and Vehicle Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul

    2018-03-06

    Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  4. Separation of both fibrous and globular proteins on the basis of molecular weight using high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, J A

    1983-11-01

    A high-performance size exclusion liquid chromatographic system has been used to separate proteins with different shapes solely on the basis of their molecular weights. After the effects of ionic and hydrophobic interactions with the stationary phase have been overcome, protein elution is normally governed by their effective size in solution. Conditions are described under which proteins, with isoelectric points within the normal operating pH range of the columns, are eluted independent of their Stokes' radii. Even fibrous proteins with axial ratios of 50 elute according to their known molecular weights over the range 2000-2,000,000.

  5. Space shuttle launch vehicle performance trajectory, exchange ratios, and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, R. G.; Blackwell, D. L.; Lott, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline space shuttle performance trajectory for Mission 3A launched from WTR has been generated. Design constraints of maximum dynamic pressure, longitudinal acceleration, and delivered payload were satisfied. Payload exchange ratios are presented with explanation on use. Design envelopes of dynamic pressure, SRB staging point, aerodynamic heating and flight performance reserves are calculated and included.

  6. Effect on Vehicle Turbocharger Exhaust Gas Energy Utilization for the Performance of Centrifugal Compressors under Plateau Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the performance of centrifugal compressors for vehicle turbochargers operating at high altitude. The reasons for turbocharged diesel engine power loss increases and bad economy performance caused by exhaust gas energy utilization are investigated. The atmosphere’s impact on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor’s energy distribution characteristics under the plateau is discussed. The key parameters that affect compressor characteristics are concluded in a theoretical method. A simulation calculation model is established to accurately predict compressor performance at high altitude. By comparing the experimental results, the calculation results are validated. The details of the internal flow fields analysis, including critical parameters of a compressor operating at high altitude, are analyzed. The results show that with the increase of altitude from 0 m to 4500 m, the peak efficiency of the compressor is reduced by 2.4%, while the peak pressure ratio is increased by 7%. The main influence characters of the plateau environment on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance, such as blade loads, exergy utilization and entropy distribution are concluded. The key factors for compressor performance and compressor energy flow control design method operated at high altitude are obtained.

  7. Effects of Body Weight and Condition Changes After Parturition on the Reproductive Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.E.; Indetie, A.; Kinywa, J.; Lukibisi, F; Musalia, L.; Bebe, B.; Wathuta, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has a profound influence on reproductive performance after parturition. Cows are in a typical state of negative energy balance, because nutritional requirements for milk production and maintenance of body function exceed that ingested from the feed. This is reflected by changes in body weight and condition postpartum which influence resumption of ovarian activity. The study objectives were to assess weight and body condition changes after parturition and their influence on reproductive performance of Sahiwal and Friesian lactating cows. Forty in-calf cows comprising 20 Friesians and Sahiwals were selected and upon calving, observed for 24 weeks postpartum. Parameters recorded were weekly live weight and body condition scores postpartum while reproductive attributes included days to commencement of luteal activity and insemination. Data was analyzed using GLM of SAS. There were breed differences in weight of cows at the start of the experiment with Friesians being heavier than Sahiwals. Friesians lost a mean of 31.2 Kg from calving to commencement of luteal activity which occurred 10 weeks postpartum and improved from this loss to register a deficit of 11.3 kg at insemination which occurred 14 weeks after calving while the Sahiwals lost a mean of 27 kg after 6 weeks postpartum at commencement of luteal activity and a further 8 kg to insemination occurring 10 weeks after calving. The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at commencement of luteal activity than Friesians (-0.19 vs -0.33) and resumed cyclicity earlier than Friesians which had better recovery rates from weight and body condition depression postpartum. This shows that Friesians lose weight rapidly and quickly recover at time of

  8. Efficacy of manual versus free-weight training to improve maximal strength and performance for microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Schüren, Thomas; McCourt, Molly; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We tested a simple and compact device designed for manual resistance training in conditions of microgravity (Self-Powered Rope Trainer Duo (SPoRT Duo)) to increase muscle performance. Twenty-four participants (20.8 ± 2.1 years) were randomly assigned to a manual resistance group (n = 12) and a free-weight group (n = 12). Participants performed eight exercises (three sets; 8-12 efforts) either with free weights or the SPoRT Duo twice a week for 6 weeks. Maximal isometric force of trunk flexion, back extension and chest press increased (P at least 0.01, d at least 0.52) both in the manual resistance group (18.4% ± 15.0%; 32.7% ± 22.7%; 15.3% ± 9.7%) and free-weight group (18.0% ± 13.9%; 26.6% ± 28.9%; 13.3% ± 7.6%). The change in maximal isometric force of wide grip row in both groups (d at best 0.38) did not reach statistical significance (P at best 0.08). The squat one-repetition-maximum increased in the manual resistance group (29.8% ± 22.1%) and the free-weight group (32.4% ± 26.6%). Jump height, determined by a jump-and-reach test, increased in the free-weight group (9.8% ± 13.2%) but not in the manual resistance group (2.0% ± 8.5%). Manual resistance training was equally effective in increasing strength as traditional resistance training with free weights. This apparatus is a useful addition to current in-flight exercise systems.

  9. Acoustic communication for Maya Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - performance evaluation of acoustic modem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    traffic. This necessitates monitoring the AUV status and data quality through an acoustic link which needs to perform reliably under such conditions, at long range. To address these situations partially, acoustic communication capability is planned...

  10. High Performance Hybrid Propulsion System for a Small Launch Vehicle, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to design, develop and demonstrate an innovative high-performance, green, storable hybrid propellant system in a high mass...

  11. High Performance Hybrid Upper Stage for NanoLaunch Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc (Parabilis), in collaboration with Utah State University (USU), proposes further development of a low-cost, high-performance launch...

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LIGHT-WEIGHT MULTI-ECHO LIDAR FOR UNMANNED ROTORCRAFT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Conte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a light-weight and low-cost airborne terrain mapping system. The developed Airborne LiDAR Scanner (ALS system consists of a high-precision GNSS receiver, an inertial measurement unit and a magnetic compass which are used to complement a LiDAR sensor in order to compute a digital surface model. Evaluation of the accuracy of the generated surface model is presented. Additionally, a comparison is provided between the surface model generated from the developed ALS system and a model generated using a commercial photogrammetric software. Finally, the multi-echo capability of the used LiDAR sensor is evaluated in areas covered with dense vegetation. The ALS system and camera systems were mounted on-board an industrial unmanned helicopter of around 100 kilograms maximum take-off weight. Presented results are based on real flight-test data.

  13. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Garver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk, mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC, and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps. Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight.

  14. Study and performances analysis of fuel cell assisted vector control variable speed drive system used for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Rupendra Kumar; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is a novel attempt to combine two important aspects of fuel cell (FC). First, it presents investigations on FC technology and its applications. A description of FC operating principles is followed by the comparative analysis of the present FC technologies together with the issues concerning various fuels. Second, this paper also proposes a model for the simulation and performances evaluation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generation system. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink-based dynamic model of PEMFC is developed and parameters of FC are so adjusted to emulate a commercially available PEMFC. The system results are obtained for the PEMFC-driven adjusted speed induction motor drive (ASIMD) system, normally used in electric vehicles and analysis is carried out for different operating conditions of FC and ASIMD system. The obtained results prove the validation of system concept and modelling.

  15. Performance of an air sampler and a gamma-ray detector in a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Poellaenen; Harri Toivonen; Kari Peraejaervi; Tero Karhunen; Petri Smolander; Tarja Ilander; Kimmo Rintala; Tuure Katajainen; Jarkko Niemelae; Marko Juusela; Timo Palos

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an air sampler and a small gamma-ray spectrometer was tested in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) able to carry payload with mass up to 0.5 kg. Operation of the sampler was investigated with the aid of radon progeny normally present in outdoor air. Detection limits for several transuranium nuclides in air are of the order of 0.3 Bq m -3 assuming 0.5 h sampling time and 1 h counting time in direct alpha spectrometry. Unshielded 137 Cs and 60 Co point sources at the ground level were used to test the CsI spectrometer. Detection limits are approximately 1 GBq or larger depending on the flying altitude. (author)

  16. Performance of an all-electric vehicle under UN ECE R101 test conditions: A feasibility study for the city of Kaunas, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslavičius, Laurencas; Starevičius, Martynas; Keršys, Artūras; Pilkauskas, Kęstutis; Vilkauskas, Andrius

    2013-01-01

    Transport activity has been a key facilitator and driver of economic prosperity in Lithuanian (hereinafter LIT) and it is likely to continue to grow. It can produce both positive and negative effects on the quality of life and the environment depending on country-specific circumstances. This research paper sets the stage for a look at the LIT passenger vehicle fleet and its transition towards sustainable mobility through the use of all-electric vehicles. The large multi purpose vehicle from French car-maker Renault, model Renault Espace, was used for test drives, according ECE R101 (urban cycle) requirements. The conventional spark ignited internal combustion engine of the vehicle was replaced by the electric one and equipped with the new generation LiFePO 4 Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Three streets of Kaunas city (LIT) with different categories B1, B2 and C2 were selected for the test procedure. Estimation of the power demand (depending on displacement and daytime) and evaluation of battery performance characteristics were discussed in detail. Calculation of the driving distance of the one charge of the traction battery estimates several driving conditions and variation of the mass of the investigated vehicle. Comparison of consumption of different fuel grades for 1 km showed that costs of electric power driven vehicle is 4 times as low as with A95 grade petrol and 2.4 times as low as with diesel fuel. - Highlights: • This paper examines the perspectives for electric vehicles use in Lithuania. • We used standardized test procedure UN ECE R101 (urban cycle). • The study found that the BEVs (battery-only electric vehicles) can cover approximately 75% of all daily driving. • Inspection of the results highlights the importance of BEVs introduction. • We have shown that battery-only electric vehicles are economically rational

  17. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  18. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  19. Effects of in-vehicle warning information displays with or without spatial compatibility on driving behaviors and response performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Jhuang, Jing-Wun

    2012-07-01

    A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the effects of five in-vehicle warning information displays upon drivers' emergent response and decision performance. These displays include visual display, auditory displays with and without spatial compatibility, hybrid displays in both visual and auditory format with and without spatial compatibility. Thirty volunteer drivers were recruited to perform various tasks that involved driving, stimulus-response, divided attention and stress rating. Results show that for displays of single-modality, drivers benefited more when coping with visual display of warning information than auditory display with or without spatial compatibility. However, auditory display with spatial compatibility significantly improved drivers' performance in reacting to the divided attention task and making accurate S-R task decision. Drivers' best performance results were obtained for hybrid display with spatial compatibility. Hybrid displays enabled drivers to respond the fastest and achieve the best accuracy in both S-R and divided attention tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. A performance study of unmanned aerial vehicle-based sensor networks under cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchaty, Ethan M.

