WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle nev fleet

  1. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  2. Ground Vehicle Fleet Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chappell, Isaac; Holzer, Jenny; Koehn, Phillip; Macheret, Jenya; Sparrow, Dave

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) Sample Data Collection (SDC) and the Army's reported mission capable rates to determine if there was evidence of deterioration in the Army's combat or tactical vehicle fleets...

  3. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  4. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Redmer

    2015-01-01

    .... Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic...

  5. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Redmer

    2016-01-01

    .... Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic...

  6. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    captured by using the propulsion system to apply a load to the drive axle during braking, and then converted into electrical energy via a generator. The...store braking energy with high pressure accumulators that assist with vehicle propulsion when needed. These systems avoid the requirement for large...battery systems and complex electrical controls. 1.2. Objective of the Demonstration DoD’s fleet of diesel powered vehicles and equipment generates

  7. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  8. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... is driven by less formal decisions taken in the nexus between SOEs and relevant state agencies. Hence, although China suffers no lack of legislation at various levels (including laws, decrees, and guidelines) it is often difficult to identify the specific drivers for change. Practical implications...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  9. Electric vehicle fleet implications and analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of : electric vehicles (EVs) used in fleet operations. The study focuses on Battery-Electric : Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs); collective...

  10. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency... management contracts which include Federal motor vehicle fleet operations. Section 506 of Executive Order...

  11. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  12. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  13. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process and the importance that is placed on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features. The findings of the current study suggest that vehicle safety is generally not the primary consideration in the vehicle purchase process and is consistently outranked by factors such as price and dependability/reliability. For example, when asked to indicate the vehicle factors that are included in their company's criteria for purchasing/leasing a new vehicle, fleet managers from both Sweden and Spain were more likely to list the vehicle's price, reliability, running costs, size, and fuel consumption than the vehicle's safety (defined as the vehicle's EuroNCAP rating/other safety reports). In addition, the findings of this study suggest that the importance of vehicle safety did not differ across the two countries. For example, there was no significant difference in the proportion of fleet managers who indicated that EuroNCAP ratings were part of their official policy across the two countries. The findings highlighted the need to educate fleet managers about vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process. In addition, vehicle safety information, such as EuroNCAP results or other crash test results need to be promoted more widely and effectively so that they play a more prominent role in their new vehicle choices.

  14. Myths Regarding Alternative Fuel Vehicle Demand by Light-Duty Vehicle Fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Public and private vehicle fleets have long been targeted as an ideal initial market for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). We examine seven widely accepted hypotheses regarding the potential fleet market for AFVs. The hypotheses are tested using data and information collected from focus group sessions, one-on-one interviews with fleet operators, and a large two0part survey administered to over 2700 California fleets, as well as secondary sources. We find a large number of misconceptions by bo...

  15. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  16. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th!nk City fleet is from US 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid.

  17. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  19. Municipal Fleet Vehicle Electrification and Photovoltaic Power In the City of Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document reports the results of a cost benefit analysis on potential photovoltaic projects : in Pittsburgh and electrifying the citys light duty civilian vehicle fleet. Currently the : city of Pittsburgh has a civilian passenger vehicle fleet...

  20. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  1. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  2. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  3. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  4. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    vehicle propulsion when needed. These systems avoid the requirement for large battery systems and complex electrical controls. 1.2. Objective of...HEVEA program to evaluate the benefits of hybrid electric propulsion systems on tactical vehicles . Tools developed through the program include test...either electric or hydraulic. With an electric hybrid, braking (kinetic) energy is captured by using the propulsion system to apply a load to

  5. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  6. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  7. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  8. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  9. A Novel Constructive Routing Algorithm for Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenan Karagul

    2014-01-01

      In this study, a new constructive routing algorithm for fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem is proposed in which residual costs rather than vehicle types are considered for route selection...

  10. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  11. Migrating towards Using Electric Vehicles in Campus-Proposed Methods for Fleet Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekwan Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing a fleet efficiently to address demand within cost constraints is a challenge. Mismatched fleet size and demand can create suboptimal budget allocations and inconvenience users. To address this problem, many studies have been conducted around heterogeneous fleet optimization. That research has not included an examination of different vehicle types with travel distance constraints. This study focuses on optimizing the University of Tennessee (UT motor pool which has a heterogeneous fleet that includes electric vehicles (EVs with a travel distance and recharge time constraint. After assessing UT motor pool trip patterns as a case study, a queuing model was used to estimate the maximum number of each vehicle type needed to minimize the expected customer wait time to near zero. The break-even point is used for the optimization model to constrain the minimum number of years that electric vehicles should be operated under the no-subsidy assumption. The results show that the fleet has surplus vehicles. In addition to reducing the number of vehicles, total fleet costs could be minimized by using electric vehicles for all trips less than 100 miles. The models are flexible and can be applied and help fleet managers make decisions about fleet size and EV adoption.

  12. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  13. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  14. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  15. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...

  16. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  18. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  19. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  20. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  2. Vehicle Real Driving Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides in an Urban Area from a large Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Oesterle, Tobias; Adler, Tim; Reh, Miriam; Tirpitz, Lukas; Kanatschnig, Florian; Lampel, Joahnnes; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx=NO +NO2) emissions by road vehicles are the major contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollution in cities. However, emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle, its engine, the age, condition of the vehicle, driving properties, modifications and many more. Even if official NOx emission data of the manufacturer exist, they are only valid for new vehicles and the current vehicle emission scandal shows clearly that these data are often wrong. Thus, real driving emissions (RDE) of the current vehicle fleet is required. With such data the contribution of individual vehicles to the NO2 and NOx levels in urban areas can be estimated. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding, replace or modify them. We developed a precise and fast ICAD (Iterative CAvity DOAS) NO2 instrument which can measure the concentration within the emission plume of vehicles under real driving conditions. The sampling was performed with an inlet at the front of a car which was following the investigated vehicles. The instrument measure NO2 and additionally CO2 with a time resolution of 2 seconds. With the observed NO2 values already strong emitters can easily be identified. With the use of known CO2 emissions, more reliable emissions for NO2 can be calculated for each vehicle. Currently the system is expanded with a NOx channel to derive the total nitrogen oxide emissions. The system was successfully applied in several studies over the last two years to investigate NO2 RDE. More than thousand vehicles were investigated. We observed that several vehicles from various brands show much higher emissions than allowed (more than a factor of 5). Highest emissions correlate for trucks and busses typically to older vehicles, what is not the case for cars. A large variability between different cars was

  3. Automatic guided vehicles fleet size optimization for flexible manufacturing system by grey wolf optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Chawla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic guided vehicle system (AGVs plays a vital role in material handling operations for a flexible manufacturing system (FMS.Optimum AGVs fleet size selection is one of the most sig-nificant decisions in effective design and control of automated material handling system. The fleet size estimation and optimization of AGVs requires an in-depth understanding of the various factors that AGVs in the FMS relies on. In this paper, an investigation for fleet size optimization of AGVs in different layouts of FMS by application of the analytical method and grey wolf optimization al-gorithm (GWO is carried out. Layout design is one of the significant factors for optimization of AGV’s fleet size in any FMS. Results yield from analytical and grey wolf optimization algorithm are compared and validated for the different sizes of FMS layouts by computational experiments.

  4. An effective multirestart deterministic annealing metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle-routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Hasle, Geir; Mester, David; Gendreau, Michel

    This paper presents a new deterministic annealing metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle-routing problem with time windows. The objective is to service, at minimal total cost, a set of customers within their time windows by a heterogeneous capacitated vehicle fleet. First, we motivate and

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  6. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  7. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  8. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  9. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2007 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This report summarized the regulatory requirements related to nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet averaging for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines and include technical standards that establish maximum limits on vehicle exhaust emissions. The fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for 2007 was summarized, and the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program was evaluated in relation to its environmental performance objectives. A total of 22 companies submitted reports for 294 test groups comprising 1,599,051 vehicles of the 2007 model year. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire LDV/LLDT fleet was 0.06897630 grams per mile. The average value for the HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.160668 grams per mile. NO{sub x} values for both overall fleets remained better than the corresponding fleet average NO{sub x} standards, and were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co-emitted pollutants as well.

  11. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wan-Yu Liu; Chun-Cheng Lin; Ching-Ren Chiu; You-Song Tsao; Qunwei Wang

    2014-01-01

      Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP...

  12. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  13. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... level, the extra loads created by the increasing number of electric vehicles may have adverse impacts on grid. These factors bring new challenges to the power system operators. To coordinate the interests and solve the conflicts, electric vehicle fleet operators are proposed both by academics...

  14. A Modified Column Generation to Solve the Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Open Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the heterogeneous fixed fleet open vehicle routing problem (HFFOVRP, several different types of vehicles can be used to service the customers. The types of vehicles are different in terms of capacity, fixed cost, and variable cost. In this problem, the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing a service and the number of vehicles of each type is fixed and limited. Since this problem belongs to NP-hard problems, in this paper a compound heuristic algorithm called SISEC which includes sweep algorithm, insert, swap, and 2-opt moves, modified elite ant system (EAS, and column generation (CG is applied to solve the HFFOVRP. We report computational results on 22 problems and solve each problem by using our SISEC. The results which were compared to the results of exact algorithms and the classic CG confirm that the proposed algorithm produces high quality solutions within an acceptable computation time.

  15. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

  16. Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies.

