WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle speed parameter

  1. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, Lejla; Bosankic, Ivan; Kasapovic, Suad; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Bin

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean), Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean), Agent Front sensors active (boolean), Agent Rear sensors active (boolean), RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer), Elapsed time (in seconds), Distance between Agent and Intruder (m), Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °), Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m)) influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m) and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles °) is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  2. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahaboddin Shamshirband

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean, Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean, Agent Front sensors active (boolean, Agent Rear sensors active (boolean, RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer, Elapsed time (in seconds, Distance between Agent and Intruder (m, Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °, Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles ° is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  3. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  4. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  5. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  6. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  7. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...... is speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding...

  8. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  9. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  10. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  11. Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...

  12. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R

    1978-04-01

    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  13. Raising the speed limit from 75 to 80mph on Utah rural interstates: Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen

    2017-06-01

    In November 2010 and October 2013, Utah increased speed limits on sections of rural interstates from 75 to 80mph. Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance were examined. Speeds were measured in May 2010 and May 2014 within the new 80mph zones, and at a nearby spillover site and at more distant control sites where speed limits remained 75mph. Log-linear regression models estimated percentage changes in speed variance and mean speeds for passenger vehicles and large trucks associated with the speed limit increase. Logistic regression models estimated effects on the probability of passenger vehicles exceeding 80, 85, or 90mph and large trucks exceeding 80mph. Within the 80mph zones and at the spillover location in 2014, mean passenger vehicle speeds were significantly higher (4.1% and 3.5%, respectively), as were the probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 80mph (122.3% and 88.5%, respectively), than would have been expected without the speed limit increase. Probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 85 and 90mph were non-significantly higher than expected within the 80mph zones. For large trucks, the mean speed and probability of exceeding 80mph were higher than expected within the 80mph zones. Only the increase in mean speed was significant. Raising the speed limit was associated with non-significant increases in speed variance. The study adds to the wealth of evidence that increasing speed limits leads to higher travel speeds and an increased probability of exceeding the new speed limit. Results moreover contradict the claim that increasing speed limits reduces speed variance. Although the estimated increases in mean vehicle speeds may appear modest, prior research suggests such increases would be associated with substantial increases in fatal or injury crashes. This should be considered by lawmakers considering increasing speed limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting speed in human-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A P

    1994-10-01

    It is shown how to derive the appropriate cubic equation relating power and the effects of friction, gradient and wind resistance on the speed of a human-powered vehicle (HPV). The effects of gradient and wind resistance are explored for parameters representing a typical racing cyclist. The principal conclusion may be summarized as follows: for optimum performance in a time trial, there should be no wind and the course should be level. Any deviation from these conditions will produce a decrement in performance.

  15. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  16. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  17. Scaling model for a speed-dependent vehicle noise spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the well-known features of the noise emitted by moving sources, a number of vehicle characteristics such as speed, unladen mass, engine size, year of registration, power and fuel were recorded in a dedicated monitoring campaign performed in three different places, each characterized by different number of lanes and the presence of nearby reflective surfaces. A full database of 144 vehicles (cars was used to identify statistically relevant features. In order to compare the vehicle transit noise in different environmental condition, all 1/3-octave band spectra were normalized and analysed. Unsupervised clustering algorithms were employed to group together spectrum levels with similar profiles. Our results corroborate the well-known fact that speed is the most relevant characteristic to discriminate between different vehicle noise spectrum. In keeping with this fact, we present a new approach to predict analytically noise spectra for a given vehicle speed. A set of speed-dependent analytical functions are suggested in order to fit the normalized average spectrum profile at different speeds. This approach can be useful for predicting vehicle speed based purely on its noise spectrum pattern. The present work is complementary to the accurate analysis of noise sources based on the beamforming technique.

  18. Studying the Effect of Roughness of Wet Road on Critical speed of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is one the most dangerous phenomena which effect on the safety of driving cars on wet roads, then, the critical speed of slipping cars is an important parameter in the hydroplaning ,and depends on the properties of  the following three  parameters: tires, water layer and  road surface. The road texture is the main property of road specifications which affect directly on the critical speed of the vehicle. In the present work, the properties of road roughness and influence of surface texture on critical speed of vehicle are studied with variation of the following parameters: thickness and dynamic viscosity of water on the road surface and the vehicle load. The results showed that increasing the road surface roughness and the vehicle load both has a appositive influence on the critical speed (increaseof the vehicle, while increasing the dynamic viscosity and thickness of the water layer on the road surface has a negative influence on the critical speed (decrease of the vehicle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.24

  19. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  20. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  1. Reduction Vehicle Speed Using GPS Android Smart Phone Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sami Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the new generation of smart phone such as Samsung galaxy, Sony, Motorola, HTC is used to build smart applications that made the human life more comfortable and safe. The Android open source operating system with java programming language can be used to develop such applications. In this paper a new software application has been developed using Samsung, galaxy note smart phone to control the speed of vehicle using GPS and Android programming for such smart phone. By collecting the speed and location information from Global Position System (GPS receiver and using the global map application programming interface to determine the location nearby university, school and hospital in Baghdad city. The application will be check the speed of vehicle in zone of school, hospital and university using GPS information. If the speed over the limit the application produce sound alarm to reduce the speed to set up limit.

  2. Selecting Design Parameters for Flying Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, V. I.; Strel'nikova, E. A.; Trofimenko, P. E.; Bondar', A. V.

    2013-09-01

    Studying the influence of a number of design parameters of solid-propellant rockets on the longitudinal and lateral dispersion is an important applied problem. A mathematical model of a rigid body of variable mass moving in a disturbed medium exerting both wave drag and friction is considered. The model makes it possible to determine the coefficients of aerodynamic forces and moments, which affect the motion of vehicles, and to assess the effect of design parameters on their accuracy

  3. Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Forsman, Åsa

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the

  4. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kuang Lai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs, call arrivals (CAs, normal location updates (NLUs and periodic location updates (PLUs from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PLUs. Then, the vehicle speeds can be estimated in accordance with the estimated traffic flows and estimated traffic densities. For vehicle speed forecasting, a back-propagation neural network algorithm is considered to predict the future vehicle speed in accordance with the current traffic information (i.e., the estimated vehicle speeds from CFVD. In the experimental environment, this study adopted the practical traffic information (i.e., traffic flow and vehicle speed from Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau as the input characteristics of the traffic simulation program and referred to the mobile station (MS communication behaviors from Chunghwa Telecom to simulate the traffic information and communication records. The experimental results illustrated that the average accuracy of the vehicle speed forecasting method is 95.72%. Therefore, the proposed methods based on CFVD are suitable for an intelligent transportation system.

  5. Increasing accuracy of vehicle detection from conventional vehicle detectors - counts, speeds, classification, and travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle classification is an important traffic parameter for transportation planning and infrastructure : management. Length-based vehicle classification from dual loop detectors is among the lowest cost : technologies commonly used for collecting th...

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2013-01-01

    -axle Cooperrider bogie, in order to study the sensitivity of the critical speed with respect to suspension parameters. The importance of a certain suspension component is expressed by the variance in critical speed that is ascribable to it. This proves to be useful in the identification of parameters for which...

  7. Open tube guideway for high speed air cushioned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, R. S. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    This invention is a tubular shaped guideway for high-speed air-cushioned supported vehicles. The tubular guideway is split and separated such that the sides of the guideway are open. The upper portion of the tubular guideway is supported above the lower portion by truss-like structural members. The lower portion of the tubular guideway may be supported by the terrain over which the vehicle travels, on pedestals or some similar structure.

  8. Vision based speed breaker detection for autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. S., Arvind; Mishra, Ritesh; Vishal, Kumar; Gundimeda, Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we are presenting a robust and real-time, vision-based approach to detect speed breaker in urban environments for autonomous vehicle. Our method is designed to detect the speed breaker using visual inputs obtained from a camera mounted on top of a vehicle. The method performs inverse perspective mapping to generate top view of the road and segment out region of interest based on difference of Gaussian and median filter images. Furthermore, the algorithm performs RANSAC line fitting to identify the possible speed breaker candidate region. This initial guessed region via RANSAC, is validated using support vector machine. Our algorithm can detect different categories of speed breakers on cement, asphalt and interlock roads at various conditions and have achieved a recall of 0.98.

  9. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  10. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  11. Parameter analysis for speed skating performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, E.

    2018-01-01

    Speed skating is a rather special form of locomotion. While in most types of human locomotion, humans generate forces by pushing against the environment in the opposite direction of motion, in speed skating the skater pushes sideward to propel himself forward; Insight in the details of the technique

  12. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  13. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  14. Vehicle Routing Problems with Fuel Consumption and Stochastic Travel Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicle routing problems (VRP always assume that the vehicle travel speed is fixed or time-dependent on arcs. However, due to the uncertainty of weather, traffic conditions, and other random factors, it is not appropriate to set travel speeds to fixed constants in advance. Consequently, we propose a mathematic model for calculating expected fuel consumption and fixed vehicle cost where average speed is assumed to obey normal distribution on each arc which is more realistic than the existing model. For small-scaled problems, we make a linear transformation and solve them by existing solver CPLEX, while, for large-scaled problems, an improved simulated annealing (ISA algorithm is constructed. Finally, instances from real road networks of England are performed with the ISA algorithm. Computational results show that our ISA algorithm performs well in a reasonable amount of time. We also find that when taking stochastic speeds into consideration, the fuel consumption is always larger than that with fixed speed model.

  15. Evaluation of uncertainty of vehicle speed when autotechnical examination of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashkanov А.А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods and ways to measure vehicle speed, which can be used in autotechnical examination of road accidents, in order to identify ways to improve the peer review mechanism of emergencies are analyzed. To achieve the goal we propose to take measurement errors vehicle speed into account. Modern automated technology (GPS, EDR and ACN can reduce these errors, and with sufficient accuracy to determine the speed of the vehicle and other motion parameters and technical data that helps to quicken research in various stages of examination, but there are a number of objective problems hindering their widespread use in Ukraine. To solve these problems need to develop and improve existing methods of expert investigation of the circumstances of accidents based process automation capabilities fixing mechanism and the scene, measurements and calculations options vehicular traffic. This will increase the effectiveness of traditional methods and to minimize the influence of subjective factors.

  16. Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MELEKHIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have developed a mathematical model of process of heat exchange in heat exchange surfaces of apparatuses with the solution of multicriteria optimization problem and check its adequacy to the experimental stand in the visualization of thermal fields, an optimal range of managed parameters influencing the process of heat exchange with minimal metal consumption and the maximum heat output fin heat exchanger, the regularities of heat exchange process with getting generalizing dependencies distribution of temperature on the heat-release surface of the heat exchanger vehicles, defined convergence of the results of research in the calculation on the basis of theoretical dependencies and solving mathematical model.

  17. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  18. Innovation Analysis Approach to Design Parameters of High Speed Train Carriage and Their Intrinsic Complexity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Ne; Wang, Ming-Meng; Hu, Guang-Zhong; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problem that it's difficult to accurately grasp the influence range and transmission path of the vehicle top design requirements on the underlying design parameters. Applying directed-weighted complex network to product parameter model is an important method that can clarify the relationships between product parameters and establish the top-down design of a product. The relationships of the product parameters of each node are calculated via a simple path searching algorithm, and the main design parameters are extracted by analysis and comparison. A uniform definition of the index formula for out-in degree can be provided based on the analysis of out-in-degree width and depth and control strength of train carriage body parameters. Vehicle gauge, axle load, crosswind and other parameters with higher values of the out-degree index are the most important boundary conditions; the most considerable performance indices are the parameters that have higher values of the out-in-degree index including torsional stiffness, maximum testing speed, service life of the vehicle, and so on; the main design parameters contain train carriage body weight, train weight per extended metre, train height and other parameters with higher values of the in-degree index. The network not only provides theoretical guidance for exploring the relationship of design parameters, but also further enriches the application of forward design method to high-speed trains.

  19. The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…

  20. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2011-05-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash. However, in many cases, the speed limit for heavy vehicle is set by only considering the vehicle size or category, mostly due to simplicity in enforcement. In this study, traffic and vehicular data for all vehicle types were collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed at Federal Route 54 in Malaysia. The first finding from the data showed that the weight variation for each vehicle category is considerable. Therefore, the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and category of heavy vehicle on free flow speed and their interaction were analyzed using statistical techniques. Empirical analysis results showed that statistically for each type of heavy vehicle, there was a significant relationship between free flow speed of a heavy vehicle and GVW. Specifically, the results suggest that the mean and variance of free flow speed decrease with an increase GVW by the amount unrelated to size and shape for all GVW range. Then, based on the 85th percentile principle, the study proposed a new concept for setting the speed limit for heavy vehicle by incorporating GVW where a different speed limit is imposed to the heavy vehicle, not only based on vehicle classification, but also according to its GVW. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-09-01

    In May 2007, Montgomery County, Maryland, implemented an automated speed enforcement program, with cameras allowed on residential streets with speed limits of 35 mph or lower and in school zones. In 2009, the state speed camera law increased the enforcement threshold from 11 to 12 mph over the speed limit and restricted school zone enforcement hours. In 2012, the county began using a corridor approach, in which cameras were periodically moved along the length of a roadway segment. The long-term effects of the speed camera program on travel speeds, public attitudes, and crashes were evaluated. Changes in travel speeds at camera sites from 6 months before the program began to 7½ years after were compared with changes in speeds at control sites in the nearby Virginia counties of Fairfax and Arlington. A telephone survey of Montgomery County drivers was conducted in Fall 2014 to examine attitudes and experiences related to automated speed enforcement. Using data on crashes during 2004-2013, logistic regression models examined the program's effects on the likelihood that a crash involved an incapacitating or fatal injury on camera-eligible roads and on potential spillover roads in Montgomery County, using crashes in Fairfax County on similar roads as controls. About 7½ years after the program began, speed cameras were associated with a 10% reduction in mean speeds and a 62% reduction in the likelihood that a vehicle was traveling more than 10 mph above the speed limit at camera sites. When interviewed in Fall 2014, 95% of drivers were aware of the camera program, 62% favored it, and most had received a camera ticket or knew someone else who had. The overall effect of the camera program in its modified form, including both the law change and the corridor approach, was a 39% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an incapacitating or fatal injury. Speed cameras alone were associated with a 19% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an

  2. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  3. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  4. High-speed solar wind flow parameters at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    To develop a set of constraints for theories of solar wind high-speed streams, a detailed study was made of the fastest streams observed at 1 AU during the time period spanning March 1971 through July 1974. Streams were accepted for study only if (1) the maximum speed exceeded 650 km s -1 ; (2) effects of stream-stream dynamical interaction on the flow parameters could be safely separated from the intrinsic characteristics of the high-speed regions; (3) the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the stream when mapped back to 20 solar radii by using a constant speed approximation was greater than 45degree in Carrington longitude; and (4) there were no obvious solar-activity-induced contaminating effects. Nineteen streams during this time interval satisfied these criteria. Average parameters at 1 AU for those portions of these streams above V=650 km s -1 are given.Not only is it not presently known why electrons are significantly cooler than the protons within high-speed regions, but also observed particle fluxes and convected energy fluxes for speed greater than 650 km s -1 are substantially larger than those values predicted by any of the existing theories of solar wind high-speed streams. More work is therefore needed in refining present solar wind models to see whether suitable modifications and/or combinations of existing theories based on reasonable coronal conditions can accommodate the above high-speed flow parameters

  5. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event. PMID:23202231

  6. Vehicle speed guidance strategy at signalized intersection based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan JIA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce stopping time of vehicle at a signalized intersection, aiming at the difficulty, even the impossibility to obtain real-time queue length of intersection in third and fourth-tier cities in China sometimes, a speed guidance strategy based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system is put forward and studied. For validating the strategy, the traffic signal timing data of the intersection at Hengshan Road and North Fengming Lake Road in Wuhu is collected by a vehicular traffic signal reminder system which is designed. The simulation experiments using the acquired data are done by software VISSIM. The simulation results demonstrate that the strategy under high and low traffic flow can effectively decrease the link travel-time, reducing average ratio is 9.2 % and 13.0 %, respectively, and the effect under low traffic flow is better than that under high traffic flow. The strategy improves efficiency of traffic at a signalized intersection and provides an idea for the application of vehicle speed guidance based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system.

  7. Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.

  8. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  9. DC Motor Parameter Identification Using Speed Step Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the DC motor speed response measurement under a step voltage input, important motor parameters such as the electrical time constant, the mechanical time constant, and the friction can be estimated. A power series expansion of the motor speed response is presented, whose coefficients are related to the motor parameters. These coefficients can be easily computed using existing curve fitting methods. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of this approach. In these experiments, the approach was readily implemented and gave more accurate estimates than conventional methods.

  10. On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-17

    On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles Report Title ABSTRACT In this work we proposed two semi-analytic...298-102 Enclosure 1 On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles by...Specifically, the following problems will be addressed during this project: 2.1 Challenges The problem of trajectory planning for high-speed autonomous vehicles is

  11. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  13. Research on Parameter Design of Multi - axis Hydrostatic Transmission Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reasonable parameters in the design of driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission vehicle, the working principle of single-side drive of hydrostatic transmission vehicle is introduced. The matching and control of engine and hydraulic pump are analyzed. According to the driving equation of vehicle, The driving force required for driving system is determined, and the parameters of hydraulic motor, hydraulic pump, system working pressure and braking system are designed and calculated, which provides the parameter design for driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission Reliable theoretical basis.

  14. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  15. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  16. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  17. Modeling vehicle operating speed on urban roads in Montreal: a panel mixed ordered probit fractional split model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Chakour, Vincent; Chamberlain, Morgan; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle operating speed measured on roadways is a critical component for a host of analysis in the transportation field including transportation safety, traffic flow modeling, roadway geometric design, vehicle emissions modeling, and road user route decisions. The current research effort contributes to the literature on examining vehicle speed on urban roads methodologically and substantively. In terms of methodology, we formulate a new econometric model framework for examining speed profiles. The proposed model is an ordered response formulation of a fractional split model. The ordered nature of the speed variable allows us to propose an ordered variant of the fractional split model in the literature. The proposed formulation allows us to model the proportion of vehicles traveling in each speed interval for the entire segment of roadway. We extend the model to allow the influence of exogenous variables to vary across the population. Further, we develop a panel mixed version of the fractional split model to account for the influence of site-specific unobserved effects. The paper contributes substantively by estimating the proposed model using a unique dataset from Montreal consisting of weekly speed data (collected in hourly intervals) for about 50 local roads and 70 arterial roads. We estimate separate models for local roads and arterial roads. The model estimation exercise considers a whole host of variables including geometric design attributes, roadway attributes, traffic characteristics and environmental factors. The model results highlight the role of various street characteristics including number of lanes, presence of parking, presence of sidewalks, vertical grade, and bicycle route on vehicle speed proportions. The results also highlight the presence of site-specific unobserved effects influencing the speed distribution. The parameters from the modeling exercise are validated using a hold-out sample not considered for model estimation. The results indicate

  18. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  19. Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.

  20. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  1. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  2. Estimation of longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate for four-wheel independent driven electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Te; Xu, Xing; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobing; Cai, Yingfeng; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Accurate estimation of longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate is of great significance to torque allocation and stability control for four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle (4WID-EVs). A fusion method is proposed to estimate the longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate for 4WID-EVs. The electric driving wheel model (EDWM) is introduced into the longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force observer (LFO) is designed firstly based on the adaptive high-order sliding mode observer (HSMO), and the convergence of LFO is analyzed and proved. Based on the estimated longitudinal force, an estimation strategy is then presented in which the strong tracking filter (STF) is used to estimate lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate simultaneously. Finally, co-simulation via Carsim and Matlab/Simulink is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance of LFO in practice is verified by the experiment on chassis dynamometer bench.

  3. Fire Detection Tradeoffs as a Function of Vehicle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Brooker, John E.; Meyer, Marit E.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire survivability depends on the detection of and response to a fire before it has produced an unacceptable environment in the vehicle. This detection time is the result of interplay between the fire burning and growth rates; the vehicle size; the detection system design; the transport time to the detector (controlled by the level of mixing in the vehicle); and the rate at which the life support system filters the atmosphere, potentially removing the detected species or particles. Given the large differences in critical vehicle parameters (volume, mixing rate and filtration rate) the detection approach that works for a large vehicle (e.g. the ISS) may not be the best choice for a smaller crew capsule. This paper examines the impact of vehicle size and environmental control and life support system parameters on the detectability of fires in comparison to the hazard they present. A lumped element model was developed that considers smoke, heat, and toxic product release rates in comparison to mixing and filtration rates in the vehicle. Recent work has quantified the production rate of smoke and several hazardous species from overheated spacecraft polymers. These results are used as the input data set in the lumped element model in combination with the transport behavior of major toxic products released by overheating spacecraft materials to evaluate the necessary alarm thresholds to enable appropriate response to the fire hazard.

  4. Vehicle Classification and Speed Estimation Using Combined Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2017-09-18

    In this paper, a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor traffic congestion and urban flash floods is presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of passive infrared sensors (PIRs) and ultrasonic rangefinder, and is used for real-time vehicle detection, classification, and speed estimation in the context of wireless sensor networks. This framework relies on dynamic Bayesian Networks to fuse heterogeneous data both spatially and temporally for vehicle detection. To estimate the speed of the incoming vehicles, we first use cross correlation and wavelet transform-based methods to estimate the time delay between the signals of different sensors. We then propose a calibration and self-correction model based on Bayesian Networks to make a joint inference by all sensors about the speed and the length of the detected vehicle. Furthermore, we use the measurements of the ultrasonic and the PIR sensors to perform vehicle classification. Validation data (using an experimental dual infrared and ultrasonic traffic sensor) show a 99% accuracy in vehicle detection, a mean error of 5 kph in vehicle speed estimation, a mean error of 0.7m in vehicle length estimation, and a high accuracy in vehicle classification. Finally, we discuss the computational performance of the algorithm, and show that this framework can be implemented on low-power computational devices within a wireless sensor network setting. Such decentralized processing greatly improves the energy consumption of the system and minimizes bandwidth usage.

  5. Design And Implementation Of Pc Based Over Speed Violation Management For Vehicles On Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ni Hlaing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding violation of road rules also to display alert messages and gives alerts like road works steep slope school zone in the form of acoustical messages and also in LCD. The proposed system has a reporting displaying and database systemfor over speed violation management. This designed system has the ability to detect the speed of the vehicle in the roads and the main highways and the places where the drivers can use of more speed while driving. The laser transmitter senses the load entered by the vehicle and then the receiver unit sends to the microcontroller. The receiver unit is used by Light Dependent Resistor LDR. If the speed of vehicle exceeds the permissible speed for the highway this information will sent to PC which starts the camera to capture the vehicle. And all the information of vehicle are sent to database system. Then also shows the speed information on LCD.

  6. Influence of Vehicle Speed on the Characteristics of Driver's Eye Movement at a Highway Tunnel Entrance during Day and Night Conditions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Dong, Li-Li; Xu, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Li-Dong; Leon, Arturo S

    2018-04-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate how vehicle speed influences the characteristics of driver's eye movement at highway tunnel entrances during day and night. In this study, six drivers' eye movement data (from 200 m before tunnel entrance to 200 m inside tunnel entrance) under five predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 km/h) in the daytime and three predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 60 and 80 km/h) in the nighttime were recorded using the non-intrusive Dikablis Professional eye-tracking system. Pupil size, the average fixation duration time and the average number of fixation were analyzed and then the influence of the vehicle speed on these parameters was evaluated by means of IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. The results for pupil size in daytime increased when approaching the tunnel entrance, while as for nighttime, pupil size decreased when approaching the tunnel entrance and then increased after entering the tunnel. The pupil size in daytime has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed, while the pupil size in nighttime did not show a significant association with vehicle speed. Furthermore, the average fixation duration in daytime increased when entering the tunnel, and had a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. Also, the average number of fixations in daytime decreased when entering the tunnel and has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. However, the average fixation duration and the average number of fixations in nighttime did not show any significant association with vehicle speed. Moreover, limitations and future directions of the study are discussed for the further investigation.

  7. Profile parameters of wheelset detection for high speed freight train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Ma, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Li

    2012-04-01

    Because of freight train, in China, transports goods on railway freight line throughout the country, it does not depart from or return to engine shed during a long phase, thus we cannot monitor the quality of wheel set effectively. This paper provides a system which uses leaser and high speed camera, applies no-contact light section technology to get precise wheel set profile parameters. The paper employs clamping-track method to avoid complex railway ballast modification project. And detailed descript an improved image-tracking algorithm to extract central line from profile curve. For getting one pixel width and continuous line of the profile curve, uses local gray maximum points as direction control points to direct tracking direction. The results based on practical experiment show the system adapted to detection environment of high speed and high vibration, and it can effectively detect the wheelset geometric parameters with high accuracy. The system fills the gaps in wheel set detection for freight train in main line and has an enlightening function on monitoring the quality of wheel set.

  8. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  9. Investigation of new vehicle detectors for high-speed signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Early indications from the use of the newest vehicle detectors for high-speed signalized intersections : suggested that they perform well as replacements for the Texas Department of Transportations : (TxDOTs) legacy systems, but this early conc...

  10. The dynamic behaviour of rail vehicles operating at high speeds for manriding in British coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manen, P. van

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of trains used at high speeds for transporting men along mine railways is examined using a number of mathematical models. These models predict the responses of different rail vehicles to typical irregularities in the track, and are used to examine the guidance, the ride, and the likelihood of derailment of the main classes of manriding trains used in British coal mines. The outcome of the modelling compares favourably with the results of tests carried out on actual vehicles. The investigation has shown that the safe speed at which trains may operate is ultimately restricted by the condition of the track, but changes in the design of the vehicles can lead to an improved performance. The use of conventional wheelsets, for example, can reduce flange wear significantly and so allow higher speeds to be reached. Guidelines for the design of vehicles intended for high speed use are included in this thesis. (36 refs.)

  11. A Review of Vehicles Speed on School Safety Zone Areas in Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Putri, Lusi; Soehardi, Fitridawati; Saleh, Alfian

    2017-12-01

    School Safety Zone is a location or region on particular roads that are time-based speed zone to set the speed of the vehicle in the school environment. The maximum speed limit permits entering a School Safety Zone, especially in Pekanbaru City is 25 km / h and an outline of the speed limit permit vehicles that pass through the School Safety Zone in Indonesia is generally 20-30 km / h. However, the vehicles speeds that pass School Safety Zone are higher than permit speeds.To ensure the level of vehicle offense across the territory of the School Safety Zone so it is necessary a primary data which is taken randomly based on field survey for 3 days at schools that has that facility ie SDN 3 Jalan Kesehatan Pekanbaru City, SDN 68 Jalan Balam Ujung Kota Pekanbaru and SDN 143 Jalan Taskurun Kota Pekanbaru. Furthermore, the data were taken in good condition that is at 6:30 to 7:30 am and at 12:00 to 13:00 pm. In addition, the data obtained is mileage and travel time of the vehicle. Both of these data can generate good speed value that passes through the area of School Safety Zone. Based on the research findings, the vehicle speed passing through the area of School Safety Zone is incompatible with speed permit at 35 km / h with a maximum average percentage of the rate of offense in the area of the school zone is 91.7%. This indicates that the vehicle passes School Safety Zone not following the rules of the maximum limit area and can be potentially harmful to elementary school students.

  12. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  13. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  14. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  15. Intersection Management Using In-Vehicle Speed Advisory/Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakha, Hesham; Bichiou, Youssef; Hassan, Abdallah; Zohdy, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, connected vehicles (CVs) and automated vehicles (AVs) have emerged as a realistic and viable transportation option. Research centers and companies have dedicated substantial efforts to the technology, motivated largely by the potential safety benefits that can be realized through the elimination of human error, the enhancement of mobility via reduction of congestion and optimization of trips, and the associated positive environmental impacts. Both sensors and control mechanis...

  16. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  17. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  18. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  19. Smart Sensor Based Obstacle Detection for High-Speed Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Dan; Galeazzi, Roberto; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an obstacle detection system for a high-speed and agile unmanned surface vehicle (USV), running at speeds up to 30 m/s. The aim is a real-time and high performance obstacle detection system using both radar and vision technologies to detect obstacles within a range of 175 m. ...... performance using sensor fusion of radar and computer vision....

  20. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  1. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  2. Speed Sensorless Field Oriented Control of an Induction Motor at zero speed with identification of inverter parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2002-01-01

    Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer for speed sensorless control is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states and for the motor and inverter parameters including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters ...... known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. Experiments demonstrate high dynamic performance even at zero rotor speed based only on the slip frequency caused by the load torque....