    In UAV-based sensor networks, an emerging area of interest is the performance of these networks under cyber attack. This study seeks to evaluate the performance trade-offs from a System-of-Systems (SoS) perspective between various UAV communications architecture options in the context two missions: tracking ballistic missiles and tracking insurgents. An agent-based discrete event simulation is used to model a sensor communication network consisting of UAVs, military communications satellites, ground relay stations, and a mission control center. Network susceptibility to cyber attack is modeled with probabilistic failures and induced data variability, with performance metrics focusing on information availability, latency, and trustworthiness. Results demonstrated that using UAVs as routers increased network availability with a minimal latency penalty and communications satellite networks were best for long distance operations. Redundancy in the number of links between communication nodes helped mitigate cyber-caused link failures and add robustness in cases of induced data variability by an adversary. However, when failures were not independent, redundancy and UAV routing were detrimental in some cases to network performance. Sensitivity studies indicated that long cyber-caused downtimes and increasing failure dependencies resulted in build-ups of failures and caused significant degradations in network performance.

  1. Direct and indirect relationships of physical fitness, weight status, and learning duration to academic performance in Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Yamatsu, Koji; Sagawa, Masato

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, using structural equation modelling (SEM), the direct and indirect influence of daily behaviours (i.e. exercise/learning durations), weight status, and physical fitness on academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren, after controlling for socioeconomic status. We analysed cross-sectional data from 274 schoolchildren (159 males and 115 females; 12-13 years old). Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in eight academic subjects. Physical fitness was evaluated using the total score of eight physical fitness tests and weight status using body mass index. The daily behaviours and socioeconomic status were assessed by the questionnaire. The SEM showed an adequate fit to the data (χ 2  = 0.684, p = .710, RMSEA = .000). Physical fitness and learning durations had direct effects on academic performance (β = .301, p academic performance via physical fitness. These findings suggest that, independent of socioeconomic status and learning durations, exercise habits and maintaining healthy weight status may indirectly contribute to academic success via better physical fitness in children.

  2. Near-term electric test vehicle ETV-2. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)

  3. Remotely Operated Vehicle for Surveilance Applications On and Under Water Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzh Shah Mustari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the low cost hardware prototype of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV for surveilance applications. The vehicle is designed to make maneuvers under water and on surface of water, where its movement is guided remotely via a GHz-scale wireless communication system. The main electronic control unit (ECU of the vehicle is an 8-bit microcontroller, which is used to control 6 motor actuators. Two motors are embedded in a ballast tank used for pumping and draining in and out of the ballast tank. While, the other four motors are used for vehicle movements on water surface. One wireless transceiver is embedded in a joystick and the other is separately placed in the waterproof box mounted on the vehicle. The performance tests present that, in general, the ROV can be controlled well with limited performance. The total weight of the vehicle is 10.35kg with weight density of 0.89kg/ltr

  4. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    of the increase in the battery weight and capacity on vehicle performance is evaluated. An optimum number of modules in the battery are determined for minimum fuel consumption and maximum power. In the second case study a comparative study of the fuel consumption and fuel economy of the vehicle for various drive cycles (Ex: City and Highway etc.) is performed. The energy losses in each subsystem in the vehicle are also determined and the results are discussed qualitatively. (orig.)

  5. Performance of an automated external defibrillator in a moving ambulance vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jong Geun; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Lee, Hyoung Youn; Kim, Mu Jin; Heo, Tag; Min, Yong Il; You, Yeonho

    2010-04-01

    The available data suggest that automated external defibrillators (AED) can be safely used in vibration-like moving conditions such as rigid inflatable boats and aircraft environments. However, little literature exists examining their performance in a moving ambulance. The present study was undertaken to determine whether an AED is able to analyse the heart rhythm correctly during ambulance transport. An ambulance was driven on paved (20-100 km/h) and unpaved (10 km/h) roads. The performance of two AED devices (CU ER 2, CU Medical Systems Inc., Korea, and Heartstart MRx, Phillips, USA) was determined in a moving ambulance using manikins. Vibration intensity was measured simultaneously with a digital vibrometer. AED performance was then evaluated again on manikins and on a swine model under simulated vibration intensities (0.5-5m/s(2)) measured by the vibrometer in the previous phase of the investigation. The vibration intensity increased with increasing speeds on paved roads (1.98+/-0.44 m/s(2) at 100 km/h). While driving on unpaved roads, it increased to 6.40+/-1.06 m/s(2). Both AED algorithms analysed the heart rhythm correctly under resting state. When tested on pigs, both algorithms showed substantially degraded performances, even at low vibration intensities of 0.5-1m/s(2), which corresponded to vibration intensities while driving on paved roads at 20-60 km/h. This study also showed that electrocardiograms generated on manikins were more resistant to motion artifacts than were the pig electrocardiograms. Ambulance personnel should consider the possibility of misinterpretation by an AED when this device is used while transporting a patient. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The dynamic performance and economic benefit of a blended braking system in a multi-speed battery electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jiageng; Walker, Paul D.; Watterson, Peter A.; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum braking energy recovery potentials of various cycles are reported. • Braking strategies are proposed for performance, comfort and energy recovery. • Braking force distributions and wheel slip ratios of different strategies are demonstrated. • The performance of ‘Eco’ strategy is experimentally validated in HWFET and NEDC. • The economic benefit of energy recovering is summarized, regarding to the fuel and maintenance cost saving. - Abstract: As motor-supplied braking torque is applied to the wheels in an entirely different way to hydraulic friction braking systems and it is usually only connected to one axle complicated effects such as wheel slip and locking, vehicle body bounce and braking distance variation will inevitability impact on the performance and safety of braking. The potential for braking energy recovery in typical driving cycles is presented to show its benefit in this study. A general predictive model is designed to analysis the economic and dynamic performance of blended braking systems, satisfying the relevant regulations/laws and critical limitations. Braking strategies for different purposes are proposed to achieve a balance between braking performance, driving comfort and energy recovery rate. Special measures are taken to avoid any effects of motor failure. All strategies are analyzed in detail for various braking events. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as ABS and EBD, are properly integrated to work with the regenerative braking system (RBS) harmoniously. Different switching plans during braking are discussed. The braking energy recovery rates and brake force distribution details for different driving cycles are simulated. Results for two of the cycles in an ‘Eco’ mode are measured on a drive train test rig and found to agree with the simulated results to within approximately 10%. Reliable conclusions can thus be gained on the economic benefit and dynamic braking performance. The

  7. Performance Evaluation of Target Detection with a Near-Space Vehicle-Borne Radar in Blackout Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Deng, Bin; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-01-06

    Radar is a very important sensor in surveillance applications. Near-space vehicle-borne radar (NSVBR) is a novel installation of a radar system, which offers many benefits, like being highly suited to the remote sensing of extremely large areas, having a rapidly deployable capability and having low vulnerability to electronic countermeasures. Unfortunately, a target detection challenge arises because of complicated scenarios, such as nuclear blackout, rain attenuation, etc. In these cases, extra care is needed to evaluate the detection performance in blackout situations, since this a classical problem along with the application of an NSVBR. However, the existing evaluation measures are the probability of detection and the receiver operating curve (ROC), which cannot offer detailed information in such a complicated application. This work focuses on such requirements. We first investigate the effect of blackout on an electromagnetic wave. Performance evaluation indexes are then built: three evaluation indexes on the detection capability and two evaluation indexes on the robustness of the detection process. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will offer information on the detailed performance of detection. These measures are therefore very useful in detecting the target of interest in a remote sensing system and are helpful for both the NSVBR designers and users.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  9. International Conference on Heavy Vehicles HVParis 2008 : Heavy Vehicle Transport Technology (HVTT 10)

    OpenAIRE

    JACOB, Bernard; NORDENGEN, Paul; O'CONNOR, Alan; BOUTELDJA, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Sommaire : Heavy vehicles and WIM technology, testing and standards. Interactions between heavy vehicles or trains and the infrastructure, environment and other system users. Heavy vehicle and road management information: measurements, data quality, data management. Freight mobility and safety. Vehicle classification, size and weight evaluation, regulations and enforcement. Traffic and road safety. WIM of road vehicles, trains and aeroplanes.