  17. A Column Generation for the Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Open Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the heterogeneous fixed fleet open vehicle routing problem (HFFOVRP, in which the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing a service. In this new problem, the demands of customers are fulfilled by a heterogeneous fixed fleet of vehicles having various capacities, fixed costs and variable costs. This problem is an important variant of the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP and can cover more practical situations in transportation and logistics. Since this problem belongs to NP-hard Problems, An approach based on column generation (CG is applied to solve the HFFOVRP. A tight integer programming model is presented and the linear programming relaxation of which is solved by the CG technique. Since there have been no existing benchmarks, this study generated 19 test problems and the results of the proposed CG algorithm is compared to the results of exact algorithm. Computational experience confirms that the proposed algorithm can provide better solutions within a comparatively shorter period of time.

  18. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  19. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  20. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  1. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m(-3) during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  2. How Well Do We Know the Future of CO2 Emissions? Projecting Fleet Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle Technology Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Niall P D; Bishop, Justin D K; Boies, Adam M

    2017-03-07

    While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonization can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology using vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g., mass, engine size, and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5.6 L/100 km in 2014 to 3.0 L/100 km by 2030. The change in vehicle efficiency coupled with increases in vehicle numbers and fleet-wide activity result in a total fleet-wide reduction of 41 ± 10% in 2030, relative to 2012. Concerted internal combustion engine improvements result in a 48 ± 10% reduction of CO2 emissions, while efforts to increase the number of diesel vehicles within the fleet had little additional effect. Increasing plug-in and all-electric vehicles reduced CO2 emissions by less (42 ± 10% reduction) than concerted internal combustion engines improvements. However, if the grid decarbonizes, electric vehicles reduce emissions by 45 ± 9% with further reduction potential to 2050.

  3. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  4. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  5. Project InitiativE-BW - Real-world driving, energy demand, user experiences and emissions of electrified vehicle fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Kugler, Ulrike; Schmitt, Michael; Özdemir, Enver Doruk

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers see electrified vehicles (EV) as one instrument to reduce local air pollution and also towards a mitigation of climate change. It is known that the “real driving” energy demand of conventional vehicles is significantly higher than the norm consumption. However, there is limited knowledge for the real-world energy demand and charging patterns of EV fleets. Furthermore, first user experiences are important for the uptake of the electrified vehicles. There are not many studies...

  6. Fine particle emission factors from vehicles in a highway tunnel: Effects of fleet composition and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Pekney, Natalie J.; Takahama, Satoshi; Robinson, Allen L.

    In-use, fuel-based motor vehicle emission factors were determined using measurements made in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Concentrations of PM 2.5 mass, CO, CO 2, and NO x were measured continuously. Filter-based measurements included PM 2.5 mass, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), inorganic ions and metals. Fuel-based emission factors for each pollutant were calculated using a fuel-carbon balance. The weekday traffic volume and fleet composition varied in a consistent diurnal pattern with the estimated fraction of fuel consumed by heavy-duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) traffic ranging from 11% to 36%. The emission rate of most species showed a significant dependence on sample period. NO x, PM 2.5, EC and OC emission factors were significantly larger during the early morning, truck-dominated period. Emissions of particulate metals associated with brake wear (Cu, Sb, Ba and potentially Ga) were emitted at higher rates during the rush-hour period, which is characterized by slower, stop-and-go traffic. Emission rates of crustal elements (Fe, Ca, Mg, Li), Zn and Mn were highest during the early-morning period when there was more heavy-truck traffic. A seasonal shift in average OC/EC ratio for the rush-hour period was observed; fall and summer OC/EC ratios are 1.0±0.6 and 0.26±0.06, respectively. Potential causes for this shift are increased partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds into the gas phase during the summer months and/or effects of seasonal changes in fuel formulation. Emission factors for HDDV and light-duty vehicles (LDV) classes were estimated using a linear regression of emission factor as a function of fleet composition. The extrapolated emission factors generally agree with previously published measurements, though a substantial range in published values is noted.

  7. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  8. A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.

    This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The

  9. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  10. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Implementing a Car-Sharing Model to the Navy’s Passenger Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Hourly Car-Sharing Costs versus GSA Fleet Lease. Adapted from Aiken (2016) Hourly Car-sharing GSA Fleet Lease Average Hourly Rate ( economy sedan...8.14 (includes fuel) N/A Average Daily Rate ( economy sedan) $55 (Unlimited mileage) $5.56 *(based on $169/mo and $0.15/mi) Vehicle Types Sedans...4x2, Crew Cab 0327 32 Truck, 1/2T Pickup 4x2 0313 7 Truck, Sport Utility, Commercial, 4x2 Midsize 0308 2 Truck, Van, 7 Pass, Compact 0330-08 24 Truck

  12. A case study of heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem: Touristic distribution application in Alanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Karagül

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem is considered in order to optimize the distribution of the tourists who have traveled between the airport and the hotels in the shortest distance by using the minimum cost. The initial solution space for the related methods are formed as a combination of Savings algorithm, Sweep algorithm and random permutation alignment. Then, two well-known solution methods named as Standard Genetic Algorithms and random search algorithms are used for changing the initial solutions. Computational power of the machine and heuristic algorithms are used instead of human experience and human intuition in order to solve the distribution problem of tourists coming to hotels in Alanya region from Antalya airport. For this case study, daily data of tourist distributions performed by an agency operating in Alanya region are considered. These distributions are then modeled as Vehicle Routing Problem to calculate the solutions for various applications. From the comparisons with the decision of a human expert, it is seen that the proposed methods produce better solutions with respect to human experience and insight. Random search method produces a solution more favorable in terms of time. As a conclusion, it is seen that, owing to the distribution plans offered by the obtained solutions, the agencies may reduce the costs by achieving savings up to 35%.

  13. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  14. Extracting Lane Geometry and Topology Information from Vehicle Fleet Trajectories in Complex Urban Scenarios Using a Reversible Jump Mcmc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, O.; Zaum, D.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Highly automated driving (HAD) requires maps not only of high spatial precision but also of yet unprecedented actuality. Traditionally small highly specialized fleets of measurement vehicles are used to generate such maps. Nevertheless, for achieving city-wide or even nation-wide coverage, automated map update mechanisms based on very large vehicle fleet data gain importance since highly frequent measurements are only to be obtained using such an approach. Furthermore, the processing of imprecise mass data in contrast to few dedicated highly accurate measurements calls for a high degree of automation. We present a method for the generation of lane-accurate road network maps from vehicle trajectory data (GPS or better). Our approach therefore allows for exploiting today's connected vehicle fleets for the generation of HAD maps. The presented algorithm is based on elementary building blocks which guarantees useful lane models and uses a Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the models parameters in order to reconstruct the one most likely emitting the input data. The approach is applied to a challenging urban real-world scenario of different trajectory accuracy levels and is evaluated against a LIDAR-based ground truth map.

  15. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  16. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  17. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  18. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  19. Column Generation for a Multitrip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows, Driver Work Hours, and Heterogeneous Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Povlovitsch Seixas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a vehicle routing problem with time windows, accessibility restrictions on customers, and a fleet that is heterogeneous with regard to capacity and average speed. A vehicle can perform multiple routes per day, all starting and ending at a single depot, and it is assigned to a single driver whose total work hours are limited. A column generation algorithm is proposed. The column generation pricing subproblem requires a specific elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints algorithm to address the possibility for each vehicle performing multiple routes per day and to address the need to set the workday’s start time within the planning horizon. A constructive heuristic and a metaheuristic based on tabu search are also developed to find good solutions.

  20. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  1. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet : anticipating fleet composition, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Automobile ownership plays an important role in determining vehicle use, emissions, fuel : consumption, congestion and traffic safety. This work provides new data on ownership decisions : and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with ca...

  2. Derivation of motor vehicle tailpipe particle emission factors suitable for modelling urban fleet emissions and air quality assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Diane U; Kelly, Joe; Mengersen, Kerrie; Jayaratne, Rohan; Ferreira, Luis; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-03-01

    Urban motor vehicle fleets are a major source of particulate matter pollution, especially of ultrafine particles (diameters vehicle particle emission factors derived using a wide range of different measurement methods for different particle sizes, conducted in different parts of the world. Therefore, the choice as to which are the most suitable particle emission factors to use in transport modelling and health impact assessments presented as a very difficult task. The aim of this study was to derive a comprehensive set of tailpipe particle emission factors for different vehicle and road type combinations, covering the full size range of particles emitted, which are suitable for modelling urban fleet emissions. A large body of data available in the international literature on particle emission factors for motor vehicles derived from measurement studies was compiled and subjected to advanced statistical analysis, to determine the most suitable emission factors to use in modelling urban fleet emissions. This analysis resulted in the development of five statistical models which explained 86%, 93%, 87%, 65% and 47% of the variation in published emission factors for particle number, particle volume, PM(1), PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively. A sixth model for total particle mass was proposed but no significant explanatory variables were identified in the analysis. From the outputs of these statistical models, the most suitable particle emission factors were selected. This selection was based on examination of the statistical robustness of the statistical model outputs, including consideration of conservative average particle emission factors with the lowest standard errors, narrowest 95% confidence intervals and largest sample sizes and the explanatory model variables, which were vehicle type (all particle metrics), instrumentation (particle number and PM(2.5)), road type (PM(10)) and size range measured and speed limit on the road (particle volume). A multiplicity of