  3. EVALUATION METHOD OF FUEL-EFFICIENT DRIVING IN DUMP TRUCK USING VEHICLE SPEED AND ENGINE ROTATIONAL SPEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Yasui, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Mayu; Takebe, Atsuji; Funahashi, Masashi

    In the construction site, the light oil that the construction vehicle such as dump trucks uses accounts for 70 percent of the amount of the energy use. Therefore, the eco-driving education of the construction vehicle is effective in the fuel cost improvement and the CO2 reduction. The eco-driving education can be executed cheap and easily, and a high effect can be expected. However, it is necessary to evaluate the eco-driving situation of the construction vehicle exactly to maintain the educative effect for a long term. In this paper, the method for evaluating the effect of the fuel cost improvement was examined by using the vehicle speed and the engine rotational speed of the dump truck. In this method, "Ideal eco-driving model" that considers the difference between the vehicle model and the running condition (traffic jam etc.) is made. As a result, it is possible to evaluate the fuel consumption improvement effect of a dump truck by the same index.

  4. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  5. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD. In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  6. Vehicle speed detection based on gaussian mixture model using sequential of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, Budi; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Soetrisno; Fajriyah, Farah; Wahyu Wicaksono, Danang

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent Transportation System is one of the important components in the development of smart cities. Detection of vehicle speed on the highway is supporting the management of traffic engineering. The purpose of this study is to detect the speed of the moving vehicles using digital image processing. Our approach is as follows: The inputs are a sequence of frames, frame rate (fps) and ROI. The steps are following: First we separate foreground and background using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) in each frames. Then in each frame, we calculate the location of object and its centroid. Next we determine the speed by computing the movement of centroid in sequence of frames. In the calculation of speed, we only consider frames when the centroid is inside the predefined region of interest (ROI). Finally we transform the pixel displacement into a time unit of km/hour. Validation of the system is done by comparing the speed calculated manually and obtained by the system. The results of software testing can detect the speed of vehicles with the highest accuracy is 97.52% and the lowest accuracy is 77.41%. And the detection results of testing by using real video footage on the road is included with real speed of the vehicle.

  7. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  8. Speed Loop Control of PMSM Driving Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    Various simulation models are set up and closed speed loop control strategy of PMSM is proposed based on flux weakening control in this paper. First the model of maximum torque per ampere(MTPA) is modeled based on mathematical models and gave the corresponding simulation tests. Second the formula...

  9. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    -uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k...

  10. Modeling and predicting low-speed vehicle emissions as a function of driving kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Lei; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Xin; Yin, Hang; Ding, Yan; Ge, Yunshan

    2017-05-01

    An instantaneous emission model was developed to model and predict the real driving emissions of the low-speed vehicles. The emission database used in the model was measured by using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual traffic conditions in the rural area, and the characteristics of the emission data were determined in relation to the driving kinematics (speed and acceleration) of the low-speed vehicle. The input of the emission model is driving cycle, and the model requires instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration levels as input variables and uses them to interpolate the pollutant emission rate maps to calculate the transient pollutant emission rates, which will be accumulated to calculate the total emissions released during the whole driving cycle. And the vehicle fuel consumption was determined through the carbon balance method. The model predicted the emissions and fuel consumption of an in-use low-speed vehicle type model, which agreed well with the measured data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Experimental study of the vehicle dynamics behavior during lane changing in different speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwan, P. M.; Asyraf, S. M.; Efistein, A. N.; Seah, C. H.; Zikri, J. M.; Syawahieda, J. N.

    2017-10-01

    During lane changing, the speed of the vehicle is related to the stability of the vehicle. If the driver changes the lane at a high speed, the vehicle will lose its stability and it can increase the possibility of an accident. In this study, the experiment has been developed to analyse how the speed of the vehicle can affect the vehicle dynamics behavior. To achieve this objective, the UMP Test Car which employed with global positioning system (GPS), steering torque and angle sensor, displacement sensor and gyro sensor is used in the experiment. The experiment is run at the UMP test track and the track has 2 lanes which can allows the vehicle to change the position from the left to the right. In the experiment, when the GPS monitor shows 30 km/h, the driver will maintain the speed and start to turn the steering just after the test car reaches to the first skittle. Then, the driver will turn again the steering when the test car reaches to the second skittle. This method is repeated two times and the same methods is used for the speed 50 km/h. The data from the sensors is recorded in the Dewetron software and the graph is plotted. From the experimental results, the steering angle, steering torque, yaw rate and displacement for the speed 30 km/h is smaller than 50 km/h. It means that during lane changing, the speed 30 km/h is more stable compared with 50 km/h.

  12. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  13. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  14. Assessment of capacity support and scattering in experimental high speed vehicle to vehicle MIMO links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Brown, Tim; Olesen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results on the use of the vehicle to vehicle MIMO channel in a rural highway environment are presented. This is looked at both in terms of the available spatial multiplexing through singular value decomposition and also angular distribution within the channel. Results indicate a strong...... predominant line of sight link in general while instances of scattering from other vehicles will cause changes in the Doppler spectrum as well as beamforming jitter....

  15. Vibrational Comfort on Board the Vehicle: Influence of Speed Bumps and Comparison between Different Categories of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a study conducted on five different categories of vehicles in a specific test site. The aim was to investigate how the effect of the test site discontinuity determines variations of comfort related to the increase in speed and to the five selected road vehicles of different classes. Measurements were obtained by combining data relating to vibrations in the three reference axes, detected through a vibration dosimeter (VIB-008, and geolocation data (latitude, longitude, and speed identified by the GPS inside a smartphone. This procedure, through the synchronization between dosimeter and GPS location, has been helpful in postprocessing to eliminate any measurement anomalies generated by the operator. After the survey campaign it was determined that a formulation allows defining a Comfort Index (CI depending on velocity and five vehicles of different classes. This study showed that the presence of speed bumps, in the test site investigated, appears to be uncomfortable even at speeds well below those required by the Highway Code.

  16. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  17. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  18. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  19. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  20. Research on the Effects of Hydropneumatic Parameters on Tracked Vehicle Ride Safety Based on Cosimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride safety of a tracked vehicle is the key focus of this research. The factors that affect the ride safety of a vehicle are analyzed and evaluation parameters with their criteria are proposed. A multibody cosimulation approach is used to investigate the effects of hydropneumatic parameters on the ride safety and aid with design optimization and tuning of the suspension system. Based on the cosimulation environment, the vehicle multibody dynamics (MBD model and the road model are developed using RecurDyn, which is linked to the hydropneumatic suspension model developed in Lab AMESim. Test verification of a single suspension unit is accomplished and the suspension parameters are implemented within the hydropneumatic model. Virtual tests on a G class road at different speeds are conducted. Effects of the accumulator charge pressure, damping diameter, and the track tensioning pressure on the ride safety are analyzed and quantified. This research shows that low accumulator charge pressure, improper damping diameter, and insufficient track tensioning pressure will deteriorate the ride safety. The results provide useful references for the optimal design and control of the parameters of a hydropneumatic suspension.

  1. A Minimization of Speed Ripple of Sensorless DTC for controlled Induction Motors used in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khoucha , Farid; Marouani , Khoudir; Kheloui , Abdelaziz; Benbouzid , Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The main theme of this paper is to present different switching techniques in DTC induction motor drives for electric vehicle applications, witch insert zero-voltage vector and/or more non zero-voltage vectors to the conventional switching table associated to full adaptive flux and speed observer. Those techniques are quite effective in reducing the torque pulsation and the speed ripples of the motors, as demonstrated in experimental results.

  2. Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.

  3. Investigation Into The Model Of The Vehicle System For Speed Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Grigorovič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rectilinear motion of a car modelled applyingsoftware package “Matlab/Simulink“ where two vehicles aremoving simultaneously one after the other. The parameters ofeach vehicle have been identified separately assessing a driver,road and environment.

  4. Modified Motor Vehicles Travel Speed Models on the Basis of Curb Parking Setting under Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing controversy about in what condition should we set the curb parking has few definitive answers because comprehensive research in this area has been lacking. Our goal is to present a set of heuristic urban street speed functions under mixed traffic flow by taking into account impacts of curb parking. Two impacts have been defined to classify and quantify the phenomena of motor vehicles' speed dynamics in terms of curb parking. The first impact is called Space impact, which is caused by the curb parking types. The other one is the Time impact, which results from the driver maneuvering in or out of parking space. In this paper, based on the empirical data collected from six typical urban streets in Nanjing, China, two models have been proposed to describe these phenomena for one-way traffic and two-way traffic, respectively. An intensive experiment has been conducted in order to calibrate and validate these proposed models, by taking into account the complexity of the model parameters. We also provide guidelines in terms of how to cluster and calculate those models' parameters. Results from these models demonstrated promising performance of modeling motor vehicles' speed for mixed traffic flow under the influence of curb parking.

  5. Automatic Tuning of Control Parameters for Single Speed Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2004-01-01

    In Scania’s single speed engines for industrial and marine use, the engine speed is controlled by a PI-controller. This controller is tuned independent of engine type and application. This brings certain disadvantages since the engines are used in a wide range of applications where the dynamics may differ. In this thesis, the possibility to tune the controller automatically for a specific engine installation has been investigated. The work shows that automatic tuning is possible. By performin...

  6. Design And Analysis Of Doppler Radar-Based Vehicle Speed Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Myat Paing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The most unwanted thing to happen to a road user is road accident. Most of the fatal accidents occur due to over speeding. Faster vehicles are more prone to accident than the slower one. Among the various methods for detecting speed of the vehicle object detection systems based on Radar have been replaced for about a century for various purposes like detection of aircrafts spacecraft ships navigation reading weather formations and terrain mapping. The essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems is the accurate measurement of a vehicles velocity. The velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar. A very low amount of power is consumed in this system and only batteries can use to operate. The system works on the principle of Doppler Effect by detecting the Doppler shift in microwaves reflected from a moving object. Since the output of the sensor is sinusoidal wave with very small amplitude and needs to be amplified with the help of the amplifier before further processing. The purpose to calculate and display the speed on LCD is performed by the microcontroller.

  7. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Feng, Jinfu; Hu, Junhua; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass). A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  8. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  9. Parameter Estimation and Verification of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Rashid Mohd Zamzuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is mainly about the dynamic modelling and parameter estimation of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV. The purpose of developing mathematical model of the Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV is due to its under actuated nonlinearities where it has less input compared to the output required. This system able to maneuver over land, water and other surfaces either at certain speed or maintain at a stationary position. In order to model the UACV, the system is set to have two propellers which are responsible to lift the vehicle by forcing high pressure air under the system. The air inflates the “skirt” under the vehicle, causing it to rise above the surface while another two propellers are used to steer the UACV forward. UACV system can be considered as under actuated since it possess fewer controller inputs that its degree of freedom. The system’s motions are defined by the six degrees of freedom which are; heaved, sway and surge. Another three components are rotational motions which can be elaborated as roll, pitch and yaw. The problem related to UACV is normally related to obtaining accurate parameters of the system to be included into the mathematical model of the system. This is due to the body inertia of the system during the static and moving condition. Besides, the air that flows into the UACV skirt to create the cushion causes imbalance and will affect the system stability and controllability. In this research, UACV need to be mathematically modelled using Euler-Lagrange method. Then, parameters of the system can be obtained through direct calculation and Solidworks software. The parameters acquired are compared and verified using simulation and experimental studies.

  10. Coupled vibration analysis of Maglev vehicle-guideway while standing still or moving at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jung; Han, Jong-Boo; Han, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Seok-Jo

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic instability, that is, resonance, may occur on an electromagnetic suspension-type Maglev that runs over the elevated guideway, particularly at very low speeds, due to the flexibility of the guideway. An analysis of the dynamic interaction between the vehicle and guideway is required at the design stage to investigate such instability, setting slender guideway in design direction for reducing construction costs. In addition, it is essential to design an effective control algorithm to solve the problem of instability. In this article, a more detailed model for the dynamic interaction of vehicle/guideway is proposed. The proposed model incorporates a 3D full vehicle model based on virtual prototyping, flexible guideway by a modal superposition method and levitation electromagnets including feedback controller into an integrated model. By applying the proposed model to an urban Maglev vehicle newly developed for commercial application, an analysis of the instability phenomenon and an investigation of air gap control performance are carried out through a simulation.

  11. Cooperative Intelligence in Roundabout Intersections Using Hierarchical Fuzzy Behavior Calculation of Vehicle Speed Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosankić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fuzzy-behavior-based algorithm for roundabout intersection management is presented. The algorithm employs cooperative intelligence and includes intelligent vehicles and infrastructure to calculate speed profiles for different vehicles, in order to achieve more comfortable driving profiles, as well to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions. The algorithm uses adaptive spatio-temporal reservation technique and was tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The algorithm is designed to function in different scenarios with both cooperative and non-cooperative vehicles, as well as optional intersection infrastructure. Results have show that using the proposed algorithm different vehicle communication types can be successfully combined in order to increase traffic flow through roundabout intersections.

  12. Design and Simulation of PID parameters self-tuning based on DC speed regulating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DC speed regulating system has many difficult issues such as system parameters and PID control parameters are difficult to determine. On the basis of model for a single closed-loop DC speed regulating system, this paper puts forward a method of PID parameters self-tuning based on the step response detection and reduced order equivalent. First, detect system step response and get response parameters. Then equal it to a second order system model, and achieve optimal PID control parameters based on optimal second order system to realize of PID parameters self-tuning. The PID parameters self-tuning process of DC speed regulating system is simulated with the help of MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the method is simple and effective. The system can obtain good dynamic and static performance when the PID parameters are applied to DC speed regulating system.

  13. Joint optimization of green vehicle scheduling and routing problem with time-varying speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Wang, Xin; Ni, Nan; Zhang, Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the congestion effect and changes in the speed of vehicle flow during morning and evening peaks in a large- or medium-sized city, the piecewise function is used to capture the rules of the time-varying speed of vehicles, which are very important in modelling their fuel consumption and CO2 emission. A joint optimization model of the green vehicle scheduling and routing problem with time-varying speeds is presented in this study. Extra wages during nonworking periods and soft time-window constraints are considered. A heuristic algorithm based on the adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm is also presented. Finally, a numerical simulation example is provided to illustrate the optimization model and its algorithm. Results show that, (1) the shortest route is not necessarily the route that consumes the least energy, (2) the departure time influences the vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and the optimal departure time saves on fuel consumption and reduces CO2 emissions by up to 5.4%, and (3) extra driver wages have significant effects on routing and departure time slot decisions. PMID:29466370

  14. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  15. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  16. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.

  17. Estimation of Road Vehicle Speed Using Two Omnidirectional Microphones: A Maximum Likelihood Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Valcarce Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of estimating the speed of a road vehicle from its acoustic signature, recorded by a pair of omnidirectional microphones located next to the road. This choice of sensors is motivated by their nonintrusive nature as well as low installation and maintenance costs. A novel estimation technique is proposed, which is based on the maximum likelihood principle. It directly estimates car speed without any assumptions on the acoustic signal emitted by the vehicle. This has the advantages of bypassing troublesome intermediate delay estimation steps as well as eliminating the need for an accurate yet general enough acoustic traffic model. An analysis of the estimate for narrowband and broadband sources is provided and verified with computer simulations. The estimation algorithm uses a bank of modified crosscorrelators and therefore it is well suited to DSP implementation, performing well with preliminary field data.

  18. Comparative field evaluation of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration level impacts on hot stabilized emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)

  19. WIND TURBINE OPERATION PARAMETER CHARACTERISTICS AT A GIVEN WIND SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kamiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of the CFD simulation of the flow around Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The examined rotor was designed following patent application no. 402214. The turbine operation is characterised by parameters, such as opening angle of blades, power, torque, rotational velocity at a given wind velocity. Those parameters have an impact on the performance of entire assembly. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in the turbine can change, depending on the angle of rotor rotation. Moreover, the resultant force derived from the force acting on the oncoming and leaving blades should be as high as possible. Accordingly, those parameters were individually simulated over time for each blade in three complete rotations. The attempts to improve the performance of the entire system resulted in a new research trend to improve the performance of working turbine rotor blades.

  20. Carbody elastic vibrations of high-speed vehicles caused by bogie hunting instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Zeng, Jing; Chi, Maoru; Wang, Jianbin

    2017-09-01

    In particular locations of the high-speed track, the worn wheel profile matched up with the worn rail profile will lead to an extremely high-conicity wheel-rail contact. Consequently, the bogie hunting instability arises, which further results in the so-called carbody shaking phenomenon. In this paper, the carbody elastic vibrations of a high-speed vehicle in service are firstly introduced. Modal tests are conducted to identity the elastic modes of the carbody. The ride comfort and running safety indices for the tested vehicle are evaluated. The rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model for the high-speed passenger car is then developed by using the FE and MBS coupling approach. The rail profiles in those particular locations are measured and further integrated into the simulation model to reproduce the bogie hunting and carbody elastic vibrations. The effects of wheel and rail wear on the vehicle system response, e.g. wheelset bifurcation graph and carbody vibrations, are studied. Two improvement measures, including the wheel profile modification and rail grinding, are proposed to provide possible solutions. It is found that the wheel-rail contact conicity can be lowered by decreasing wheel flange thickness or grinding rail corner, which is expected to improve the bogie hunting stability under worn rail and worn wheel conditions. The carbody elastic vibrations caused by bogie hunting instability can be further restrained.

  1. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AntolIn, P; Goicolea, J M; Astiz, M A; Alonso, A

    2010-01-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  2. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, P.; Goicolea, J. M.; Astiz, M. A.; Alonso, A.

    2010-06-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  3. Influence of flowfield and vehicle parameters on engineering aerothermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The reliability and flexibility of three engineering codes used in the aerosphace industry (AEROHEAT, INCHES, and MINIVER) were investigated by comparing the results of these codes with Reentry F flight data and ground-test heat-transfer data for a range of cone angles, and with the predictions obtained using the detailed VSL3D code; the engineering solutions were also compared. In particular, the impact of several vehicle and flow-field parameters on the heat transfer and the capability of the engineering codes to predict these results were determined. It was found that entropy, pressure gradient, nose bluntness, gas chemistry, and angle of attack all affect heating levels. A comparison of the results of the three engineering codes with Reentry F flight data and with the predictions obtained of the VSL3D code showed a very good agreement in the regions of the applicability of the codes. It is emphasized that the parameters used in this study can significantly influence the actual heating levels and the prediction capability of a code.

  4. Low Speed Longitudinal Control Algorithms for Automated Vehicles in Simulation and Real Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marcano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS acting over throttle and brake are already available in level 2 automated vehicles. In order to increase the level of automation new systems need to be tested in an extensive set of complex scenarios, ensuring safety under all circumstances. Validation of these systems using real vehicles presents important drawbacks: the time needed to drive millions of kilometers, the risk associated with some situations, and the high cost involved. Simulation platforms emerge as a feasible solution. Therefore, robust and reliable virtual environments to test automated driving maneuvers and control techniques are needed. In that sense, this paper presents a use case where three longitudinal low speed control techniques are designed, tuned, and validated using an in-house simulation framework and later applied in a real vehicle. Control algorithms include a classical PID, an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and a Model Predictive Control (MPC. The simulated dynamics are calculated using a multibody vehicle model. In addition, longitudinal actuators of a Renault Twizy are characterized through empirical tests. A comparative analysis of results between simulated and real platform shows the effectiveness of the proposed framework for designing and validating longitudinal controllers for real automated vehicles.

  5. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

  6. Treadmill based reference running data for healthy subjects is dependent on speed and morphological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Stephan; Schwesig, René; Edel, Melanie; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Hermassi, Souhail; Laudner, Kevin G

    2017-10-01

    To obtain spatiotemporal and dynamic running parameters of healthy participants and to identify relationships between running parameters, speed, and physical characteristics. A dynamometric treadmill was used to collect running data among 417 asymptomatic subjects during speeds ranging from 10 to 24km/h. Spatiotemporal and dynamic running parameters were calculated and measured. Results of the analyses showed that assessing running parameters is dependent on running speed. Body height correlated with stride length (r=0.5), cadence (r=-0.5) and plantar forefoot force (r=0.6). Body mass also had a strong relationship to plantar forefoot forces at 14 and 24km/h and plantar midfoot forces at 14 and 24km/h. This reference data base can be used in the kinematic and kinetic evaluation of running under a wide range of speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  9. Embedded Vehicle Speed Estimation System Using an Asynchronous Temporal Contrast Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an embedded multilane traffic data acquisition system based on an asynchronous temporal contrast vision sensor, and algorithms for vehicle speed estimation developed to make efficient use of the asynchronous high-precision timing information delivered by this sensor. The vision sensor features high temporal resolution with a latency of less than 100 μs, wide dynamic range of 120 dB of illumination, and zero-redundancy, asynchronous data output. For data collection, processing and interfacing, a low-cost digital signal processor is used. The speed of the detected vehicles is calculated from the vision sensor's asynchronous temporal contrast event data. We present three different algorithms for velocity estimation and evaluate their accuracy by means of calibrated reference measurements. The error of the speed estimation of all algorithms is near zero mean and has a standard deviation better than 3% for both traffic flow directions. The results and the accuracy limitations as well as the combined use of the algorithms in the system are discussed.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  11. The wheel-rail contact friction influence on high speed vehicle model stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław DUSZA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Right estimating of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and rail is essential in modelling rail vehicle dynamics. Constant value of coefficient of friction is the typical assumption in theoretical studies. But it is obvious that in real circumstances a few factors may have significant influence on the rails surface condition and this way on the coefficient of friction value. For example the weather condition, the railway location etc. Influence of the coefficient of friction changes on high speed rail vehicle model dynamics is presented in this paper. Four axle rail vehicle model were built. The FASTSIM code is employed for calculation of the tangential contact forces between wheel and rail. One coefficient of friction value is adopted in the particular simulation process. To check the vehicle model properties under the influence of wheel-rail coefficient of friction changes, twenty four series of simulations were performed. For three curved tracks of radii R = 3000m, 6000m and  (straight track, the coefficient of friction was changed from 0.1 to 0.8. The results are presented in form of bifurcation diagrams.

  12. A quasi-vehicle/bridge interaction model for high speed railways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yau, J. D.; Frýba, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2015), s. 217-225 ISSN 1727-7191 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1340 Grant - others:National Science Council in Taiwan(TW) NSC 102-2923-E-032-002-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : high speed train * quasi-VBI model * resonance * vehicle-bridge interaction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2015 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9645645&fileId=S1727719114000896

  13. Study and performances analysis of fuel cell assisted vector control variable speed drive system used for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Rupendra Kumar; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is a novel attempt to combine two important aspects of fuel cell (FC). First, it presents investigations on FC technology and its applications. A description of FC operating principles is followed by the comparative analysis of the present FC technologies together with the issues concerning various fuels. Second, this paper also proposes a model for the simulation and performances evaluation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generation system. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink-based dynamic model of PEMFC is developed and parameters of FC are so adjusted to emulate a commercially available PEMFC. The system results are obtained for the PEMFC-driven adjusted speed induction motor drive (ASIMD) system, normally used in electric vehicles and analysis is carried out for different operating conditions of FC and ASIMD system. The obtained results prove the validation of system concept and modelling.

  14. Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Zare Khafri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.

  15. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  16. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  17. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  18. Modelling and design optimization of low speed fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles. Paper no. IGEC-1-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M.; Dong, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A push for electric vehicles has occurred in the past several decades due to various concerns about air pollution and the contribution of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric vehicle development, smaller vehicles are used extensively for transportation and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell - battery electric vehicle through MATLAB Simulink. The modelling and simulation provide valuable feedback to the design optimization of the fuel cell power system. A sampling based optimization algorithm was used to explore the viability and options of a low cost design for urban use. (author)

  19. Modular Estimation Strategy of Vehicle Dynamic Parameters for Motion Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawash Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motion control or active safety systems in vehicles have become increasingly important for improving vehicle performance and handling and negotiating dangerous driving situations. The performance of such systems would be improved if combined with knowledge of vehicle dynamic parameters. Since some of these parameters are difficult to measure, due to technical or economic reasons, estimation of those parameters might be the only practical alternative. In this paper, an estimation strategy of important vehicle dynamic parameters, pertaining to motion control applications, is presented. The estimation strategy is of a modular structure such that each module is concerned with estimating a single vehicle parameter. Parameters estimated include: longitudinal, lateral, and vertical tire forces – longitudinal velocity – vehicle mass. The advantage of this strategy is its independence of tire parameters or wear, road surface condition, and vehicle mass variation. Also, because of its modular structure, each module could be later updated or exchanged for a more effective one. Results from simulations on a 14-DOF vehicle model are provided here to validate the strategy and show its robustness and accuracy.

  20. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  1. Real-Time Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on License Plate Tracking in Monocular Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksej MAKAROV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimating the vehicle speed from images obtained by a fixed over-the-road monocular camera is presented. The method is based on detecting and tracking vehicle license plates. The contrast between the license plate and its surroundings is enhanced using infrared light emitting diodes and infrared camera filters. A range of the license plate height values is assumed a priori. The camera vertical angle of view is measured prior to installation. The camera tilt is continuously measured by a micro-electromechanical sensor. The distance of the license plate from the camera is theoretically derived in terms of its pixel coordinates. Inaccuracies due to the frame rate drift, to the tilt and the angle of view measurement errors, to edge pixel detection and to a coarse assumption of the vehicle license plate height are analyzed and theoretically formulated. The resulting system is computationally efficient, inexpensive and easy to install and maintain along with the existing ALPR cameras.

  2. Numerical analysis of flow induced noise propagation in supercavitating vehicles at subsonic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Lim, Kian Meng; Zheng, Jianguo; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2014-04-01

    Flow supercavitation begins when fluid is accelerated over a sharp edge, usually at the nose of an underwater vehicle, where phase change occurs and causes low density gaseous cavity to gradually envelop the whole object (supercavity) and thereby enabling higher speeds of underwater vehicles. The process of supercavity inception/development by means of "natural cavitation" and its sustainment through ventilated cavitation result in turbulence and fluctuations at the water-vapor interface that manifest themselves as major sources of hydrodynamic noise. Therefore in the present context, three main sources are investigated, namely, (1) flow generated noise due to turbulent pressure fluctuations around the supercavity, (2) small scale pressure fluctuations at the vapor-water interface, and (3) pressure fluctuations due to direct impingement of ventilated gas-jets on the supercavity wall. An understanding of their relative contributions toward self-noise is very crucial for the efficient operation of high frequency acoustic sensors that facilitate the vehicle's guidance system. Qualitative comparisons of acoustic pressure distribution resulting from aforementioned sound sources are presented by employing a recently developed boundary integral method. By using flow data from a specially developed unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver for simulating supercavitating flows, the boundary-element method based acoustic solver was developed for computing flow generated sound.

  3. Very-low speed control of PMSM based on EKF estimation with closed loop optimized parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shaoguang; Liu, Jingmeng

    2013-11-01

    When calculating the speed from the position of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the accuracy and real-time are limited by the precision of the sensor. This problem causes crawling and jitter at very-low speed. Using the angle from the position sensor, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) designed in dq-coordinate is presented to solve this problem. The usage of position sensor simplifies the model and improves the accuracy of speed estimation. Specially, a closed loop optimal (CLO) method is devised to overcome the difficulty to adjust the parameters of the EKF. The EKF is the feedback link of speed control, CLO method is derived from the perspective of the speed step response to optimize the measurement covariance matrix and the system covariance matrix of EKF. Simulation and experimental results, comparing the low-speed performance of the EKF and sensor feedback methods, prove the effectiveness of the method to adjust the parameters of EKF and the advantages in eliminating the low speed jitter. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical parameters in lower limbs during natural walking and Nordic walking at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Alicja K; Żurek, Grzegorz; Garrard, Ian; Wierzbicka-Damska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) is a sport that has a number of benefits as a rehabilitation method. It is performed with specially designed poles and has been often recommended as a physical activity that helps reduce the load to limbs. However, some studies have suggested that these findings might be erroneous. The aim of this paper was to compare the kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW) at both low and high walking speeds. The study used a registration system, BTS Smart software and Kistler platform. Eleven subjects walked along a 15-metre path at low (below 2 m⋅s-1) and high (over 2 m⋅s-1) walking speeds. The Davis model was employed for calculations of kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs. With constant speed, the support given by Nordic Walking poles does not make the stroke longer and there is no change in pelvic rotation either. The only change observed was much bigger pelvic anteversion in the sagittal plane during fast NW. There were no changes in forces, power and muscle torques in lower limbs. The study found no differences in kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW). Higher speeds generate greater ground reaction forces and muscle torques in lower limbs. Gait parameters depend on walking speed rather than on walking style.

  5. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  6. The Legal Status of Low Speed, Electric, Automated Vehicles in Texas : Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report explores whether vehicles that are both Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) and Automated Vehicles (AVs) may operate legally on public roads in Texas. First is an examination of Neighborhood Electric Vehicles and how they are governed i...