  10. High Performance Shape Memory Polyurethane Synthesized with High Molecular Weight Polyol as the Soft Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs are typically synthesized using polyols of low molecular weight (MW~2,000 g/mol as it is believed that the high density of cross-links in these low molecular weight polyols are essential for high mechanical strength and good shape memory effect. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 with MW ~6000 g/mol as the soft segment and diisocyanate as the hard segment were used to synthesize SMPUs, and the results were compared with the SMPUs with polycaprolactone PCL-2000. The study revealed that although the PEG-6000-based SMPUs have lower maximum elongations at break (425% and recovery stresses than those of PCL-based SMPUs, they have much better recovery ratios (up to 98% and shape fixity (up to 95%, hence better shape memory effect. Furthermore, PEG-based SMPUs showed a much shorter actuation time of < 10 s for up to 90% shape recovery compared to typical actuation times of tens of seconds to a few minutes for common SMPUs, demonstrated their great potential for applications in microsystems and other engineering components.

  11. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  12. The Role of Interaction Patterns with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Eco-Features for Drivers' Eco-Driving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias G; Franke, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions caused by road vehicles. Eco-driving in HEVs is particularly challenging due to the systems' dynamic energy flows. As a result, drivers are likely to show diverse eco-driving behaviors, depending on factors like knowledge and motivation. The eco-features represent an interface for the control of the systems' energy flows. A sample of 121 HEV drivers who had constantly logged their fuel consumption prior to the study participated in an online questionnaire. Drivers' interaction patterns with the eco-features were related to fuel efficiency. A common factor was identified in an exploratory factor analysis, characterizing the intensity of actively dealing with electric energy, which was also related to fuel efficiency. Driver characteristics were not related to this factor, yet they were significant predictors of fuel efficiency. From the perspective of user-energy interaction, the relationship of the aggregated factor to fuel efficiency emphasizes the central role of drivers' perception of and interaction with energy conversions in determining HEV eco-driving success. To arrive at an in-depth understanding of drivers' eco-driving behaviors that can guide interface design, authors of future research should be concerned with the psychological processes that underlie drivers' interaction patterns with eco-features.

  13. Inulin in Medicinal Plants (IV) : Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Inulin after Acetylation : Molecular-Weight Distribution of Inulin in Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    三野, 芳紀; 筒井, 聡美; 太田, 長世; YOSHIKI, MINO; SATOMI, TSUTSUI; NAGAYO, OTA; 大阪薬科大学; 大阪薬科大学; 大阪薬科大学; Osaka College of Pharmacy; Osaka College of Pharmacy; Osaka College of Pharmacy

    1985-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with pre-acetylation enabled acculate molecular-weight assay of inulin in medicinal plants to be conducted. The results clearly showed that the molecular-weight distribution of inulin varied depending on the stage of growth: Small molecular weight inulin polymers were detected in large quantity in the earlier growth stage whereas large molecular weight inulin polymers at the flowering and post flowering period.

  14. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  15. Theoretical investigations on improving performance of cooling systems for fuel cell vehicles; Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Kuehlleistungssteigerung durch innovative Kuehlsysteme fuer Brennstoffzellen-Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichler, Mark

    2008-04-01

    In this work theoretical investigations are carried out for cooling systems, which are used in fuel cell vehicles. This work focuses mainly on the capability of increasing the heat rejection rate by using new alternative cooling systems and by improving the conventional cooling system. Fuel cell vehicles have a higher demand of heat rejection to the ambient than comparable vehicles with combustion engine. The performance of conventional liquid cooling systems, especially at high loads and high ambient temperatures, is often not sufficient anymore. Hence, cooling systems with improved performance are necessary for fuel cell vehicles. The investigations in this work are based on DaimlerChrysler's ''A-Class'' having a PEM-Fuel Cell system integrated. Specific computational models are developed for radiators and condensers to evaluate the performance of different cooling concepts. The models are validated with experimental data. Based on an intensive investigation in the open literature the state of the art of cooling systems for fuel cell vehicles is depicted. Furthermore new cooling concepts as an alternative to the liquid cooling system are presented. The method of cooling the fuel cell by using two-phase transition shows the greatest capability to increase the cooling performance. Hence, this concept is investigated in detail. Two different concepts with three different refrigerants (R113, R245fa und R236fa) are analyzed. Cooling performance of this concept shows improvement of 18.2 up to 32.6 % compared to the conventional liquid cooling system. Thus, a two phase cooling system represents an alternative cooling system for fuel cell vehicles, which should be closer investigated by experiments. (orig.)

  16. [Development of key indicators for nurses performance evaluation and estimation of their weights for management by objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hwa; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2010-02-01

    This methodological research was designed to develop performance evaluation key indicators (PEKIs) for management by objectives (MBO) and to estimate their weights for hospital nurses. The PEKIs were developed by selecting preliminary indicators from a literature review, examining content validity and identifying their level of importance. Data were collected from November 14, 2007 to February 18, 2008. Data set for importance of indicators was obtained from 464 nurses and weights of PEKIs domain was from 453 nurses, who worked for at least 2 yr in one of three hospitals. Data were analyzed using X(2)-test, factor analysis, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Based upon Content Validity Index of .8 or above, 61 indicators were selected from the 100 preliminary indicators. Finally, 40 PEKIs were developed from the 61 indicators, and categorized into 10 domains. The highest weight of the 10 domains was customer satisfaction, which was followed by patient education, direct nursing care, profit increase, safety management, improvement of nursing quality, completeness of nursing records, enhancing competence of nurses, indirect nursing care, and cost reduction, in that order. PEKIs and their weights can be utilized for impartial evaluation and MBO for hospital nurses. Further research to verify PEKIs would lead to successful implementation of MBO.

  17. Experimental investigation on heating performance of heat pump for electric vehicles at −20 °C ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Fei; Xue, Qingfeng; Albarracin Velez, Giovanny Marcelo; Zhang, Guiying; Zou, Huiming; Tian, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An ASHP system with refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, for cold regions. • The heat performances of the system are tested at −20 °C ambient temperature. • The system cycle process with refrigerant injection are analyzed on lgP-H diagrams. • The effects of refrigerant injection, dryness, and in-car inlet state are discussed. • The new system can improve heating and own better application prospect. - Abstract: Since the performance of conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) for electric vehicles (EVs) is apt to decline sharply in low ambient temperature, it will consume more electricity of the cell, and affect driving mileage in cold regions. Aiming at developing high efficiency heating system for EVs in cold regions, an ASHP system applying refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, as well as the test bench is built to investigate its performance. According to the operation condition of EVs, heating performances are tested on different in-car inlet air temperature and various fresh air ratios under −20 °C ambient temperature. The system cycle process with refrigerant injection, as well as the influences of refrigerant injection and dryness are also analyzed and discussed. The results show that the heating capacity of the ASHP with refrigerant injection can be increased up to 31%, and in comparison with the conventional heat pump system its heating performance is better when in-car inlet temperature is above −10 °C. Therefore, ASHP with refrigerant injection has great potentiality to be applied for the EVs in cold regions

  18. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  19. Experimental investigation on the dynamic performance of a hybrid PEM fuel cell/battery system for lightweight electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong; Yuan, Wei; Pan, Minqiang; Wan, Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid system combining a 2 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and a lead-acid battery pack is developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The dynamic performances of this PEMFC system with and without the assistance of the batteries are systematically investigated in a series of laboratory and road tests. The stack current and voltage have timely dynamic responses to the load variations. Particularly, the current overshoot and voltage undershoot both happen during the step-up load tests. These phenomena are closely related to the charge double-layer effect and the mass transfer mechanisms such as the water and gas transport and distribution in the fuel cell. When the external load is beyond the range of the fuel cell system, the battery immediately participates in power output with a higher transient discharging current especially in the accelerating and climbing processes. The DC-DC converter exhibits a satisfying performance in adaptive modulation. It helps rectify the voltage output in a rigid manner and prevent the fuel cell system from being overloaded. The dynamic responses of other operating parameters such as the anodic operating pressure and the inlet and outlet temperatures are also investigated. The results show that such a hybrid system is able to dynamically satisfy the vehicular power demand.

  20. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  1. Performance of a neuro-fuzzy model in predicting weight changes of chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T H; Loh, E W; Wu, M S; Hu, T M; Chou, P; Lan, T Y; Chiu, H-J

    2008-12-01

    Artificial intelligence has become a possible solution to resolve the problem of loss of information when complexity of a disease increases. Obesity phenotypes are observable clinical features of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. In addition, atypical antipsychotic medications may cause these unwanted effects. Here we examined the performance of neuro-fuzzy modeling (NFM) in predicting weight changes in chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics. Two hundred and twenty inpatients meeting DSMIV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with antipsychotics, either typical or atypical, for more than 2 years, were recruited. All subjects were assessed in the same study period between mid-November 2003 and mid-April 2004. The baseline and first visit's physical data including weight, height and circumference were used in this study. Clinical information (Clinical Global Impression and Life Style Survey) and genotype data of five single nucleotide polymorphisms were also included as predictors. The subjects were randomly assigned into the first group (105 subjects) and second group (115 subjects), and NFM was performed by using the FuzzyTECH 5.54 software package, with a network-type structure constructed in the rule block. A complete learned model trained from merged data of the first and second groups demonstrates that, at a prediction error of 5, 93% subjects with weight gain were identified. Our study suggests that NFM is a feasible prediction tool for obesity in schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics, with further improvements required.