  3. The impact of replacing heavy passenger vehicles (LTVs and SUVs) in the British Columbia fleet with lighter versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter J; Zheng, Yvonne; Andersen, Linda; Pellegrini, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    The study reported in this article addressed the potential safety impact of consumer movement toward smaller vehicle choices by examining the makeup of the full British Columbia (BC) vehicle fleet--from smaller cars to heavy commercial vehicles. The basic assumption made was that some operators of heavy light trucks/vans (LTVs) or sport utility vehicles (SUVs) would, in the short term, be induced to downsize to lighter vehicles of the same type. The 2000-2007 BC crash-claim data at the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) was used to create matrices of average information by culpable and nonculpable entities in two-vehicle collisions in 15 weight categories. Models for the effects of various driver/crash characteristics on injury potential were created and used to adjust the effect calculated solely on the basis of weight change. Levels of heavy LTV/SUV replacement from 0.05 to 0.95 of the current population were tested and the redistribution of vehicles was done in such a way that the relationship between small-large vehicle injury ratio and large-small vehicle mass ratio over the whole fleet remained constant as did the relative proportions of culpable and nonculpable involvements. The net effect of downsizing in the manner assumed for this study was mildly positive in terms of overall injury risk--that is, downsizing resulted in slightly fewer total injuries--but not in the case of fatalities, which tended to be increased by a more substantial margin. However, the results showed that even replacing substantial proportions of the heavy LTV/SUV population would not result in a large impact on safety. Replacing almost all the heavy LTV/SUVs with lighter versions should reduce injuries by less than 1 percent and increase fatalities by 3.5 percent percent. Nevertheless, in terms of persons impacted and the associated costs, the effects would be noticeable. The issue for policy-makers is to judge how the environmental benefits associated with encouraging

  4. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-03-05

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  5. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations. PMID:25751079

  6. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  7. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  8. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with

  9. Evaluating effectiveness of real-time advanced traveler information systems using a small test vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE was an in-vehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) providing route guidance in real time that operated in the northwestern portion and northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It used probe vehicles to generate dynamically travel ti...

  10. Optimizing Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions: An Eleven-Agency FY 2012 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) fiscal year (FY) 2012 effort that used the NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis to identify optimal vehicle acquisition recommendations for eleven diverse federal agencies. Results of the study show that by following a vehicle acquisition plan that maximizes the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, significant progress is also made toward the mandated complementary goals of acquiring alternative fuel vehicles, petroleum use reduction, and alternative fuel use increase.

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  12. S/EV 92: solar and electric vehicles: Proceedings. Volume 1, Table of contents, Morning plenary sessions, EV fundamentals, Advanced EVs, Photovoltaics, Policy, Fleets, Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings include the morning plenary sessions and then sessions on each of the following topics: Electric Vehicle (EV) fundamentals, advanced EV`s, photovoltaics, policy, and fleets. Many individual topics are considered to include: EV races, environmental benefits, demonstration programs, lightweight composite materials, advanced components, and electric batteries.

  13. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  14. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  15. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  16. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  17. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energ...... of battery dynamics and driving patterns of electric vehicles, charging and communications standards are introduced; after that, three control strategies and their commonly used algorithms are described; finally, conclusion and recommendations are made.......Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...

  18. Fleet management: Assessment of the best practices

    OpenAIRE

    HAMZI, Rachida; BOURMADA, Noureddine; BOUDA, Mohamed,

    2013-01-01

    fleet safety is seen as important, not just for fleet operators, but as a strategic approach to improving the safety of the entire vehicle fleet. Corporate purchasers of vehicles and transport services can specify high safety standards and thus create an economic imperative for providers of vehicles and transport services to meet these standards. Fleet management comprises all actions needed to maintain and operate pieces of equipment throughout its life from the beginning stages of equipment...

  19. Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988–1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993–1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV’s – down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

  20. 49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.3 Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to... the plan and for each model type of automobile sought to be included by the submitter in its domestic... type and displacement, transmission class, car line designation, and fuel economy; (2) The projected U...

  1. Introducing the MCHF/OVRP/SDMP: Multicapacitated/Heterogeneous Fleet/Open Vehicle Routing Problems with Split Deliveries and Multiproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Yilmaz Eroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a real-world OVRP problem for a production company. Considering real-world constrains, we classify our problem as multicapacitated/heterogeneous fleet/open vehicle routing problem with split deliveries and multiproduct (MCHF/OVRP/SDMP which is a novel classification of an OVRP. We have developed a mixed integer programming (MIP model for the problem and generated test problems in different size (10–90 customers considering real-world parameters. Although MIP is able to find optimal solutions of small size (10 customers problems, when the number of customers increases, the problem gets harder to solve, and thus MIP could not find optimal solutions for problems that contain more than 10 customers. Moreover, MIP fails to find any feasible solution of large-scale problems (50–90 customers within time limits (7200 seconds. Therefore, we have developed a genetic algorithm (GA based solution approach for large-scale problems. The experimental results show that the GA based approach reaches successful solutions with 9.66% gap in 392.8 s on average instead of 7200 s for the problems that contain 10–50 customers. For large-scale problems (50–90 customers, GA reaches feasible solutions of problems within time limits. In conclusion, for the real-world applications, GA is preferable rather than MIP to reach feasible solutions in short time periods.

  2. Non-Tactical Vehicle Replacement for the Department of the Navy’s Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    descriptions provided by the region for use in their mater inventory spreadsheets. The categories and example images for reference are as follows: 20 a...the Alternative Fuel Data Center (www.afdc.energy.gov) and Transportation Energy Data Book , Edition 31. Average Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT – annual...correlation coefficient of 0.87. Table 18. LDV Purchase Price Data. Adapted from U.S. Department of Energy (n.d.a). Brand Weight Cost 2016 Smart

  3. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  4. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO{sub x} values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO{sub x} values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs.

  6. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  7. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  8. Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

  9. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  10. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions and energy use analysis of hypothetical fleet of electrified vehicles in Canada and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduro, Miguelangel

    The shift to strong hybrid and electrified vehicle architectures engenders controversy and brings about many unanswered questions. It is unclear whether developed markets will have the infrastructure in place to support and successfully implement them. To date, limited effort has been made to comprehend if the energy and transportation solutions that work well for one city or geographic region may extend broadly. A region's capacity to supply a fleet of EVs, or plug-in hybrid vehicles with the required charging infrastructure, does not necessarily make such vehicle architectures an optimal solution. In this study, a mix of technologies ranging from HEV to PHEV and EREV through to Battery Electric Vehicles were analyzed and set in three Canadian Provinces and 3 U.S. Regions for the year 2020. Government agency developed environmental software tools were used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. Projected vehicle technology shares were employed to estimate regional environmental implications. Alternative vehicle technologies and fuels are recommended for each region based on local power generation schemes.

  11. A granular tabu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Bernal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase, a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase. Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  12. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  13. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications.

  14. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes......, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging...... management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions...

  15. Modeling the CO2 emissions and energy saved from new energy vehicles based on the logistic-curve

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Xiao-Feng Wu; Xian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government has outlined plans for developing new energy vehicles (NEVs) to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper used a logistic-curve to predict the market share of NEVs in the next decade, and then calculated the potential environment benefits of each and every car or the total according to the report of IPCC (2006). The results indicated that NEVs were of benefit in achieving above goals, particularly electric vehicles (EVs). However, they will have a l...

  16. Model Vehicle Routing Problem dengan Karakteristik Rute Majemuk, Multiple Time Windows, Multiple Products dan Heterogeneous Fleet untuk Depot Tunggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Arvianto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we developed a VRP model for multiple routes, multiple time windows for multiple products and heterogeneous vehicles. The solution were constructed using a heuristic approach, i.e, a sequential insertion algorithm. Additionally, this model is applied to solve fuel distributions for eight customers in East Nusa Tenggara. It needs two tankers with capacity of 4700 kilo liters, so that those distributions can be accomplished with a minimum number of vehicles, total completion time, and range of completion time. The result of this study shows that for a heterogeneous vehicles problem, a vehicle with the largest capacity may not necessarily be the vehicle that provides an optimal solution. Moreover, advance trials should be conducted by providing a limited number of tankers for each tanker capacity, so the description of heterogeneous vehicles becomes more visible. In the future research, the solution will be improved by utilizing relocation techniques.

  17. Ohio's first ethanol-fueled light-duty fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1996, the State of Ohio established a : project to demonstrate the effectiveness of : ethanol as an alternative to gasoline in : fleet operations. The state purchased and : incorporated a number of flexible-fuel : vehicles (FFVs) into its fleet. F...

  18. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  19. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  20. Miguel A. Nevárez: A Life History of Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze Miguel A. Nevárez's educational leadership style by focusing on his notable contributions to The University of Texas Pan American. The researcher defined leadership style as actions by the leader. After examining Nevárez's background to place his motivations and actions in proper context, this…

  1. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    between oxygen from the outside air and compressed hydrogen from a storage tank equipped on the vehicle to create the electricity required for... Hydrogen refueling stations are very expensive to build, costing an estimated $1.5 million for a station that can refuel as many as 100 vehicles per week...environment. Figure 12. FCEV Technology Source: Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles : how fuel cells work. (2014, March 280. Retrieved from California

  2. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Danish power system. The results show that an electrification of the transport sector will indeed reduce the excess of wind power, but additional mechanisms are needed if the full wind power potential in Denmark is utilized. Further it is foreseen that the vehicle-to-grid option (where the vehicle...... batteries are used as backup at times with little wind power production) will have very limited effects on the overall energy management and is more likely to be used only for regulation and reserve services, also in the longer perspective....

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military Traffic... General Services Administration IFMS fleet management center. ...

  4. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    The project proceeded generally according to schedule, with most of the work directed at procurement of materials, initiation of equipment fabrication by contractors, and development of educational materials. The first vehicle retrofit was completed in March 1995, and prepared for delivery to DOE`s Energy Technology Engineering Center.