  7. Vibrations control of light rail transportation vehicle via PID type fuzzy controller using parameters adaptive method

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Muzaffer; GÜÇLÜ, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conventional PID type fuzzy controller and parameter adaptive fuzzy controller are designed to control vibrations actively of a light rail transport vehicle which modeled as 6 degree-of-freedom system and compared performances of these two controllers. Rail vehicle model consists of a passenger seat and its suspension system, vehicle body, bogie, primary and secondary suspensions and wheels. The similarity between mathematical model and real system is shown by compar...

  8. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  9. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Sensitivity of Objective Parameters towards Recording Frame Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schützenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy in clinic settings involves subjective visual assessment of vocal fold vibratory characteristics. However, objective quantification of vocal fold vibrations for evidence-based diagnosis and therapy is desired, and objective parameters assessing laryngeal dynamics have therefore been suggested. This study investigated the sensitivity of the objective parameters and their dependence on recording frame rate. A total of 300 endoscopic high-speed videos with recording frame rates between 1000 and 15 000 fps were analyzed for a vocally healthy female subject during sustained phonation. Twenty parameters, representing laryngeal dynamics, were computed. Four different parameter characteristics were found: parameters showing no change with increasing frame rate; parameters changing up to a certain frame rate, but then remaining constant; parameters remaining constant within a particular range of recording frame rates; and parameters changing with nearly every frame rate. The results suggest that (1 parameter values are influenced by recording frame rates and different parameters have varying sensitivities to recording frame rate; (2 normative values should be determined based on recording frame rates; and (3 the typically used recording frame rate of 4000 fps seems to be too low to distinguish accurately certain characteristics of the human phonation process in detail.

  10. Online Dynamic Balance Technology for High Speed Spindle Based on Gain Parameter Adaption and Scheduling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance vibration is one of the main vibration forms of a high speed machine tool spindle. The overlarge unbalance vibration will have some adverse effects on the working life of the spindle system and the surface quality of the work-piece. In order to reduce the unbalance of a high speed spindle system, a pneumatic online dynamic balance device and its control system are presented in the paper. To improve the balance accuracy and adaptation of the balance system, the gain parameter adaption and scheduling control method are proposed first, and then the different balance effects of the influence coefficient method and the gain scheduling control method are compared through many dynamic balance experiments of the high speed spindle. The experimental results indicate that the gain parameters can be changed timely according to the transformation of the speed and kinetic parameters of the spindle system. The balance accuracy can be improved for a high speed spindle with time-varying characteristics, based on the adaptive gain scheduling control method.

  11. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu-Kai; Yang Li-Xing; Li Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (paper)

  12. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE SPEED RATE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR REDUCING THE POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to design a system for automatic selection of the optimal traffic modes and automatic monitoring of the electric energy consumption by electric transport. This automatic system should provide for the minimum energy expenses. Methodology. Current methodologies: 1 mathematical modeling of traffic modes of ground electric vehicles; 2 comparison of modelling results with the statistical monitoring; 3 system development for automatic choice of traffic modes of electric transport with minimal electrical energy consumptions taking into account the given route schedules and the limitations imposed by the general traffic rules. Findings. The authors obtained a mathematical dependency of the energy consumption by electric transport enterprises on the monthly averaged environment temperature was obtained. A system which allows for an automatic selection of the speed limit and provides automatic monitoring of the electrical energy consumption by electric vehicles was proposed in the form of local network, which works together with existing GPS system. Originality. A mathematical model for calculating the motion curves and energy consumption of electric vehicles has been developed. This model takes into account the characteristic values of the motor engine and the steering system, the change of the mass when loading or unloading passengers, the slopes and radii of the roads, the limitations given by the general traffic rules, and other factors. The dependency of the energy consumption on the averaged monthly environment temperature for public electric transport companies has been calculated. Practical value. The developed mathematical model simplifies the calculations of the traffic dynamics and energy consumption. It can be used for calculating the routing maps, for design and upgrade of the power networks, for development of the electricity saving measures. The system simplifies the work of the vehicle driver and allows reducing

  13. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  14. Hardware detection and parameter tuning method for speed control system of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhengqiang; Yang, Huiling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the development of permanent magnet synchronous motor AC speed control system is taken as an example, aiming to expound the principle and parameter setting method of the system hardware, and puts forward the method of using software or hardware to eliminate the problem.

  15. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  16. Planning of speed profiles for vehicles with automatic drive; Planung von Geschwindigkeitsprofilen fuer automatisch gefuehrte Fahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, O.

    2005-07-01

    Based upon the calculation of US authorities 97% of all accidents are caused by mistakes of the driver. Due to this fact one of the major focuses of research activities of the automobile industry was put on the development of new assistance systems for the driver. These technologies indicate potential risks to the driver and support him with decisions in terms of the actual driving behaviour in dangerous situations. This work presents a new system that provides prospective information in real time about the course of the road lying ahead of the vehicle. Based on this data the driver's assistance system will provide a prognosis on the force working on the vehicle and then propose a suitable speed strategy that guarantees a safe drive at any time (orig.) [German] Nach Berechnungen von US Behoerden sind 97% aller Unfaelle auf Fehlverhalten seitens des Fahrers zurueckzufuehren. Angesichts dieser Tatsache lag in den letzten Jahren einer der wesentlichen Schwerpunkte der Forschungsaktivitaeten der Automobilindustrie in der Entwicklung neuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme. Diese Technologien weisen den Fahrer auf potentielle Gefahren hin und unterstuetzen ihn bei der Entscheidung hinsichtlich des aktuellen Fahrverhaltens in gefaehrlichen Situationen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein neuartiges Verfahren vorgestellt, welches vorausschauend Informationen ueber den vor dem Fahrzeug zu erwartenden Fahrbahnverlauf in Echtzeit bereitstellt. Basierend auf diesen Daten wird vom Fahrerassistenzsystem eine Prognose ueber die auf das Fahrzeug wirkende Kraft erstellt und anschliessend eine geeignete Geschwindigkeitsstrategie vorgeschlagen, die ein sicheres Durchfahren der Kurve zu jedem Zeitpunkt gewaehrleistet. (orig.)

  17. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  18. Analysis and Design of a Speed and Position System for Maglev Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Long

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly researches one method of speed and location detection for maglev vehicles. As the maglev train doesn’t have any physical contact with the rails, it has to use non-contact measuring methods. The technology based on the inductive loop-cable could fulfill the requirement by using an on-board antenna which could detect the alternating magnetic field produced by the loop-cable on rails. This paper introduces the structure of a speed and position system, and analyses the electromagnetic field produced by the loop-cable. The equivalent model of the loop-cable is given and the most suitable component of the magnetic flux density is selected. Then the paper also compares the alternating current (AC resistance and the quality factor between two kinds of coils which the antenna is composed of. The effect of the rails to the signal receiving is also researched and then the structure of the coils is improved. Finally, considering the common-mode interference, 8-word coils are designed and analyzed.

  19. Analysis and design of a speed and position system for maglev vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunhui; Dou, Fengshan; Song, Xianglei; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly researches one method of speed and location detection for maglev vehicles. As the maglev train doesn't have any physical contact with the rails, it has to use non-contact measuring methods. The technology based on the inductive loop-cable could fulfill the requirement by using an on-board antenna which could detect the alternating magnetic field produced by the loop-cable on rails. This paper introduces the structure of a speed and position system, and analyses the electromagnetic field produced by the loop-cable. The equivalent model of the loop-cable is given and the most suitable component of the magnetic flux density is selected. Then the paper also compares the alternating current (AC) resistance and the quality factor between two kinds of coils which the antenna is composed of. The effect of the rails to the signal receiving is also researched and then the structure of the coils is improved. Finally, considering the common-mode interference, 8-word coils are designed and analyzed.

  20. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  1. Research of braking process of transport vehicle with hydraulic brake system parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimirov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Emergency braking of a vehicle is bound with many factors, such as the behaviour of the driver, the drive of the vehicle braking system, the braking mechanisms, the condition of the tyres, and the properties of the pavement. This process involves all parameters of the system “the driver – the vehicle – the road”. In order to investigate the efficiency of braking process upon specific conditions, it is necessary to examine all physical processes that take place in the vehicle on pressing the b...

  2. Establishing Relationship between Process Parameters and Temperature during High Speed End Milling of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Konneh, Mohamed; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In glass machining crack free surface is required in biomedical and optical industry. Ductile mode machining allows materials removal from brittle materials in a ductile manner rather than by brittle fracture. Although end milling is a versatile process, it has not been applied frequently for machining soda lime glass. Soda lime glass is a strain rate and temperature sensitive material; especially around glass transition temperature Tg, ductility increased and strength decreased. Hence, it is envisaged that the generated temperature by high-speed end milling (HSEM) could be brought close to the glass transition temperature, which promote ductile machining. In this research, the objective is to investigate the effect of high speed machining parameters on generated temperature. The cutting parameters were optimized to generate temperature around glass transition temperature of soda lime using response surface methodology (RSM). Result showed that the most influencing process parameter is feed rate followed by spindle speed and depth of cut to generate temperature. Confirmation test showed that combination of spindle speed 30,173 rpm, feed rate 13.2 mm/min and depth of cut 37.68 µm generate 635°C, hence ductile chip removal with machined surface Ra 0.358 µm was possible to achieve.

  3. Automatic Parameter Tuning for the Morpheus Vehicle Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, B.

    2013-01-01

    A high fidelity simulation using a PC based Trick framework has been developed for Johnson Space Center's Morpheus test bed flight vehicle. There is an iterative development loop of refining and testing the hardware, refining the software, comparing the software simulation to hardware performance and adjusting either or both the hardware and the simulation to extract the best performance from the hardware as well as the most realistic representation of the hardware from the software. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique has been developed that increases speed and accuracy of the iterative development cycle. Parameters in software can be automatically tuned to make the simulation match real world subsystem data from test flights. Special considerations for scale, linearity, discontinuities, can be all but ignored with this technique, allowing fast turnaround both for simulation tune up to match hardware changes as well as during the test and validation phase to help identify hardware issues. Software models with insufficient control authority to match hardware test data can be immediately identified and using this technique requires very little to no specialized knowledge of optimization, freeing model developers to concentrate on spacecraft engineering. Integration of the PSO into the Morpheus development cycle will be discussed as well as a case study highlighting the tool's effectiveness.

  4. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  5. The influence of battery degradation level on the selected traction parameters of a light-duty electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.; Noga, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes results of an analysis of the impact of degradation level of battery made in lead-acid technology on selected traction parameters of an electric light duty vehicle. Lead-acid batteries are still used in these types of vehicles. They do not require complex systems of performance management and monitoring and are easy to maintaining. Despite the basic disadvantage, which is the low value of energy density, low price is a decisive factor for their use in low-speed electric vehicles. The process of aging of the battery related with an increase in internal resistance of the cells and the loss of electric capacity of the battery was considered. A simplified model of cooperation of the DC electric motor with the battery assuming increased internal resistance was presented. In the paper the results of comparative traction research of the light-duty vehicle equipped with a set of new batteries and set of batteries having a significant degradation level were showed. The analysis of obtained results showed that the correct exploitation of the battery can slow down the processes of degradation and, thus, extend battery life cycle.

  6. A nonlinear model predictive control formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles in unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed, large-size autono-mous ground vehicles (AGVs) with high centre of gravity (CoG) that operate in unstructured environments, such as military vehicles. The term 'unstructured' in this context denotes that there are no lanes or traffic rules to follow. Existing MPC formulations for passenger vehicles in structured environments do not readily apply to this context. Thus, a new nonlinear MPC formulation is developed to navigate an AGV from its initial position to a target position at high-speed safely. First, a new cost function formulation is used that aims to find the shortest path to the target position, since no reference trajectory exists in unstructured environments. Second, a region partitioning approach is used in conjunction with a multi-phase optimal control formulation to accommodate the complicated forms the obstacle-free region can assume due to the presence of multiple obstacles in the prediction horizon in an unstructured environment. Third, the no-wheel-lift-off condition, which is the major dynamical safety concern for high-speed, high-CoG AGVs, is ensured by limiting the steering angle within a range obtained offline using a 14 degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model. Thus, a safe, high-speed navigation is enabled in an unstructured environment. Simulations of an AGV approaching multiple obstacles are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  7. Influence of coronal mass ejections on parameters of high-speed solar wind: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Rodkin, Denis; Yermolaev, Yuri; Veselovsky, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the case of disagreement between predicted and observed in-situ parameters of the recurrent high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) existing for Carrington rotation (CR) 2118 (December 2011) in comparison with CRs 2117 and 2119. The HSSs originated at the Sun from a recurrent polar coronal hole (CH) expanding to mid-latitudes, and its area in the central part of the solar disk increased with the rotation number. This part of the CH was responsible for the equatorial flank of the HSS directed to the Earth. The time and speed of arrival for this part of the HSS to the Earth were predicted by the hierarchical empirical model based on EUV-imaging and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge ENLIL semi-empirical replace model and compared with the parameters measured in-situ by model. The predicted parameters were compared with those measured in-situ. It was found, that for CR 2117 and CR 2119, the predicted HSS speed values agreed with the measured ones within the typical accuracy of ±100 km s-1. During CR 2118, the measured speed was on 217 km s-1 less than the value predicted in accordance with the increased area of the CH. We suppose that at CR 2118, the HSS overtook and interacted with complex ejecta formed from three merged coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with a mean speed about 400 km s-1. According to simulations of the Drag-based model, this complex ejecta might be created by several CMEs starting from the Sun in the period between 25 and 27 December 2011 and arriving to the Earth simultaneously with the HSS. Due to its higher density and magnetic field strength, the complex ejecta became an obstacle for the equatorial flank of the HSS and slowed it down. During CR 2117 and CR 2119, the CMEs appeared before the arrival of the HSSs, so the CMEs did not influence on the HSSs kinematics.

  8. Variable Speed Limits: Strategies to Improve Safety and Traffic Parameters for a Bottleneck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Hasanpour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the speed limit system is to enforce reasonable and safe speed. To reduce secondary problems such as accidents and queuing, Variable Speed Limits (VSL has been suggested. In this paper VSL is used to better safety and traffic parameters. Traffic parameters including speed, queue length and stopping time have been pondering. For VLS, an optimization decision tree algorithm with the function of microscopic simulation was used. The results in case of sub saturated, saturated and supersaturated at a bottleneck are examined and compared with the Allaby logic tree. The results show that the proposed decision tree shows an improved performance in terms of safety and comfort along the highway. The VSL pilot project is part of the Road Safety Improvement Program included in Iran’s road safety action plan that is in the research process in the BHRC Research Institute, Road and Housing & Urban Development Research that is planned for next 10-year Transportation safety view Plan.

  9. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Kuniaki; Shinoda, Yukio; Seki, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO 2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO 2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO 2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO 2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO 2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO 2 , subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  10. The Speed of Light and the Hubble parameter: The Mass-Boom Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We prove here that Newton's universal gravitation and momentum conservation laws together reproduce Weinberg's relation. It is shown that the Hubble parameter H must be built in this relation, or equivalently the age of the Universe t. Using a wave-to-particle interaction technique we then prove that the speed of light c decreases with cosmological time, and that c is proportional to the Hubble parameter H. We see the expansion of the Universe as a local effect due to the LAB value of the speed of light co taken as constant. We present a generalized red shift law and find a predicted acceleration for photons that agrees well with the result from Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. We finally present a cosmological model coherent with the above results that we call the Mass-Boom. It has a linear increase of mass m with time as a result of the speed of light c linear decrease with time, and the conservation of momentum mc. We obtain the baryonic mass parameter equal to the curvature parameter, Ω m Ω k , so that the model is of the type of the Einstein static, closed, finite, spherical, unlimited, with zero cosmological constant. This model is the cosmological view as seen by photons, neutrinos, tachyons etc. in contrast with the local view, the LAB reference. Neither dark matter nor dark energy is required by this model. With an initial constant speed of light during a short time we get inflation (an exponential expansion). This converts, during the inflation time, the Planck's fluctuation length of 10 -33 cm to the present size of the Universe (about 10 28 cm, constant from then on). Thereafter the Mass-Boom takes care to bring the initial values of the Universe (about 10 15 gr) to the value at the present time of about 10 55 gr

  11. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  12. Automated scheme to determine design parameters for a recoverable reentry vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The NRV (Nosetip Recovery Vehicle) program at Sandia Laboratories is designed to recover the nose section from a sphere cone reentry vehicle after it has flown a near ICBM reentry trajectory. Both mass jettison and parachutes are used to reduce the velocity of the RV near the end of the trajectory to a sufficiently low level that the vehicle may land intact. The design problem of determining mass jettison time and parachute deployment time in order to ensure that the vehicle does land intact is considered. The problem is formulated as a min-max optimization problem where the design parameters are to be selected to minimize the maximum possible deviation in the design criteria due to uncertainties in the system. The results of the study indicate that the optimal choice of the design parameters ensures that the maximum deviation in the design criteria is within acceptable bounds. This analytically ensures the feasibility of recovery for NRV

  13. Characterization of material parameters for high speed forming and cutting via experiment and inverse simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Christian; Psyk, Verena; Linnemann, Maik; Tulke, Marc; Brosius, Alexander; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    High speed velocity effects in production technology provide a broad range of technological and economic advantages [1, 2]. However, exploiting them necessitates the knowledge of strain rate dependent material behavior in process modelling. In general, high speed material data characterization features several difficulties and requires sophisticated approaches in order to provide reliable material data. This paper proposes two innovative concepts with electromagnetic and pneumatic drive and an approach for material characterization in terms of strain rate dependent flow curves and parameters of failure or damage models. The test setups have been designed for investigations of strain rates up to 105 s-1. In principle, knowledge about the temporary courses and local distributions of stress and strain in the specimen is essential for identifying material characteristics, but short process times, fast changes of the measurement values, small specimen size and frequently limited accessibility of the specimen during the test hinder directly measuring these parameters at high-velocity testing. Therefore, auxiliary test parameters, which are easier to measure, are recorded and used as input data for an inverse numerical simulation that provides the desired material characteristics, e.g. the Johnson-Cook parameters, as a result. These parameters are a force equivalent strain signal on a measurement body and the displacement of the upper specimen edge.

  14. Observer-based linear parameter varying H∞ tracking control for hypersonic vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop observer-based linear parameter varying output feedback H∞ tracking controller for hypersonic vehicles. Due to the complexity of an original nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle dynamics, a slow–fast loop linear parameter varying polytopic model is introduced for system stability analysis and controller design. Then, a state observer is developed by linear parameter varying technique in order to estimate the unmeasured attitude angular for slow loop system. Also, based on the designed linear parameter varying state observer, a kind of attitude tracking controller is presented to reduce tracking errors for all bounded reference attitude angular inputs. The closed-loop linear parameter varying system is proved to be quadratically stable by Lypapunov function technique. Finally, simulation results show that the developed linear parameter varying H∞ controller has good tracking capability for reference commands.

  15. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  16. Optimization of Key Parameters of Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using DIRECT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rule-based logic threshold control strategy has been frequently used in energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to its convenience in adjusting parameters, real-time performance, stability, and robustness. However, the logic threshold control parameters cannot usually ensure the best vehicle performance at different driving cycles and conditions. For this reason, the optimization of key parameters is important to improve the fuel economy, dynamic performance, and drivability. In principle, this is a multiparameter nonlinear optimization problem. The logic threshold energy management strategy for an all-wheel-drive HEV is comprehensively analyzed and developed in this study. Seven key parameters to be optimized are extracted. The optimization model of key parameters is proposed from the perspective of fuel economy. The global optimization method, DIRECT algorithm, which has good real-time performance, low computational burden, rapid convergence, is selected to optimize the extracted key parameters globally. The results show that with the optimized parameters, the engine operates more at the high efficiency range resulting into a fuel savings of 7% compared with non-optimized parameters. The proposed method can provide guidance for calibrating the parameters of the vehicle energy management strategy from the perspective of fuel economy.

  17. The influence of cooling parameters on the speed of continuous steel casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirian, G. O.; Gheorghiu, C. A.; Hepuţ, T.; Chioncel, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cooling parameters of the continuous casting speed. In the researches carried out we aimed to establish some correlation equations between the parameters characterizing the continuous casting process, the temperature of the steel at the entrance to the crystallizer, the superheating of the steel and the flow of the cooling water in the crystallizer and different zones of the secondary cooling. Parallel to these parameters were also the values for the casting speed. The research was made for the casting of round ϕ270mm semi-finished steel products. The steel was developed in an electric EBT furnace with a capacity of 100t, treated in L.F. (Ladle - Furnace) and VD (Vacuum-Degassing) and poured in a 5-wire continuous casting plant. The obtained data was processed in MATLAB using three types of correlation equations. The obtained results are presented both in the analytical and graphical form, each correlation being analyzed from the technological point of view, indicating the optimal values for the independent parameters monitored. In the analysis we present a comparison between the results obtained after the three types of equations for each correlation.

  18. AERIS : Eco-Vehicle Speed Control at Signalized Intersections Using I2V Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report concentrates on a velocity advisory tool, or decision support system, for vehicles approaching an intersection using communication capabilities between the infrastructure and vehicles. The system uses available signal change information, ...

  19. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  20. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most

  1. Influence of quenching parameters in the carbides presence in the AISI M2 high speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.S.; Maria, G.G.B; Martins, S.C.S.; Lopes, W.; Correa, E.C.S.; Bezerra, A.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristic of high speed steels, besides maintaining high hardness at room temperature, is the ability of retain hardness when subjected to high temperatures and high cutting speeds. The high percentage of alloying elements in these steels allows the development of complex carbides, acquiring a high hardness by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of quenching parameters in the volumetric fraction of carbides by semi-quantitative metallography and of retained austenite by X-ray diffraction. It has been observed that, in general, the increase in the soaking time and in the austenitizing temperature resulted in the reduction of the amount of carbides and in an increase in the amount of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix. (author)

  2. SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE WORK OF SPEED LIMITER IN LINE STRAINING SYSTEM IN A FRICTIONAL LIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lonkwic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of selected work parameters of speed limiter in line straining system. We analyzed the effect of changing the geometrical conditions of the new solution for the speed limiter in line straining system upon the working conditions in frictional lift braking system. Within the conducted simulations of the work of the system, which is responsible for lift braking with a tension with spring, a test bed was prepared, which simulated the work of tension-rope-limiter system. The tests were performed in the conditions reflecting the work of a lifting appliance. Analyzing the results obtained through empirical calculations, we can conclude that there is a possibility of applying the spring to eliminate the weight.

  3. Numerical approach for optimum electromagnetic parameters of electrical machines used in vehicle traction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodorean, D.; Giurgea, S.; Djerdir, A.; Miraoui, A.

    2009-01-01

    A large speed variation is an essential request in the automobile industry. In order to compete with diesel engines, the flux weakening technique has to be employed on the electrical machines. In this way, appropriate electromagnetic and geometrical parameters can give the desired speed. Using the inverse problem method coupled with numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM), the authors propose an optimum parameters configuration that maximizes the speed domain operation. Several types of electrical machines are under study: induction, synchronous permanent magnet, variable reluctance and transverse flux machines, respectively. With a proper non-linear model, by using analytical and numerical calculation, the authors propose an optimum solution for the speed variation of the studied drives, which will be standing for a final comparison.

  4. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail: expmotor@fiat.com.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  5. Speed support through the intelligent vehicle : perspective, estimated effects and implementation aspects.[Deliverable of the Intelligent Vehicles project, part of the Traffic Management project within TRANSUMO (TRANsition to SUstainable MObility).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Goldenbeld, C. Dragutinovic, N. Marchau, V. Walta, L. & Brookhuis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Speed management is a central theme in traffic management, aiming to optimize traffic in terms of safety, efficiency and the environment, by reducing speeding and speed differences in traffic. Intelligent vehicles can perform tasks that conventional measures cannot do at all, or do less efficiently.

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  7. Validation of Essential Acoustic Parameters for Highly Urgent In-Vehicle Collision Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bridget A; Eisert, Jesse L; Baldwin, Carryl L

    2018-03-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to validate the importance of key acoustic criteria for use as in-vehicle forward collision warning (FCW) systems. Background Despite recent advances in vehicle safety, automobile crashes remain one of the leading causes of death. As automation allows for more control of noncritical functions by the vehicle, the potential for disengagement and distraction from the driving task also increases. It is, therefore, as important as ever that in-vehicle safety-critical interfaces are intuitive and unambiguous, promoting effective collision avoidance responses upon first exposure even under divided-attention conditions. Method The current study used a driving simulator to assess the effectiveness of two warnings, one that met all essential acoustic parameters, one that met only some essential parameters, and a no-warning control in the context of a lead vehicle-following task in conjunction with a cognitive distractor task and collision event. Results Participants receiving an FCW comprising five essential acoustic components had improved collision avoidance responses relative to a no-warning condition and an FCW missing essential elements on their first exposure. Responses to a consistently good warning (GMU Prime) improved with subsequent exposures, whereas continued exposure to the less optimal FCW (GMU Sub-Prime) resulted in poorer performance even relative to receiving no warning at all. Conclusions This study provides support for previous warning design studies and for the validity of five key acoustic parameters essential for the design of effective in-vehicle FCWs. Application Results from this study have implications for the design of auditory FCWs and in-vehicle display design.

  8. Analysis of parameter estimation and optimization application of ant colony algorithm in vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Quan-Li; Cao, Yu-Wei; Yang, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is the most widely used artificial intelligence algorithm at present. This study introduced the principle and mathematical model of ACO algorithm in solving Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), and designed a vehicle routing optimization model based on ACO, then the vehicle routing optimization simulation system was developed by using c ++ programming language, and the sensitivity analyses, estimations and improvements of the three key parameters of ACO were carried out. The results indicated that the ACO algorithm designed in this paper can efficiently solve rational planning and optimization of VRP, and the different values of the key parameters have significant influence on the performance and optimization effects of the algorithm, and the improved algorithm is not easy to locally converge prematurely and has good robustness.

  9. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Vehicle Parameter Identification and its Use in Control for Safe Path Following

    OpenAIRE

    HONG, SANGHYUN

    2014-01-01

    This thesis develops vehicle parameter identification algorithms, and applies identified parameters to a controller designed for safe path following.A tire-road friction coefficient is estimated using an in-tire accelerometer to measure acceleration signals directly from the tires. The proposed algorithm first determines a tire-road contact patch with a radial acceleration profile.The estimation algorithm is based on tire lateral deflections obtained from lateral acceleration measurements onl...

  11. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  12. Reliability analysis of high-speed tracked vehicles in the polish army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kończak Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Armed Forces use tracked vehicles that serve as a core element of the ground combat forces. These vehicles are capable of fighting in all kinds of terrain conditions, in any season of the year. Combat missions are often fought in areas where even no dirt roads are available. The present paper assesses the reliability of tracked vehicles in the context of their irregular operation, as well as service- and maintenance-related vulnerability.

  13. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  14. High speed acquisition of multi-parameter data using a Macintosh II CX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berno, A.; Vogel, J.S.; Caffee, M.

    1990-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry systems based on >3MV tandem accelerators often use multi-anode ionization detectors and/or time-of-flight detectors to identify individual isotopes through multi-parameter analysis. A Macintosh llcx has been programmed to collect AMS data from a CAMAC-implemented analyzer and to display the histogrammed individual parameters and a double-parameter array. The computer-CAMAC connection is through a Nu-Bus to CAMAC dataway interface which allows direct addressing to all functions and locations in the crate. The asynchronous data from counting the rare isotope is sorted into a CAMAC memory module by a list sequence controller. Isotope switching is controlled by a one-cycle timing generator. A rate-dependent amount of time is used to transfer the data from the memory module at the end of each timing cycle. The present configuration uses 10 to 75 ms for rates of 500--10000 cps. Parameter analysis occurs during the rest of the 520 ms data collection cycle. Completed measurements of the isotope concentrations of each sample are written to files which are compatible with standard Macintosh databases or other processing programs. The system is inexpensive and operates at speeds comparable to those obtainable using larger computers

  15. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Su Kim; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI con...

  16. A Novel SHLNN Based Robust Control and Tracking Method for Hypersonic Vehicle under Parameter Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic vehicle is a typical parameter uncertain system with significant characteristics of strong coupling, nonlinearity, and external disturbance. In this paper, a combined system modeling approach is proposed to approximate the actual vehicle system. The state feedback control strategy is adopted based on the robust guaranteed cost control (RGCC theory, where the Lyapunov function is applied to get control law for nonlinear system and the problem is transformed into a feasible solution by linear matrix inequalities (LMI method. In addition, a nonfragile guaranteed cost controller solved by LMI optimization approach is employed to the linear error system, where a single hidden layer neural network (SHLNN is employed as an additive gain compensator to reduce excessive performance caused by perturbations and uncertainties. Simulation results show the stability and well tracking performance for the proposed strategy in controlling the vehicle system.