  2. Selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays and impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huidong; Liu, Guowen; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-09-16

    A simple procedure for selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays is reported. The correct weighting factor is determined by the relationship between the standard deviation of instrument responses (σ) and the concentrations (x). The weighting factor of 1, 1/x, or 1/x(2) should be selected if, over the entire concentration range, σ is a constant, σ(2) is proportional to x, or σ is proportional to x, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrated with detailed scientific reasoning, solid historical data, and convincing justification that 1/x(2) should always be used as the weighting factor for all bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays. The impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance were thoroughly investigated. It was found that the most stable curve could be obtained when the correct weighting factor was used, whereas other curves using incorrect weighting factors were unstable. It was also found that there was a very insignificant impact on the concentrations reported with calibration curves using incorrect weighting factors as the concentrations were always reported with the passing curves which actually overlapped with or were very close to the curves using the correct weighting factor. However, the use of incorrect weighting factors did impact the assay performance significantly. Finally, the difference between the weighting factors of 1/x(2) and 1/y(2) was discussed. All of the findings can be generalized and applied into other quantitative analysis techniques using calibration curves with weighted least-squares regression algorithm.

  3. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, A.T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Krasnokutsky, Michael V. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tacoma, WA (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland [Lucas Center, Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  4. The influence of magnetic field on ballistic performance of aramid fibre and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.C.; Ruan, D.; Sesso, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ballistic tests conducted on Kevlar and UHMWPE within a magnetic field. • Repulsion force created by opposing magnet poles reduced the impact momentum. • High speed camera images showed no perforation on Kevlar due to magnetic field. • Standoff distance between magnets has an effect on the repulsion force. - Abstract: An innovative method is introduced here whereby using two sets of arrays of rare earth magnets aligned opposite each other in order to create a repulsion force owing to the like poles when facing close to each other. Ballistic test samples of aramid fibre (Kevlar K29) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were sandwiched by two sets of opposing magnets. Ballistic test was conducted using a gas gun with a 7.62 mm diameter projectile at a velocity ranging from 160 to 220 m/s. High speed camera was used to capture the ballistics testing and it shows that the magnetic repulsion force created by the opposing rare earth magnets managed to suppress the projectile from advancing into the front face of the aramid fibre. Similarly, when magnets were used, the UHMWPE sample shows the projectile perforated through the first few sheets and finally rested on the last sheet showing partial perforation

  5. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertinsky, A.T.; Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D.; Krasnokutsky, Michael V.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland

    2009-01-01

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  6. Description of light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report describes pre-crash scenarios that might be addressed by vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The focus is on crashes involving at least 1 light vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. The 2004-2008 General Esti...

  7. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  8. Adolescent Weight Status and Self-Reported School Performance in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Young Kyung; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old) and high school (16–18 years old) students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1) overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2) overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3) the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated throu...

  9. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  10. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  11. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (weight (weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...... the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling...

  12. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  13. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  14. Implications of fin profiles on overall performance and weight reduction of a fin and tube heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Simonsen, Anders Schou

    2017-01-01

    Fin and tube heat exchangers are being used in several industrial applications by means of novel design and optimized performance. Improvements in geometric design may deliver energy efficient and cost-effective heat exchanger performance with reduced weight. In this paper, a systematic study...... on a cross-flow type fin and tube heat exchanger design for a waste heat recovery application is conducted. The geometric profile of the fin is characterized by a dimensionless design variable named aspect ratio which is parametrically varied to obtain different profiles. Two cases, case-I, and case......,000 using computational fluid dynamics. The numerical results obtained for the reference fin profile are verified with the experimental correlations. Dimensionless parameters such as Nusselt number, Euler number, and efficiency index are calculated to predict the overall performance of the heat exchanger...

  15. Modeling and simulation performance of photovoltaic system integration battery and supercapacitor paralellization of MPPT prototipe for solar vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme photovoltaic, battery and super capacitor connected in parallel for use in a solar vehicle. Based on the features of battery charging, the control scheme consists of three modes, namely, mode dynamic irradian, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode. The shift of the three modes can be realized by controlling the duty cycle of the mosffet Boost converter system. Meanwhile, the high voltage which is more suitable for the application can be obtained. Compared with normal charging method with parallel connected current limiting detention and charging method with dynamic irradian mode, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode, the control scheme is proposed to shorten the charging time and increase the use of power generated from the PV array. From the simulation results and analysis conducted to determine the performance of the system in state transient and steady-state by using simulation software Matlab / Simulink. Response simulation results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed concept.

  16. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  17. A High-Performance Control Method of Constant V/f-Controlled Induction Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase induction motor used as a propulsion system for the electric vehicle (EV is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output, and strong coupling system. For such a complicated model system with unmeasured and unavoidable disturbances, as well as parameter variations, the conventional vector control method cannot meet the demands of high-performance control. Therefore, a novel control strategy named least squares support vector machines (LSSVM inverse control is presented in the paper. Invertibility of the induction motor in the constant V/f control mode is proved to confirm its feasibility. The LSSVM inverse is composed of an LSSVM approximating the nonlinear mapping of the induction motor and two integrators. The inverse model of the constant V/f-controlled induction motor drive is obtained by using LSSVM, and then the optimal parameters of LSSVM are determined automatically by applying a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO. Cascading the LSSVM inverse with the induction motor drive system, the pseudolinear system can be obtained. Thus, it is easy to design the closed-loop linear regulator. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  19. The association of self-reported sleep, weight status, and academic performance in fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Nanette; McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O

    2013-02-01

    To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students' health behaviors affect academic performance. Fifth-grade students completed an online school-administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. One third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched television ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of television watching. Sufficient sleep (≥9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily television watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and television watching were associated with academic performance. More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students' health academic performance as well. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. Performance evaluation of an algorithm for fast optimization of beam weights in anatomy-based intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, Vaitheeswaran; Sathiya Narayanan, V.K.; Bhangle, Janhavi R.; Gupta, Kamlesh K.; Basu, Sumit; Maiya, Vikram; Joseph, Jolly; Nirhali, Amit

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm for optimization of beam weights in anatomy-based intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The algorithm uses a numerical technique called Gaussian-Elimination that derives the optimum beam weights in an exact or non-iterative way. The distinct feature of the algorithm is that it takes only fraction of a second to optimize the beam weights, irrespective of the complexity of the given case. The algorithm has been implemented using MATLAB with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) option for convenient specification of dose constraints and penalties to different structures. We have tested the numerical and clinical capabilities of the proposed algorithm in several patient cases in comparison with KonRad inverse planning system. The comparative analysis shows that the algorithm can generate anatomy-based IMRT plans with about 50% reduction in number of MUs and 60% reduction in number of apertures, while producing dose distribution comparable to that of beamlet-based IMRT plans. Hence, it is clearly evident from the study that the proposed algorithm can be effectively used for clinical applications. (author)

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  2. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO{sub 2} emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO{sub 2} emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO{sub 2} emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO{sub 2} emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO{sub 2} emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO{sub 2} emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO{sub 2} emissions should, therefore, be adapted. (author)

  3. Experimental investigation on performance of lithium-ion battery thermal management system using flat plate loop heat pipe for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Pamungkas, Rangga Aji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) is studied in the thermal management system for electric vehicle. • Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone on thermal performances of FPLHP were tested. • The FPLHP can start up at fairly low heat load. • Temperature overshoot phenomena were observed during the start-up period. - Abstract: The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this growth is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can cause serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight and compact size, and they do not require external power supply. This study examined experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gave the best performance that produces a thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm"2.

  4. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  5. Airframe Integration Trade Studies for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, Chauncey; Rivers, Kevin; Martin, Carl; Smith, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Future launch vehicles must be lightweight, fully reusable and easily maintained if low-cost access to space is to be achieved. The goal of achieving an economically viable Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is not easily achieved and success will depend to a large extent on having an integrated and optimized total system. A series of trade studies were performed to meet three objectives. First, to provide structural weights and parametric weight equations as inputs to configuration-level trade studies. Second, to identify, assess and quantify major weight drivers for the RLV airframe. Third, using information on major weight drivers, and considering the RLV as an integrated thermal structure (composed of thrust structures, tanks, thermal protection system, insulation and control surfaces), identify and assess new and innovative approaches or concepts that have the potential for either reducing airframe weight, improving operability, and/or reducing cost.

  6. Improving heavy vehicle safety and road transport efficiency: a Performance-Based Standards approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. To date, 450 permits for PBS demonstration vehicles (including 200 car...

  7. The near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Performance specifications were determined for a hybrid vehicle designed to achieve the greatest reduction in fuel consumption. Based on the results of systems level studies, a baseline vehicle was constructed with the following basic paramaters: a heat engine power peak of 53 kW (VW gasoline engine); a traction motor power peak of 30 kW (Siemens 1GV1, separately excited); a heat engine fraction of 0.64; a vehicle curb weight of 2080 kg; a lead acid battery (35 kg weight); and a battery weight fraction of 0.17. The heat engine and the traction motor are coupled together with their combined output driving a 3 speed automatic transmission with lockup torque converter. The heat engine is equipped withe a clutch which allows it to be decoupled from the system.

  8. Sedentary behavior during school-time: Sociodemographic, weight status, physical education class, and school performance correlates in Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno G G; da Silva, Kelly S; George, Amanda M; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether sedentary behavior during school-time is associated with gender, age, mother's education, having physical education classes, weight status, and academic performance. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 571 children (7-12 years old) from five elementary schools in Florianopolis, South Brazil had their height and weight measured, and wore accelerometers during class time. Teachers completed a form to evaluate children's reading and writing skills. Parents provided sociodemographic and educational information. Data was analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Children spent an average of 132min in sedentary behavior during school-time (64% of total school-time). Girls (137.5min), obese children (138.1min), older children (144.2min), and those who did not have physical education classes (140.2min) spent more time engaged in sedentary activities than their peers. Academic performance and mother's education were not associated with sedentary behaviors. Children spent most of their school-time in sedentary activities, with girls, older students, and obese students being even more sedentary than their peers. Physical education classes were a protective factor against excessive sedentary behavior in school. Interventions for reducing sedentary behavior during school-time could employ additional strategies to benefit the at risk groups. In addition, encouraging student's participation in physical education classes could minimize the time spent in sedentary behavior during school hours. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperformance: predicting high-speed performance of a b-double

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of the vehicles. The prediction model bridges that gap in the form of a light-weight methodology to predict the PBS performance of a new vehicle design given a set of vehicle input data. Such a model was developed for typical South African 9-axle B-double PBS...