  5. A cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  6. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management...

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet management...

  8. Mashup - Based End User Interface for Fleet Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, M.; Popa, A. S.; Slavici, T.; Darvasi, D.

    Fleet monitoring of commercial vehicles has received a major attention in the last period. A good monitoring solution increases the fleet efficiency by reducing the transportation durations, by optimizing the planned routes and by providing determinism at the intermediate and final destinations. This paper presents a fleet monitoring system for commercial vehicles using the Internet as data infrastructure. The mashup concept was implemented for creating a user interface.

  9. General Evaluation Plan: Fleet Test and Evaluation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Document details the process used by the NREL Fleet Test & Evaluation team to choose the types of fleets, sites, and technologies they will evaluate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Fleet Test & Evaluation (FT&E) team was formed to accomplish the objectives of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current and emerging programs. Composed of NREL and Battelle personnel, the team supports vehicle test projects initiated by DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) and the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT). FT&E projects help fleet owners and operators facilitate purchase decisions by providing them with comprehensive laboratory and fleet test data on viable alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and advanced technology vehicles (ATVs). ATVs include hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles.

  10. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  11. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management... Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles'' on your attached document. Fax: 202-501-4067. Mail: General...

  12. Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Burton, E.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation includes graphical data summaries that highlight statistical trends for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating in a variety of vocations. It offers insight for the development of vehicle technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emission.

  13. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  14. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  15. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  16. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  17. Dev Nevüslerde Cerrahi Yaklaşım

    OpenAIRE

    Mındıkoğlu, Ali N.; Katoğyan, Agop; Kaner, Gültekin

    1995-01-01

    Dev nevüslerin cerrahi tedavisinde, çeşitli uygulamalar gözden geçirildikten sonra, dermaplaning uygulanan 13 vakada alınan sonuçlar bildirilmiştir. İyi sonuç alınabilmesi için, erken yaşlarda, hatta doğumdan sonraki ilk aylarda dermoplaning'e başlanmalıdır. Bu sayede nevüsler, greftleme ameliyatına başvurulmadan tamamen ortadan kaldırılabilmektedir. Giant nevüslerin tedavisinde bu uygulamanın prensiplerine uyulduğu takdirde, gerek tedavi ve gerekse kosmetik açıdan tercih edilmesi gereke...

  18. EVs from a fleet perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berube, M.

    1999-07-01

    EV testing in Montreal involved a comparison of vehicle performance with a pool of targeted users. The results were an availability of less than 40% and user apathy. Recommendations are included for an apt test environment referring to recharging, vehicle supervision, data collection, and driving habits. Recharging covers limitations imposed by battery memory, the priority/ performance equation, and the performance/availability equation. For vehicle supervision one responsible person checks battery charge levels, supervises maintenance, and develops a sixth sense for the vehicles. Data collection is confined to just the essentials, and it is necessary to keep on top of users. There is a need for on-board, transparent data acquisition. The driving habits recommendation refers to the fact of different driving styles, varied performances, a self-supervision system for users, and the existence of a short learning curve. For fleet integration, the elements include: test rather than regular use, single, responsible user, and part of Montreal 2000. Fleet relevance has as its elements: poor performance/false problem, and problem met/dependability. Finally, a 20% integration is conceivable if price and performance are in line. Extra spin-offs are the corporate image, and the public is given the impression that the corporation is the major player it is expected to be.

  19. National Federal Fleet Loaner Program, Interim Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward

    2000-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loaner Program is to increase the awareness, deployment, and use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Federal fleets. The Loaner Program accomplishes this by providing free EVs to Federal fleets on a loaner basis, generally for 1 or 2 months. The Program partners DOE with six electric utilities, with DOE providing financial support and some leads on Federal fleets interested in obtaining EVs. The utilities obtain the vehicles, identify candidate loaner fleets, loan the vehicles, provide temporary charging infrastructure, provide overall support to participating Federal fleets, and support fleets with their leasing decisions. While the utilities have not had the success initially envisioned by themselves, DOE, the Edison Electric Institute, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, the utilities can not be faulted for their efforts, as they are not the entity that makes the ultimate lease or no-lease decision. Some external groups have suggested to DOE that they direct other federal agencies to change their processes to make loaning vehicles easier; this is simply not within the power of DOE. By law, a certain percentage of all new vehicle acquisitions are supposed to be alternative fuel vehicles (AFV); however, with no enforcement, the federal agencies are not compelled to lease AFVs such as electric vehicles.

  20. Lastevihkaja Daniil Harms ja puuslik Leonid Iljitš Brežnev / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Harms, Daniil. Väljapudunevad vanaeided / tõlkinud Ilona Martson ja Rein Saluri. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2011 ; Bourget, Paul. Õpilane / tõlkinud Kattri Ezzoubi. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2011 ; Mletšin, Leonid. Brežnev. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011

  1. Research on Technology Innovation of China's NEV Industry Based on Patent Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2016-01-01

    distribution of the patent, the distribution of the patent applicants and the distribution of patent technology area. Then, the paper makes further correlation analysis on the NEV industry chain and the patent data. Result/Conclusion: In general,the paper comprehensively reflects the whole picture of Chinas...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers from...

  4. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  5. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  6. Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of a Fleet of Electric Vehicle for Eco-Driving Application Évaluation de l’efficacité énergétique d’une flotte de véhicules électriques dédiée à une application d’éco-conduite

    OpenAIRE

    Dib W.; Chasse A.; Di Domenico D.; Moulin P.; Sciarretta A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to evaluate the energy efficiency of an electrical vehicle during a short trip is addressed. This approach provides metrics that can be used to evaluate the potential of improvement achievable via intelligent eco-driving techniques and the performance actually achieved by any of them. It can be the basis for an evaluation of a fleet of vehicles and of a whole city for which an energy efficiency map could be derived, depending for instance of traffic management ...

  7. Modular system concept for natural gas filling stations for fuelling of small fleets of natural-gas fuelled vehicles; Modular erweiterbares Anlagenkonzept fuer Erdgastankstellen zur Betankung von kleinen Erdgas-Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeffl, M. [Bauer Kompressoren GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Natural gas as fuel for combustion engine driven vehicles is getting a competitive alternative fuel to liquid fuels in Germany, too, since the beginning of the 90`ties. Due to the low exhaust emissions the introduction of these low-emission-vehicles is supported by the German Government. This article describes the planning calculation of a modular extendable natural gas refuelling station concept for servicing small to medium scaled natural gas vehicle fleets. For people, who are dealing with a CNG-refuelling station project, supplementary decision criteria are mentioned, too, which grant at a lowest investment a maximum of economic aspects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgas als Antrieb fuer verbrennungsmotorisch betriebene Kraftfahrzeuge entwickelt sich seit Beginn der 90er Jahre auch in der BRD als ein wettbewerbsfaehiger Alternativkraftstoff zu Fluessigkeitskraftstoffen. Aufgrund der niedrigen Schadstoffemissionen wird die Einfuehrung solcher emissionsarmen Fahrzeuge von der Bundesregierung unterstuetzt. In diesem Beitrag wird die Auslegung eines modular erweiterbaren Erdgastankstellenkonzepts zur Betankung von kleinen bis mittleren Groessen von Erdgasfahrzeugflotten dargestellt. Fuer diejenigen, die sich augenblicklich mit der Planung einer Erdgastankstelle beschaeftigen, werden zusaetzlich relevante Entscheidungskritierien vorgestellt, die bei moeglichst kleinem Investitionsvolumen ein Maximum an Betriebswirtschaftlichkeit gewaehrleisten. (orig.)

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  10. Multi-vehicle mobility allowance shuttle transit (MAST) system : an analytical model to select the fleet size and a scheduling heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The mobility allowance shuttle transit (MAST) system is a hybrid transit system in which vehicles are : allowed to deviate from a fixed route to serve flexible demand. A mixed integer programming (MIP) : formulation for the static scheduling problem ...

  11. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  13. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. Scatter search para problemas de roteirização de veículos com frota heterogênea, janelas de tempo e entregas fracionadas Scatter search for heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problems with time windows and split deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Prado Belfiore

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a implementação da metaheurística scatter search (SS em um problema real de roteirização de veículos com frota heterogênea, janelas de tempo e entregas fracionadas. No problema de roteirização de veículos com entregas fracionadas, cada cliente pode ser abastecido por mais de um veículo. O problema é baseado em um único centro de distribuição, a demanda de cada cliente pode ser maior que a capacidade dos veículos e, além das restrições de janelas de tempo, há também as restrições de capacidade dos veículos e acessibilidade (alguns clientes não podem ser atendidos por alguns veículos. Os modelos foram aplicados em um dos maiores grupos varejistas brasileiros, que abastece 519 clientes distribuídos em 12 estados brasileiros. Os resultados mostraram melhorias no caso real da empresa, reduzindo em até 8% o custo total da operação.This work studies the implementation of heuristics and scatter search (SS metaheuristic in a real heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem with time windows and split deliveries (HFVRPTWSD in Brazil. In the vehicle routing problem with time windows and split deliveries (VRPSD each client can be supplied by more than one vehicle. The problem is based in a single depot, the demand of each client can be greater than the vehicle’s capacity and beyond the time windows constraints, and there are also vehicle capacity and accessibility constraints (some customers cannot be served by some vehicles. The models were applied in one of the biggest retail market in Brazil that has 519 stores distributed in 12 Brazilian states. Results showed improvements over current solutions in a real case, reducing up to 8% the total cost of the operation.