  17. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  18. Network Provisioning for High Speed Vehicles Moving along Predictable Routes - Part 1: Spiderman Handover

    OpenAIRE

    Maureira , Juan-Carlos; Dujovne , Diego; Dalle , Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This report presents our on-going work on a new system designed to provide a continuous network connectivity to communicating devices located on-board a vehicle moving at ”high speed” with a predictable trajectory such as trains, subways or buses. The devices on-board the vehicle form a sub-network called the ”in-motion network”. This system we propose is composed of two parts. The mobile part, called Spiderman Device (SD), installed on the roof of the vehicle, and the fixed part is composed ...

  19. Roundabouts converted for road trains and the effect on vehicle speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    on the measured time use between two location identified in the roundabout for private cars driving under free flow conditions, an estimation of the speed with/after compared to the speed without/before the redesign is made for in total 100 cars per week per location. The very first tentative results show...

  20. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  1. Side-suspended High- Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    High- T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 10 3 Pa. (paper)

  2. High-speed two-frame gated camera for parameters measurement of Dragon-Ⅰ LIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaoguo; Wang Yuan; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    The time-resolved measurement system which can work at very high speed is necessary in electron beam parameter diagnosis for Dragon-Ⅰ linear induction accelerator (LIA). A two-frame gated camera system has been developed and put into operation. The camera system adopts the optical principle of splitting the imaging light beam into two parts in the imaging space of a lens with long focus length. It includes lens coupled gated image intensifier, CCD camera, high speed shutter trigger device based on large scale field programmable gate array. The minimum exposure time for each image is about 3 ns, and the interval time between two images can be adjusted with a step of about 0.5 ns. The exposure time and the interval time can be independently adjusted and can reach about 1 s. The camera system features good linearity, good response uniformity, equivalent background illumination (EBI) as low as about 5 electrons per pixel per second, large adjustment range of sensitivity, and excel- lent flexibility and adaptability in applications. The camera system can capture two frame images at one time with the image size of 1024 x 1024. It meets the requirements of measurement for Dragon-Ⅰ LIA. (authors)

  3. Robust control and linear parameter varying approaches application to vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Peter; Bokor, József

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles are complex systems (non-linear, multi-variable) where the abundance of embedded controllers should ensure better security. This book aims at emphasizing the interest and potential of Linear Parameter Varying methods within the framework of vehicle dynamics, e.g.   ·          proposed control-oriented model, complex enough to handle some system non linearities but still simple for control or observer design,   ·          take into account the adaptability of the vehicle's response to driving situations, to the driver request and/or to the road sollicitations,   ·          manage interactions between various actuators to optimize the dynamic behavior of vehicles.   This book results from the 32th International Summer School in Automatic that held in Grenoble, France, in September 2011, where recent methods (based on robust control and LPV technics), then applied to the control of vehicle dynamics, have been presented. After some theoretical background and a view on so...

  4. Intelligent design of mechanical parameters of the joint in vehicle body concept design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-bin; Zhang, Hong-zhe; Hou, Da-jun; Hu, Ping

    2013-05-01

    In order to estimate the mechanical properties of the overall structure of the body accurately and quickly in conceptual design phase of the body, the beam and shell mixing elements was used to build simplified finite element model of the body. Through the BP neural network algorithm, the parameters of the mechanical property of joints element which had more affection on calculation accuracy were calculated and the joint finite element model based on the parameters was also constructed. The case shown that the method can improve the accuracy of the vehicle simulation results, while not too many design details were needed, which was fit to the demand in the vehicle body conceptual design phase.

  5. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  7. Optimization of Silicon MZM Fabrication Parameters for High Speed Short Reach Interconnects at 1310 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Abraham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical modulators are key components to realize photonic circuits, and Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM are often used for high speed short reach interconnects. In order to maximize the tolerable path loss of a transmission link at a given bitrate, the MZM needs to be optimized. However, the optimization can be complex since the overall link performance depends on various parameters, and, for the MZM in particular, implies several trade-offs between efficiency, losses, and bandwidth. In this work, we propose a general and rigorous method to optimize silicon MZM. We first describe the optical link, and the numerical method used for this study. Then we present the results associated to the active region for 1310 nm applications. An analytical model is generated, and allows us to quickly optimize the p-n junction depending of the targeted performances for the MZM. Taking into account the required optical link parameters, the maximum tolerable path losses for different length of MZM is determined. By applying this method, simulations show that the optimum MZM length for 25 Gbps applications is 4 mm with an efficiency of 1.87 V·cm, 0.52 dB/mm of losses. A tolerable path loss of more than 25 dB is obtained.

  8. A new procedure of modal parameter estimation for high-speed digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huňady, Róbert; Hagara, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with the use of 3D digital image correlation in determining modal parameters of mechanical systems. It is a non-contact optical method, which for the measurement of full-field spatial displacements and strains of bodies uses precise digital cameras with high image resolution. Most often this method is utilized for testing of components or determination of material properties of various specimens. In the case of using high-speed cameras for measurement, the correlation system is capable of capturing various dynamic behaviors, including vibration. This enables the potential use of the mentioned method in experimental modal analysis. For that purpose, the authors proposed a measuring chain for the correlation system Q-450 and developed a software application called DICMAN 3D, which allows the direct use of this system in the area of modal testing. The created application provides the post-processing of measured data and the estimation of modal parameters. It has its own graphical user interface, in which several algorithms for the determination of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping of particular modes of vibration are implemented. The paper describes the basic principle of the new estimation procedure which is crucial in the light of post-processing. Since the FRF matrix resulting from the measurement is usually relatively large, the estimation of modal parameters directly from the FRF matrix may be time-consuming and may occupy a large part of computer memory. The procedure implemented in DICMAN 3D provides a significant reduction in memory requirements and computational time while achieving a high accuracy of modal parameters. Its computational efficiency is particularly evident when the FRF matrix consists of thousands of measurement DOFs. The functionality of the created software application is presented on a practical example in which the modal parameters of a composite plate excited by an impact hammer were determined. For the

  9. 49 CFR 571.500 - Standard No. 500; Low-speed vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement of any component is allowed after the start of the first performance test. S6.3.3. Tire inflation.... General test conditions. Each vehicle must meet the performance limit specified in S5(a) under the... standard reference test tire that meets the specifications of American Society for Testing and Materials...

  10. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H ∞ controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions

  11. UNDESIRED SPLASH OVER ON EQUIPMENTS USING INDUCTIVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES' CONTROLLED SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Monteiro

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate instruments that oversight traffic flow electronically, using inductive surface sensors, based on the change of local magnetic field. More specifically, we study the possibility of false speed detections, due to the manifestation of the phenomenon called splash over - which means a space splash of the magnetic field lines out of the measuring zone. We show, through the literature, and practical simulations, the damage that can be caused by splash on the correct speed measurement and identification of the car under suspicions. It is also presented solutions to inhibiting unwanted velocity measurements due to this effect.

  12. Analysis, control and design of speed control of electric vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; ShaSadeghi, Mokhtar; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest an optimal multi-objective fuzzy fractional-order PIλDμPIλDμ controller (MOFFOPID) for the speed control of EV systems with time-delay. It is presumed that while the EV is in movement, the armature winding resistance of the direct current (DC) motor varies...... controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are implemented on a DC motor to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MOFFOPID controller in controlling the speed of the DC motor which has non-linear features. The results of the simulation confirm the desirable performance...

  13. In-Vehicle Dynamic Curve-Speed Warnings at High-Risk Rural Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Lane-departure crashes at horizontal curves represent a significant portion of fatal crashes on rural Minnesota roads. Because of this, solutions are needed to aid drivers in identifying upcoming curves and inform them of a safe speed at which they s...

  14. Contribution to the analysis of the influence of parameters of elasto-damping elements to the vehicle ride comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During development of motor vehicles, a significant role has a dynamic simulation, which is based on the modeling. Role modeling is very important in the early stages of design, during definition of the vehicles main parameters. Literature sources provide complete responses to the influence of the forces in springs, shock absorbers and tires on the vehicle oscillatory comfort, but hardly anyone engaged in analysis of parameters of the models of elasto-damping elements on the oscillations of the vehicle. This paper will attempt to be made, on the basis of the adopted models of springs, shock absorbers and tires, perform analysis of the influence of parameters on the oscillations of the vehicle. For that purpose they used so-called sensitivity functions.

  15. Research on Matching Method of Power Supply Parameters for Dual Energy Source Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q.; Luo, M. J.; Zhang, S. K.; Liao, M. W.

    2018-03-01

    A new type of power source is proposed, which is based on the traffic signal matching method of the dual energy source power supply composed of the batteries and the supercapacitors. First, analyzing the power characteristics is required to meet the excellent dynamic characteristics of EV, studying the energy characteristics is required to meet the mileage requirements and researching the physical boundary characteristics is required to meet the physical conditions of the power supply. Secondly, the parameter matching design with the highest energy efficiency is adopted to select the optimal parameter group with the method of matching deviation. Finally, the simulation analysis of the vehicle is carried out in MATLABSimulink, The mileage and energy efficiency of dual energy sources are analyzed in different parameter models, and the rationality of the matching method is verified.

  16. Semi-active H∞ control of high-speed railway vehicle suspension with magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lu-Hang; Gong, Xing-Long; Xuan, Shou-Hu; Guo, Chao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, semi-active H∞ control with magnetorheological (MR) dampers for railway vehicle suspension systems to improve the lateral ride quality is investigated. The proposed semi-active controller is composed of a H∞ controller as the system controller and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) inverse MR damper model as the damper controller. First, a 17-degree-of-freedom model for a full-scale railway vehicle is developed and the random track irregularities are modelled. Then a modified Bouc-Wen model is built to characterise the forward dynamic characteristics of the MR damper and an inverse MR damper model is built with the ANFIS technique. Furthermore, a H∞ controller composed of a yaw motion controller and a rolling pendulum motion (lateral motion+roll motion) controller is established. By integrating the H∞ controller with the ANFIS inverse model, a semi-active H∞ controller for the railway vehicle is finally proposed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed semi-active suspension system possesses better attenuation ability for the vibrations of the car body than the passive suspension system.

  17. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  18. Statistical analysis of wind speed using two-parameter Weibull distribution in Alaçatı region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozay, Can; Celiktas, Melih Soner

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind speed & direction data from September 2008 to March 2014 has been analyzed. • Mean wind speed for the whole data set has been found to be 8.11 m/s. • Highest wind speed is observed in July with a monthly mean value of 9.10 m/s. • Wind speed with the most energy has been calculated as 12.77 m/s. • Observed data has been fit to a Weibull distribution and k &c parameters have been calculated as 2.05 and 9.16. - Abstract: Weibull Statistical Distribution is a common method for analyzing wind speed measurements and determining wind energy potential. Weibull probability density function can be used to forecast wind speed, wind density and wind energy potential. In this study a two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution is used to analyze the wind characteristics of Alaçatı region, located in Çeşme, İzmir. The data used in the density function are acquired from a wind measurement station in Alaçatı. Measurements were gathered on three different heights respectively 70, 50 and 30 m between 10 min intervals for five and half years. As a result of this study; wind speed frequency distribution, wind direction trends, mean wind speed, and the shape and the scale (k&c) Weibull parameters have been calculated for the region. Mean wind speed for the entirety of the data set is found to be 8.11 m/s. k&c parameters are found as 2.05 and 9.16 in relative order. Wind direction analysis along with a wind rose graph for the region is also provided with the study. Analysis suggests that higher wind speeds which range from 6–12 m/s are prevalent between the sectors 340–360°. Lower wind speeds, from 3 to 6 m/s occur between sectors 10–29°. Results of this study contribute to the general knowledge about the regions wind energy potential and can be used as a source for investors and academics.

  19. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver’s Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers’ speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers’ operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers’ speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones.

  20. Ecient Parameter Estimation and Control Based on a Modified LOS Guidance System of an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Revestido Herrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a methodology is proposed for the improvement of the parameter estimation effciency of a non-linear manoeuvring model of a torpedo shaped unmanned underwater vehicle. For this purpose, data from different tests, were carried out with the aforementioned vehicle at the facilities of the Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas del Pardo, Madrid. In the proposed methodology, the following aspects are taken into account in order to improve the parameter estimation effciency: selection of the sampling period, smoothing of the data acquired in the tests considering a compromise between variance and bias of the smoothing filter to be applied, analysis of the classical linear regression model proposed in each trial, from the statistical point of view for the estimation of the parameters. Improvements in effciency are verified by graphical and statistical methods. In addition, a modification of the conventional LOS method is proposed which provides satisfactory results in the presence of ocean currents by performing a simple procedure.

  1. Application of a distributed systems architecture for increased speed in image processing on an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam A.; Momin, Orko; Shin, Young Ho; Shakya, Rahul; Nepal, Kumud; Ahlgren, David J.

    2010-01-01

    was established as the most reliable protocol after testing various options. Improvement can be made to the system by migrating more algorithms to the hardware based FPGA to further speed up the operations of the vehicle.

  2. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  3. Nonlinear control of linear parameter varying systems with applications to hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Zachary Donald

    The focus of this dissertation is to design a controller for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, apply it specifically to air-breathing hypersonic vehicles, and examine the interplay between control performance and the structural dynamics design. Specifically a Lyapunov-based continuous robust controller is developed that yields exponential tracking of a reference model, despite the presence of bounded, nonvanishing disturbances. The hypersonic vehicle has time varying parameters, specifically temperature profiles, and its dynamics can be reduced to an LPV system with additive disturbances. Since the HSV can be modeled as an LPV system the proposed control design is directly applicable. The control performance is directly examined through simulations. A wide variety of applications exist that can be effectively modeled as LPV systems. In particular, flight systems have historically been modeled as LPV systems and associated control tools have been applied such as gain-scheduling, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), linear fractional transformations (LFT), and mu-types. However, as the type of flight environments and trajectories become more demanding, the traditional LPV controllers may no longer be sufficient. In particular, hypersonic flight vehicles (HSVs) present an inherently difficult problem because of the nonlinear aerothermoelastic coupling effects in the dynamics. HSV flight conditions produce temperature variations that can alter both the structural dynamics and flight dynamics. Starting with the full nonlinear dynamics, the aerothermoelastic effects are modeled by a temperature dependent, parameter varying state-space representation with added disturbances. The model includes an uncertain parameter varying state matrix, an uncertain parameter varying non-square (column deficient) input matrix, and an additive bounded disturbance. In this dissertation, a robust dynamic controller is formulated for a uncertain and disturbed LPV system. The developed

  4. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  5. Evaluation of brake parameters in copper discs of various thicknesses and speeds using Neodymium – Iron – Boron Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Krishna G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium – Iron – Boron (NdFeB permanent magnets of 12.5 mm thickness and 50 mm diameter are chosen for analyses because of their higher remanence and coercivity. Experimental analyses were carried out with Copper discs of thickness 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm at 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm. Experiments were conducted with three different positions of magnets such as 2 coaxial magnets, single magnet and single magnet with sudden application conditions. The brake parameters recorded are % speed reduction, deceleration and time taken. In 2 coaxial magnets condition, brake parameters are better in 6 mm thick disc. In single magnet condition, the brake parameters in 6 mm thick disc are found to be more consistent than 4 mm and 8 mm thick discs. In single magnet with sudden application condition, in 4 mm thick disc, the brake parameters are found better. During analysis, very high repulsion was experienced by magnet with 8 mm thick Copper disc at all the above mentioned speeds in single magnet with sudden application condition. For high speed train applications, single magnet condition with 6mm thick disc may be suitable. For high speed automotive applications, single magnet with sudden application condition with 4 mm thick disc may be suitable.

  6. Probability Distributions for Cyclone Key Parameters and Cyclonic Wind Speed for the East Coast of Indian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Goyal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted on the probabilistic distribution of key cyclone parameters and the cyclonic wind speed by analyzing the cyclone track records obtained from India meteorological department for east coast region of India. The dataset of historical landfalling storm tracks in India from 1975–2007 with latitude /longitude and landfall locations are used to map the cyclone tracks in a region of study. The statistical tests were performed to find a best fit distribution to the track data for each cyclone parameter. These parameters include central pressure difference, the radius of maximum wind speed, the translation velocity, track angle with site and are used to generate digital simulated cyclones using wind field simulation techniques. For this, different sets of values for all the cyclone key parameters are generated randomly from their probability distributions. Using these simulated values of the cyclone key parameters, the distribution of wind velocity at a particular site is obtained. The same distribution of wind velocity at the site is also obtained from actual track records and using the distributions of the cyclone key parameters as published in the literature. The simulated distribution is compared with the wind speed distributions obtained from actual track records. The findings are useful in cyclone disaster mitigation.

  7. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  8. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn; Watt, Kerrianne; Kimble, Roy; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-05

    There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention), then five months later (post-intervention), to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants' knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated 'adequate behaviour' in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention ( p experience reflects the 'real-world' challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media), legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras), and education to prevent LSVROs.

  9. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  10. Validation of temporal and spatial consistency of facility- and speed-specific vehicle-specific power distributions for emission estimation: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiqiang; Song, Guohua; Lu, Hongyu; He, Weinan; Yu, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-specific power (VSP) has been found to be highly correlated with vehicle emissions. It is used in many studies on emission modeling such as the MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator) model. The existing studies develop specific VSP distributions (or OpMode distribution in MOVES) for different road types and various average speeds to represent the vehicle operating modes on road. However, it is still not clear if the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions are consistent temporally and spatially. For instance, is it necessary to update periodically the database of the VSP distributions in the emission model? Are the VSP distributions developed in the city central business district (CBD) area applicable to its suburb area? In this context, this study examined the temporal and spatial consistency of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions in Beijing. The VSP distributions in different years and in different areas are developed, based on real-world vehicle activity data. The root mean square error (RMSE) is employed to quantify the difference between the VSP distributions. The maximum differences of the VSP distributions between different years and between different areas are approximately 20% of that between different road types. The analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission factor indicates that the temporal and spatial differences of the VSP distributions have no significant impact on vehicle emission estimation, with relative error of less than 3%. The temporal and spatial differences have no significant impact on the development of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions for the vehicle emission estimation. The database of the specific VSP distributions in the VSP-based emission models can maintain in terms of time. Thus, it is unnecessary to update the database regularly, and it is reliable to use the history vehicle activity data to forecast the emissions in the future. In one city, the areas with less data can still

  11. An exploration of the influence of diagonal dissociation and moderate changes in speed on locomotor parameters in trotting horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Hobbs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed. We anticipate that hind-first diagonal dissociation at contact increases with speed, diagonal dissociation at contact can reduce collision-based energy losses and predominant dissociation patterns will be evident within individuals. Methods. The study was performed in two parts: in the first 17 horses performed speed-matched trotting trials and in the second, five horses each performed 10 trotting trials that represented a range of individually preferred speeds. Standard motion capture provided kinematic data that were synchronized with ground reaction force (GRF data from a series of force plates. The data were analyzed further to determine temporal, speed, GRF, postural, mass distribution, moment, and collision dynamics parameters. Results. Fore-first, synchronous, and hind-first dissociations were found in horses trotting at (3.3 m/s ± 10%. In these speed-matched trials, mean centre of pressure (COP cranio-caudal location differed significantly between the three dissociation categories. The COP moved systematically and significantly (P = .001 from being more caudally located in hind-first dissociation (mean location = 0.41 ± 0.04 through synchronous (0.36 ± 0.02 to a more cranial location in fore-first dissociation (0.32 ± 0.02. Dissociation patterns were found to influence function, posture, and balance parameters. Over a moderate speed range, peak vertical forelimb GRF had a strong relationship with dissociation

  12. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  13. Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An application of random parameters negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Rusdi; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2017-05-01

    Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  15. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Su Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters.

  16. Effects of major-road vehicle speed and driver age and gender on left-turn gap acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Guo, Dahai

    2007-07-01

    Because the driver's gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver's gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver process and driving behaviors. Using a driving simulator experiment for left-turn gap acceptance at a stop-controlled intersection, this study evaluated the effects of major traffic speed and driver age and gender on gap acceptance behaviors. The experiment results illustrate relationships among drivers' left-turn gap decision, driver's acceleration rate, steering action, and the influence of the gap-acceptance maneuver on the vehicles in the major traffic stream. The experiment results identified an association between high crash risk and high traffic speed at stop-controlled intersections. The older drivers, especially older female drivers, displayed a conservative driving attitude as a compensation for reduced driving ability, but also showed to be the most vulnerable group for the relatively complex driving maneuvers.

  17. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  18. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  19. Adaptive control of a quadrotor aerial vehicle with input constraints and uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Toan; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive bounded control for the trajectory tracking of a Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle (QAV) while the input saturations and uncertain parameters with the known bounds are simultaneously taken into account. First, to deal with the underactuated property of the QAV model, we decouple and construct the QAV model as a cascaded structure which consists of two fully actuated subsystems. Second, to handle the input constraints and uncertain parameters, we use a combination of the smooth saturation function and smooth projection operator in the control design. Third, to ensure the stability of the overall system of the QAV, we develop the technique for the cascaded system in the presence of both the input constraints and uncertain parameters. Finally, the region of stability of the closed-loop system is constructed explicitly, and our design ensures the asymptotic convergence of the tracking errors to the origin. The simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100-m Sprint Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emel; Hindistan, I Ethem; Ozkaya, Y Gul

    2018-05-01

    Cetin, E, Hindistan, IE, Ozkaya, YG. Effect of different training methods on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1263-1272, 2018-This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. Twenty recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group. Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, whereas H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10-m intervals, and running time (t), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period. After 8 weeks of training program, t was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group. Running velocity also increased for totally 100 m of running distance by 4.13 and 2.35% in Com, and H groups, respectively. At the speed maintenance phase, although t and maximal RV (RVmax) found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, t was found to be decreased, and RVmax was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups. Step length was increased at 60-70 m, and SF was decreased at 70-80 m in H group. Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in SF at 80-90 m in Com group. Both training groups maintained the RVmax with a great percentage at the speed maintenance phase. In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and RV, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving RV, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in SL during the speed maintaining phase.

  1. Canonical sound speed profile and related ray acoustic parameters in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, B.P.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, canonical parameters (i.e., B the stratification scale and epsilon the perturbation coefficient) in adiabatic ocean are obtained using SOFAR channel parameters (i.e., C sound velocity at the channel axis, Z sub(1...

  2. Weibull Distribution for Estimating the Parameters and Application of Hilbert Transform in case of a Low Wind Speed at Kolaghat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhattacharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wind resource varies with of the day and the season of the year and even some extent from year to year. Wind energy has inherent variances and hence it has been expressed by distribution functions. In this paper, we present some methods for estimating Weibull parameters in case of a low wind speed characterization, namely, shape parameter (k, scale parameter (c and characterize the discrete wind data sample by the discrete Hilbert transform. We know that the Weibull distribution is an important distribution especially for reliability and maintainability analysis. The suitable values for both shape parameter and scale parameters of Weibull distribution are important for selecting locations of installing wind turbine generators. The scale parameter of Weibull distribution also important to determine whether a wind farm is good or not. Thereafter the use of discrete Hilbert transform (DHT for wind speed characterization provides a new era of using DHT besides its application in digital signal processing. Basically in this paper, discrete Hilbert transform has been applied to characterize the wind sample data measured on College of Engineering and Management, Kolaghat, East Midnapore, India in January 2011.

  3. Distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation in the composite braking case for four-wheel drive hybrid electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Zhou, L.-J.; Zhang, J.-T.; Zhu, Q.; Hedrick, J.-K.

    2017-05-01

    Considering the controllability and observability of the braking torques of the hub motor, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG), and hydraulic brake for four-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid electric cars, a distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation algorithm for different braking situations has been proposed by fully utilising the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) sensor signals and multiple powersource signals. Firstly, the simulation platform of a 4WD hybrid electric car was established, which integrates an electronic-hydraulic composited braking system model and its control strategy, a nonlinear seven degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model, and the Burckhardt tyre model. Secondly, combining the braking torque signals with the ESP signals, self-adaptive unscented Kalman sub-filter and main-filter adaptable to the observation noise were, respectively, designed. Thirdly, the fusion rules for the sub-filters and master filter were proposed herein, and the estimation results were compared with the simulated value of a real vehicle speed. Finally, based on the hardware in-the-loop platform and by picking up the regenerative motor torque signals and wheel cylinder pressure signals, the proposed speed estimation algorithm was tested under the case of moderate braking on the highly adhesive road, and the case of Antilock Braking System (ABS) action on the slippery road, as well as the case of ABS action on the icy road. Test results show that the presented vehicle speed estimation algorithm has not only a high precision but also a strong adaptability in the composite braking case.

  4. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  5. A wind-tunnel investigation of parameters affecting helicopter directional control at low speeds in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Young, W. H., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to measure the performance of several helicopter tail-rotor/fin configurations with regard to directional control problems encountered at low speeds in ground effect. Tests were conducted at wind azimuths of 0 deg to 360 deg in increments of 30 deg and 60 deg and at wind speeds from 0 to 35 knots. The results indicate that at certain combinations of wind speed and wind azimuth, large increases in adverse fin force require correspondingly large increases in the tail-rotor thrust, collective pitch, and power required to maintain yaw trim. Changing the tail-rotor direction of rotation to top blade aft for either a pusher tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing away from fin) or a tractor tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing against fin) will alleviate this problem. For a pusher tail rotor at 180 deg wind azimuth, increases in the fin/tail-rotor gap were not found to have any significant influence on the overall vehicle directional control capability. Changing the tail rotor to a higher position was found to improve tail-rotor performance for a fin-off configuration at a wind azimuth of 180 deg. A V-tail configuration with a pusher tail rotor with top blade aft direction of rotation was found to be the best configuration with regard to overall directional control capability.

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Fluid Power Drive-trains for Variable Speed Wind Turbines : A Parameter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the pursuit of making wind energy technology more economically attractive, the application of fluid power technology for the transmission of wind energy is being developed by several parties all over the world. This paper presents a dynamic model of a fluid power transmission for variable speed

  7. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of Connected Vehicle Technology that facilitates wireless communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at...

  8. High Speed and High Spatial Density Parameter Measurement Using Fiber Optic Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Allen R. Jr. (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Hamory, Philip J (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an improved fiber optic sensing system (FOSS) having the ability to provide both high spatial resolution and high frequency strain measurements. The inventive hybrid FOSS fiber combines sensors from high acquisition speed and low spatial resolution Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems and from low acquisition speed and high spatial resolution Optical Frequency Domain Reflection (OFDR) systems. Two unique light sources utilizing different wavelengths are coupled with the hybrid FOSS fiber to generate reflected data from both the WDM sensors and OFDR sensors operating on a single fiber optic cable without incurring interference from one another. The two data sets are then de-multiplexed for analysis, optionally with conventionally-available WDM and OFDR system analyzers.

  9. DETERMINING GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL TREES FROM LASER SCANNING DATA OBTAINED WITH UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hadas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of dendrometric parameters has become an important issue for agriculture planning and for the efficient management of orchards. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data is widely used in forestry and many algorithms for automatic estimation of dendrometric parameters of individual forest trees were developed. Unfortunately, due to significant differences between forest and fruit trees, some contradictions exist against adopting the achievements of forestry science to agricultural studies indiscriminately. In this study we present the methodology to identify individual trees in apple orchard and estimate heights of individual trees, using high-density LiDAR data (3200 points/m2 obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV equipped with Velodyne HDL32-E sensor. The processing strategy combines the alpha-shape algorithm, principal component analysis (PCA and detection of local minima. The alpha-shape algorithm is used to separate tree rows. In order to separate trees in a single row, we detect local minima on the canopy profile and slice polygons from alpha-shape results. We successfully separated 92 % of trees in the test area. 6 % of trees in orchard were not separated from each other and 2 % were sliced into two polygons. The RMSE of tree heights determined from the point clouds compared to field measurements was equal to 0.09 m, and the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.96. The results confirm the usefulness of LiDAR data from UAV platform in orchard inventory.

  10. Determining Geometric Parameters of Agricultural Trees from Laser Scanning Data Obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, E.; Jozkow, G.; Walicka, A.; Borkowski, A.

    2018-05-01

    The estimation of dendrometric parameters has become an important issue for agriculture planning and for the efficient management of orchards. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data is widely used in forestry and many algorithms for automatic estimation of dendrometric parameters of individual forest trees were developed. Unfortunately, due to significant differences between forest and fruit trees, some contradictions exist against adopting the achievements of forestry science to agricultural studies indiscriminately. In this study we present the methodology to identify individual trees in apple orchard and estimate heights of individual trees, using high-density LiDAR data (3200 points/m2) obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with Velodyne HDL32-E sensor. The processing strategy combines the alpha-shape algorithm, principal component analysis (PCA) and detection of local minima. The alpha-shape algorithm is used to separate tree rows. In order to separate trees in a single row, we detect local minima on the canopy profile and slice polygons from alpha-shape results. We successfully separated 92 % of trees in the test area. 6 % of trees in orchard were not separated from each other and 2 % were sliced into two polygons. The RMSE of tree heights determined from the point clouds compared to field measurements was equal to 0.09 m, and the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.96. The results confirm the usefulness of LiDAR data from UAV platform in orchard inventory.