  10. Development and Demonstration of a Magnesium-Intensive Vehicle Front-End Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Forsmark, Joy H. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Osborne, Richard [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project is the final phase (designated Phase III) of an extensive, nine-year effort with the objectives of developing a knowledge base and enabling technologies for the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of magnesium-intensive automotive front-end substructures intended to partially or completely replace all-steel comparators, providing a weight savings approaching 50% of the baseline. Benefits of extensive vehicle weight reduction in terms of fuel economy increase, extended vehicle range, vehicle performance and commensurate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are well known. An exemplary vehicle substructure considered by the project is illustrated in Figure 1, along with the exterior vehicle appearance. This unibody front-end “substructure” is one physical objective of the ultimate design and engineering aspects established at the outset of the larger collective effort.

  11. The Role of Guidance, Navigation, and Control in Hypersonic Vehicle Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Soloway, Donald I.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Wolpert, David H.; Benavides, Jose Victor

    2009-01-01

    Airbreathing hypersonic systems offer distinct performance advantages over rocket-based systems for space access vehicles. However, these performance advantages are dependent upon advances in current state-of-the-art technologies in many areas such as ram/scramjet propulsion integration, high temperature materials, aero-elastic structures, thermal protection systems, transition to hypersonics and hypersonic control elements within the framework of complex physics and new design methods. The complex interactions between elements of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle represent a new paradigm in vehicle design to achieve the optimal performance necessary to meet space access mission objectives. In the past, guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) analysis often follows completion of the vehicle conceptual design process. Individual component groups design subsystems which are then integrated into a vehicle configuration. GNC is presented the task of developing control approaches to meet vehicle performance objectives given that configuration. This approach may be sufficient for vehicles where significant performance margins exist. However, for higher performance vehicles engaging the GNC discipline too late in the design cycle has been costly. For example, the X-29 experimental flight vehicle was built as a technology demonstrator. One of the many technologies to be demonstrated was the use of light-weight material composites for structural components. The use of light-weight materials increased the flexibility of the X- 29 beyond that of conventional metal alloy constructed aircraft. This effect was not considered when the vehicle control system was designed and built. The impact of this is that the control system did not have enough control authority to compensate for the effects of the first fundamental structural mode of the vehicle. As a result, the resulting pitch rate response of the vehicle was below specification and no post-design changes could recover the

  12. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  13. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bloom, Ira D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dees, Dennis W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  14. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  15. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  16. Performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights of laying hens fed diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-08-17

    The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combination as a synbiotic have been considered as potential alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide, IMO), a probiotic (PrimaLac®), and their combination (synbiotic) on hen performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights from 20 to 52 weeks of age. Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P feed intake and egg production at 20-36 weeks of age; body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and egg mass at 20-36 and 20-52 weeks of age; and egg weight at 20-36, 37-52 and 20-52 weeks of age. Compared to control-fed hens at 20-36 weeks of age, PRO- and SYN-fed hens produced less (P hens produced more large size eggs. From 37 to 52 weeks of age, PRE-, PRO- or SYN-fed hens produced less (P hens from 20 to 52 weeks of age. These results demonstrated the use of PRE, PRO and SYN as alternative feed additives to AGPs for improving the health and productivity of hens, while PRO is the best for commercial layer production to yield maximum profit.

  17. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Steinbugler, Margaret M.; Kreutz, Thomas G.

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., gasoline, diesel, or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we present modeling results comparing three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: (a) compressed gas hydrogen storage, (b) onboard steam reforming of methanol, (c) onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. We have developed a fuel cell vehicle model, including detailed models of onboard fuel processors. This allows us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various vehicle parameters, fuel storage choices and driving cycles. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and gasoline, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. The delivered fuel cost, total lifecycle cost of transportation, and capital cost of infrastructure development are estimated for each alternative. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, possible fuel strategies leading to the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are discussed.

  18. Neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Alexandre Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be consensus that intrauterine influences during human development have long-term implications. The hypothesis has been raised that alterations in an individual’s life cycle provoke lesions, some of them irreversible. The objectives of this study were: (1 to call attention to the problem of distance effects of neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight in children and youngsters; (2 to present relevant aspects of the conceptual framework of fetal programming and its interpretive relevance for deficits in motor performance and coordination. A Pubmed database search was performed using different key words and their possible combinations. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and case-control studies evaluating motor performance and fetal programming were selected. Motor deficit levels ranged from 4% to 51% in the European population and from 4% to 56% in the North American population. A study involving the Australian population reported a motor coordination deficit of 9.5%. There is no absolute agreement regarding the extent, reversibility and significance of motor deficits in view of the wide variability in deficit levels. The mechanisms that will induce problems in the neuromotor development of children, youngsters and adults under adverse conditions of fetal development are unknown and cannot be compensated for by sensorimotor stimulation.

  19. High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from

  20. Impact resistance performance of green construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced bamboo concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muda, Z C; Usman, F; Beddu, S; Alam, M A; Thiruchelvam, S; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Saadi, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced with different thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter for a constant spacing for various slab thickness using 0.45 OPS and 0.6 OPS bamboo reinforced concrete. The increment in bamboo diameter has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Increment in slab thickness of the slab has more effect on the crack resistance as compare to the increment in the diameter of the bamboo reinforcement.

  1. Performance measurement evaluation framework and co-benefit / tradeoff analysis for connected and automated vehicles (CAV) applications : a survey : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A number of Connected and/or Automated Vehicle (CAV) applications have recently been designed to improve the performance of our transportation system. Safety, mobility and environmental sustainability are three cornerstone performance metrics when ev...

  2. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  4. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  5. Initiative to introduce a performance-based standards (PBS) approach for heavy vehicle design and operations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of PBS for heavy vehicles in South Africa was first identified in the National Overload Control Strategy as a potential concession of a proposed Self-regulation initiative. In August 2004 a PBS committee was established...

  6. Performance of UWB Array-Based Radar Sensor in a Multi-Sensor Vehicle-Based Suit for Landmine Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.; Savelyev, T.; Zhuge, X.; Aubry, P.; Ligthart, L.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Tettelaar, P.; Breejen, E. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, integration of an UWB array-based timedomain radar sensor in a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor system for landmine detection is described. Dedicated real-time signal processing algorithms are developed to compute the radar sensor confidence map which is used for sensor fusion.

  7. Electrochemical modeling and performance evaluation of a new ammonia-based battery thermal management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    The operating temperatures of lithium ion battery packs in electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles need to be maintained in an optimum range for better performance and longer battery life. This paper proposes a new battery pack cooling system that utilizes the low saturation temperature of the fuel in ammonia based future hybrid electric vehicles. In the proposed cooling system, the batteries are partially submerged in to the liquid ammonia, and the liquid ammonia cools the battery by absorbing the heat and evaporating and the ammonia vapor cools the part of the battery not covered by liquid ammonia. The relationships between the performance of the battery cooling system and the maximum temperature (and the temperature distribution) in the battery are investigated for practical applications. The effect of the length of the battery that is submerged in to the liquid ammonia on the thermal performance of battery is studied and evaluated. The present results show that the proposed ammonia based cooling system offers a unique opportunity to maintain the operating temperature of the battery in an optimum range for consecutive charging and discharging phases at a high rate of 7.5C.

  8. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  9. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  10. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjusted loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.094-2 or 86.1803-01 as applicable. For all other vehicles, test weight basis shall be loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.082-2 or 86.1803-01 as... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and...

  11. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Collins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg. Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively, weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC, and gender (male and female. Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days. In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031. Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056. There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001. Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age in order to maximise financial returns.