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  18. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  19. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Empirical Study About Determining The Profile of Tourists “Speaking Spanish” Visiting Nevşehir

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Gülsevil BELBER

    2011-01-01

    For a destination, determining the characteristics of tourists has an important role in shaping products attracting tourists and in preparing plans to develop tourism. In the study, hence, it is aimed at determining the profile of tourists “speaking Spanish” visiting Nevşehir. Some suggestions are listed about what to do for tourists to prefer Nevşehir as a destination and to make them as much satisfied as possible during their trip. In order to present suggestions, “chi-square analysis” is a...

  1. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  3. Telematics Framework for Federal Agencies: Lessons from the Marine Corps Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Executive Order 13693 requires federal agencies to acquire telematics for their light- and medium-duty vehicles as appropriate. This report is intended to help agencies that are deploying telematics systems and seeking to integrate them into their fleet management process. It provides an overview of telematics capabilities, lessons learned from the deployment of telematics in the Marine Corps fleet, and recommendations for federal fleet managers to maximize value from telematics.

  4. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Svante [VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO{sub 2} emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run. (author)

  5. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  8. Acoustic Based Tactical Control of Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marr, William

    2003-01-01

    Advances in command and control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) using acoustic communications are crucial to future Fleet objectives, particularly in Very Shallow Water Mine Countermeasures (VSW MCM...

  9. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  10. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  11. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  12. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring...regenerative braking effect slowed the truck to below the prescribed cycle speed. The operator applied the accelerator during coasting events in order to...Alfonso Jo NAVFAC SW Phone: 619-556-7344 Email: alfonso.jo@navy.mil NAVFAC SW Utilities Team Spt. Lori Byerly NAVFAC NW Phone: 360-396-5048

  13. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  14. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Decision support with respect to facility location and eet composition for FoodBank Cape Town EJ Lanz*, FE van Dyk & JH van Vuuren Department... Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work What is Food Banking? Started by John van Hengel in late 1960s in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Good food going to waste due to defect packaging or near expiration date. Distributed...

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  17. Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

  18. Cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  19. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.204 - Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... related services of the GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) are provided to requesting agencies... have been consolidated into the supporting GSA IFMS fleet management center, and no agency-owned...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.208 - Vehicles removed from defined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services... operated outside the geographical area served by the issuing GSA IFMS fleet management center. However... shall notify the issuing GSA IFMS fleet management center of the following: (1) The location at which...

  2. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  3. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  4. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  5. Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of a Fleet of Electric Vehicle for Eco-Driving Application Évaluation de l’efficacité énergétique d’une flotte de véhicules électriques dédiée à une application d’éco-conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib W.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to evaluate the energy efficiency of an electrical vehicle during a short trip is addressed. This approach provides metrics that can be used to evaluate the potential of improvement achievable via intelligent eco-driving techniques and the performance actually achieved by any of them. It can be the basis for an evaluation of a fleet of vehicles and of a whole city for which an energy efficiency map could be derived, depending for instance of traffic management strategy. Experimental data are provided to illustrate the approach for a fleet of electric vehicles in an urban environment. The methods proposed are intended to be the basis of a driver assistance system oriented to optimal eco-driving. Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche pour évaluer l’efficacité énergétique d’un véhicule électrique lors d’un déplacement urbain. Cette approche fournit des outils permettant d’évaluer le gain énergétique réalisable par l’intermédiaire des techniques intelligentes d’éco-conduite. Cette approche peut être utilisée pour évaluer une flotte de véhicules, ainsi que pour élaborer une cartographie énergétique d’une ville. Des données expérimentales sont fournies pour illustrer cette approche sur une flotte de véhicules électriques dans un environnement urbain. Les méthodes d’éco-conduite proposées sont destinées à constituer la base d’un système d’assistance au conducteur.

  6. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  7. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  8. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  9. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Patrick [NSTec

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  10. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  11. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  12. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  13. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  14. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  15. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so t...

  16. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  17. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  18. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, North America, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  20. Real-time hiring of vehicles for container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the deployment of large numbers of container transporting vehicles on a network consisting of (dedicated) roads and logistic sites such as container terminals. Each site is managed autonomously by a site manager. The fleet of vehicles is deployed by a fleet manager. On request of

  1. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  2. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... Orders. In addition, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requires agency Fleet Managers and budget... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit...

  4. The telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Moisan, John; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Higinbotham, John; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2007-09-01

    We are developing a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF uses a group of robotic boats (the OASIS platforms) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and sub-surface phenomena. The OASIS boats are extended-deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. It allows multiple mobile sensing assets to function in a cooperative fashion, and the operating mode of the vessels to range from autonomous control to teleoperated control. In this manner, TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for tasking, control, and monitoring. It combines and extends prior related work done by the authors and their institutions. The TAOSF architecture is applicable to other areas where multiple sensing assets are needed, including ecological forecasting, water management, carbon management, disaster management, coastal management, homeland security, and planetary exploration. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Several components of the TAOSF system have been tested, including the OASIS boats, the communications and control interfaces between the various hardware and software subsystems, and an airborne sensor validation system. Field tests in support of future HAB characterization were performed under controlled conditions, using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant that was dispersed in a pond. In this paper, we describe the overall TAOSF architecture and its components, discuss the initial tests conducted and outline the next steps.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, ENERGY, AND POWER TECHNOLOGY Task Order 0012: Plug In Electric Vehicle, Vehicle to Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Electric Vehicle , Vehicle -to-Grid 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER GS05T13BMD0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 78611F 6. AUTHOR(S...conducted a Plug-in Electric VehicleVehicle to Grid (PEV-V2G) demonstration at four locations of non-tactical motor fleets – Los Angeles Air Force Base

  6. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate

  7. County Government Fleet Purchasing Practices: Financial Efficiency vs. Need Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Modlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant amount of local government services are implemented through the use of automobiles each year. These costs include initial purchase, use, repair, and replacement. Traditional budgeting research is broad and does not isolate fleet costs or the influential actors in the process. This study examines the finance practices and need assertion associated with vehicle purchases and acquisition. Findings indicate most county governments in North and South Carolina choose to purchase vehicles on a cash basis, especially if there is a low resale value for surplus automobiles. In addition, county staff are very influential in additional vehicle purchases, especially if the sheriff can convince the county manager that additional automobiles of a particular make can enhance service delivery.

  8. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  9. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    VICE 2.0 is the second generation of the VICE financial model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG. VICE 2.0 uses a number of variables for infrastructure and vehicles to estimate the business case for decision-makers when considering CNG as a vehicle fuel. Enhancements in version 2.0 include the ability to select the project type (vehicles and infrastructure or vehicle acquisitions only), and to decouple vehicle acquisition from the infrastructure investment, so the two investments may be made independently. Outputs now include graphical presentations of investment cash flow, payback period (simple and discounted), petroleum displacement (annual and cumulative), and annual greenhouse gas reductions. Also, the Vehicle Data are now built around several common conventionally fueled (gasoline and diesel) fleet vehicles. Descriptions of the various model sections and available inputs follow. Each description includes default values for the base-case business model, which was created so economic sensitivities can be investigated by altering various project parameters one at a time.

  10. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  11. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  12. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  13. Impact of Efficient Driving in Professional Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines of the vehicles in the transport sector are responsible for most of the CO2 emissions into the environment. An alternative to reduce fuel consumption is to promote efficient driving techniques. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of efficient driving on fuel consumption in professional fleets. Data captured from the engine control unit (ECU of the vehicles are complemented with external information from weather stations and context data from the transport companies. The paper proposes linear and quadratic models in order to quantify the impact of all the terms influencing energy consumption. The analysis was made from the traces captured from a passenger transport company in Spain with more than 50 bus routes. 20 vehicles of five different models were monitored and 58 drivers participated in the study. The results indicate that efficient driving has significant influence on fuel consumption, which confirms efficient driving as a valid and economical option for reducing consumption and therefore emissions of harmful particles into the atmosphere. According to the proposed model, in average external conditions, a driver that increases efficiency from 25% to 75% can reach savings in fuel consumption of up to 16 L/100 km in the analysed bus fleet, which is a significant improvement considering the long distances covered by professionals of the transport sector.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  15. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  16. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  17. The Capability Portfolio Analysis Tool (CPAT): A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Formulation for Fleet Modernization Analysis (Version 2.0.2).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muldoon, Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Stephen Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Matthew John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backlund, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawton, Craig R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rice, Roy Eugene [Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In order to effectively plan the management and modernization of their large and diverse fleets of vehicles, Program Executive Office Ground Combat Systems (PEO GCS) and Program Executive Office Combat Support and Combat Service Support (PEO CS&CSS) commis- sioned the development of a large-scale portfolio planning optimization tool. This software, the Capability Portfolio Analysis Tool (CPAT), creates a detailed schedule that optimally prioritizes the modernization or replacement of vehicles within the fleet - respecting numerous business rules associated with fleet structure, budgets, industrial base, research and testing, etc., while maximizing overall fleet performance through time. This paper contains a thor- ough documentation of the terminology, parameters, variables, and constraints that comprise the fleet management mixed integer linear programming (MILP) mathematical formulation. This paper, which is an update to the original CPAT formulation document published in 2015 (SAND2015-3487), covers the formulation of important new CPAT features.

  18. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime transport sector and their fleet a biggest and youngest fleet of world in 2016.

  19. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  20. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  1. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  4. Fleet costings now favour electrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingham, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    Comparative costs of internal combustion engine vehicles and those powered by electricity for library application are presented. It is seen that the Cambridgeshire Libraries Project can save up to 25% of their annual transport costs with the introduction of electric vehicles for the mobile library program.