  11. Sensor Fusion Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Probability Density Function (PDF) Dual Kalman Filter for On-Line Estimation of Vehicle Parameters and States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Melendez, Leandro; Boada, Beatriz L; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Gauchia, Antonio; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-04-29

    Vehicles with a high center of gravity (COG), such as light trucks and heavy vehicles, are prone to rollover. This kind of accident causes nearly 33 % of all deaths from passenger vehicle crashes. Nowadays, these vehicles are incorporating roll stability control (RSC) systems to improve their safety. Most of the RSC systems require the vehicle roll angle as a known input variable to predict the lateral load transfer. The vehicle roll angle can be directly measured by a dual antenna global positioning system (GPS), but it is expensive. For this reason, it is important to estimate the vehicle roll angle from sensors installed onboard in current vehicles. On the other hand, the knowledge of the vehicle's parameters values is essential to obtain an accurate vehicle response. Some of vehicle parameters cannot be easily obtained and they can vary over time. In this paper, an algorithm for the simultaneous on-line estimation of vehicle's roll angle and parameters is proposed. This algorithm uses a probability density function (PDF)-based truncation method in combination with a dual Kalman filter (DKF), to guarantee that both vehicle's states and parameters are within bounds that have a physical meaning, using the information obtained from sensors mounted on vehicles. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  13. A two-phase control algorithm for gear-shifting in a novel multi-speed transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.

    2018-05-01

    In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.

  14. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Griffin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention, then five months later (post-intervention, to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants’ knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated ‘adequate behaviour’ in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention (p < 0.05. Most of the sample perceived other’s driveway behaviour as inadequate, and this reduced significantly (<0.05. Perceived effectiveness of LSVRO prevention strategies increased from pre- to post-intervention, but not significantly. TV was the greatest source of knowledge regarding LSVROs pre- and post-intervention. This study provides some evidence that the educational campaign and opportunistic media engagement were successful in increasing awareness and improving behaviour regarding LSVROs. While there are several limitations to this study, our experience reflects the ‘real-world’ challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media, legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras, and education to prevent LSVROs.

  15. The Effects of Uncertainty in Speed-Flow Curve Parameters on a Large-Scale Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    -delay functions express travel time as a function of traffic flows and the theoretical capacity of the modeled facility. The U.S. Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) formula is one of the most extensively applied volume delay functions in practice. This study investigated uncertainty in the BPR parameters. Initially......-stage Danish national transport model. The results clearly highlight the importance to modeling purposes of taking into account BPR formula parameter uncertainty, expressed as a distribution of values rather than assumed point values. Indeed, the model output demonstrates a noticeable sensitivity to parameter...

  16. High-speed infrared thermography for the measurement of microscopic boiling parameters on micro- and nano-structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale structures on boiling surfaces can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and critical heat flux (CHF). A few studies were conducted to explain the enhancements of HTC and CHF using the microscopic boiling parameters. Quantitative measurements of microscopic boiling parameters are needed to understand the physical mechanism of the boiling heat transfer augmentation on structured surfaces. However, there is no existing experimental techniques to conveniently measure the boiling parameters on the structured surfaces because of the small (speed infrared (IR) thermography to visualize liquid-vapor phase distribution during nucleate pool boiling on micro- and nano-structured surfaces. The visualization results are analyzed to obtain the microscopic boiling parameters. Finally, quantitative microscopic boiling parameters are used to interpret the enhancement of HTC and CHF. In this study, liquid-vapor phase distributions of each surface were clearly visualized by IR thermography during the nucleate boiling phenomena. From the visualization results, following microscopic boiling parameters were quantitatively measured by image processing. - Number density of dry patch, NDP IR thermography technique was demonstrated by nucleate pool boiling experiments with M- and N surfaces. The enhancement of HTC and CHF could be explained by microscopic boiling parameters

  17. Calculation of Wind Speeds for Return Period Using Weibull Parameter: A Case Study of Hanbit NPP Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongk Uk; Lee, Kwan Hee; Kim, Sung Il; Yook, Dae Sik; Ahn, Sang Myeon [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Evaluation of the meteorological characteristics at the nuclear power plant and in the surrounding area should be performed in determining the site suitability for safe operation of the nuclear power plant. Under unexpected emergency condition, knowledge of meteorological information on the site area is important to provide the basis for estimating environmental impacts resulting from radioactive materials released in gaseous effluents during the accident condition. In the meteorological information, wind speed and direction are the important meteorological factors for examination of the safety analysis in the nuclear power plant area. Wind characteristics was analyzed on Hanbit NPP area. It was found that the Weibull parameters k and c vary 2.56 to 4.77 and 4.53 to 6.79 for directional wind speed distribution, respectively. Maximum wind frequency was NE and minimum was NNW.

  18. Critical parameters and decay constants for one-speed neutrons in slabs and spheres with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, C.

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent, one-speed neutron transport equations with strong forward and backward scattering together with isotropic scattering are studied in homogeneous slabs and spheres. First, a simple formal equivalence between the transport equations for a critical and for a time-decaying system is established. Then, the transport equation is converted into a more conventional one. The F N method of solving the resulting transport equation is applied to the calculation of the critical parameters and decay constants for the fundamental mode of the flux distribution and one-speed neutrons in spheres and infinite slabs. Numerical results are given for a number of significant figures and compared with those already available in the literature. (orig.) [de

  19. The influence of anthropometric parameters and of muscle-joint mobility on the speed of execution in the handball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASTIUREA EUGEN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at improving the evaluation and rating of students in physical education on the basis offindings regarding the influence of anthropometric parameters and of the musculo-articular mobility on the speedof execution of specific technical elements of the handball game.In handball, physical training means to develop the body's ability to support driving activities at a higher level.Lack of mobility can generate a lot of problems, such as: increasing the period of learning and reinforcingdriving activities, favoring the occurrence of accidents, limiting the development of other driving skills, losingthe efficiency in the execution of driving actions and decreasing the quality of execution (movements are slowlyexecuted.In terms of speed of execution, it should be noted that it has a significant share in the practice efficiency ofhandball game. A particular importance in forming this driving quality is age, since it is known that speed istrainable mostly in the period of 7-15 years.The scientific approach shows that there is a significant influence of anthropometric parameters on the speed ofexecution, mainly at students of 13-15 years old (values of chest size and elasticity. At age 14, chest elasticityaffects the speed of execution, in all technical elements evaluated. The conclusions are that there is a decrease inmobility with age, and that only specific driving actions of the goalkeeper receives its’ input.The key concept has to be individualization of teaching, especially the individualization of evaluation, takinginto account the values of anthropometric and musculo-articular mobility assigned to each subject. It isrecommended the development of musculo-articular mobility (especially at higher ages, and the increase ofthoracic elasticity at young ages.Based on the fact that school physical education is one of the determining factors in preparing students forintegration in society, research and dissemination of all

  20. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  1. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  2. Acoustic inversion with self noise of an autonomous underwater vehicle to measure sound speed in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkranz, L.J.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on an experiment from the Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment sea trials in 2007, where autonomous underwater vehicles were deployed for environmental assessment. Even though these underwater vehicles are very quiet platforms, this work investigates the potential of vehicle

  3. Effect of stiffness and movement speed on selected dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls for heavy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michele; Rogers, Robert; Rickards, Jeremy; Tingley, Maureen; Biden, Edmund

    2006-02-22

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the effects of joystick stiffness and movement speed on the dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls, as found in off-road vehicles, as one of the initial steps towards the development of a joystick design protocol. Using a previously developed mathematical model in which a hydraulic-actuation joystick is assumed to rotate about two axes where the rotation origin is a universal joint, the dynamic torque characteristics incurred by an operator were predicted. Utilizing a laboratory mock-up of an excavator cab environment, three actuation torque characteristics (peak torque, angular impulse and deceleration at the hard endpoint) were quantified for nine unskilled joystick operators during the use of a commonly used North American hydraulic-actuation joystick. The six different experimental conditions included combinations of three joystick stiffnesses and two movement speeds. The highest instantaneous input torque over the course of the joystick movement (not including the hard endpoint) was evaluated using the peak torque value. Angular impulse provided an indication of the sustained exposure to force. The third indicator, deceleration at the hard endpoint, was included to provide a description of impact loading on the hand as the joystick came to a sudden stop. The most important result of this work is that the dynamic torque characteristics incurred during hydraulic-actuation joystick use are substantial. While the peak torque values were not very different between the fast and slow motion conditions, the high decelerations even for slow movements observed at maximum excursion of the joystick indicate that the dynamics do matter. On the basis of deceleration at the hard endpoint and peak torque, the joystick movements that require the highest values for a combination of torque variables are the side-to-side ones. This suggests that less stiff balance and return springs should be considered for

  4. Fast RF-CV characterization through high-speed 1-port S-parameter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Steeneken, P.G.; Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Stulemeijer, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel method to measure the capacitance-voltage relation of an electronic device. The approach is accurate, very fast, and cost-effective compared to the existing off-the-shelf solutions. Capacitances are determined using a single-frequency 1-port S-parameter setup constructed from

  5. Kinetic parameters of grinding media in ball mills with various liner design and mill speed based on DEM modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhalev, P. A.; Bogdanov, VS; Kovshechenko, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents analysis of the experiments in the ball mill of 0.5x0.3 m with four different liner types based on DEM modeling. The numerical experiment always complements laboratory research and allow obtaining high accuracy output data. An important property of the numerical experiment is the possibility of visualization of the results. The EDEM software allows calculating trajectory of the grinding bodies and kinetic parameters of each ball for the relative mill speed and the different types of mill’s liners.

  6. A robust observer based on H∞ filtering with parameter uncertainties combined with Neural Networks for estimation of vehicle roll angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Beatriz L.; Boada, Maria Jesus L.; Vargas-Melendez, Leandro; Diaz, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the main objectives in road transport is to decrease the number of accident victims. Rollover accidents caused nearly 33% of all deaths from passenger vehicle crashes. Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems prevent vehicles from untripped rollover accidents. The lateral load transfer is the main parameter which is taken into account in the RSC systems. This parameter is related to the roll angle, which can be directly measured from a dual-antenna GPS. Nevertheless, this is a costly technique. For this reason, roll angle has to be estimated. In this paper, a novel observer based on H∞ filtering in combination with a neural network (NN) for the vehicle roll angle estimation is proposed. The design of this observer is based on four main criteria: to use a simplified vehicle model, to use signals of sensors which are installed onboard in current vehicles, to consider the inaccuracy in the system model and to attenuate the effect of the external disturbances. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed observer.

  7. Vehicle test report: Electric Vehicle Associates electric conversion of an AMC Pacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.; Pompa, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the EVA Pacer and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other electric and hybrid vehicles. The Pacer performance was approximately equal to the majority of those vehicles assessed in 1977.

  8. Numerical Modelling of the Dynamic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Considering Vehicle-Structure and Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Agapii, L.; Sneideris, J.

    2015-01-01

    is idealized as a multi-degree-of-freedom system, modelled with two layers of spring-dashpot suspension systems. Coupling the vehicle system and railway track is realized through interaction forces between the wheels and the rail, where the irregularities of the track are implemented as a random stationary......The aim of this paper is the dynamic analysis of a multi-support bridge structure exposed to high-speed railway traffic. The proposed computational model has a unified approach for simultaneously accounting for the bridge structure response, soil response and forces induced by the vehicle....... The bridge structure is modelled in three dimensions based on the finite element method using two-noded three-dimensional beam elements. The track structure is composed of three layers: rail, sleepers and deck which are connected through spring-dashpot systems. The vehicle travelling along a bridge...

  9. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice : Results of a Dutch field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, J.W.; Knockaert, J.; Steg, L.; Verhoef, E.T.

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we

  10. The Numerical Calculation and Experimental Measurement of the Inductance Parameters for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Qiao, Mingzhong; Zhu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    A permanent magnet synchronous motor with radial magnetic circuit and built-in permanent magnet is designed for the electric vehicle. Finite element numerical calculation and experimental measurement are adopted to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor which are vital important for the motor control. The calculation method is simple, the measuring principle is clear, the results of numerical calculation and experimental measurement are mutual confirmation. A quick and effective method is provided to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor, and then improve the design of motor or adjust the control parameters of the motor controller.

  11. Effects of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1854)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiming; Song, Bolan; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb ( Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). Blood samples were taken on days 1, 23 and 45 from control fish and from two training groups maintained at current speeds of 0.06 bl/s (body length per second), 0.66 bl/s, and 1.92 bl/s, respectively. Significantly increased red-blood-cell counts and hematocrit were observed in the post-training groups on days 23 and 45. Significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in the 1.92 bl/s group on days 23 and 45. In contrast, values of mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the 1.92 bl/s group than in the other groups on day 45. Nitroblue-tetrazolium-positive cells and lysozyme and superoxidase dismutase activities in the plasma increased significantly with increasing training intensity on days 23 and 45. Antibacterial activities were significantly increased in the trained groups compared with the control group on day 23; significantly elevated alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in the 1.92 bl/s groups on day 45. Therefore, training intensities of 0.66 and 1.92 bl/s enhanced the blood oxygen-carrying capability and plasma immune parameters of juvenile tinfoil barbs.

  12. Effect of process parameters on the dynamic behavior of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for electric vehicle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abd El Monem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane “PEM” fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle.

  13. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ..., without the need for obtaining a waiver. In order to take advantage of high cant deficiency operations and... attention. In addition, to improve the process for analyzing data while vehicles are negotiating spiral... the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have become practical...

  14. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds to 26 parameters within the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer scheme and MM5 surface-layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model over an area of complex terrain. An efficient sampling algorithm and generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is due to parameters related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulent length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be most important, and a larger dissipation rate produces larger hub-height wind speeds. A larger Prandtl number results in smaller nighttime wind speeds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong airflows, implying a reduction in the variability of wind speed. All of the above parameters significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed and the magnitude of wind shear. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability.

  15. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  16. Shelter Index and a simple wind speed parameter to characterize vegetation control of sand transport threshold and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nield, J. M.; Nickling, W. G.; Furtak-Cole, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emissions occur in many dryland environments from a range of surfaces with different types and amounts of vegetation. Understanding how vegetation modulates these processes remains a research challenge. Here we present results from a study that examines the relationship between an index of shelter (SI=distance from a point to the nearest upwind vegetation/vegetation height) and particle threshold expressed as the ratio of wind speed measured at 0.45 times the mean plant height divided by the wind speed at 17 m when saltation commences, and saltation flux. The results are used to evaluate SI as a parameter to characterize the influence of vegetation on local winds and sediment transport conditions. Wind speed, wind direction, saltation activity and point saltation flux were measured at 35 locations in defined test areas (~13,000 m2) in two vegetation communities: mature streets of mesquite covered nebkhas and incipient nebkhas dominated by low mesquite plants. Measurement positions represent the most open areas, and hence those places most susceptible to wind erosion among the vegetation elements. Shelter index was calculated for each measurement position for each 10° wind direction bin using digital elevation models for each site acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. SI can show the susceptibility to wind erosion at different time scales, i.e., event, seasonal, or annual, but in a supply-limited system it can fail to define actual flux amounts due to a lack of knowledge of the distribution of sediment across the surface of interest with respect to the patterns of SI.

  17. Planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements at the gear speed reducer on the basis of the parameter technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Letić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of the computer methods at project managing in the part of the planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements with the fit (assembly block of the gear speed reducer is significant and at present irreplaceable engineering task if it has been realized by the modern parameter technology. There are multifunction uses of this organized group of activities, beginning from the quick changeability of elements still in the phase of designing and constructing, thanks to the characteristics of their associativity, still to the wide basis of standard elements that are incorporated in the very program package. Meanwhile, these activities are not simple, so their realization has to be planned from the stand - point of time, resource and cost of realization. For the very designing and constructing was used AutoCAD Mechanical, and for the design managing Microsoft Project.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING WEIBULL PARAMETERS FOR WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF MAROUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kidmo Kaoga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM, the energy pattern factor method (EPF, the graphical method (GM, and the empirical method (EM were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING WEIBULL PARAMETERS FOR WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF MAROUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kidmo Kaoga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM, the energy pattern factor method (EPF, the graphical method (GM, and the empirical method (EM were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.

  20. Side-suspended High-Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    High-T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 103 Pa.

  1. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  2. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  3. Speed-dependent Voigt lineshape parameter database from dual frequency comb measurements up to 1305 K. Part I: Pure H2O absorption, 6801-7188 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul J.; Cich, Matthew J.; Yang, Jinyu; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Swann, William C.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.; Drouin, Brian J.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2018-05-01

    We measure speed-dependent Voigt lineshape parameters with temperature-dependence exponents for several hundred spectroscopic features of pure water spanning 6801-7188 cm-1. The parameters are extracted from broad bandwidth, high-resolution dual frequency comb absorption spectra with multispectrum fitting techniques. The data encompass 25 spectra ranging from 296 K to 1305 K and 1 to 17 Torr of pure water vapor. We present the extracted parameters, compare them to published data, and present speed-dependence, self-shift, and self-broadening temperature-dependent parameters for the first time. Lineshape data is extracted using a quadratic speed-dependent Voigt profile and a single self-broadening power law temperature-dependence exponent over the entire temperature range. The results represent an important step toward a new high-temperature database using advanced lineshape profiles.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 85 - Vehicle and Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibrations. V. Injection System. 1. Control parameters and.... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibration. IV. Ignition System. 1. Control parameters and... calibrations. 2. Component calibrations. c. heavy duty diesel engine parameters and specifications I. Basic...

  5. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  6. Optimization of Vehicle Suspension Parameters for Ride Comfort Based on RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A. C.; Patil, M. V.; Banerjee, N.

    2015-04-01

    Vehicle suspension design requires an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that assure optimal ride comfort (RC) of vehicle. In the present work response surface methodology (RSM), one of the methods of design of experiment has been successfully implemented for the purpose of finding optimal setting. Design of experiment sometimes requires accurate representation of the independent variables which are usually difficult to measure or else unavailable for experimentation. This paper proposes a simulation model to analyze the ride comfort with accurate independent variables as per Box-Behnken design of RSM. A prediction model of response variable, RC is developed using regression analysis which leads to a good agreement with simulated model ( R 2 = 99.74 %). The fitted model can be effectively used to evaluate optimal setting of spring stiffness and damping coefficient with the help of response optimization of a high desirability value.

  7. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF THE MAIN TECHNICAL OF PARAMETERS OF THE MANEUVERABLE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent experience of creating an unmanned combat aerial vehicle indicates that the main problems do not con- cern the development of an unmanned fighter as an aerial vehicle. The greatest challenge lies in creating the algorithms, data sensors, control hardware, communications hardware, etc. necessary for utilization of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. In this context it is important to highlight the problem of replacing the pilot as a sensor and a flight operator on board of the UAV. This problem can be partially solved by introducing remote control, but there are some flight stages where it can only be executed under a fully independent control and data support due to various reasons, such as tight time, short duration, lack of robust communication, etc. These stages include combat deployment (surface attack or air attack which make the highest demands on the fighter's design, that is why the promising UAV are currently considered to be "as autonomous as possible". It is obvious that the efficiency of an autonomous UAV will be determined mostly by the effec- tiveness of its automated control algorithms, and this dependence will increase together with the level of UAV autonomy. On the other hand, the optimal control algorithms can only be synthesized based on the control object characteristics. It means the development of UAV external design and the synthesis of its control algorithms should occur simultaneously and interdependently. This article presents the content and gives an example of the use of the method of maneuverable UAV external design, the distinctive feature of which lies in the interdependent processes of UAV external design develop- ing and the synthesizing of its automated control algorithms.

  9. Adaptive approach for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Robust algorithms using reduced order equivalent circuit model (ECM) for an accurate and reliable estimation of battery states in various applications become more popular. In this study, a novel adaptive, self-learning heuristic algorithm for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles is introduced. The presented approach is verified using LIBs with different composition of chemistries (NMC/C, NMC/LTO, LFP/C) at different aging states. An impedance-based reduced order ECM incorporating ohmic resistance and a combination of a constant phase element and a resistance (so-called ZARC-element) is employed. Existing algorithms in vehicles are much more limited in the complexity of the ECMs. The algorithm is validated using seven day real vehicle data with high temperature variation including very low temperatures (from -20 °C to +30 °C) at different Depth-of-Discharges (DoDs). Two possibilities to approximate both ZARC-elements with finite number of RC-elements on-board are shown and the results of the voltage estimation are compared. Moreover, the current dependence of the charge-transfer resistance is considered by employing Butler-Volmer equation. Achieved results indicate that both models yield almost the same grade of accuracy.

  10. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  11. High Speed Schlieren Studies of Flow Over Mercury Atlas Vehicle in the Langley 2-Foot Transonic Aeroplasticity Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    Test conditions for the studies are: Mach number varying continuously from approximately 0.8 to 1.1 and Reynolds number (based on maximum diameter of Atlas) approximately 0.451 x 10(exp 6). Camera speed is 2000 frames per second.

  12. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Transporte;* Sheet Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc... over their intended service routes using instrumented wheelsets to directly measure forces between the... Carbody Acceleration Events During route testing of the MARC-III multi-level car at speeds to 125 m.p.h...

  13. Modelling wind speed parameters for computer generation of wind speed in Flanders. A case study using small wind turbines in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Michael; Dessel, Michel van [Lessius Mechelen, Campus De Nayer (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Engineering; Driesen, Johan [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Engineering / ESAT

    2012-07-01

    The calculation of wind energy parameters is made for small wind turbines on moderate height in a suburban environment. After using the measured data, the same parameters were calculated using first order Markov chain computer generated data. Some characteristics of the wind and the wind power were preserved using Markov, other were not. (orig.)

  14. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  15. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  16. An estimation of vehicle kilometer traveled and on-road emissions using the traffic volume and travel speed on road links in Incheon City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Kim, Jounghwa; Kim, Jeongsoo; Hong, Dahee; Park, Dongjoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and on-road emissions using the traffic volume in urban. We estimated two VKT; one is based on registered vehicles and the other is based on traffic volumes. VKT for registered vehicles was 2.11 times greater than that of the applied traffic volumes because each VKT estimation method is different. Therefore, we had to define the inner VKT is moved VKT inner in urban to compare two values. Also, we focused on freight modes because these are discharged much air pollutant emissions. From analysis results, we found middle and large trucks registered in other regions traveled to target city in order to carry freight, target city has included many industrial and logistics areas. Freight is transferred through the harbors, large logistics centers, or via locations before being moved to the final destination. During this process, most freight is moved by middle and large trucks, and trailers rather than small trucks for freight import and export. Therefore, these trucks from other areas are inflow more than registered vehicles. Most emissions from diesel trucks had been overestimated in comparison to VKT from applied traffic volumes in target city. From these findings, VKT is essential based on traffic volume and travel speed on road links in order to estimate accurately the emissions of diesel trucks in target city. Our findings support the estimation of the effect of on-road emissions on urban air quality in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Parameters Identification and Sensitive Characteristics Analysis for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly investigates the sensitive characteristics of lithium-ion batteries so as to provide scientific basises for simplifying the design of the state estimator that adapt to various environments. Three lithium-ion batteries are chosen as the experimental samples. The samples were tested at various temperatures (−20 ∘ C, −10 ∘ C, 0 ∘ C , 10 ∘ C , 25 ∘ C and various current rates (0.5C, 1C, 1.5C using a battery test bench. A physical equivalent circuit model is developed to capture the dynamic characteristics of the batteries. The experimental results show that all battery parameters are time-varying and have different sensitivity to temperature, current rate and state of charge (SOC. The sensitivity of battery to temperature, current rate and SOC increases the difficulty in battery modeling because of the change of parameters. The further simulation experiments show that the model output has a higher sensitivity to the change of ohmic resistance than that of other parameters. Based on the experimental and simulation results obtained here, it is expected that the adaptive parameter state estimator design could be simplified in the near future.

  18. Sistema de controle de velocidade sincronizada entre dois veículos agrícolas Synchronized speed control system between two agricultural vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando Galzerano Baldo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta para o controle automático de velocidade entre dois veículos que necessitam trafegar em paralelo durante operações agrícolas. É descrito o desenvolvimento e os testes de campo de um sistema de controle de velocidade para um trator escravo baseado na velocidade de um trator mestre, utilizando um controlador desenvolvido em lógica fuzzy. Para esses testes, os tratores foram instrumentados com GPS, encoder, computador e transmissor de radiofrequência, sendo instalado ainda no trator escravo um motor de passo para o controle da velocidade de deslocamento. Para avaliar o sistema, realizaram-se dois testes: no primeiro, a resposta do trator escravo à variação de velocidade foi avaliada a partir de simulações de variação na velocidade de entrada; no segundo, foram utilizados dois tratores variando a velocidade do trator mestre e observando a resposta do trator escravo. No primeiro teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a simulação da variação da velocidade com um erro quadrático médio (EQM não significativo e erro médio percentual (EMP máximo de 1,3%. No segundo teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a variação de velocidade do trator mestre com o (EMP de deslocamento variando em módulo de 0,2% a 2,9%.This paper presents a proposal for automatic speed control of vehicles that requires working in synchronism with each other during agricultural operations. It describes the development and field tests of a control system for a slave tractor based on the master tractor speed, using a fuzzy controller. For the tests the master tractor was instrumented with GPS, encoders, computer and radio transmitter. The slave tractor was instrumented in the same way, and included also a stepper motor to act on the tractor throttle. To evaluate the system two tests were conducted. In the first, the master tractor speed was simulated using only the slave tractor. In the second test, two tractors were used varying the

  19. Investigation of the effect of cutting speed on the Surface Roughness parameters in CNC End Milling using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz H F; Adesta, Erry Y T

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness in the end milling process by using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the surface roughness for end milling. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted. The artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to simulate and study the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness

  20. New Algorithm for the Smoothing Speed Control of Induction Motor in Electric Car based on Self-Tuning Parameter PID-Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedid Cahya Happyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Driving system of electric car for low speed has a performance of controller that is not easily set up on large span so it does not give a comfort to passengers. The study has been tested in the bumpy road conditions, by providing disturbances in the motor load, it is to describe the condition of the road. To improve the system performance, the speed and torque controller was applied using Field Oriented Control (FOC method. In this method, On-Line Proportional Integral Derivative Fuzzy Logic Controller (PID-FLC is used to give dynamic response to the change of speed and maximum torque on the electric car and this results the smooth movement on every change of car performance both in fast and slow movement when breaking action is taken. Optimization of membership functions in Fuzzy PID controller is required to obtain a new PID parameter values which is done in autotuning in any changes of the input or disturbance. PID parameter tuning in this case using the Ziegler-Nichols method based on frequency response. The mechanism is done by adjusting the PID parameters and the strengthening of the system output. The test results show that the controller Fuzzy Self-Tuning PID appropriate for Electric cars because they have a good response about 0.85% overshoot at to changes in speed and braking of electric cars.

  1. A compound structure of ELM based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm for wind speed forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Chaoshun; Fu, Wenlong; Peng, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid approach is proposed for wind speed forecasting. • The variational mode decomposition (VMD) is optimized to decompose the original wind speed series. • The input matrix and parameters of ELM are optimized simultaneously by using a hybrid BSA. • Results show that OVMD-HBSA-ELM achieves better performance in terms of prediction accuracy. - Abstract: Reliable wind speed forecasting is essential for wind power integration in wind power generation system. The purpose of paper is to develop a novel hybrid model for short-term wind speed forecasting and demonstrates its efficiency. In the proposed model, a compound structure of extreme learning machine (ELM) based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm (HBSA) is employed as the predictor. The real-valued BSA (RBSA) is exploited to search for the optimal combination of weights and bias of ELM while the binary-valued BSA (BBSA) is exploited as a feature selection method applying on the candidate inputs predefined by partial autocorrelation function (PACF) values to reconstruct the input-matrix. Due to the volatility and randomness of wind speed signal, an optimized variational mode decomposition (OVMD) is employed to eliminate the redundant noises. The parameters of the proposed OVMD are determined according to the center frequencies of the decomposed modes and the residual evaluation index (REI). The wind speed signal is decomposed into a few modes via OVMD. The aggregation of the forecasting results of these modes constructs the final forecasting result of the proposed model. The proposed hybrid model has been applied on the mean half-hour wind speed observation data from two wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China and 10-min wind speed data from the Sotavento Galicia wind farm are studied as an additional case. Parallel experiments have been designed to compare with the proposed model. Results obtained from this study indicate that the

  2. Improved Hybrid Fireworks Algorithm-Based Parameter Optimization in High-Order Sliding Mode Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the nonlinear hypersonic vehicle (HV dynamics, achieving a satisfactory tracking control performance under uncertainties is always a challenge. The high-order sliding mode control (HOSMC method with strong robustness has been applied to HVs. However, there are few methods for determining suitable HOSMC parameters for an efficacious control of HV, given that the uncertainties are randomly distributed. In this study, we introduce a hybrid fireworks algorithm- (FWA- based parameter optimization into HV control design to satisfy the design requirements with high probability. First, the complex relation between design parameters and the cost function that evaluates the likelihood of system instability and violation of design requirements is modeled via stochastic robustness analysis. Subsequently, we propose an efficient hybrid FWA to solve the complex optimization problem concerning the uncertainties. The efficiency of the proposed hybrid FWA-based optimization method is demonstrated in the search of the optimal HV controller, in which the proposed method exhibits a better performance when compared with other algorithms.