  12. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  13. The effects of using of mineral and organic toxin absorbents on broiler performance and internal organs weight in experimental aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Heidarpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds is a problem of major concern in all over the world. Profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of these toxins on the performance. Aflatoxins, a group of closely related and biologically active mycotoxins, are produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They commonly occur as natural contaminant of poultry feeds. Domestic animal species such as chickens, ducks, cattle and turkeys consuming sublethal doses of aflatoxins for several days developed a toxic syndrome in which liver damage was the most significant change. The biological effects of aflatoxins could be categorized into two groups, long term and short term effects. Long term effects included chronic toxicity, cancer, birth defects and genetic alterations. Aflatoxins affected all poultry species, although they generally take relatively high levels to cause mortality, low levels can be detrimental if continually fed. Material and Methods This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mineral, organic toxin absorbents, humic acid and yeast cell wall on performance and internal organs weight of broilers in experimental aflatoxicosis. This study was conducted in a completely randomize design with 432 Ross-308 broilers with 9 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 broilers in each replicate. Treatments included diet without aflatoxin, 2: diet contaminated with aflatoxin, 3: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.20 Humic acid, 4: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.40 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.60 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 6: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 7: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 1.00 Humic acid, 8: diet

  14. Elite Female Basketball Players' Body-Weight Neuromuscular Training and Performance on the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, Roberto; Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio La

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular training enhances unconscious motor responses by stimulating both the afferent signals and central mechanisms responsible for dynamic joint control. Dynamic joint-control training is a vital component of injury-prevention programs. To investigate the effects of body-weight neuromuscular training on Y-Balance Test (YBT) performance and postural control in female basketball players. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Basketball practice sessions. A total of 28 healthy elite female basketball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 14) or a control group (n = 14). Before their regular practice sessions, the experimental group warmed up with body-weight neuromuscular exercises and the control group with standard tactical-technical exercises twice weekly for 8 weeks. Anterior-, posteromedial-, and posterolateral-reach and composite YBT scores were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. Improvement over baseline scores was noted in the posteromedial (right = 86.5 ± 4.5 cm versus 89.6 ± 2.2 cm, +3.5%, P = .049; left = 85.5 ± 4.3 cm versus 90.2 ± 2.7 cm, +5.5%, P = .038)- and posterolateral (right = 90.7 ± 3.6 cm versus 94.0 ± 2.7 cm, +3.6%, P = .016; left = 90.9 ± 3.5 cm versus 94.2 ± 2.6 cm, +3.6%, P = .011)-reach directions and in the composite YBT scores (right = 88.6% ± 3.2% versus 94.0% ± 1.8%, +5.4%, P = .0004; left = 89.2% ± 3.2% versus 94.5% ± 3.0%, +5.8%, P = .001) of the experimental group. No differences in anterior reach were detected in either group. Differences were noted in postintervention scores for posteromedial reach (right = 89.6 ± 2.2 cm versus 84.3 ± 4.4 cm, +4.1%, P = .005; left = 94.2 ± 2.6 cm versus 84.8 ± 4.4 cm, +10%, P = .003) and composite scores (right = 94.0% ± 1.8% versus 87.3% ± 2.0%, +7.1%, P = .003; left = 94.8% ± 3.0% versus 87.9% ± 3.4%, +7.3%, P weight neuromuscular training improved postural control and lower limb stability in female basketball players as assessed with the

  15. The Effect of Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on the Mechanical, Energy and Environmental Performance of In-Use Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Tibaquirá

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ethanol in gasoline has become a worldwide tendency as an alternative to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, increasing gasoline octane rating and reducing dependence on petroleum products. However, recently environmental authorities in large urban centers have expressed their concerns on the true effect of using ethanol blends of up to 20% v/v in in-use vehicles without any modification in the setup of the engine control unit (ECU, and on the variations of these effects along the years of operation of these vehicles. Their main concern is the potential increase in the emissions of volatile organic compounds with high ozone formation potential. To address these concerns, we developed analytical and experimental work testing engines under steady-conditions. We also tested carbureted and fuel-injected vehicles every 10,000 km during their first 100,000 km of operation. We measured the effect of using ethanol-gasoline blends on the power and torque generated, the fuel consumption and CO2, CO, NOx and unburned hydrocarbon emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene and 1,3-butadiene which are considered important ozone precursors. The obtained results showed statistically no significant differences in these variables when vehicles operate with a blend of 20% v/v ethanol and 80% v/v gasoline (E20 instead of gasoline. Those results remained unchanged during the first 100,000 km of operation of the vehicles. We also observed that when the vehicles operated with E20 at high engine loads, they showed a tendency to operate with greater values of λ (ratio of the actual air-fuel ratio to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio when compared to their operation with gasoline. According to the Eco-Indicator-99, these results represent a minor reduction (<1.3% on the impact to human health, and on the deterioration of the ecosystem. However, it implies a 12.9% deterioration of the natural

  16. Forecasting of a ground-coupled heat pump performance using neural networks with statistical data weighting pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) with a statistical weighted pre-processing (SWP) method to learn to predict ground source heat pump (GCHP) systems with the minimum data set. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Air temperatures entering/leaving condenser unit, water-antifreeze solution entering/leaving the horizontal ground heat exchangers and ground temperatures (1 and 2 m) were used as input layer, while the output is coefficient of performance (COP) of system. Some statistical methods, such as the root-mean squared (RMS), the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) and the coefficient of variation (cov) is used to compare predicted and actual values for model validation. It is found that RMS value is 0.074, R{sup 2} value is 0.9999 and cov value is 2.22 for SCG6 algorithm of only ANN structure. It is also found that RMS value is 0.002, R{sup 2} value is 0.9999 and cov value is 0.076 for SCG6 algorithm of SWP-ANN structure. The simulation results show that the SWP based networks can be used an alternative way in these systems. Therefore, instead of limited experimental data found in literature, faster and simpler solutions are obtained using hybridized structures such as SWP-ANN. (author)

  17. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  19. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.229-94 Section 86.229-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels... vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up-1,062 1,000 1,000...

  20. Performance Evaluation of an Anti-Lock Braking System for Electric Vehicles with a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Jingang Guo; Xiaoping Jian; Guangyu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional friction braking torque and motor braking torque can be used in braking for electric vehicles (EVs). A sliding mode controller (SMC) based on the exponential reaching law for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is developed to maintain the optimal slip value. Parameter optimizing is applied to the reaching law by fuzzy logic control (FLC). A regenerative braking algorithm, in which the motor torque is taken full advantage of, is adopted to distribute the braking force between the m...

  1. Balance of Performance Parameters for Survivability and Mobility in the Demonstrator for Novel Design (DFND) Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Standardization Agency, "Procedures For Evaluating the Protection Level of Logistic and Light Armoured Vehicles", NATO/PfP STANAG 4569, AEP- 55, Volume 2, 2006...not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Az Center Blast Static

  2. Army Justified Initial Production Plan for the Paladin Integrated Management Program but Has Not Resolved Two Vehicle Performance Deficiencies (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    model oversight organization in the Federal Government by leading change, speaking truth, and promoting excellence—a diverse organization, working ...VIRGINIA 22350-1500 August 5, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR AUDITOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Army Justified Initial Production Plan for the Paladin... Family of Vehicles, M109A7 Self-Propelled Howitzer and M992A3 Carrier, Ammunition, Tracked, October 2015; • M109A7 AFES Overview, September 2015

  3. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  4. Optimization of a fuel cell powertrain for a sport utility vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.B.; Mendes, C.; Mali, T.J.; Fowler, M.W.; Fraser, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    A central composite design was utilized to study the effects of fuel cell powertrain sizing and efficiencies on vehicle performance based on a Chevrolet Equinox platform. Simulations were performed using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a vehicle simulator that constructs and executes various Simulink vehicle models. Once parametric equations relating performance metrics and subcomponent sizing and efficiency were fit, optimal design points were obtained using non-linear optimization. Optimized architectures were used to compare fuel cell powertrains incorporating ultracapacitors, nickel-metal hydride battery packs, and lithium-ion battery packs. The performance metrics also provided a basis for comparison with conventional, battery, and hybrid configurations. The fuel cell configurations exhibited similar or improved acceleration performance, with approximately double the mileage of the stock vehicle. The range of the fuel cell Equinox was reduced from the stock vehicle to approximately 300 miles. The battery vehicles showed the highest efficiencies and mileages, but exhibited an unacceptable range of approximately 100 miles. The hybrid configuration showed notable improvements over the stock vehicle, but still lacked the degree of benefits provided by the fuel cell (FCVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Also, the acceleration time for the hybrid vehicle was sluggish, likely due to the increase weight of the configuration. The work described in this study was performed by members of the University Of Waterloo Alternate Fuels Team (UWAFT) as part of the Challenge X Vehicle Competition. (author)

  5. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  6. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  7. Reducing Weight for Transportation Applications: Technology Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Alan I.

    Today's land, sea and air transportation industries — as a business necessity — are focused on technology solutions that will make vehicles more sustainable in terms of energy, the environment, safety and affordability. Reducing vehicle weight is a key enabler for meeting these challenges as well as increasing payload and improving performance. The potential weight reductions from substituting lightweight metals (advanced high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys) are well established. For magnesium castings, weight savings of 60% have been reported [1]. The value of weight reduction depends on the transportation sector and ranges from about 5/kg saved for automobiles to over 500/kg saved for aircraft [2]. The challenge is to optimize the material properties and develop robust, high volume, manufacturing technologies and the associated supply chain to fabricate components and subsystems at the appropriate cost for each application.

  8. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  10. Development of a light-weight beryllium Cassegrain telescope: from the optical design to the performance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viertl, Jacques; Greger, Ralf; Di Domenico, Maurizio; Francou, Laurent; Ellouzi, Marina; Blum, Steffen; Kudielka, Klaus; Weigel, Thomas; Rugi Grond, Elisabetta; Piazza, Daniele

    2012-12-01

    The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) is selected to fly on board of the ESA's BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). The instrument will be the first European planetary laser altimeter system. RUAG Space is the industrial prime for the Receiver part of the scientific instrument. The BELA Receiver is a joined effort of Swiss industries under the leading role of RUAG and University of Bern as co-Prime. A core element is the light weighted Receiver Telescope (RTL), to collect the laser pulse reflected from the planet's surface. An innovative design was required to deal with the very challenging Mercury's environmental conditions and with the very stringent instrument's mass budget. The Optothermo- mechanical analyses lead to the design of a 1250mm focal length Cassegrain telescope made of Beryllium. It provides an aperture of 204 mm diameter and a 2 mm thick primary mirror for a total mass of less than 600gr. The manufacturing and the integration needed special developments. This paper presents the design analyses and the major challenges which had to be solved. Discussing some aspects of the telescope integration and test campaign, the finally achieved performances and lessons learnt will be presented.