  5. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  6. Diatom community and palaeoenvironmental properties of Karacaören diatomite deposits (Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Ayşegül; Gürel, Ali; Dursun, Yusuf Gökhan

    2017-10-01

    The diatom community and palaeoenvironmental properties of volcano genetic diatomite deposits that outcrop in the Karacaören (Nevşehir) area are described. Two stratigraphic sections were measured in the study area. One of these sections was measured in Quaternary lake units (K1), and the other in lacustrine sediments of the late Miocene-Pliocene Ürgüp Formation's Bayramhacılı Member (K2). According to stratigraphic and chemical characteristics of the sections, two distinct paleogeographic domains were determined in the study area. One of these, the shallow lacustrine to fluvial area (Quaternary) which is represented by an alternating sequence of diatomite, silt/mud, and tuffite. The other was the deeper lacustrine stage (late Miocene) which is represented by diatomites with some interbedded mud facies, chert and volcanics. From the diatomite samples of these sections, twenty-five species of 10 different diatom genera were identified. When evaluated together, the ecological properties and the distribution of numerical values of the determined diatom genera and species, showed that the study area's diatomite was generally deposited in shallow, high temperature, nutrient-rich water, where nitrogen and phosphorus were abundant and which was an alkaline (pH > 7) freshwater lake environment. Over time the pH value of the environment decreased (pH < 7), and the environment became acidic.

  7. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis (executive summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Integrated Operations/Payloads/Fleet Analysis predicts total national space program costs and launch vehicle traffic assuming either an expendable, a partially reusable or a fully reusable launch vehicle fleet. The payload system costs are estimated and reported for each payload program at the subsystem level, payload program level, user level and national level, providing complete system cost traceability. The analysis determines the primary changes to be expected for space payload programs and space operations in the space shuttle era. When the space shuttle becomes fully operational, not only will launch costs be reduced but refurbished satellite units will be flown instead of new units and maintenance will be performed on failing satellites. It is possible to implement the concepts of satellite refurbishment and maintenance because of the space shuttle's capability to retrieve and return payloads to the earth's surface. The two-way satellite transportation capability is extended to high energy orbits by use of the space shuttle/space tug combination.

  8. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided.

  9. Hydrogen supplies for SPFC vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Bauen, A.; Fouquet, R.; Leach, M.; Pearson, P.; Anderson, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study investigating the potential of using hydrogen fuel for fuel cell-powered fleet vehicles based at a depot in a range of counties. An overview of current hydrogen supply and demand is presented, and research already carried out on potential hydrogen refuelling infrastructures, and the costs of producing hydrogen as a transportation fuel are examined. Hydrogen demand modelling, and supplying hydrogen to fleet vehicles, alternative hydrogen supply options, energy and emissions comparison with competing fuels, and health and safety standards are discussed.

  10. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  11. Application of GPS data for benefits of air quality assessment and fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Fat Lam, Yun; Cheong Ying, Chi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2017-04-01

    In the modern digitizedsociety, traffic data can be easily collected for use in roadway development, urban planning and vehicle emission. These data are then further parameterized to support traffic simulation and roadside emission calculations. With the commercialization of AGPS/GPS technology, GPS data are widely utilized to study habit and travelling behaviors. GPS on franchised buses can provide not only positioning information for fleet management but also raw data to analyze traffic situations. In HK, franchised buses account for 6% of RSP and 20% of NOx emissions among the whole vehicle fleet. Being the most heavily means of public transport, the setting up of bus travelling trajectories and service frequency always raise concern from citizens. On this basis, there is an increasing interest and as well as to design and realize an effective cost benefit fleet management strategy. In this study, data collection analysis is carried out on all bus routes (i.e. 112) in Shatin district, one of the 18 districts in Hong Kong. The GPS/AGPS data through Esri ArcGIS investigate the potential benefit of GPS data in different emission scenarios (such as engine type over whole bus fleet). Building on the emission factors from EMFC-HK model, we accounted for factors like travelling distance, idling time, occupancy rate, service frequency, tire and break emissions. Through the simple emission developed model we demonstrate how GPS are data are utilized to assess bus fleet emissions. Further amelioration on the results involve tuning the model with field measurement so as to assess district level emission change after fleet optimization.

  12. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  13. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  14. Navy Future Fleet Platform Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    enabling the fleet architecture : o Cyber o Directed Energy o Unmanned systems and autonomy  The resulting industrial base (not limited to...to directly, or indirectly, influence naval force structure , architecture , and its associated capability and readiness. All of these NSAG studies...1 July 2016 Navy Future Fleet Platform Architecture Study The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The MITRE

  15. 41 CFR 101-39.203-1 - Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles...

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.307 - Grounds for withdrawal of vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Grounds for withdrawal of vehicle. 101-39.307 Section 101-39.307 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  17. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan, Angel; Mendez, Carlos; Faulin, Javier; de Armas, Jesica; Grasman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g...

  18. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  19. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  20. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  1. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  2. Knowledge Levels and Attitudes of People Living in the City Centre of Nevşehir on Organ Donation and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Mehmet Akif; Açıkgöz, Mehmet Barış

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of people living in Nevşehir on organ donation (OD) and transplantation. Methods Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to 414 people residing in Nevşehir between February and May 2016. The primary and secondary endpoints of the present study were to determine the attitudes and knowledge levels of participants on OD and transplantation, respectively. Results Four hundred and fourteen people between the ages 20 and 65 years participated. In total, 8.9% of the participants correctly answered the question ‘What is necessary for donating an organ?’ and 31.4% of them correctly answered the question ‘What is brain death?’ Moreover, 53.1% of the participants stated that they wanted to receive reliable information on OD from OD centres. There was a close relationship between high education level and the willingness to donate organs (pdonate organs: 22.9% of them explained that their decision was because of their religious beliefs and 19.6% stated that their families did not allow it. It was observed that people who accepted organs from others were more willing to donate organs to their relatives (p<0.05). Conclusion People living in Nevşehir do not have sufficient knowledge on OD; they had various concerns on the issue and wanted to receive information from OD centres. Exemplification and internalisation methods can be used in educational schedules to increase the OD. PMID:27909606

  3. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report - Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Patrick [National Security Technologies, LLC, Mercury, NV (United States)

    2015-02-17

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  4. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  5. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  7. Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleet Requirements. Volume 3. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    MM m m Mr • m o e o O M M Ik t V Or MOMO m M M OMOOOO « O M M - r I» r m m{ MO e mo - mM r o-xero... MOMO «3- - *re m -• o oor «i •» ooo ooo • oo ooo :’s* 5S5":» •to r oooooo «tr#o» HV OMN o ri «ft # * ♦** 1 roe o

  8. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, J. J.

    1995-02-01

    Clean Air Now (CAN), a non-profit corporation, acting under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement will build a Solar Hydrogen Generating Facility at the Xerox Corp. Facility in El Segundo, CA. An integral component of this system is an electrolyzer and related equipment for compression and storage of the produced hydrogen gas. CAN has selected The Electrolyser Corporation (T.E.C) to fulfill this requirement.

  9. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  10. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    technologies are challenged at the low speeds of lightweight UAVs. The overall control of the fleet so as to gather series of synchronized data in the cloud volume is a poorly informed and highly constrained adaptive sampling problem, in which the UAV motions must be defined to maximize the amount of gathered information and the mission duration. The overall approach casts the problem in a hierarchy of two modeling and decision stages. A macroscopic parametrized model of the cloud is built from the gathered data and exploited at the higher level by an operator, who sets information gathering goals. A subset of the UAV fleet is allocated to each goal, considering the current fleet state. These high level goals are handled by the lower level, which autonomously optimizes the selected UAVs trajectories using an on-line updated dense model of the variables of interest. Building the models involves Gaussian processes techniques (kriging) to fuse the gathered data with a generic cumulus conceptual model, the latter being defined from thorough statistics on realistic MesoNH cloud simulations. The model is exploited by a planner to generate trajectories that minimize the uncertainty in the map, while steering the vehicles within the air flows to save energy.

  11. The Electric Vehicle on its way into the Danish society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    This report is a guide-line for municipalities, institutions and firms how to introduce an Electric Vehicle in their fleet.Many topics concerning EV's has been tried answered in the most understandable way for many different interestgroups.......This report is a guide-line for municipalities, institutions and firms how to introduce an Electric Vehicle in their fleet.Many topics concerning EV's has been tried answered in the most understandable way for many different interestgroups....

  12. Parallelization of the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents a number of algorithms for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). In the VRP a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...

  13. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... manufacturer accountable for acceptable emissions performance once the converted vehicle or engine is in... vehicle/engine emissions monitoring to check fleet performance, as it does with OEM vehicles/engines. II....\\17\\ For current diesel heavy-duty engines (also referred to as ``compression-ignition'' or ``diesel...

  14. Clean Cities case study : Barwood Cab Fleet study summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-21

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called 'Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies', designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders.

  15. Security, Privacy and Safety Evaluation of Dynamic and Static Fleets of Drones

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Raja Naeem; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Mayes, Keith; Habachi, Oussama; Sauveron, Damien; Steyven, Andreas; Chaumette, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Inter-connected objects, either via public or private networks are the near future of modern societies. Such inter-connected objects are referred to as Internet-of-Things (IoT) and/or Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). One example of such a system is based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The fleet of such vehicles are prophesied to take on multiple roles involving mundane to high-sensitive, such as, prompt pizza or shopping deliveries to your homes to battlefield deployment for reconnaissance ...