  3. Online peak power prediction based on a parameter and state estimator for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Lei; Zhu, Chunbo; Wang, Tiansi; Lu, Rengui; Chan, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to realize real-time predictions of the peak power/state of power (SOP) for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs). To allow the proposed method to be applicable to different temperature and aging conditions, a training-free battery parameter/state estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using a dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF). In this estimator, the model parameters are no longer taken as functions of factors such as SOC (state of charge), temperature, and aging; instead, all parameters will be directly estimated under the present conditions, and the impact of the temperature and aging on the battery model will be included in the parameter identification results. Then, the peak power/SOP will be calculated using the estimated results under the given limits. As an improvement to the calculation method, a combined limit of current and voltage is proposed to obtain results that are more reasonable. Additionally, novel verification experiments are designed to provide the true values of the cells' peak power under various operating conditions. The proposed methods are implemented in experiments with LiFePO 4 /graphite cells. The validating results demonstrate that the proposed methods have good accuracy and high adaptability. - Highlights: • A real-time peak power/SOP prediction method for lithium-ion batteries is proposed. • A training-free method based on DEKF is presented for parameter identification. • The proposed method can be applied to different temperature and aging conditions. • The calculation of peak power under the current and voltage limits is improved. • Validation experiments are designed to verify the accuracy of prediction results

  4. An algorithm on simultaneous optimization of performance and mass parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M. A.; Mazraeshahi, H. K.; Ramesh, D.; Montazer, E.; Salami, E.; Romli, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for the determination of optimum parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles is introduced. The parameters affecting the objective function, which is the ratio of specific impulse to gross mass of the launch vehicle, are chosen to achieve maximum specific impulse as well as minimum mass for the structure of engine, tanks, etc. The proposed algorithm uses constant integration of thrust with respect to time for launch vehicle with specific diameter and length to calculate the optimum working condition. The results by this novel algorithm are compared to those obtained from using Genetic Algorithm method and they are also validated against the results of existing launch vehicle.

  5. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: X2000 US demonstration vehicle dynamics trials, preliminary test report. Report for October 1992-January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, B.T.; Kesler, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The report documents the procedures, events, and results of vehicle dynamic tests carried out on the ASEA-Brown Boveri (ABB) X2000 tilt body trainset in the US between October 1992 and January 1993. These tests, sponsored by Amtrak and supported by the FRA, were conducted to assess the suitability of the X2000 trainset for safe operation at elevated cant deficiencies and speeds in Amtrak's Northeast Corridor under existing track conditions in a revenue service demonstration. The report describes the safety criteria against which the performance of the X2000 test train was examined, the instrumentation used, the test locations, and the track conditions. Preliminary results are presented from tests conducted on Amtrak lines between Philadelphia and Harrisburg, PA, and between Washington DC and New York NY, in which cant deficiencies of 12.5 inches and speeds of 154 mph were reached in a safe and controlled manner. The significance of the results is discussed, and preliminary conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  6. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. © 2013.

  7. Study on turning performance of four-track steering vehicles. Effect of traction force and track speed distribution control; Sodashiki sokisha no senkai seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Kudoryoku haibun to sokudo haibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, M; Watanabe, K; Kitano, M [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four-track steering vehicles (4TS) is a new type of off-road vehicle which can replace four wheels with track units to improve the mobility on soft terrains. In this paper, the numerical simulations, under the various types of differential and track velocity control systems, are conducted to predict the turning performance and steer ability of the 4TS vehicles. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate that the differential systems with realistic combined distribution control systems of the track speed is efficient at a small turning radius. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulf; Arvidsson, Daniel; Gebel, Klaus; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-10-05

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations between the walkability

  9. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using the Data Processing Approach and the Support Vector Machine Model Optimized by the Improved Cuckoo Search Parameter Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power systems could be at risk when the power-grid collapse accident occurs. As a clean and renewable resource, wind energy plays an increasingly vital role in reducing air pollution and wind power generation becomes an important way to produce electrical power. Therefore, accurate wind power and wind speed forecasting are in need. In this research, a novel short-term wind speed forecasting portfolio has been proposed using the following three procedures: (I data preprocessing: apart from the regular normalization preprocessing, the data are preprocessed through empirical model decomposition (EMD, which reduces the effect of noise on the wind speed data; (II artificially intelligent parameter optimization introduction: the unknown parameters in the support vector machine (SVM model are optimized by the cuckoo search (CS algorithm; (III parameter optimization approach modification: an improved parameter optimization approach, called the SDCS model, based on the CS algorithm and the steepest descent (SD method is proposed. The comparison results show that the simple and effective portfolio EMD-SDCS-SVM produces promising predictions and has better performance than the individual forecasting components, with very small root mean squared errors and mean absolute percentage errors.

  10. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  11. Study on high-speed cutting parameters optimization of AlMn1Cu based on neural network and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the cutting parameters optimization method for aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu in high-speed milling was studied in order to properly select the high-speed cutting parameters. First, a back propagation neural network model for predicting surface roughness of AlMn1Cu was proposed. The prediction model can improve the prediction accuracy and well work out the higher-order nonlinear relationship between surface roughness and cutting parameters. Second, considering the constraints of technical requirements on surface roughness, a mathematical model for optimizing cutting parameters based on the Bayesian neural network prediction model of surface roughness was established so as to obtain the maximum machining efficiency. The genetic algorithm adopting the homogeneous design to initialize population as well as steady-state reproduction without duplicates was also presented. The application indicates that the algorithm can effectively avoid precocity, strengthen global optimization, and increase the calculation efficiency. Finally, a case was presented on the application of the proposed cutting parameters optimization algorithm to optimize the cutting parameters.

  12. The dynamic performance and economic benefit of a blended braking system in a multi-speed battery electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jiageng; Walker, Paul D.; Watterson, Peter A.; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum braking energy recovery potentials of various cycles are reported. • Braking strategies are proposed for performance, comfort and energy recovery. • Braking force distributions and wheel slip ratios of different strategies are demonstrated. • The performance of ‘Eco’ strategy is experimentally validated in HWFET and NEDC. • The economic benefit of energy recovering is summarized, regarding to the fuel and maintenance cost saving. - Abstract: As motor-supplied braking torque is applied to the wheels in an entirely different way to hydraulic friction braking systems and it is usually only connected to one axle complicated effects such as wheel slip and locking, vehicle body bounce and braking distance variation will inevitability impact on the performance and safety of braking. The potential for braking energy recovery in typical driving cycles is presented to show its benefit in this study. A general predictive model is designed to analysis the economic and dynamic performance of blended braking systems, satisfying the relevant regulations/laws and critical limitations. Braking strategies for different purposes are proposed to achieve a balance between braking performance, driving comfort and energy recovery rate. Special measures are taken to avoid any effects of motor failure. All strategies are analyzed in detail for various braking events. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as ABS and EBD, are properly integrated to work with the regenerative braking system (RBS) harmoniously. Different switching plans during braking are discussed. The braking energy recovery rates and brake force distribution details for different driving cycles are simulated. Results for two of the cycles in an ‘Eco’ mode are measured on a drive train test rig and found to agree with the simulated results to within approximately 10%. Reliable conclusions can thus be gained on the economic benefit and dynamic braking performance. The

  13. Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.

  14. Futsal match-related fatigue affects running performance and neuromuscular parameters but not finishing kick speed or accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milioni, Fabio; Vieira, Luiz H P; Barbieri, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially...

  15. SORTING CAPABILITIES OF CASTINGS FROM NODULAR AND GRAY IRON BY THE STRUCTURE BY THE RESULT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MAGNETIC PARAMETERS AND THE SPEED OF SOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Sandomirskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the influence of changes in the structure of the metal substrate and form of graphite inclusions in cast iron on the magnetic coercive sensitive parameter and the speed of sound are given. The efficiency of shared use of the results of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements to control the shape of inclusions in ductile iron and pearlite content in its metal matrix is shown.

  16. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OPERATING PARAMETERS OF THE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR THE SELECTED WIND SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining a wind turbine on the vertical axis of rotation. The study was conducted in an open circuit wind tunnel Gunt HM 170 in the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Aviation Propulsion Systems in Lublin University of Technology. The subject of research was a rotor based on the patent PL 219985. The research object in the form of rotor consists of blades capable of altering the surface of the active area (receiving kinetic energy of the wind. The study was performed on appropriately scaled and geometrically similar models with maintaining, relevant to the type of research, the criterion numbers. Research objects in the form of rotors with different angles of divergence of blades were made using a 3D powder printer ZPrinter® 450. The results of the research conducted were carried out at the selected flow velocity of 6.5 m/s for three angles of divergence, ie. 30°, 60°, and 90° at variable rotational speed. The applied research station allows braking of the turbine to the required speed, recording velocity and torque, which allows to obtain characteristics of torque and power as a function of rotor speed.

  17. Speed dependence of CH335Cl–O2 line-broadening parameters probed on rotational transitions: Measurements and semi-classical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Rohart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxation parameters for K-components (K≤6) of six J→J+1 rotational transitions (J=6, 10, 17, 22, 31 and 33) of CH 3 35 Cl perturbed by O 2 are measured at room temperature with Voigt, speed-dependent Voigt and Galatry profiles in order to probe the speed-dependence effects. With respect to the previous study of CH 3 35 Cl–N 2 system [Guinet et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2012;113:1113], higher active-gas pressures are reached, providing better signal-to-noise ratios, and the exact expression of the Beer–Lambert law is introduced in the fitting procedure, leading, among other advantages, to much more realistic low-pressure results. The broadening parameters of the considered lines are also computed by a semi-classical method for various relative velocities of colliders and the powers characterizing the dependence of the collisional cross-sections on relative speeds are deduced as functions of the rotational numbers J and K. Additional calculations performed with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution of velocities show no significant difference with the earlier results [Buldyreva et al., Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011;13:20326] obtained within the mean thermal velocity approximation. Weighted sums of the presently measured Voigt-profile O 2 -broadening parameters and of the previously published N 2 -broadening ones are calculated to yield experimental air-broadening coefficients for spectroscopic databases. -- Highlights: • Analysis of the speed dependence of relaxation rates of CH 3 Cl lines. • Introduction of the Beer–Lambert law in analysis of line-shapes recorded by FM technique. • Comparison of Maxwell–Boltzmann averaging and mean thermal velocity calculations. • Estimation of air-induced broadening for CH 3 Cl rotational lines

  18. The reliability assessment of the electromagnetic valve of high-speed electric multiple units braking system based on two-parameter exponential distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the reliability assessment of braking system component of high-speed electric multiple units, this article, based on two-parameter exponential distribution, provides the maximum likelihood estimation and Bayes estimation under a type-I life test. First of all, we evaluate the failure probability value according to the classical estimation method and then obtain the maximum likelihood estimation of parameters of two-parameter exponential distribution by performing and using the modified likelihood function. On the other hand, based on Bayesian theory, this article also selects the beta and gamma distributions as the prior distribution, combines with the modified maximum likelihood function, and innovatively applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to parameters assessment based on Bayes estimation method for two-parameter exponential distribution, so that two reliability mathematical models of the electromagnetic valve are obtained. Finally, through type-I life test, the failure rates according to maximum likelihood estimation and Bayes estimation method based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm are, respectively, 2.650 × 10−5 and 3.037 × 10−5. Compared with the failure rate of a electromagnetic valve 3.005 × 10−5, it proves that the Bayes method can use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate reliability for two-parameter exponential distribution and Bayes estimation is more closer to the value of electromagnetic valve. So, by fully integrating multi-source, Bayes estimation method can preferably modify and precisely estimate the parameters, which can provide a certain theoretical basis for the safety operation of high-speed electric multiple units.

  19. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  20. Potential of pedestrian protection systems--a parameter study using finite element models of pedestrian dummy and generic passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Shin, Jaeho; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2011-08-01

    To study the potential of active, passive, and integrated (combined active and passive) safety systems in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations. Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for 3 impact configurations at 2 impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury criterion (HIC(15)), head angular acceleration, and the cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM(0.25)) were employed as injury parameters. Further, 3 countermeasures were modeled: an active autonomous braking system, a passive deployable countermeasure, and an integrated system combining the active and passive systems. The auto-brake system was modeled by reducing impact speed by 10 km/h (equivalent to ideal full braking over 0.3 s) and introducing a pitch of 1 degree and in-crash deceleration of 1 g. The deployable system consisted of a deployable hood, lifting 100 mm in the rear, and a lower windshield air bag. All 3 countermeasures showed benefit in a majority of impact configurations in terms of injury prevention. The auto-brake system reduced chest force in a majority of the configurations and decreased HIC(15), head angular acceleration, and CSDM in all configurations. Averaging all impact configurations, the auto-brake system showed reductions of injury predictors from 20 percent (chest force) to 82 percent (HIC). The passive deployable countermeasure reduced chest force and HIC(15) in a majority of configurations and head angular acceleration and CSDM in all configurations, although the CSDM decrease in 2 configurations was minimal. On average a reduction from 20 percent (CSDM) to 58 percent (HIC) was recorded in the passive deployable countermeasures. Finally, the integrated system evaluated in this study reduced all injury assessment parameters in all configurations compared to the reference situations. The average reductions achieved by the integrated system ranged from 56 percent

  1. FUTSAL MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE AFFECTS RUNNING PERFORMANCE AND NEUROMUSCULAR PARAMETERS BUT NOT FINISHING KICK SPEED OR ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Milioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2±2.5 years; and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max : 50.6±4.9 mL.kg-1.min-1. Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements. Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6±74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0±129.7 m – P=0.00 and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2±4.4 m.min-1; 2nd half: 96.4±7.5 m.min-1 – P=0.00 demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2±66.2 N; After: 751.6±114.3 N – P=0.04 and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9±7.5%; After: 74.1±12.3% – P=0.04, however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected.Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks.

  2. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  3. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF DRIVING CONDITIONS AND ON-ROAD EMISSIONS TRENDS FOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad H. Al-rifai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of road grade, vehicle speed, nu mber of vehicles and vehicle type on vehicle emissions. ANOVA analyses were conducte d among different driving conditions and vehicle emissions to discover the signif icant effects of driving conditions on measured emission rates. This study is intended t o improve the understanding of vehicle emission levels in Jordan. Gas emissio ns in real-world driving conditions were measured by a por table emissions measurement un it over six sections of an urban road. The road grade, speed, type and number of veh icles were found to have a significant influence on the rate of gas emissions. Road grade and diesel-fueled vehicles were positively correlate d with average emission rates . The average emission rates were higher at speeds ranging between 60–69 km/h than at three other speed ranges. The results of ANOVA showed a strong and consistent reg ression between rates of emissions measured and grade, speed and diesel vehicle parameters. The grade parameter contributed the most to the rate of emissions compare d to other parameters. Gasoline vehicles contributed the least.

  4. Vehicle dynamic effects in the course of passing over turnouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenka J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For the quantification of vehicle dynamic effects at passing over turnouts at a higher speed there was developed a methodology for evaluating of acceleration measured on vehicle axle boxes in the year 2003. The methodology is based on statistical evaluation of lateral and vertical acceleration measured values at passing over both critical parts of a turnout (tongue, frog. The created methodology was used for investigation of vehicle dynamic effects by running at speed up to 230 km/h in the year 2004 in terms of high speed tests of tilting-body unit class 680 CD. There was found relatively high values of dynamic effects already at a speed 160 km/h. In terms of tilting-body unit class 680 tests at a higher speed in curves of chosen track lines of 1st and 2nd corridor of Czech Railways there was carried out also verification of curved turnouts state according to methodology mentioned above with a view to possibility of speed increasing at curved throats of chosen stations. Lateral vehicle dynamic effects at passing over a curved turnout frog area were evaluated. There were carried out simulation calculations of vehicle passing over a turnout based on measured geometric parameters of wheelset as well as chosen turnouts. Results of the calculations were compared with measurements. The increased vehicle dynamic effects found in pulsed beats character influence negatively the turnouts part (not only wheel contacting parts as well as operating life all unsuspended parts of vehicles.

  5. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is ex...... of the vertical profile of the shape parameter fits well with observations over land, coastal regions and over the sea. An applied model for the dependence of the reversal height on the surface roughness is in good agreement with the observations over land....

  6. Reducing the risk of rear-end collisions with infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integration of variable speed limit control and adaptive cruise control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shanwen; Xiang, Yun

    2016-08-17

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been investigated recently to explore ways to increase traffic capacity, stabilize traffic flow, and improve traffic safety. However, researchers seldom have studied the integration of ACC and roadside control methods such as the variable speed limit (VSL) to improve safety. The primary objective of this study was to develop an infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integrated system that incorporated both ACC and VSL to reduce rear-end collision risks on freeways. The intelligent driver model was firstly modified to simulate ACC behavior and then the VSL strategy used in this article was introduced. Next, the I2V system was proposed to integrate the 2 advanced techniques, ACC and VSL. Four scenarios of no control, VSL only, ACC only, and the I2V system were tested in simulation experiments. Time exposed time to collision (TET) and time integrated time to collision (TIT), 2 surrogate safety measures derived from time to collision (TTC), were used to evaluate safety issues associated with rear-end collisions. The total travel times of each scenario were also compared. The simulation results indicated that both the VSL-only and ACC-only methods had a positive impact on reducing the TET and TIT values (reduced by 53.0 and 58.6% and 59.0 and 65.3%, respectively). The I2V system combined the advantages of both ACC and VSL to achieve the most safety benefits (reduced by 71.5 and 77.3%, respectively). Sensitivity analysis of the TTC threshold also showed that the I2V system obtained the largest safety benefits with all of the TTC threshold values. The impact of different market penetration rates of ACC vehicles in I2V system indicated that safety benefits increase with an increase in ACC proportions. Compared to VSL-only and ACC-only scenarios, this integrated I2V system is more effective in reducing rear-end collision risks. The findings of this study provide useful information for traffic agencies to implement novel techniques to improve

  7. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Results Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations

  8. Connected variable speed limits control and car-following control with vehicle-infrastructure communication to resolve stop-and-go waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control commands. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems. Under

  9. Calibration Procedure for Measuring S-Parameters in Balun Applications on 150-ohm High-Speed Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Warner, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    In the radiofrequency (RF) world, in order to characterize cables that do not conform to the typical 50-omega impedance, a time domain reflectometer (TDR) would probably be the simplest and quickest tool to attain this goal. In the real world, not every engineer has a TDR at their disposal; however, they most likely have a network analyzer available. Given a generic 50-omega vector network analyzer (VNA), we would like to make S-parameter measurements for non-50-omega devices (DUTs). For that, we utilize RF balanced/unbalanced transformers (called baluns for short), which are primarily used to match the impedance between the two VNA ports and the DUT's input and output ports, for the two-port S-parameter measurements.

  10. The Response Surface Methodology speeds up the search for optimal parameters in the photoinactivation of E. coli by Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Larissa S; Azevedo, Eduardo B; Perussi, Janice R

    2018-02-27

    Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation (a-PDI) is based on the oxidative destruction of biological molecules by reactive oxygen species generated by the photo-excitation of a photosensitive molecule. When the a-PDT is performed along with the use of mathematical models, the optimal conditions for maximum inactivation are easily found. Experimental designs allow a multivariate analysis of the experimental parameters. This is usually made using a univariate approach, which demands a large number of experiments, being time and money consuming. This paper presents the use of the response surface methodology for improving the search for the best conditions to reduce E. coli survival levels by a-PDT using methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers and white light. The goal was achieved by analyzing the effects and interactions of the three main parameters involved in the process: incubation time (IT), photosensitizer concentration (C PS ), and light dose (LD). The optimization procedure began with a full 2 3 factorial design, followed by a central composite one, in which the optimal conditions were estimated. For MB, C PS was the most important parameter followed by LD and IT whereas, for TB, the main parameter was LD followed by C PS and IT. Using the estimated optimal conditions for inactivation, MB was able to inactivate 99.999999% CFU mL -1 of E. coli with IT of 28 min, LD of 31 J cm -2 , and C PS of 32 μmol L -1 , while TB required 18 min, 39 J cm -2 , and 37 μmol L -1 . The feasibility of using the response surface methodology with a-PDT was demonstrated, enabling enhanced photoinactivation efficiency and fast results with a minimal number of experiments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  12. Multicomponent Exercise Improves Hemodynamic Parameters and Mobility, but Not Maximal Walking Speed, Transfer Capacity, and Executive Function of Older Type II Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Coelho Junior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program (MCEP on functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic parameters of older Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Moreover, additional analyses were performed to evaluate if T2DM patients present impaired adaptability in response to physical exercise when compared to nondiabetic volunteers. A total of 72 T2DM patients and 72 age-matched healthy volunteers (CG were recruited and submitted to functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic evaluations before and after six months of a MCEP. The program of exercise was performed twice a week at moderate intensity. Results indicate T2DM and nondiabetic patients present an increase in mobility (i.e., usual walking speed after the MCEP. However, improvements in maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only observed in the CG. On the other hand, only T2DM group reveals a marked decline in blood pressure. In conclusion, data of the current study indicate that a 6-month MCEP improves mobility and reduce blood pressure in T2DM patients. However, maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only improved in CG, indicating that T2DM may present impaired adaptability in response to physical stimulus.

  13. The influence of remelting parameters of the electric arc and conventional tempering on the tribological resistance of high speed steel HS 6-5-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dziedzic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present thesis depicts the results of the research of tribological high speed steel HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc. Steel was remelted with different parameters. The amperage of electric arc was changed, the scanning speed was changed and the single, overlapping remeltings were used. There was also the influence of conventional tempering defined, which was conducted after remelting on the tribological resistance of hardened steel. For the previously mentioned processing variants, the intensity of tribological wear was defined and the linear wear were presented, and the friction coefficients. The type of tribological wear was also given, present during the friction, technically dry, of the hardened steel. The lower intensity of tribological wear was received for the single remelting by electric arc of 50 and 70A. Using the overlapping remeltings for the strengening of the surface layer of the high speed steel HS 6-5-2 causes the increase of the intensity of tribological wear in comparison to the steel with the single remelting. The conventional tempering leads to the decrease of the intensity of tribological wear.

  14. Is the propagation speed of ultrasound in human organs a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization? Evaluation using the liver parenchyma in children and adolescents as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.; Franke, I.

    2011-01-01

    New sonographic machines permit the measurement of the propagation speed of ultrasound (PSU) in humans. The liver seems to be an appropriate organ for examining whether the PSU may be used as a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization since the liver is easily accessible to sonography and its variable content of fat impacts the PSU. Purpose: To determine whether there is a measurable correlation between obesity and PSU in the liver. Methods: In 69 children and adolescents, the PSU in the liver was measured sonographically and correlated to BMI, age, size and weight of the children. Results: A strong correlation was found between the PSU in the liver and the BMI. The PSU was significantly lower in obese children (1507 m/s) than in children with normal body weight (1564 m/s). Conclusion: PSU seems to be promising as an additional diagnostic parameter for characterizing liver tissue. Further evaluation is necessary. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the Trajectory Sensitivity Analysis of the DFIG Control Parameters in Response to Changes in Wind Speed and the Line Impedance Connection to the Grid DFIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fooladgar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and environmental conditions often make large stations and transmission lines, restrictions are placed. Small and medium-sized production units connected to existing systems as a strategy is in progress. These units are usually near the center of the load placed and distributed generators (DG famous are the DG are allowed types vary, such as induction generators rack squirrel-connected wind turbines, generators fed induction double mounted wind turbines, fuel cells connected to the system by power electronic converters or synchronous generator connected to the turbine combustion [10]. This way sensitivity analysis in systems of distributed generation (DG is assessed. It is shown that the method can detect the effect of control parameters listed wind turbine connected to a double-fed induction generator (DFIG Badoou the impedance of the changing the speed of on the stability of the transmission line useful system invested. The control parameters of the importance of influencing the behavior of DFIG are divided.

  16. Study of parameters for safety assessment of sub-surface disposal. Tunnel-excavating speed and thickness of additional soil in residential land development by filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitoya, Kimihide; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Funabashi, Hideyuki

    2012-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of own low level radioactive wastes. In order to carry out the disposal, it is necessary to confirm the safety of the disposal. Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) issued 'Policy of the Safety Assessment of Sub-surface Disposal after the Period for Active Control' (April 1, 2010). Then, we investigated the parameters for dose assessment in tunnel excavation scenario and large-scale land use scenario which were described in the 'Policy of the Safety Assessment', in order to perform the assessment based on actual conditions. To be concrete, we investigated the tunnel excavating speeds in Japan for the former scenario, and investigated technical standards of the filling for the latter scenario. We studied the realistic parameters for the dose assessment with the results of those investigations. (author)

  17. Wide range scaling laws for radiation driven shock speed, wall albedo and ablation parameters for high-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gaurav; Ghosh, Karabi; Ray, Aditi; Gupta, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations for four different potential high-Z hohlraum materials, namely Tungsten (W), Gold (Au), Lead (Pb), and Uranium (U) are performed in order to investigate their performance with respect to x-ray absorption, re-emission and ablation properties, when irradiated by constant temperature drives. A universal functional form is derived for estimating time dependent wall albedo for high-Z materials. Among the high-Z materials studied, it is observed that for a fixed simulation time the albedo is maximum for Au below 250 eV, whereas it is maximum for U above 250 eV. New scaling laws for shock speed vs drive temperature, applicable over a wide temperature range of 100 eV to 500 eV, are proposed based on the physics of x-ray driven stationary ablation. The resulting scaling relation for a reference material Aluminium (Al), shows good agreement with that of Kauffman's power law for temperatures ranging from 100 eV to 275 eV. New scaling relations are also obtained for temperature dependent mass ablation rate and ablation pressure, through RHD simulation. Finally, our study reveals that for temperatures above 250 eV, U serves as a better hohlraum material since it offers maximum re-emission for x-rays along with comparable mass ablation rate. Nevertheless, traditional choice, Au works well for temperatures below 250 eV. Besides inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the new scaling relations may find its application in view-factor codes, which generally ignore atomic physics calculations of opacities and emissivities, details of laser-plasma interaction and hydrodynamic motions.