  11. Predicting performance of a ground-source heat pump system using fuzzy weighted pre-processing-based ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The goal of this work is to predict the daily performance (COP) of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with the minimum data set based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with a fuzzy weighted pre-processing (FWP) method. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal (FWP-ANFIS), a computer simulation is developed on MATLAB environment. The comparison of the proposed hybridized system's results with the standard ANFIS results is carried out and the results are given in the tables. The efficiency of the proposed method was demonstrated by using the 3-fold cross-validation test. The statistical methods, such as the root-mean squared (RMS), the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) and the coefficient of variation (cov), are given to compare the predicted and actual values for model validation. The average R{sup 2} values is 0.9998, the average RMS value is 0.0272 and the average cov value is 0.7733, which can be considered as very promising. The data set for the COP of GSHP system available included 38 data patterns. The simulation results show that the FWP-based ANFIS can be used in an alternative way in these systems. The prediction results of the proposed structure were much better than the standard ANFIS results. Therefore, instead of limited experimental data found in the literature, faster and simpler solutions are obtained using hybridized structures such as FWP-based ANFIS. (author)

  12. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  13. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosun, Mesude; Inan, Nagihan; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Akansel, Gur; Gumustas, Sevtap; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Demirci, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 . ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm 2 , the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade

  14. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Mesude, E-mail: mesude.tosun@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: inannagihan@ekolay.net [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin, E-mail: htssarisoy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gürbüz, Yeşim, E-mail: yesimgurbuz2002@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Demirci, Ali, E-mail: alidemirci@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade.

  15. Design of Omni Directional Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimuddin; Hasan, Hasnawiya; Rivai, Haryanti A.; Iskandar, Yanu; Claudio, P.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, underwater activities are increased with the increase of oil resources finding. The gap between demand and supply of oil and gas cause engineers to find oil and gas resources in deep water. In other side, high risk of working in deep underwater environment can cause a dangerous situation for human. Therefore, many research activities are developing an underwater vehicle to replace the human’s work such as ROV or Remotely Operated Vehicles. The vehicle operated using tether to transport the signals and electric power from the surface vehicle. Arrangements of weight, buoyancy, and the propeller placements are significant aspect in designing the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents design concept of ROV for survey and observation the underwater objects with interaction vectored propellers used for vehicle’s motions.

  16. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis in diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Samir, Sieza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Excellent inter-observer agreement of ADC of bony lesions in diabetic foot. • ADC can differentiate diabetic osteoarthropathy from osteomylitis. • Diffusion MR imaging can added to routine MR imaging of diabetic foot. - Abstract: Purpose: To study the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted MR imaging in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis in diabetic foot. Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out on 41 patients with diabetic foot, 22 males and 19 females with mean age of 51 years. They underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the foot. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the bony lesions were calculated by two reviewers and correlated with the surgical findings or biopsy. The kappa statistic (k) was used to estimate the proportion of inter-observer agreement of two reviewers. Results: The mean ADC of acute diabetic osteoarthropathy was 1.27 ± 0.19 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s for reviewer 1 and 1.26 ± 0.21 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s for reviewer 2. The mean ADC value in diabetic osteomyelitis was 0.86 ± 0.11 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s for reviewer 1 and 0.85 ± 0.12 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s for reviewer 2. There was excellent inter-observer agreement of ADC value of bony lesions in diabetic foot by both reviewers (K = 0.93). There was statistically significant difference in the ADC values of both groups (P = 0.001). The cut-off point of ADC value of both reviewers used in differentiating acute diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis were 0.98 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s and 1.04 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s with an accuracy of 94% and 93% and area under the curve of 0.94 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that the ADC value is a non-invasive imaging parameter that can help in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy from osteomyelitis with excellent inter-observer agreement.

  17. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis in diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek, E-mail: arazek@mans.edu.eg; Samir, Sieza, E-mail: Sieza_s@mans.edu.eg

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Excellent inter-observer agreement of ADC of bony lesions in diabetic foot. • ADC can differentiate diabetic osteoarthropathy from osteomylitis. • Diffusion MR imaging can added to routine MR imaging of diabetic foot. - Abstract: Purpose: To study the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted MR imaging in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis in diabetic foot. Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out on 41 patients with diabetic foot, 22 males and 19 females with mean age of 51 years. They underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the foot. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the bony lesions were calculated by two reviewers and correlated with the surgical findings or biopsy. The kappa statistic (k) was used to estimate the proportion of inter-observer agreement of two reviewers. Results: The mean ADC of acute diabetic osteoarthropathy was 1.27 ± 0.19 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s for reviewer 1 and 1.26 ± 0.21 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s for reviewer 2. The mean ADC value in diabetic osteomyelitis was 0.86 ± 0.11 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s for reviewer 1 and 0.85 ± 0.12 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s for reviewer 2. There was excellent inter-observer agreement of ADC value of bony lesions in diabetic foot by both reviewers (K = 0.93). There was statistically significant difference in the ADC values of both groups (P = 0.001). The cut-off point of ADC value of both reviewers used in differentiating acute diabetic osteoarthropathy and osteomyelitis were 0.98 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and 1.04 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s with an accuracy of 94% and 93% and area under the curve of 0.94 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that the ADC value is a non-invasive imaging parameter that can help in differentiation of diabetic osteoarthropathy from osteomyelitis with excellent inter-observer agreement.

  18. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  19. The Effects of 24 weeks of Resistance Training with Simultaneous Elastic and Free Weight Loading on Muscular Performance of Novice Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Ramirez, David A; Rovetti, Robert J; Kohler, David R; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of variable resistance as provided through elastic plus free weight techniques in college aged males and females. Twenty novice lifters were randomly assigned to a traditional free weight only (6 males and 5 females) or elastic band plus free weight group (5 males and 5 females) and 9 more normally active controls (5 males and 4 females), were recruited to maintain normal activity for the duration of the study. No differences existed between control, free weight and elastic band at baseline for age, body height, body mass, body mass index, and body fat percentage. One-repetition maximums were performed for squat and bench press while both strength and power were assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Elastic groups and free-weight groups completed 24 weeks of whole body, periodized, high intensity resistance (65-95% of one-repetition maximum) training three times/week. Training programs were identical except that the elastic group trained the barbell squat, bench press and stiff-legged deadlift with 20-35% of their total prescribed training loads coming from band resistance (assessed at the top of the range of motion) with the remainder from free weight resistance. A mixed-model analysis revealed that peak torque, average power and one-repetition maximums for squat were significantly greater after training for the elastic group compared to the control (pfree weight group also showed significantly greater improvements over the control in peak torque and one-repetition maximums for squat and bench press. No significant differences were observed between the elastic band and free weight groups. Combined variable elastic band plus free weight exercises are effective at increasing strength and power similar to free-weights alone in novice college aged males and females. However, due to complexity in set-up and load assignment elastic adoption by novice lifters in an unsupervised situation is not advised.

  20. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  1. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  2. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  3. All-Polymer Solar Cell Performance Optimized via Systematic Molecular Weight Tuning of Both Donor and Acceptor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Li, Ting I N G; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Guo, Peijun; Liao, Hsueh-Chung; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-02-03

    The influence of the number-average molecular weight (Mn) on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of all-polymer solar cells (APSCs) fabricated with the donor polymer poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-1,3-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-5,5-(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thiophene)] (PTPD3T) and acceptor polymer poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2); N2200) is systematically investigated. The Mn effect analysis of both PTPD3T and N2200 is enabled by implementing a polymerization strategy which produces conjugated polymers with tunable Mns. Experimental and coarse-grain modeling results reveal that systematic Mn variation greatly influences both intrachain and interchain interactions and ultimately the degree of phase separation and morphology evolution. Specifically, increasing Mn for both polymers shrinks blend film domain sizes and enhances donor-acceptor polymer-polymer interfacial areas, affording increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc). However, the greater disorder and intermixed feature proliferation accompanying increasing Mn promotes charge carrier recombination, reducing cell fill factors (FF). The optimized photoactive layers exhibit well-balanced exciton dissociation and charge transport characteristics, ultimately providing solar cells with a 2-fold PCE enhancement versus devices with nonoptimal Mns. Overall, it is shown that proper and precise tuning of both donor and acceptor polymer Mns is critical for optimizing APSC performance. In contrast to reports where maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are achieved for the highest Mns, the present two-dimensional Mn optimization matrix strategy locates a PCE "sweet spot" at intermediate Mns of both donor and acceptor polymers. This study provides synthetic methodologies to predictably access conjugated polymers with desired Mn and highlights the importance of optimizing Mn for both polymer

  4. Retrofit Weight-Loss Outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 Months and Characteristics of 12-Month High Performers: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie; Ditsch, Gary; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hanson, Nicholas Buck; Kachin, Kevin; Berger, Jan

    2016-08-22

    Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death costing the health care system billions of dollars. Combining self-monitoring technology with personalized behavior change strategies results in clinically significant weight loss. However, there is a lack of real-world outcomes in commercial weight-loss program research. Retrofit is a personalized weight management and disease-prevention solution. This study aimed to report Retrofit's weight-loss outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months and characterize behaviors, age, and sex of high-performing participants who achieved weight loss of 10% or greater at 12 months. A retrospective analysis was performed from 2011 to 2014 using 2720 participants enrolled in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants had a starting body mass index (BMI) of >25 kg/m² and were at least 18 years of age. Weight measurements were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months in the program to evaluate change in body weight, BMI, and percentage of participants who achieved 5% or greater weight loss. A secondary analysis characterized high-performing participants who lost ≥10% of their starting weight (n=238). Characterized behaviors were evaluated, including self-monitoring through weigh-ins, number of days wearing an activity tracker, daily step count average, and engagement through coaching conversations via Web-based messages, and number of coaching sessions attended. Average weight loss at 6 months was -5.55% for male and -4.86% for female participants. Male and female participants had an average weight loss of -6.28% and -5.37% at 12 months, respectively. Average weight loss at 24 months was -5.03% and -3.15% for males and females, respectively. Behaviors of high-performing participants were assessed at 12 months. Number of weigh-ins were greater in high-performing male (197.3 times vs 165.4 times, P=.001) and female participants (222 times vs 167 times, Pactivity tracker days and average steps per day were greater in high-performing females (304.7 vs