  16. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  17. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    smaller. Spending would be fairly similar (in inflation -adjusted dollars) during the near-term, midterm, and far-term periods. The CBO’s...comparatively small Austal USA and Marinette shipyards. The National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, given the continuous, sustained fleet replenishment

  18. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  19. Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    motivators. In the context of the AMC, both cost and fuel are of concern . Using the current approach to represent the AMC fleet as the C-5 and C-17...Kopp, K. W. (2004). Improvement of Air Mobility Command airlift scheduling (No. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/04I-01). Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Institute

  20. Fleet Management and The Adoption of Innovations by Corporate Car Fleets: An Exploratory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boutueil, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that guide fleet management by corporations is key to assessing the potential role corporations could play in the transition towards a more sustainable mobility system, and to drawing operational policy conclusions accordingly. Building on the information collected through 44 interviews with decision-makers from 22 large organisations in the Paris region, we reach a much deeper understanding of the fleet management processes of large organisations. We find that the...

  1. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  2. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars.

  3. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  4. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  5. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  6. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  7. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  8. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  9. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  10. MUSICAL TERMS IN DIVAN OF NEV'Î / NEV’Î DİVÂNI’NDA MÛSİKÎ TERİMLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait ÇALKA (M.A.H.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with history, the music has taken an important place in Turkslife, as an expression of melancholy, happiness, heroism, exitement, and love.Music in Turks is old, as old as Turk history. Some history and musicscientists talk about 6000 years of Turkish Music History. Music took animportant place especially at the Ottoman Emperior Times. This situation ishappened at the times of II. Murat, II. Beyazıt, IV. Murat, II. Mustafa, III.Ahmet, III. Selim, II. Mahmut, due to their extra worth on music. Demand tomusic also effected the literature, and thus the divan poets used musicalterms in their performance.In our work, we are going to stress on 16th Century Divan PoetNev's musical components.

  11. Multigrade gear lubricants in truck fleet testing: analysis for fuel-economy effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambaugh, R.L.; Galluccio, R.A.; Koller, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of specially formulated engine oil is now an acceptable means of increasing the fuel efficiency of a vehicle. In principle, many of the same arguments used to justify their performance can also be applied to gear lubricants. Viscometrics and shear stability are discussed as they pertain to proper polymer selection for gear lubricant service. The fuel efficiency effects for three experimental lubricants relative to a commercial SAE 90 grade fluid were determined from a 3.1 million mile (5.0 million km) fleet test involving heavy duty trucks in normal service. The statistical techniques used to design this fleet test and analyze the data are presented, and the physical interpretation of the results is discussed. The results show that use of properly selected multi-grade gear lubricants can result in significant reduction in fuel consumption.

  12. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs......-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry....

  13. CERN’s automobile fleet turns a brighter shade of green

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    CERN is partnering with Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) in an environmentally friendly initiative to acquire cars running on natural gas. The first forty vehicles will arrive at CERN around mid-February, and enter service in March.   On 3 February 2011 CERN, represented by Steve Myers at the FEDRE Forum, was awarded the mobility prize. CERN currently has approximately 800 vehicles in use at its different sites. Véronique Marchal, head of Site Services in the GS Department, explains: “Our fleet includes a great variety of vehicles, from small Category A cars for staff to utility/transport vehicles. The decision to acquire cars running on natural gas is part of our strategy of diversifying CERN's automobile fleet so as to make it more environmentally friendly.” The new cars are actually bi-fuel, which means that they will have two tanks: one for regular fuel and one for compressed natural gas (CNG). “This kind of car is a little more exp...

  14. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  15. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  16. Strategies to Sustain an Aging Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    aircraft. An aircraft’s structure or airframe includes the fuselage, wing, empennage, landing 12 gear, control systems, engine section, nacelles ... design service lives. To remain the world’s number one Air Force, government and military leaders will need to address recapitalization of the fleet...Force’s inventory today. Since the founding of the Air Force in 1947, the service has routinely had aircraft designs in operation older than the service

  17. Population and Activity of On road Vehicles in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents changes to assumptions about the US national highway vehicle fleet population and activity data for the next version of the MOVES model. Fleet population and activity data is used to convert emission rates into emission inventory values and then is used to ...

  18. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets: A German Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market with a game-theoretic model. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine their effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players being in charge of vehicle operations. We find that vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplu...

  19. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Miao Tan; Vigna K. Ramachandaramurthy; Jia Ying Yong; Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban; Lucian Mihet-Popa; Frede Blaabjerg

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of electric vehicles into the transportation sector helps reduce global warming and carbon emissions. The interaction between electric vehicles and the power grid has spurred the emergence of a smart grid technology, denoted as vehicle-to grid-technology. Vehicle-to-grid technology manages the energy exchange between a large fleet of electric vehicles and the power grid to accomplish shared advantages for the vehicle owners and the power utility. This paper presents an optima...

  20. Simulating Fleet Procurement in an Indonesian Logistics Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Dharma Rafke, MBA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Capacity Management – such as fleeting becomes one of the critical decisions for the logistic company. Despite its role to ensure the availability of fleet as needed with an effective and efficient process, a good capacity management can improve service level and lead to competitive advantage. However, due to its capital-intensive characteristic, the decision between buying and renting a fleet becomes an important consideration. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive decision-making methodology in capacity management, particularly on fleet procurement by incorporating several techniques (i.e., Demand forecasting, Demand-capacity analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process with BOCR model, Urgent-Important Eisenhower Matrix, and Simulation. A numerical example is performed to an Indonesian logistic company. It reveals that a combination of owned-fleet and rented-fleet becomes the most appropriate strategy. In general, this study has contributed to strengthening existing literature and providing a comprehensive methodology in capacity management.

  1. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR..., in evaluating the effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine...

  3. Electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. Urban air pollution assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Andreia; Silva, Lígia Torres; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto; Ramos, Rui A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic is the main source of air pollutant emissions in urban areas. Pollutant emissions can be evaluated and calculated using mathematical models based on the characteristics of traffic flowing in roads. This article aims to assess the air pollution produced by a fleet of vehicles with conventional (diesel and petrol) and electrical (hybrid and electric) motorization, in the city centre of Braga. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes emission models to es...

  4. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  5. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  6. 48 CFR 945.570-2 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of motor... Acquisition of motor vehicles. (a) The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first source of supply for providing motor vehicles to contractors; however, contracting officer approval is...

  7. Characterizing and enhancing the safety of future plastic and composite intensive vehicles (PCIVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    There is concern that a trend toward smaller, lighter, fuel-efficient vehicles could adversely affect overall fleet safety. Since 2006, the U.S. Congress has directed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to examine the possible safet...

  8. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, Mart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375362339; van Sark, Wilfried|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the

  9. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. 86.1860-04 Section 86.1860-04 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From...

  10. Cheaper Fuels for the Light-Duty Fleet: Opportunities and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Fraas, Arthur G.; Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The shale gas revolution in the United States has dropped the price of natural gas (NG) significantly. Combined with new fuel and vehicle technologies, an opportunity exists to expand the use of NG throughout the economy, including in the light-duty fleet of cars and trucks. This expansion could involve the direct combustion of the gas in the form of compressed natural gas or liquid petroleum gas or, alternatively, the use of natural-gas-based liquid fuels such as ethanol or methanol. This pa...

  11. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the TMC meeting. Twenty-one responses were received, spanning fleet sizes between 12 and 170,000 vehicles. Responses are summarized in a series of tables separated into responses from small (100 or fewer powered vehicles), medium (101-1000 vehicles), and large fleets (>1000 vehicles). The vast majority of fleets do their own brake maintenance, relying primarily on experience and lining manufactures to select aftermarket linings. At least half of the responders are familiar to some extent with TMC Recommended Practice 628 on brake linings, but most do not use this source of test data as the sole criterion to select linings. Significant shortfalls in the applicability of TMC RP 628 to certain types of brake systems were noted.

  12. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...... and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric...

  13. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  14. Electricity Demand of PHEVs Operated by Private Households and Commercial Fleets: Effects of Driving and Charging Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart; Matthew Shirk; Ken Kurani; Casey Quinn; Jamie Davies

    2010-11-01

    Automotive and energy researchers have made considerable efforts to predict the impact of plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) charging on the electrical grid. This work has been done primarily through computer modeling and simulation. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), in partnership with the University of California at Davis’s Institute for Transportation Stuides, have been collecting data from a diverse fleet of PHEVs. The AVTA is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. This work provides the opportunity to quantify the petroleum displacement potential of early PHEV models, and also observe, rather than simulate, the charging behavior of vehicle users. This paper presents actual charging behavior and the resulting electricity demand from these PHEVs operating in undirected, real-world conditions. Charging patterns are examined for both commercial-use and personal-use vehicles. Underlying reasons for charging behavior in both groups are also presented.