  18. Reliability and validity of a smartphone-based assessment of gait parameters across walking speed and smartphone locations: Body, bag, belt, hand, and pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsupadol, Patima; Teja, Kunlanan; Lugade, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of spatiotemporal gait parameters is a useful clinical indicator of health status. Unfortunately, most assessment tools require controlled laboratory environments which can be expensive and time consuming. As smartphones with embedded sensors are becoming ubiquitous, this technology can provide a cost-effective, easily deployable method for assessing gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a smartphone-based accelerometer in quantifying spatiotemporal gait parameters when attached to the body or in a bag, belt, hand, and pocket. Thirty-four healthy adults were asked to walk at self-selected comfortable, slow, and fast speeds over a 10-m walkway while carrying a smartphone. Step length, step time, gait velocity, and cadence were computed from smartphone-based accelerometers and validated with GAITRite. Across all walking speeds, smartphone data had excellent reliability (ICC 2,1 ≥0.90) for the body and belt locations, with bag, hand, and pocket locations having good to excellent reliability (ICC 2,1 ≥0.69). Correlations between the smartphone-based and GAITRite-based systems were very high for the body (r=0.89, 0.98, 0.96, and 0.87 for step length, step time, gait velocity, and cadence, respectively). Similarly, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the bias approached zero, particularly in the body, bag, and belt conditions under comfortable and fast speeds. Thus, smartphone-based assessments of gait are most valid when placed on the body, in a bag, or on a belt. The use of a smartphone to assess gait can provide relevant data to clinicians without encumbering the user and allow for data collection in the free-living environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  20. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Thom Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors. (author)

  1. Speeding up pyrogenicity testing: Identification of suitable cell components and readout parameters for an accelerated monocyte activation test (MAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Würschum, Noriana; Stang, Katharina; Löder, Jasmin; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Toliashvili, Leila; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Fennrich, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Pyrogen testing represents a crucial safety measure for parental drugs and medical devices, especially in direct contact with blood or liquor. The European Pharmacopoeia regulates these quality control measures for parenterals. Since 2010, the monocyte activation test (MAT) has been an accepted pyrogen test that can be performed with different human monocytic cell sources: whole blood, isolated monocytic cells or monocytic cell lines with IL1β, IL6, or TNFα as readout cytokines. In the present study, we examined the three different cell sources and cytokine readout parameters with the scope of accelerating the assay time. We could show that despite all cell types being able to detect pyrogens, primary cells were more sensitive than the monocytic cell line. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed IL6 mRNA transcripts having the largest change in Ct-values upon LPS-stimulation compared to IL1β and TNFα, but quantification was unreliable. IL6 protein secretion from whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was also best suited for an accelerated assay with a larger linear range and higher signal-to-noise ratios upon LPS-stimulation. The unique combination with propan-2-ol or a temperature increase could additionally increase the cytokine production for earlier detection in PBMC. The increased incubation temperature could finally increase not only responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) but also other pyrogens by up to 13-fold. Therefore, pyrogen detection can be accelerated considerably by using isolated primary blood cells with an increased incubation temperature and IL6 as readout. These results could expedite assay time and thus help to promote further acceptance of the MAT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run in relation to the age and speed of runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Jastrzębski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study was to reveal morphology, electrolyte and chosen biochemical parameters in terms of health risk in runners in reference to their age and running speed in the case of running a distance of 100 km, which occur after 12 h or 24 h of recovery. Material and Methods: Fourteen experienced, male, amateur, ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age and two speed groups took part in the 100-km run. Blood samples for analyses indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25 km, 50 km, 75 km and 100 km, as well as 12 h and 24 h after termination of the run. Results: The sustained ultramarathon run along with the distance covered (p < 0.05 caused an increase in myoglobin (max 90-fold, bilirubin (max 2.8-fold and total antioxidant status (max 1.15-fold, which also continued during the recovery. Significant changes in the number of white blood cells were observed with each sequential course and could be associated with muscle damage. The electrolyte showed changes towards slight hyperkalemia, but no changes in natrium and calcium concentrations. There were no significant differences between the age and speed groups for all the parameters after completing the 100-km run as well as after 12 h and 24 h of recovery. Conclusions: Considering changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run it can be stated that such an exhausting effort may be dangerous for human health due to metabolic changes and large damage to the organs. Negative metabolic changes are independent of age of an ultramarathon runner and occur both in younger (32±5.33 years and older participants (50.56±9.7 years. It can be concluded that organ damage and negative metabolic changes during a 100-km run occur similarly in participants less experienced as well as in well trained runners. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:801–814

  3. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  4. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  5. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  6. Direct Yaw-Moment Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network-Induced Delays through Parameter-Dependent Fuzzy SMC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust direct yaw-moment control (DYC through parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (SMC approach for all-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs subject to network-induced delays. AWID-EVs have obvious advantages in terms of DYC over the traditional centralized-drive vehicles. However it is one of the most principal issues for AWID-EVs to ensure the robustness of DYC. Furthermore, the network-induced delays would also reduce control performance of DYC and even deteriorate the EV system. To ensure robustness of DYC and deal with network-induced delays, a parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC method based on the real-time information of vehicle states and delays is proposed in this paper. The results of cosimulations with Simulink® and CarSim® demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Moreover, the results of comparison with a conventional FSMC controller illustrate the strength of explicitly dealing with network-induced delays.

  7. Motion stability of high-speed maglev systems in consideration of aerodynamic effects: a study of a single magnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the intrinsic mechanism of aerodynamic effects on the motion stability of a high-speed maglev system was investigated. The concept of a critical speed for maglev vehicles considering the aerodynamic effect is proposed. The study was carried out based on a single magnetic suspension system, which is convenient for proposing relevant concepts and obtaining explicit expressions. This study shows that the motion stability of the suspension system is closely related to the vehicle speed when aerodynamic effects are considered. With increases of the vehicle speed, the stability behavior of the system changes. At a certain vehicle speed, the stability of the system reaches a critical state, followed by instability. The speed corresponding to the critical state is the critical speed. Analysis reveals that when the system reaches the critical state, it takes two forms, with two critical speeds, and thus two expressions for the critical speed are obtained. The conditions of the existence of the critical speed were determined, and the effects of the control parameters and the lift coefficient on the critical speed were analyzed by numerical analysis. The results show that the first critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is upward, and the second critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is downward. Moreover, both critical speeds decrease with the increase of the lift coefficient.

  8. Balance of Performance Parameters for Survivability and Mobility in the Demonstrator for Novel Design (DFND) Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Standardization Agency, "Procedures For Evaluating the Protection Level of Logistic and Light Armoured Vehicles", NATO/PfP STANAG 4569, AEP- 55, Volume 2, 2006...not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Az Center Blast Static

  9. Automated vehicle identification tags in San Antonio : lessons learned from the metropolitan model deployment initiative : unique method for collecting arterial travel speed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This report demonstrates a unique solution to the challenge of providing accurate, timely estimates of arterial travel times to the motoring public. In particular, it discusses the lessons learned in deploying the Vehicle Tag Project in San Antonio, ...

  10. Comparison of Corneal Deformation Parameters in Keratoconic and Normal Eyes Using a Non-contact Tonometer With a Dynamic Ultra-High-Speed Scheimpflug Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan N; Waring, George O; Roberts, Cynthia J; Jhanji, Vishal; Wang, Yumeng; Filho, Joao S; Hemings, Richard A; Rocha, Karolinne M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate and compare biomechanical properties in normal and keratoconic eyes using a dynamic ultra-high-speed Scheimpflug camera equipped with a non-contact tonometer (Corvis ST; Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). This retrospective study evaluated 89 eyes (47 normal, 42 keratoconic) and a validation arm of 72 eyes (33 normal, 39 keratoconic) using the Corvis ST. A diagnosis of keratoconus was established by clinical findings confirmed by topography and tomography. Dynamic corneal response parameters collected by the Corvis ST (A1 velocity, deformation amplitude [DA], DA Ratio Max 1mm, and Max Inverse Radius) and a stiffness parameter at first applanation (SP-A1) were incorporated into a novel logistic regression equation (DCR index). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the DCR index. DA, DA Ratio Max 1mm, Max Inverse Radius, and SP-A1 were each found to be statistically significantly different between normal and keratoconic eyes (Mann-Whitney test [independent samples]; P = .0077, < .0001, < .0001, and < .0001, respectively; significance level: P < .05). DCR index demonstrated high sensitivity, specificity, and overall correct detection rate (92.9%, 95.7%, and 94.4%, respectively; AUC = 98.5). The sensitivity and overall correct detection rate improved when eyes with Topographical Keratoconus Classification grades (TKC) greater than 0 were reevaluated (from 92.9% to 96.6% and from 94.4% to 96.1%, respectively). Combining multiple biomechanical parameters (A1 velocity, DA, DA Ratio Max 1mm, Max Inverse Radius, and SP-A1) into a logistic regression equation allows for high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing keratoconic from normal eyes. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(9):625-631.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ARTICULATED WHEELED VEHICLES POSITION STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Dubinin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With introducing a mobile measurement system with linear acceleration sensors there was experimentally determined the parameter of position stability of the articulated wheeled vehicle on the example of HTA-200 «Slobozhanets». It was determined that the position stability was provided within the entire range of operating speeds and accelerations. The obtained results can be used to enhance the traffic safety of articulated vehicles.

  12. Issues Relative to the Control of Large High Speed Unmanned Vehicles for Use in Crash Rescue Operations. A Technical Paper Presented to the American Nuclear Society, Ninth International Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems Held in Seattle, WA on March 4-8, 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    English, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    .... The control systems of small, slow moving machines common in research and development platforms have historically ignored vehicle dynamics beyond basic parameters such as acceleration, steering and braking...

  13. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  14. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  15. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  16. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  17. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  18. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi V; Chen, Fu-Lin; Xue, Jianping

    2017-12-15

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC), a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS). The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with -0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM) analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses indicate that

  19. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi V. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD, All-Traffic Density (ATD and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT, and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC, a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS. The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with −0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses

  20. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  1. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  2. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  3. A system methodology for optimization design of the structural crashworthiness of a vehicle subjected to a high-speed frontal crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liang; Liu, Weiguo; Lv, Xiaojiang; Gu, Xianguang

    2018-04-01

    The structural crashworthiness design of vehicles has become an important research direction to ensure the safety of the occupants. To effectively improve the structural safety of a vehicle in a frontal crash, a system methodology is presented in this study. The surrogate model of Online support vector regression (Online-SVR) is adopted to approximate crashworthiness criteria and different kernel functions are selected to enhance the accuracy of the model. The Online-SVR model is demonstrated to have the advantages of solving highly nonlinear problems and saving training costs, and can effectively be applied for vehicle structural crashworthiness design. By combining the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and Monte Carlo simulation, both deterministic optimization and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are conducted. The optimization solutions are further validated by finite element analysis, which shows the effectiveness of the RBDO solution in the structural crashworthiness design process. The results demonstrate the advantages of using RBDO, resulting in not only increased energy absorption and decreased structural weight from a baseline design, but also a significant improvement in the reliability of the design.

  4. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  5. Multi-objective energy management optimization and parameter sizing for proton exchange membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zunyan; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Song, Ziyou; Fang, Chuan; Ouyang, Minggao; Dou, Guowei; Kou, Gaihong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel economy, lithium battery size and powertrain system durability are incorporated in optimization. • A multi-objective power allocation strategy by taking battery size into consideration is proposed. • Influences of battery capacity and auxiliary power on strategy design are explored. • Battery capacity and fuel cell service life for the system life cycle cost are optimized. - Abstract: The powertrain system of a typical proton electrolyte membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicle contains a lithium battery package and a fuel cell stack. A multi-objective optimization for this powertrain system of a passenger car, taking account of fuel economy and system durability, is discussed in this paper. Based on an analysis of the optimum results obtained by dynamic programming, a soft-run strategy was proposed for real-time and multi-objective control algorithm design. The soft-run strategy was optimized by taking lithium battery size into consideration, and implemented using two real-time algorithms. When compared with the optimized dynamic programming results, the power demand-based control method proved more suitable for powertrain systems equipped with larger capacity batteries, while the state of charge based control method proved superior in other cases. On this basis, the life cycle cost was optimized by considering both lithium battery size and equivalent hydrogen consumption. The battery capacity selection proved more flexible, when powertrain systems are equipped with larger capacity batteries. Finally, the algorithm has been validated in a fuel cell city bus. It gets a good balance of fuel economy and system durability in a three months demonstration operation.

  6. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  7. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  8. Tyre influences on untripped vehicle rollover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Lupker, H.A.; Koppenaal, C.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicle rollover can be initiated by steering actions that occur at vehicle evasive manoeuvres or high speed cornering of commercial vehicles. This untripped vehicle rollover is more difficult to reproduce for passenger cars then for commercial vehicles. For passenger cars it occurs closer to the

  9. Vehicle monitoring under Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) parameters employing illumination invariant correlation filters for the Pakistan motorway police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, A.; Umer, T.; Butt, F.; Young, R. C. D.; Chatwin, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    A spatial domain optimal trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (SPOT-MACH) filter has been previously developed and shown to have advantages over frequency domain implementations in that it can be made locally adaptive to spatial variations in the input image background clutter and normalised for local intensity changes. The main concern for using the SPOT-MACH is its computationally intensive nature. However in the past enhancements techniques were proposed for the SPOT-MACH to make its execution time comparable to its frequency domain counterpart. In this paper a novel approach is discussed which uses VANET parameters coupled with the SPOT-MACH in order to minimise the extensive processing of the large video dataset acquired from the Pakistan motorways surveillance system. The use of VANET parameters gives us an estimation criterion of the flow of traffic on the Pakistan motorway network and acts as a precursor to the training algorithm. The use of VANET in this scenario would contribute heavily towards the computational complexity minimization of the proposed monitoring system.

  10. Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.

  11. Unmanned Water Craft Identification and Adaptive Control in Low-Speed and Reversing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats L1 adaptive hovering control of an unmanned surface vehicle in a station-keeping mode where a region of zero control authority and under-actuation are main challenges. Low-speed and reversing dynamics are identied from full scale sea trials, and parameter uncertainty is estimate...

  12. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  13. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  14. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Non-linear vehicle-bridge-wind interaction model for running safety assessment of high-speed trains over a high-pier viaduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, José M.; Astiz, Miguel Á.

    2018-04-01

    In order to properly study the high-speed traffic safety on a high-pier viaduct subject to episodes of lateral turbulent winds, an efficient dynamic interaction train-bridge-wind model has been developed and experimentally validated. This model considers the full wheel and rail profiles, the friction between these two bodies in contact, and the piers P-Delta effect. The model has been used to determine the critical train and wind velocities from which the trains cannot travel safely over the O'Eixo Bridge. The dynamic simulations carried out and the results obtained in the time domain show that traffic safety rates exceed the allowed limits for turbulent winds with mean velocities at the deck higher than 25 m/s.

  16. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  17. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  18. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters – wheelbase and number of axles – to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle’s speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves

  19. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  20. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  1. An extended heterogeneous car-following model accounting for anticipation driving behavior and mixed maximum speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2018-02-01

    The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.

  2. Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Facility The Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility features a pad to conduct vehicle thermal station next to the pad provides a continuous data stream on temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar

  3. FindFoci: a focus detection algorithm with automated parameter training that closely matches human assignments, reduces human inconsistencies and increases speed of analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Herbert

    Full Text Available Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ.

  4. Incidence and characteristics of low-speed vehicle run over events in rural and remote children aged 0-14 years in Queensland: an 11 year (1999-2009) retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn R; Kimble, Roy M; Watt, Kerrianne; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe incidence rates of low-speed vehicle run-over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0-14 years residing in Queensland from 1999 to 2009. A second objective was to describe the associated patterns of injury, with respect to gender, age group, severity, characteristics (host, vehicle and environment), and trends over time in relation to geographical remoteness. Final results are hoped to inform prevention policies. In this statewide, retrospective, population-based study, data were collected on LSVRO events that occurred among children aged 0-14 years in Queensland from 1999 to 2009 from all relevant data sources across the continuum of care, and manually linked to obtain the most comprehensive estimate possible of the magnitude and nature of LSVRO events to date. Crude incidence rates were calculated separately for males and females, for fatal events, non-fatal events (hospital admissions and non-admissions, respectively), and for all LSVRO events, for each area of geographical remoteness (major cities, inner regional, outer regional, remote/very remote). Relative risks and 95% confidence interval were calculated, and trends over time were examined. Data on host, injury and event characteristics were also obtained to investigate whether these characteristics varied between areas of remoteness. Incidence rates were lowest among children (0-14 years) living in major cities (13.8/100 000/annum, with the highest recorded incidence in outer regional areas (incidence rate =42.5/100 000/annum). Incidence rates were higher for children residing outside major cities for both males and females, for every age group, for each of the 11 years of the study, and consequences of LSVRO events were worse. Young children aged 0-4 years were identified as those most at risk for these events, regardless of geographical location. Differences were observed as a function of remoteness category in relation to injury characteristics (eg injury

  5. Full drive-by-wire dynamic control for four-wheel-steer all-wheel-drive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farbod

    2013-03-01

    Most of the controllers introduced for four-wheel-steer (4WS) vehicles are derived with the assumption that the longitudinal speed of the vehicle is constant. However, in real applications, the longitudinal speed varies, and the longitudinal, lateral, and yaw dynamics are coupled. In this paper, the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously. This way, the effect of driving/braking forces of the tires on the lateral and yaw motions of the vehicle are automatically included in the control laws. To address the dynamic parameter uncertainty of the vehicle, a chatter-free variable structure controller is introduced. Elimination of chatter is achieved by introducing a dynamically adaptive boundary layer thickness. It is shown via simulations that the proposed control approach performs more robustly than the controllers developed based on dynamic models, in which longitudinal speed is assumed to be constant, and only lateral speed and yaw rate are used as system states. Furthermore, this approach supports all-wheel-drive vehicles. Front-wheel-drive or rear-wheel-drive vehicles are also supported as special cases of an all-wheel-drive vehicle.

  6. Prediction on the charging demand for electric vehicles in Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    yun, Cai; wanquan, Zhang; wei, You; pan, Mao

    2018-03-01

    The development of the electric vehicle charging station facilities speed directly affect the development of electric vehicle speed. And the charging demand of electric vehicles is one of the main factors influencing the electric vehicle charging facilities. The paper collected and collated car ownership in recent years, the use of elastic coefficient to predict Chengdu electric vehicle ownership, further modeling to give electric vehicle charging demand.

  7. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  8. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  9. Detail design of empennage of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md. Samad; Panday, Shoyon; Rasel, Md; Salam, Md. Abdus; Faisal, Kh. Md.; Farabi, Tanzimul Hasan

    2017-12-01

    In order to maintain the operational continuity of air defense systems, unmanned autonomous or remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) plays a great role as a target for the anti-aircraft weapons. The aerial vehicle must comply with the requirements of high speed, remotely controlled tracking and navigational aids, operational sustainability and sufficient loiter time. It can also be used for aerial reconnaissance, ground surveillance and other intelligence operations. This paper aims to develop a complete tail design of an unmanned aerial vehicle using Systems Engineering approach. The design fulfils the requirements of longitudinal and directional trim, stability and control provided by the horizontal and vertical tail. Tail control surfaces are designed to provide sufficient control of the aircraft in critical conditions. Design parameters obtained from wing design are utilized in the tail design process as required. Through chronological calculations and successive iterations, optimum values of 26 tail design parameters are determined.

  10. Super high-speed magnetically levitated system approaches practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shoji; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Takemasa, Hisashi

    1988-10-01

    The JR-MAGLEV, a super high-speed magnetically levitated system, has been under development since the inauguration with the manufacturing of a succession of trial vehicles. In 1987, the trial vehicle recorded a speed of 400 km/hr as a 2-car formation with passengers. As a participant in the Maglev project, Toshiba has been contributing to the development of superconducting magnets, the main element of the system, as well as auxiliary power sources and the cycloconverter to be used in the substations. A prototype vehicle for commercial service, MLU 002, was manufactured in March 1988 and is now under testing with the aim of achieving a target speed of 420km/hr. The main parameters of superconducting magnet are as follows; magnetomotive force of 700 kA and number of coils of 3 poles/2 trains/ 2 cars, and the magnets are light weight which is almost the limits with the weight ratio to rolling stock of 0.25. As measures to protect vaporization loss of helium for coil-cooling, a relicfaction process of the helium vapor by use of Claude cycle refrigerator was adopted. A circulating current cycloconverter with 16 MVA was developed for the travel motion. The cycloconverter enabled to receive power directly from an electric power company, the output current becomes complete sine wave, and the problems on traveling control were solved. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Dynamic Speed Adaptation for Path Tracking Based on Curvature Information and Speed Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Serna, Citlalli; Ruichek, Yassine

    2017-06-14

    A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method. Furthermore, 'curve analysis extraction' and 'speed limits database creation' are also part of our contribution. An algorithm that analyzes GPS information off-line identifies high curvature segments and estimates the speed for each curve. The speed limit database contains information about the different speed limit zones for each traveled path. Our DSA senses speed limits and curves of the road using GPS information and ensures smooth speed transitions between current and ideal speeds. Through experimental simulations with different control algorithms on real and simulated datasets, we prove that our method is able to significantly reduce lateral errors on sharp curves, to respect speed limits and consequently increase safety and comfort for the passenger.

  12. Experimental investigation of a quad-rotor biplane micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Christopher Michael

    Micro air vehicles are expected to perform demanding missions requiring efficient operation in both hover and forward flight. This thesis discusses the development of a hybrid air vehicle which seamlessly combines both flight capabilities: hover and high-speed forward flight. It is the quad-rotor biplane, which weighs 240 grams and consists of four propellers with wings arranged in a biplane configuration. The performance of the vehicle system was investigated in conditions representative of flight through a series of wind tunnel experiments. These studies provided an understanding of propeller-wing interaction effects and system trim analysis. This showed that the maximum speed of 11 m/s and a cruise speed of 4 m/s were achievable and that the cruise power is approximately one-third of the hover power. Free flight testing of the vehicle successfully highlighted its ability to achieve equilibrium transition flight. Key design parameters were experimentally investigated to understand their effect on overall performance. It was found that a trade-off between efficiency and compactness affects the final choice of the design. Design improvements have allowed for decreases in vehicle weight and ground footprint, while increasing structural soundness. Numerous vehicle designs, models, and flight tests have proven system scalability as well as versatility, including an upscaled model to be utilized in an extensive commercial package delivery system. Overall, the quad-rotor biplane is proven to be an efficient and effective multi-role vehicle.

  13. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  14. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  15. Visual Analysis of Speeding Bumps Using Floating Car Dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    measures, and also their influence on the driving behaviour of vehicles from a temporal perspective. To fill this gap and understand these aspects, in this research we propose visual analytics techniques. To explore the influence of the bumps on speed change behavior of vehicles, several use case studies...... in three different cities were selected with close cooperation of a traffic domain expert. The aim was first to study influence of the bumps on vehicle volume and speeding from a time perspective. And then, establish any connection between speed bump intervals and vehicle speeding in the selected use cases...

  16. Misuse of speed-bumps on two-lane main rural roads. A generalized practice in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderas Volcanes, R.J.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    Settlements of uncontrolled population on side of road in Venezuela originate the excessive use of traffic speed reducers to mitigate accidents. Misuse of these speed control devices generate problem of functionality in the two-lane main rural roads which requires to be studied to demonstrate its effect on the capacity and level of service. Although other factors may occur (i.e, environmental problems and health), the disproportionate use of speed-bumps worsens circulation quality by increase of travel time as most sensitive parameter. Where this effect not can be reversed it should be made efforts to mitigate speed using another traffic-calming device. The studied stretches are selected according to particular characteristics such as: urban settlement, isolated speed-bump and its installation in series, including case without speed-bumps which guarantees the proper contrast. Video cameras to detect the travel time of vehicles are used in each road section, it allow the measures of other parameters. The travel time distribution with or without speed-bumps and probability distribution that characterizes vehicle movement in each stretch allows the simulation and modeling with the ARENA software. Travel time allows obtain the speed which, together with the volume of traffic, determines the level of service according to the Highway Capacity Manual criterion. The economic cost of substitute measures versus travel time is evaluated and may be useful in decision-making or implementation of better policies by transport governmental institutions. (Author)

  17. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  18. Free-flow speeds for representative road and terrain types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2009-06-02

    Full Text Available Speed plays an important role in the justification of road infrstructure projects. It affects both vehicle operating cost and travel time cost. If incorrecr values for speed are used in the economic analyses of transport projects, incorrect...

  19. Multiobjective optimisation of bogie suspension to boost speed on curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad Mousavi-Bideleh, Seyed; Berbyuk, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    To improve safety and maximum admissible speed on different operational scenarios, multiobjective optimisation of bogie suspension components of a one-car railway vehicle model is considered. The vehicle model has 50 degrees of freedom and is developed in multibody dynamics software SIMPACK. Track shift force, running stability, and risk of derailment are selected as safety objective functions. The improved maximum admissible speeds of the vehicle on curves are determined based on the track plane accelerations up to 1.5 m/s2. To attenuate the number of design parameters for optimisation and improve the computational efficiency, a global sensitivity analysis is accomplished using the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A multistep optimisation routine based on genetic algorithm (GA) and MATLAB/SIMPACK co-simulation is executed at three levels. The bogie conventional secondary and primary suspension components are chosen as the design parameters in the first two steps, respectively. In the last step semi-active suspension is in focus. The input electrical current to magnetorheological yaw dampers is optimised to guarantee an appropriate safety level. Semi-active controllers are also applied and the respective effects on bogie dynamics are explored. The safety Pareto optimised results are compared with those associated with in-service values. The global sensitivity analysis and multistep approach significantly reduced the number of design parameters and improved the computational efficiency of the optimisation. Furthermore, using the optimised values of design parameters give the possibility to run the vehicle up to 13% faster on curves while a satisfactory safety level is guaranteed. The results obtained can be used in Pareto optimisation and active bogie suspension design problems.

  20. Parameters Design for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus Using Regenerative Brake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design methodology which uses the regenerative brake model is introduced to determine the major system parameters of a parallel electric hybrid bus drive train. Hybrid system parameters mainly include the power rating of internal combustion engine (ICE, gear ratios of transmission, power rating, and maximal torque of motor, power, and capacity of battery. The regenerative model is built in the vehicle model to estimate the regenerative energy in the real road conditions. The design target is to ensure that the vehicle meets the specified vehicle performance, such as speed and acceleration, and at the same time, operates the ICE within an expected speed range. Several pairs of parameters are selected from the result analysis, and the fuel saving result in the road test shows that a 25% reduction is achieved in fuel consumption.

  1. Two-speed phacoemulsification for soft cataracts using optimized parameters and procedure step toolbar with the CENTURION Vision System and Balanced Tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, James A

    2015-01-01

    To present a cause of posterior capsule aspiration and a technique using optimized parameters to prevent it from happening when operating soft cataracts. A prospective list of posterior capsule aspiration cases was kept over 4,062 consecutive cases operated with the Alcon CENTURION machine and Balanced Tip. Video analysis of one case of posterior capsule aspiration was accomplished. A surgical technique was developed using empirically derived machine parameters and customized setting-selection procedure step toolbar to reduce the pace of aspiration of soft nuclear quadrants in order to prevent capsule aspiration. Two cases out of 3,238 experienced posterior capsule aspiration before use of the soft quadrant technique. Video analysis showed an attractive vortex effect with capsule aspiration occurring in 1/5 of a second. A soft quadrant removal setting was empirically derived which had a slower pace and seemed more controlled with no capsule aspiration occurring in the subsequent 824 cases. The setting featured simultaneous linear control from zero to preset maximums for: aspiration flow, 20 mL/min; and vacuum, 400 mmHg, with the addition of torsional tip amplitude up to 20% after the fluidic maximums were achieved. A new setting selection procedure step toolbar was created to increase intraoperative flexibility by providing instantaneous shifting between the soft and normal settings. A technique incorporating a reduced pace for soft quadrant acquisition and aspiration can be accomplished through the use of a dedicated setting of integrated machine parameters. Toolbar placement of the procedure button next to the normal setting procedure button provides the opportunity to instantaneously alternate between the two settings. Simultaneous surgeon control over vacuum, aspiration flow, and torsional tip motion may make removal of soft nuclear quadrants more efficient and safer.

  2. Two-speed phacoemulsification for soft cataracts using optimized parameters and procedure step toolbar with the CENTURION Vision System and Balanced Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison JA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available James A DavisonWolfe Eye Clinic, Marshalltown, IA, USA Purpose: To present a cause of posterior capsule aspiration and a technique using optimized parameters to prevent it from happening when operating soft cataracts.Patients and methods: A prospective list of posterior capsule aspiration cases was kept over 4,062 consecutive cases operated with the Alcon CENTURION machine and Balanced Tip. Video analysis of one case of posterior capsule aspiration was accomplished. A surgical technique was developed using empirically derived machine parameters and customized setting-selection procedure step toolbar to reduce the pace of aspiration of soft nuclear quadrants in order to prevent capsule aspiration.Results: Two cases out of 3,238 experienced posterior capsule aspiration before use of the soft quadrant technique. Video analysis showed an attractive vortex effect with capsule aspiration occurring in 1/5 of a second. A soft quadrant removal setting was empirically derived which had a slower pace and seemed more controlled with no capsule aspiration occurring in the subsequent 824 cases. The setting featured simultaneous linear control from zero to preset maximums for: aspiration flow, 20 mL/min; and vacuum, 400 mmHg, with the addition of torsional tip amplitude up to 20% after the fluidic maximums were achieved. A new setting selection procedure step toolbar was created to increase intraoperative flexibility by providing instantaneous shifting between the soft and normal settings.Conclusion: A technique incorporating a reduced pace for soft quadrant acquisition and aspiration can be accomplished through the use of a dedicated setting of integrated machine parameters. Toolbar placement of the procedure button next to the normal setting procedure button provides the opportunity to instantaneously alternate between the two settings. Simultaneous surgeon control over vacuum, aspiration flow, and torsional tip motion may make removal of soft nuclear

  3. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

  4. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  5. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  6. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  7. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  8. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as G...

  9. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  11. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  12. Robustness of Supercavitating Vehicles Based on Multistability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipin Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercavity can increase speed of underwater vehicles greatly. However, external interferences always lead to instability of vehicles. This paper focuses on robustness of supercavitating vehicles. Based on a 4-dimensional dynamic model, the existence of multistability is verified in supercavitating system through simulation, and the robustness of vehicles varying with parameters is analyzed by basins of attraction. Results of the research disclose that the supercavitating system has three stable states in some regions of parameters space, namely, stable, periodic, and chaotic states, while in other regions it has various multistability, such as coexistence of two types of stable equilibrium points, coexistence of a limit cycle with a chaotic attractor, and coexistence of 1-periodic cycle with 2-periodic cycle. Provided that cavitation number varies within a small range, with increase of the feedback control gain of fin deflection angle, size of basin of attraction becomes smaller and robustness of the system becomes weaker. In practical application, robustness of supercavitating vehicles can be improved by setting parameters of system or adjusting initial launching conditions.