  5. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Klaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001, while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001. The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  6. Deficits in vision and visual attention associated with motor performance of very preterm/very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; van Hus, Janeline W P; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2016-01-01

    To extend understanding of impaired motor functioning of very preterm (VP)/very low birth weight (VLBW) children by investigating its relationship with visual attention, visual and visual-motor functioning. Motor functioning (Movement Assessment Battery for Children, MABC-2; Manual Dexterity, Aiming & Catching, and Balance component), as well as visual attention (attention network and visual search tests), vision (oculomotor, visual sensory and perceptive functioning), visual-motor integration (Beery Visual Motor Integration), and neurological status (Touwen examination) were comprehensively assessed in a sample of 106 5.5-year-old VP/VLBW children. Stepwise linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate multivariate associations between deficits in visual attention, oculomotor, visual sensory, perceptive and visual-motor integration functioning, abnormal neurological status, neonatal risk factors, and MABC-2 scores. Abnormal MABC-2 Total or component scores occurred in 23-36% of VP/VLBW children. Visual and visual-motor functioning accounted for 9-11% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores. Visual perceptive deficits only were associated with Aiming & Catching. Abnormal neurological status accounted for an additional 19-30% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores, and 5% of variance in Aiming & Catching, and neonatal risk factors for 3-6% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores. Motor functioning is weakly associated with visual and visual-motor integration deficits and moderately associated with abnormal neurological status, indicating that motor performance reflects long term vulnerability following very preterm birth, and that visual deficits are of minor importance in understanding motor functioning of VP/VLBW children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The application of smart phone, weight-mile truck data to support freight-modeling, performance measures and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Oregon is one of the few states that currently charge a commercial truck weight-mile tax (WMT). The Oregon Department of : Transportation (ODOT) has developed a data-collection system Truck Road Use Electronics (TRUE) to simplify WMT : collec...

  8. Comparison of the diagnostic performances of diffusion parameters in diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Ozgur; Arslan, Arzu; Inan, Nagihan; Anık, Yonca; Sarısoy, Tahsin; Gumustas, Sevtap; Akansel, Gur

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the diffusion parameters measured by conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for discrimination of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and the normal breast. Materials and methods: The study included 52 women with 55 breast lesions (30 malignant, 25 benign). DTI and DWI were performed complementary to dynamic contrast MRI at 3T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI were measured for lesions and contralateral breast parenchyma in each patient. We used b factors of 0, 50, 850, 1000 and 1500 s/mm 2 for DWI and b 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 for DTI. ADC, MD and FA values were compared between malignant and benign lesions, and the normal parenchyma by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Diffusion parameters showed no difference according to menopausal status in the normal breast. ADC and MD values of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than benign lesions and normal parenchyma (p = 0.001). The FA showed no statistical significance. With the cut-off values of ≤1.23 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 0–1000 s/mm 2 ) and ≤1.12 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 0–1500 s/mm 2 ), ADC showed 92.85% and 96.15% sensitivity; 72.22% and 73.52% PPV, respectively. With a cut-off value of ≤1.27 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 1000 s/mm 2 ), MD was 100% sensitive with a PPV of 65.90%. Comparing the diagnostic performance of the parameters in DTI with DWI, we obtained similar efficiency of ADC with b values of 0,1000 and 0,1500 s/mm 2 and MD with a b value of 0, 1000 s/mm 2 (AUC = 0.82 ± 0.07). Conclusion: ADC of DWI and MD of DTI values provide significant discriminative factors for benign and malignant breast lesions. FA measurement was not discriminative. Supported with clinical and dynamic contrast MRI findings, DWI and DTI findings provide significant contribution to the final radiologic decision

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic performances of diffusion parameters in diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Ozgur, E-mail: cakirozgur@hotmail.com; Arslan, Arzu, E-mail: arzu.s.arslan@gmail.com; Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: nagihaninan@yahoo.com.tr; Anık, Yonca, E-mail: yoncaanik@yahoo.com; Sarısoy, Tahsin, E-mail: htsarisoy@yahoo.com; Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@yahoo.com; Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the diffusion parameters measured by conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for discrimination of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and the normal breast. Materials and methods: The study included 52 women with 55 breast lesions (30 malignant, 25 benign). DTI and DWI were performed complementary to dynamic contrast MRI at 3T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI were measured for lesions and contralateral breast parenchyma in each patient. We used b factors of 0, 50, 850, 1000 and 1500 s/mm{sup 2} for DWI and b 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} for DTI. ADC, MD and FA values were compared between malignant and benign lesions, and the normal parenchyma by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Diffusion parameters showed no difference according to menopausal status in the normal breast. ADC and MD values of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than benign lesions and normal parenchyma (p = 0.001). The FA showed no statistical significance. With the cut-off values of ≤1.23 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and ≤1.12 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1500 s/mm{sup 2}), ADC showed 92.85% and 96.15% sensitivity; 72.22% and 73.52% PPV, respectively. With a cut-off value of ≤1.27 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 1000 s/mm{sup 2}), MD was 100% sensitive with a PPV of 65.90%. Comparing the diagnostic performance of the parameters in DTI with DWI, we obtained similar efficiency of ADC with b values of 0,1000 and 0,1500 s/mm{sup 2} and MD with a b value of 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2} (AUC = 0.82 ± 0.07). Conclusion: ADC of DWI and MD of DTI values provide significant discriminative factors for benign and malignant breast lesions. FA measurement was not discriminative. Supported with clinical and dynamic contrast MRI findings, DWI and DTI findings provide significant

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI in prostatic lesions: Diagnostic performance of normalized ADC using normal peripheral prostatic zone as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Taha Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the potential value of the normal peripheral zone as a reference organ to normalize prostatic lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC to improve its evaluation of prostatic lesions. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 38 patients with clinical suspicion of cancer prostate (increased PSA levels (>4 ng/ml, hard prostate in digital rectal examination and who are scheduled to undergo a TRUS-guided biopsy. Conventional and DW-MRI was done and ADC was calculated. The normalized ADC value was calculated by dividing the ADC of lesion by ADC of reference site (healthy peripheral zone. DWI-MRI results were compared to the results of biopsy. Comparison of ADCs and nADCs of benign and malignant lesions was done. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was done. Results: The patients were classified by histopathology into non-malignant group (16 patients and malignant group (22 patients. Significant negative correlation between ADC and normalized ADC (nADC and malignancy was detected. There was no significant difference between the mean ADC of peripheral health prostatic zones (PZ between benign and malignant cases (2.221 ± 0.356 versus 1.99 ± 0.538x10−3 mm2/sec, p = 0.144.There was significant difference between the mean ADC and mean nADC in benign and malignant lesions (1.049 ± 0.217 versus 0.659 ± 0.221x10−3 mm2/sec, p < 0.001 and (0.475 ± 0.055 versus 0.328 ± 0.044, p < 0.001 respectively.There was significant higher diagnostic performance of nADC than ADC with ADC Cut-off value 0.75 × 10−3 mm2/sec and nADC cut-off value 0.39 could significantly differentiate between benign and malignant lesion with sensitivity, specificity, PPV,NPV of 86.36,75,82.61 and 80% respectively, p < 0.0001 for ADC and 95.45, 93.75, 95.45 and 93.75%, p < 0.0001 for nADC. Conclusion: diagnostic performance of nADC using normal peripheral zone is higher than

  11. High performance inkjet-printed metal oxide thin film transistors via addition of insulating polymer with proper molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Cihai; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xiaomin; Chen, Huipeng; Guo, Tailiang

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal oxide thin film transistor (MOTFT) arrays using the inkjet printing process has caused tremendous interest for low-cost and large-area flexible electronic devices. However, the inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays usually exhibited a non-uniform geometry due to the coffee ring effect, which restricted their commercial application. Therefore, in this work, a strategy is reported to control the geometry and enhance device performance of inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays by the addition of an insulating polymer to the precursor solution prior to film deposition. Moreover, the impact of the polymer molecular weight (MW) on the geometry, chemical constitution, crystallization, and MOTFT properties of inkjet-printed metal oxide depositions was investigated. The results demonstrated that with an increase of MW of polystyrene (PS) from 2000 to 200 000, the coffee ring was gradually faded and the coffee ring effect was completely eliminated when MW reached 200 000, which is associated with the enhanced viscosity with the insulating polymer, providing a high resistance to the outward capillary flow, which facilitated the depinning of the contact line, leading to the elimination of the coffee ring. More importantly, the carrier mobility increased significantly from 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 up to 13.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 as PS MW increased from 2000 to 200 000, which was about 3 times that of the pristine In2O3 TFTs. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that PS doping of In2O3 films not only frustrated crystallization but also altered chemical constitution by enhancing the formation of the M-O structure, both of which facilitated the carrier transport. These results demonstrated that the simple polymer additive process provides a promising method that can efficiently control the geometry of MO arrays during inkjet printing and maximize the device performance of MOTFT arrays, which showed great potential for the application in next

  12. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  13. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  15. 36 CFR 1004.11 - Load, weight and size limits.