  13. 32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (d) The following special speed limits apply: (1) When passing troop formations, 10 miles per hour... vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH Cross County, 6 MPH Night Driving: Trails, 5 MPH (with headlights) Cross Country, 5 MPH Night Driving: Trails, 4 MPH...

  14. Estimation of left-turning vehicle maneuvers for the assessment of pedestrian safety at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving pedestrian safety at intersections remains a critical issue. Although several types of safety countermeasures, such as reforming intersection layouts, have been implemented, methods have not yet been established to quantitatively evaluate the effects of these countermeasures before installation. One of the main issues in pedestrian safety is conflicts with turning vehicles. This study aims to develop an integrated model to represent the variations in the maneuvers of left-turners (left-hand traffic at signalized intersections that dynamically considers the vehicle reaction to intersection geometry and crossing pedestrians. The proposed method consists of four empirically developed stochastic sub-models, including a path model, free-flow speed profile model, lag/gap acceptance model, and stopping/clearing speed profile model. Since safety assessment is the main objective driving the development of the proposed model, this study uses post-encroachment time (PET and vehicle speed at the crosswalk as validation parameters. Preliminary validation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation show that the proposed integrated model can realistically represent the variations in vehicle maneuvers as well as the distribution of PET and vehicle speeds at the crosswalk.

  15. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  16. Instability of a vehicle moving on an elastic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veritchev, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrations of a vehicle that moves on a long elastic structure can become unstable because of elastic waves that the vehicle generates in the structure. A typical example of the vehicle that can experience such instability is a high-speed train. Moving with a sufficiently high speed, this train

  17. Modeling pedestrian crossing speed profiles considering speed change behavior for the safety assessment of signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryo-Asano, Miho; Alhajyaseen, Wael K M

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrian safety is one of the most challenging issues in road networks. Understanding how pedestrians maneuver across an intersection is the key to applying countermeasures against traffic crashes. It is known that the behaviors of pedestrians at signalized crosswalks are significantly different from those in ordinary walking spaces, and they are highly influenced by signal indication, potential conflicts with vehicles, and intersection geometries. One of the most important characteristics of pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is the possible sudden speed change while crossing. Such sudden behavioral change may not be expected by conflicting vehicles, which may lead to hazardous situations. This study aims to quantitatively model the sudden speed changes of pedestrians as they cross signalized crosswalks under uncongested conditions. Pedestrian speed profiles are collected from empirical data and speed change events are extracted assuming that the speed profiles are stepwise functions. The occurrence of speed change events is described by a discrete choice model as a function of the necessary walking speed to complete crossing before the red interval ends, current speed, and the presence of turning vehicles in the conflict area. The amount of speed change before and after the event is modeled using regression analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation is applied for the entire speed profile of the pedestrians. The results show that the model can represent the pedestrian travel time distribution more accurately than the constant speed model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  19. Full-Scale Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Tests: Methods and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2018-01-01

    During the summer of 2016, a series of drop tests were conducted on two passive earth entry vehicle (EEV) test articles at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The tests were conducted to evaluate the structural integrity of a realistic EEV vehicle under anticipated landing loads. The test vehicles were lifted to an altitude of approximately 400m via a helicopter and released via release hook into a predesignated 61 m landing zone. Onboard accelerometers were capable of measuring vehicle free flight and impact loads. High-speed cameras on the ground tracked the free-falling vehicles and data was used to calculate critical impact parameters during the final seconds of flight. Additional sets of high definition and ultra-high definition cameras were able to supplement the high-speed data by capturing the release and free flight of the test articles. Three tests were successfully completed and showed that the passive vehicle design was able to withstand the impact loads from nominal and off-nominal impacts at landing velocities of approximately 29 m/s. Two out of three test resulted in off-nominal impacts due to a combination of high winds at altitude and the method used to suspend the vehicle from the helicopter. Both the video and acceleration data captured is examined and discussed. Finally, recommendations for improved release and instrumentation methods are presented.

  20. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  1. Is the propagation speed of ultrasound in human organs a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization? Evaluation using the liver parenchyma in children and adolescents as an example; Die Schallleitgeschwindigkeit im menschlichen Gewebe. Ein diagnostisch verwertbarer Parameter? Evaluation am Beispiel der Leber bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik - Kinderradiologie; Franke, I. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Kinderklinik

    2011-09-15

    New sonographic machines permit the measurement of the propagation speed of ultrasound (PSU) in humans. The liver seems to be an appropriate organ for examining whether the PSU may be used as a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization since the liver is easily accessible to sonography and its variable content of fat impacts the PSU. Purpose: To determine whether there is a measurable correlation between obesity and PSU in the liver. Methods: In 69 children and adolescents, the PSU in the liver was measured sonographically and correlated to BMI, age, size and weight of the children. Results: A strong correlation was found between the PSU in the liver and the BMI. The PSU was significantly lower in obese children (1507 m/s) than in children with normal body weight (1564 m/s). Conclusion: PSU seems to be promising as an additional diagnostic parameter for characterizing liver tissue. Further evaluation is necessary. (orig.)

  2. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  3. New Integrated Testing System for the Validation of Vehicle-Snow Interaction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    are individual wheel speeds, accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed, yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering wheel angle and brake ...forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed, acceleration, yaw rate, roll, and pitch. The profilometer has a 3-D scanning...Stability Program. The test vehicle provides measurements that include three forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed

  4. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  5. A Comparative Study Based on the Least Square Parameter Identification Method for State of Charge Estimation of a LiFePO4 Battery Pack Using Three Model-Based Algorithms for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Zahid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage management for electric vehicles (EV and hybrid EV is the most critical and enabling technology since the dawn of electric vehicle commercialization. A battery system is a complex electrochemical phenomenon whose performance degrades with age and the existence of varying material design. Moreover, it is very tedious and computationally very complex to monitor and control the internal state of a battery’s electrochemical systems. For Thevenin battery model we established a state-space model which had the advantage of simplicity and could be easily implemented and then applied the least square method to identify the battery model parameters. However, accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of a battery, which depends not only on the battery model but also on highly accurate and efficient algorithms, is considered one of the most vital and critical issue for the energy management and power distribution control of EV. In this paper three different estimation methods, i.e., extended Kalman filter (EKF, particle filter (PF and unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, are presented to estimate the SoC of LiFePO4 batteries for an electric vehicle. Battery’s experimental data, current and voltage, are analyzed to identify the Thevenin equivalent model parameters. Using different open circuit voltages the SoC is estimated and compared with respect to the estimation accuracy and initialization error recovery. The experimental results showed that these online SoC estimation methods in combination with different open circuit voltage-state of charge (OCV-SoC curves can effectively limit the error, thus guaranteeing the accuracy and robustness.

  6. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the factors impacting individual vehicle energy consumption, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow. A fleet of 18 vehicles with a variety of ownership, size...

  7. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will be...

  8. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  9. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Govern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  10. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  12. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  13. Rail vehicle dynamic response to a nonlinear physical 'in-service' model of its secondary suspension hydraulic dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Zhou, Z. R.; Yu, D. S.; Qin, Q. H.; Iwnicki, S.

    2017-10-01

    A full nonlinear physical 'in-service' model was built for a rail vehicle secondary suspension hydraulic damper with shim-pack-type valves. In the modelling process, a shim pack deflection theory with an equivalent-pressure correction factor was proposed, and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach was applied. Bench test results validated the damper model over its full velocity range and thus also proved that the proposed shim pack deflection theory and the FEA-based parameter identification approach are effective. The validated full damper model was subsequently incorporated into a detailed vehicle dynamics simulation to study how its key in-service parameter variations influence the secondary-suspension-related vehicle system dynamics. The obtained nonlinear physical in-service damper model and the vehicle dynamic response characteristics in this study could be used in the product design optimization and nonlinear optimal specifications of high-speed rail hydraulic dampers.

  14. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  15. Lightweight Vehicle and Driver’s Whole-Body Models for Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MdSah, Jamali; Taha, Zahari; Azwan Ismail, Khairul

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle vibration is a main factor for driving fatigue, discomfort and health problems. The ability to simulate the vibration characteristics in the vehicle and its effects on driver’s whole-body vibration will give significant advantages to designers especially on the vehicle development time and cost. However, it is difficult to achieve optimal condition of ride comfort and handling when using passive suspension system. This paper presents mathematical equations that can be used to describe the vibration characteristics of a lightweight electric vehicle that had been developed. The vehicle’s model was combined with the lumped-parameter model of driver to determine the whole-body vibration level when the vehicle is passing over a road hump using Matlab Simulink. The models were simulated at a constant speed and the results were compared with the experimental data. The simulated vibration level at the vehicle floor and seat were almost similar to the experimental vibration results. The suspension systems that are being used for the solar vehicle are able to reduce the vibration level due to the road hump. The models can be used to simulate and choose the optimal parameters for the suspensions.

  16. Visible light communication based vehicle positioning using LED street light and rolling shutter CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Trong Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle positioning system using LED street lights and two rolling shutter CMOS sensor cameras. In this system, identification codes for the LED street lights are transmitted to camera-equipped vehicles through a visible light communication (VLC) channel. Given that the camera parameters are known, the positions of the vehicles are determined based on the geometric relationship between the coordinates of the LEDs in the images and their real world coordinates, which are obtained through the LED identification codes. The main contributions of the paper are twofold. First, the collinear arrangement of the LED street lights makes traditional camera-based positioning algorithms fail to determine the position of the vehicles. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to fuse data received from the two cameras attached to the vehicles in order to solve the collinearity problem of the LEDs. Second, the rolling shutter mechanism of the CMOS sensors combined with the movement of the vehicles creates image artifacts that may severely degrade the positioning accuracy. This paper also proposes a method to compensate for the rolling shutter artifact, and a high positioning accuracy can be achieved even when the vehicle is moving at high speeds. The performance of the proposed positioning system corresponding to different system parameters is examined by conducting Matlab simulations. Small-scale experiments are also conducted to study the performance of the proposed algorithm in real applications.

  17. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  18. Embedded and real-time vehicle detection system for challenging on-road scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qin; Yang, Jianyu; Kong, Lingjiang; Yan, Wei Qi; Klette, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle detection is an important topic for advanced driver-assistance systems. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for an embedded system by focusing on monocular vehicle detection in real time, also aiming at being accurate under challenging conditions. Scene classification is accomplished by using a simplified convolution neural network with hypothesis generation by SoftMax regression. The output is consequently taken into account to optimize detection parameters for hypothesis generation and testing. Thus, we offer a sample-reorganization mechanism to improve the performance of vehicle hypothesis verification. A hypothesis leap mechanism is in use to improve the operating efficiency of the on-board system. A practical on-road test is employed to verify vehicle detection (i.e., accuracy) and also the performance of the designed on-board system regarding speed.

  19. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  20. Improving stability and curving passing performance for railway vehicles with a variable stiffness MRF rubber joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B. J.; Sun, S. S.; Li, W. H.

    2017-03-01

    With the growing need for effective intercity transport, the need for more advanced rail vehicle technology has never been greater. The conflicting primary longitudinal suspension requirements of high speed stability and curving performance limit the development of rail vehicle technology. This paper presents a novel magnetorheological fluid based joint with variable stiffness characteristics for the purpose of overcoming this parameter conflict. Firstly, the joint design and working principle is developed. Following this, a prototype is tested by MTS to characterize its variable stiffness properties under a range of conditions. Lastly, the performance of the proposed MRF rubber joint with regard to improving train stability and curving performance is numerically evaluated.

  1. On-board emission measurement of high-loaded light-duty vehicles in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A sample of eight private gasoline and diesel conventional light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in use with various ages, carrying a load of 460 kg, were tested on a representative trip in the traffic flow of the city of Blida to obtain emission factors representing the actual use conditions of Algerian LDVs. The gas sampling system (mini-constant volume sampling) as well as the analyzers are carried on-board the vehicle. Around 55 tests were conducted during 3 months covering more than 480 km under various real driving conditions. The mean speed downtown is about 16.1 km/hr with a rather low acceleration, an average of 0.60 m/sec2. For each test, kinematics are recorded as well as the analysis of the four emitted pollutants carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbons. Emission factors were evaluated according to speed for each category of gasoline and diesel engines. The influence of some parameters such as cold/hot start, age of vehicle and its state of maintenance are discussed. Results are compared with the European database ARTEMIS for comparable vehicles. These measurements contribute to the development of unit emission of the vehicles used in Algeria, which are necessary for the calculation of emission inventory of pollutants and greenhouse gases from the road transportation sector. The unit emissions constitute a tool of decisionmaking aid regarding the conception of new regulations of vehicle control and inspection in Algeria and even in similar developing countries.

  2. Low Speed Automation, a French Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien, Glaser; Maurice, Cour; Lydie, Nouveliere; Alain, Lambert; Fawzi, Nashashibi; Jean-Christophe, Popieul; Benjamin, Mourllion

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, vehicle safety is constantly increasing thanks to the improvement of vehicle passive and active safety. However, on a daily usage of the car, traffic jams remains a problem. With limited space for road infrastructure, automation of the driving task on specific situation seems to be a possible solution. The French project ABV, which stands for low speed automation, tries to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to prove the benefits. In this article, ...

  3. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  4. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  5. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving

  6. MODELLING OF DYNAMIC SPEED LIMITS USING THE MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of traffic management using intelligent system “Car-Road” (IVHS, which consist of interacting intelligent vehicles (IV and intelligent roadside controllers. Vehicles are organized in convoy with small distances between them. All vehicles are assumed to be fully automated (throttle control, braking, steering. Proposed approaches for determining speed limits for traffic cars on the motorway using a model predictive control (MPC. The article proposes an approach to dynamic speed limit to minimize the downtime of vehicles in traffic.

  7. A method for real-time condition monitoring of haul roads based on Bayesian parameter estimation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of varying vehicle speed on the measured vehicle response metric. A key feature of the proposed methodology is that it avoids the costly need to generate analytical or empirical vehicle models....

  8. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  9. Parameter analysis and optimal design for low-speed permanent magnet wind turbine generators%低速永磁风力发电机的参数分析及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何庆领; 王群京

    2011-01-01

    文章讨论了低速永磁同步风力发电机的设计特点,为了有效地减少阻力矩,采用分数槽绕组,为减少漏磁通,采用瓦片型和放射状的永磁体安装结构,并重点对结构参数与运行性能之间的内在关系进行了参数分析,为风力发电机本体的优化设计打下基础.在一定安装尺寸的限制下,以电机效率作为优化目标,采用基于混沌理论的最优化算法获取风力发电机的最大输出效率.%This paper discusses the design characteristics of low-speed permanent magnet synchronous wind turbine generator, including the use of fractional slot windings to effectively reduce the resistance moment, the use of tiles and reflective-like structure to reduce leakage flux,and the installation of permanent magnet The intrinsic relationship between structural parameters and operational performance is also analyzed for the optimal design of wind turbine foundation. Aiming at optimizing the motor efficiency, the optimization algorithm based on chaos theory can be used to obtain the maximum output efficiency of wind turbine generator under a certain restriction of installation size.

  10. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel de Bellis

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance. Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  11. High-speed surface transportation corridor : a conceptual framework, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    Efficient transportation is indispensable for economic growth and prosperity. In this study we propose the development of a high-speed surface corridor and compatible vehicles. We present a conceptual framework for this corridor and vehicle. This pro...

  12. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  13. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  14. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  15. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  16. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  17. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  18. CFD Based Added Mass Prediction in Cruise Condition of Underwater Vehicle Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Moelyadi, Mochammad; Bambang Riswandi, Bagus

    2018-04-01

    One of the unsteady flow behavior on the hydrodynamic characteristics of underwater vehicle is the presence of added mass. In cruising conditions, the underwater vehicle may require the addition of speed or experience the disturbance in the form of unsteady flow so that cause the hydrodynamic interaction between the surface of the vehicle with the surrounding fluid. This leads to the rise of local velocity of flow and the great changes of hydrodynamic forces which are very influential on the stability of the underwater vehicle. One of the result is an additional force called added mass. It is very useful parameter to control underwater vehicle dynamic.This paper reports the research on the added mass coefficient of underwater vehicles obtained through the Computational Fluid Dynmaic (CFD) simulation method using CFX software. Added mass coefficient is calculated by performing an unsteady simulation or known as transient simulation. Computational simulations are based on the Reynold Average Navier- Stokes (RANS) equation solution. The simulated vehicle moves forward and backward according to the sinus function, with a frequency of 0.25 Hz, a 2 m amplitude, a cruising depth of 10 m below sea level, and Vcruise 1.54 m / s (Re = 9.000.000). Simulation result data includes velocity contour, variation of force and acceleration to frequency, and added mass coefficient.

  19. Classification of robotic battery service systems for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing examples of prototypes of ground-based robotic platforms used as a landing site for unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. In some cases, they are equipped with a maintenance mechanism for the power supply module. The main requirements for robotic multi-copter battery maintenance systems depending on operating conditions, required processing speed, operator experience and other parameters are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicles on the platform and approach to servicing battery. The existing prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint work of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicles during the landing and maintenance of the battery. The classification of robotic systems for servicing the power supply of multi-copter batteries criteria is presented using the following: the type of basing, the method of navigation during landing, the shape of the landing pad, the method of restoring the power supply module. The proposed algorithmic model of the operation of battery power maintenance system of the multi-copter on ground-based robotic platform during solving the target agrarian problem is described. Wireless methods of battery recovery are most promising, so further development and prototyping of a wireless charging station for multi-copter batteries will be developed.

  20. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  1. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  2. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  3. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  4. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  5. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  6. 40 CFR 205.52 - Vehicle noise emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle noise emission standards. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.52 Vehicle noise emission standards. (a) Low Speed Noise Emission Standard. Vehicles which are manufactured after...

  7. An optimization algorithm for a capacitated vehicle routing problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, vehicle routing problem (VRP) with time windows and real world constraints are considered as a real-world application on google maps. Also, tabu search is used and Hopfield neural networks is utilized. Basic constraints consist of customer demands, time windows, vehicle speed, vehicle capacity andworking ...

  8. A data driven approach for automating vehicle activated signs

    OpenAIRE

    Jomaa, Diala

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle activated signs (VAS) display a warning message when drivers exceed a particular threshold. VAS are often installed on local roads to display a warning message depending on the speed of the approaching vehicles. VAS are usually powered by electricity; however, battery and solar powered VAS are also commonplace. This thesis investigated devel-opment of an automatic trigger speed of vehicle activated signs in order to influence driver behaviour, the effect of which has been measured in ...

  9. Bayesian Predictive Models for Rayleigh Wind Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahirinia, Amir; Hajizadeh, Amin; Yu, David C

    2017-01-01

    predictive model of the wind speed aggregates the non-homogeneous distributions into a single continuous distribution. Therefore, the result is able to capture the variation among the probability distributions of the wind speeds at the turbines’ locations in a wind farm. More specifically, instead of using...... a wind speed distribution whose parameters are known or estimated, the parameters are considered as random whose variations are according to probability distributions. The Bayesian predictive model for a Rayleigh which only has a single model scale parameter has been proposed. Also closed-form posterior...... and predictive inferences under different reasonable choices of prior distribution in sensitivity analysis have been presented....

  10. Design and Research on Vehicles Motor Testing System Based on Improvement PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Kuangang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Motor is the important parts in vehicles. It is the key parts for achieving automation. It is the critical technology to test vehicle motors. We take the PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation as based fundamental controlling algorithm, and we test motor parameters through LabVIEW for single-chip AT89C52. According to practical working condition, we build circuit electric field boundary, and analyze electric field distribution of hard circuit. In addition, we also design filtering circuit for main interrupt frequency (below 1 kHz, and we improved PID for direct motor speed which is controlled by PWM (pulse-width modulation to reach speed astatic regulation. At the same time, the system achieves soft start-up.

  11. A mixed logit analysis of two-vehicle crash severities involving a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Mohammad Saad B; Gkritza, Konstantina; Zhang, Wei; Hans, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Using motorcycle crash data for Iowa from 2001 to 2008, this paper estimates a mixed logit model to investigate the factors that affect crash severity outcomes in a collision between a motorcycle and another vehicle. These include crash-specific factors (such as manner of collision, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle actions), roadway and environmental conditions, location and time, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle attributes. The methodological approach allows the parameters to vary across observations as opposed to a single parameter representing all observations. Our results showed non-uniform effects of rear-end collisions on minor injury crashes, as well as of the roadway speed limit greater or equal to 55mph, the type of area (urban), the riding season (summer) and motorcyclist's gender on low severity crashes. We also found significant effects of the roadway surface condition, clear vision (not obscured by moving vehicles, trees, buildings, or other), light conditions, speed limit, and helmet use on severe injury outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-speed Maglev studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.L.; Eastham, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports on Canadian studies of superconducting magnetic levitation and variable-speed linear synchronous motor propulsion for high-speed inter-city guided ground transport. Levitation is obtained by the interaction of vehicle-mounted superconducting magnets and the eddy currents induced in aluminium strip conductors on the guideway. Non-contact propulsion by linear synchronous motor (LSM) is obtained by using vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and powered guideway coils. A suggested guidance scheme uses a flat guideway with 'null-flux' loops overlying the LSM windings. The propulsion magnets interact with the loops and the edges of the levitation strips to provide lateral stabilization. The test facility is a 7.6m wheel, rotating with a peripheral speed of 33m/s. (author)

  13. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  15. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  16. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  17. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  18. Design elements and quantitative results of synchronous longstator linear motors for high-speed magnetic trains taking the TRANSRAPID test facility in Emsland as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)

  19. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion..

  20. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion.

  1. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  2. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles: Roundabouts Design and Safety Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Deluka Tibljaš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs. Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.

  3. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  4. Optimal recharge and driving strategies for a battery-powered electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee W. R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  5. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Gauss Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control technique of autonomous vehicle is basic theory and one key complex technique which must have the reliability and precision of vehicle controller. The longitudinal control technique is one of the foundations of the safety and stability of autonomous vehicle control. In our paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The longitudinal control algorithm mainly uses cloud model generator to control the acceleration of the autonomous vehicle to achieve the goal that controls the speed of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The proposed longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model is verified by real experiments on Highway driving scene. The experiments results of the acceleration and speed show that the algorithm is validity and stability.

  6. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  7. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat

    2018-02-01

    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  8. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  9. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  10. REAL TIME SPEED ESTIMATION FROM MONOCULAR VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Temiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed studies have been performed for developing a real time system to be used for surveillance of the traffic flow by using monocular video cameras to find speeds of the vehicles for secure travelling are presented. We assume that the studied road segment is planar and straight, the camera is tilted downward a bridge and the length of one line segment in the image is known. In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle from a video camera, rectification of video images is performed to eliminate the perspective effects and then the interest region namely the ROI is determined for tracking the vehicles. Velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points are identified on the image of the vehicle from each video frame. For this purpose sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in the image space are transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. The accuracy of the estimated speed is approximately ±1 – 2 km/h. In order to solve the real time speed estimation problem, the authors have written a software system in C++ programming language. This software system has been used for all of the computations and test applications.

  11. Can vehicle longitudinal jerk be used to identify aggressive drivers? An examination using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fred; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol; Manser, Michael; Wunderlich, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated the characteristics of vehicle longitudinal jerk (change rate of acceleration with respect to time) by using vehicle sensor data from an existing naturalistic driving study. The main objective was to examine whether vehicle jerk contains useful information that could be potentially used to identify aggressive drivers. Initial investigation showed that there are unique characteristics of vehicle jerk in drivers' gas and brake pedal operations. Thus two jerk-based metrics were examined: (1) driver's frequency of using large positive jerk when pressing the gas pedal, and (2) driver's frequency of using large negative jerk when pressing the brake pedal. To validate the performance of the two metrics, drivers were firstly divided into an aggressive group and a normal group using three classification methods (1) traveling at excessive speed (speeding), (2) following too closely to a front vehicle (tailgating), and (3) their association with crashes or near-crashes in the dataset. The results show that those aggressive drivers defined using any of the three methods above were associated with significantly higher values of the two jerk-based metrics. Between the two metrics the frequency of using large negative jerk seems to have better performance in identifying aggressive drivers. A sensitivity analysis shows the findings were largely consistent with varying parameters in the analysis. The potential applications of this work include developing quantitative surrogate safety measures to identify aggressive drivers and aggressive driving, which could be potentially used to, for example, provide real-time or post-ride performance feedback to the drivers, or warn the surrounding drivers or vehicles using the connected vehicle technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  13. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  14. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  15. Effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws and associated factors – Exploratory empirical analysis using a bivariate ordered probit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behram Wali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary traffic safety research comprises little information on quantifying the simultaneous association between drink driving and speeding among fatally injured drivers. Potential correlation between driver's drink driving and speeding behavior poses a substantial methodological concern which needs investigation. This study therefore focused on investigating the simultaneous impact of socioeconomic factors, fatalities, vehicle ownership, health services and highway agency road safety policies on enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws. The effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws has been investigated through development of bivariate ordered probit model using data extricated from WHO's global status report on road safety in 2013. The consistent and intuitive parameter estimates along with statistically significant correlation between response outcomes validates the statistical supremacy of bivariate ordered probit model. The results revealed that fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, hospital beds per hundred thousand population and road safety policies are associated with a likely medium or high effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws, respectively. Also, the model encapsulates the effect of several other agency related variables and socio-economic status on the response outcomes. Marginal effects are reported for analyzing the impact of such factors on intermediate categories of response outcomes. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary insights to elemental enforcement programs. Also, marginal effects of explanatory variables may provide useful directions for formulating effective policy countermeasures for overcoming driver's speeding and drink driving behavior.

  16. Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne; Klepeis, Neil; Switzer, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The air change rates of motor vehicles are relevant to the sheltering effect from air pollutants entering from outside a vehicle and also to the interior concentrations from any sources inside its passenger compartment. We made more than 100 air change rate measurements on four motor vehicles under moving and stationary conditions; we also measured the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM(2.5)) decay rates from 14 cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle. With the vehicle stationary and the fan off, the ventilation rate in air changes per hour (ACH) was less than 1 h(-1) with the windows closed and increased to 6.5 h(-1) with one window fully opened. The vehicle speed, window position, ventilation system, and air conditioner setting was found to affect the ACH. For closed windows and passive ventilation (fan off and no recirculation), the ACH was linearly related to the vehicle speed over the range from 15 to 72 mph (25 to 116 km h(-1)). With a vehicle moving, windows closed, and the ventilation system off (or the air conditioner set to AC Max), the ACH was less than 6.6 h(-1) for speeds ranging from 20 to 72 mph (32 to 116 km h(-1)). Opening a single window by 3'' (7.6 cm) increased the ACH by 8-16 times. For the 14 cigarettes smoked in vehicles, the deposition rate k and the air change rate a were correlated, following the equation k=1.3a (R(2)=82%; n=14). With recirculation on (or AC Max) and closed windows, the interior PM(2.5) concentration exceeded 2000 microg m(-3) momentarily for all cigarettes tested, regardless of speed. The concentration time series measured inside the vehicle followed the mathematical solutions of the indoor mass balance model, and the 24-h average personal exposure to PM(2.5) could exceed 35 microg m(-3) for just two cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle.

  17. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  18. Assessing rear-end crash potential in urban locations based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics and operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Stylianou, Katerina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2018-03-01

    Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes. In this study rear-end crash potential was estimated based on stopping distance between two consecutive vehicles, and four rear-end crash potential cases were developed. The results indicated that 66.4% of the observations were estimated as rear-end crash potentials. It was also shown that rear-end crash potential was presented when traffic flow and speed standard deviation were higher. Also, locational characteristics such as lane of travel and location in the network were found to affect drivers' car following decisions and additionally, it was shown that speeds were lower and headways higher when Heavy Goods Vehicles lead. Finally, a model-based behavioral analysis based on Multinomial Logit regression was conducted to systematically identify the statistically significant variables in explaining rear-end risk potential. The modeling results highlighted the significance of the explanatory variables associated with rear-end crash potential, however it was shown that their effect varied among different model configurations. The outcome of the results can be of significant value for several purposes, such as real-time monitoring of risk potential, allocating enforcement units in urban networks and designing targeted proactive safety policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  20. Model-predictive control based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model for electrical vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) play a significant role in different applications, such as commuter vehicles and short distance transport applications. This study presents a new structure of model-predictive control based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, linear matrix inequalities, and a non......-quadratic Lyapunov function for the speed control of EVs including time-delay states and parameter uncertainty. Experimental data, using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75), is applied to test the performance and robustness of the suggested controller in the presence of time-varying parameters. Besides, a comparison...... is made between the results of the suggested robust strategy and those obtained from some of the most recent studies on the same topic, to assess the efficiency of the suggested controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are performed on a direct current motor. Simulation...