  15. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  16. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  17. A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Shawn [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Zhixin [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin China; Zheng, Jihu [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin (China); Lyu, Renzhi [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin (China); Przesmitzki, Steven V. [Aramco Services Company, Novi, MI (United States); He, Xin [Aramco Services Company, Novi, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The year 2015 marks a turning point in China s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) or new energy vehicle (NEV) industry, with an explosive growth in both productions and sales, following the gloomy period of 2009-2012. The PEV production in 2015 reached a record level of nearly 380,000 units, a 352 % increase from 2014, making China the largest PEV market in the world. For the potential implications on energy and the environment, it is worth studying the driving forces of China s PEV market and understanding its future trajectory and dynamics. The key findings of this report are listed in the following. Though controversial, the government monetary incentives have played a significant role to impel China to be the largest light PEV (191,100 units) market in the world. Chinese vehicle buyers appear more price sensitive on PEVs. Inexpensive low-cost micro electric vehicles are the most popular vehicle model in China s PEV market (38.9 % of the PEV market in 2015). In contrast, the premium or luxury vehicles are more popular in the gasoline vehicle segment. In fact, China is expected to be the largest premium car market in 2016. The PEV sales growth is primarily possible because of the young domestic private-owned auto manufacturers, which are mostly located in south China. Top-tier conventional vehicle automakers in China appear to be less proactive in the PEV market, based on market shares. This is in clear contrast to the U.S. market, where major automakers are generally the primary players in the PEV market. The PEVs produced by the domestic automakers are concentrated in the low-end market segment, while the high-end vehicle segment is dominated by the foreign brands. At present, the substantial market growth and government subsidies afford the domestic entrants to quickly gain profits in the low-end segment. The PEV consumers in China are very sensitive to the vehicle price, thus prefer the PEVs with cheaper prices after government subsidies, and care less about the

  18. A multi-parametric evolution strategies algorithm for vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, David; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout

    Vehicle routing problems are at the heart of most decision support systems for real-life distribution problems. In vehicle routing problem a set of routes must be determined at lowest total cost for a number of resources (i.e. fleet of vehicles) located at one or several points (e.g. depots,

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet Report § 109-38.903-50 Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. (a) DOE offices and designated contractors...

  20. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-05-21

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called ''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders.

  1. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  2. Optimization of Fleet Assignment: A Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz OZDEMIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since poor fleet assignment can cause a great increase in costs for airline companies, asolution of the type ‘right fleet for the right flight’ would be very useful. In this paper, a fleetassignment model is set up using the data of the largest Airline Company in Turkey, TurkishAirlines. The aim of this model is to assign the most appropriate fleet type to flights whileminimizing the cost and determining the optimal number of aircraft grounded overnight at eachairport. We set up a model with constraints with thinking all airline operations and solve ourproblem using integer linear programming. Finally, we get an optimum solution which minimizesthe total cost while assigning the fleet type to the flight leg. Using optimization software (Lindo6.1, the solution to this problem generates a minimum daily cost of fleet assignment.

  3. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...... in one or several areas. The software combines a management strategy evaluation framework, using a forward-running operating model and a management procedure with a fleet behaviour module simulating both short-term (effort allocation) and long-term (entry/exit) fleet dynamics. The suite of models behind...... TEMAS can be thought of as an extension of the traditional ICES forecast model. Alternative management scenarios can be compared and evaluated for their bio-economic consequences and robustness to parameter uncertainty. The software is generic and user-friendly, and can be run at several space and time...

  4. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  5. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  6. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  7. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  8. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  9. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  10. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  11. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  12. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  13. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  14. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  15. Intelligent Electric Vehicle Integration - Domain Interfaces and Supporting Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach

    This thesis seeks to apply the field of informatics to the intelligent integration of electric vehicles into the power system. The main goal is to release the potential of electric vehicles in relation to a reliable, economically efficient power system based on renewables. To make intelligent EV...... integration a reality, it is prudent to understand the domain in its entirety. In this thesis, this is reflected by a thorough investigation of the stakeholders most relevant to the synergistic relationship between electric vehicle and grid. The rst investigation addresses the power market. The market can...... give system operators access to the exibility of electric vehicles while at the same time creating an immediate economic incentive for the EV owner. A fleet operator is introduced to allow a fleet of electric vehicles to participate in the markets. Examples are provided on the specic markets...

  16. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate......Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  17. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  18. Segmentation of Aegean Fishing Fleet and Spatial Distribution of Fishing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke Kosar Danisman

    2013-01-01

    The data on fishing fleet play an important role in fisheries management. It is an effective method that collection of reliable and regular data on fleet, and these data into information that is needed in terms of fleet management. In this study, it is demonstrated that the segmentation of the Aegean fishing fleet and fishing port based spatial distribution of fishing capacities concerning each fleet segment at the Aegean coast to improve fisheries management.

  19. The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the

  20. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  1. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  2. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  4. Analysis of required fleet size and private sector cost comparisons for the USCG inland construction tender fleet : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents an analysis performed in support of the United States Coast Guard in managing its fleet of construction tenders (WLICs). The project was sponsored by the Coast Guard's Office of Navigation Safety and Waterway Services, Short Ran...

  5. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  6. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  8. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R. J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  9. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  10. An adaptive variable neighborhood search algorithm for a vehicle routing problem arising in small package shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenger, Andreas; Vigo, Daniele; Enz, Steffen; Schwind, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a routing problem arising in the last-mile delivery of small packages. The problem, called Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Private fleet and Common carriers (MDVRPPC), is an extension of the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP) where customers can either

  11. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  12. The effect of technology advancements on the comparative advantages of electric versus chemical propulsion for a large cargo orbit transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, J. J.; Wurster, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for sizing electrically or chemically propelled orbit transfer vehicles and analyzing fleet requirements are used in a comparative analysis of the two concepts for various levels of traffic to geosynchronous orbit. The vehicle masses, fuel requirements, and fleet sizes are determined and translated into launch vehicle payload requirements. Technology projections beyond normal growth are made and their effect on the comparative advantages of the concepts is determined. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that although electric propulsion greatly reduces launch vehicle requirements substantial improvements in the cost and reusability of power systems must occur to make an electrically propelled vehicle competitive.

  13. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  14. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  15. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  16. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  17. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  18. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  19. Clean Cities: AFLEET Measures Impacts of Vehicles and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

  20. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  1. S/EV 92: solar and electric vehicles: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    These proceedings include the morning plenary sessions and then sessions on each of the following topics: Electric Vehicle (EV) fundamentals, advanced EV's, photovoltaics, policy, and fleets. Many individual topics are considered to include: EV races, environmental benefits, demonstration programs, lightweight composite materials, advanced components, and electric batteries.

  2. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  3. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

    2007-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  4. Cumhuriyetin İlk Yıllarında Nevşehir’de Bankacılık Faaliyetleri; Nevşehir Bankası T.A.Ş ve Ürgüp Zürra ve Tüccar Bankası T.A.Ş Banking Activities In The Early Years Of The Republic Of Turkey In Nevşehir; Nevşehir Bank And Ürgüp Zürra And Tüccar Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin ÖZDEMİR

    2013-07-01

    ilk bankadır. 1856 yılında İngiliz sermayesi ile kurulan Osmanlı Bankasından sonra Mithat Paşa’nın kooperatifçilik denemesi olarak başlattığı tarımsal kredi veren sandık faaliyetleri, ilk devlet bankası olan Ziraat Bankası’nın kurulmasıyla neticelenir. Osmanlı Devleti’nde daha çok yabancı sermayenin kontrolünde olan bankacılık sektöründe II. Meşrutiyet döneminde değişim yaşanır. Bu dönemde İttihat Terakki Partisi’nin iktidara gelmesiyle Parti üzerinde etkili olan milliyetçi politikalar, ekonomik hayatta da tesirli olur. Milli bir ekonominin ancak milli sermayeye dayalı şirketlerle yürütülebileceğine inanan Parti yönetimi, bu amaca yönelik ülke genelinde yerel bankalar kurulmasında öncü olur. II. Meşrutiyet döneminde yerel bankacılık konusunda elde edilen tecrübeler Cumhuriyet dönemi ekonomik hayatına katkı sağlar. İzmir İktisat Kongresi’nde alınan kararlar doğrultusunda ekonomik kalkınmayı sağlamak için gerekli sermayeyi sağlayacak yerel bankalar kurulması kararlaştırılır. Bu meyanda Nevşehir’de Nevşehir Bankası TAŞ, Ürgüp’te ise Ürgüp Zürra Bankası TAŞ kurulur. Bölge halkına uygun krediler vermek amacıyla kurulan bu bankalar sayesinde halkın para ve sermaye piyasasına katılması ve tasarrufun artırılması da hedeflenir.

  5. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  6. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...... include the following. First, we precisely define and estimate are bound effect of improvements in fuel efficiency in the trucking industry:behavioural adjustments in the industry imply that an exogenous improvement in fuel efficiency reduces fuel use less than proportionately. Our best estimate...... of this effect is approximately 10% in the short run and 17% in the long run, so that a 1% improvement in fuel efficiency reduces fuel use by 0.90% (short-run) to 0.83% (long-run). Second, we find that higher fuel prices raise the average capacity of trucks, and they induce firm sto invest in newer, typically...

  7. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  8. Pathways to Decarbonise the European Car Fleet: A Scenario Analysis Using the Backcasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Höltl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses decarbonisation scenarios for the European passenger car fleet in 2050. The scenarios have been developed using the backcasting approach and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of passenger cars to a level defined in the Transport White paper that is 60% below 1990 levels. Considering the emission levels of 2010, a yearly reduction of 1.7% is required in order to achieve the target. Car emissions were decomposed into the main emission factors of mobility, efficiency and carbon intensity. How these factors change over time depends on various external factors: the pace of technological improvements, the future role of cars in society’s mobility system and the priority given to decarbonising energy demand. The analysis showed that if car mobility and ownership continue to increase as expected in a ‘business as usual’ case, a share of 97% plug-in hybrid or battery electric vehicles might be required by 2050, together with a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emission from electricity production. A transition to more advanced car technology such as automated driving, advanced batteries or lightweight materials in vehicle production would raise vehicle efficiency. Should car mobility continue at a high level, an early technology transition will be required.

  9. Impact of intersection type and a vehicular fleet's hybridization level on energy consumption and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are two major constraints in sustainable development. Both of them have proportionally raised in recent decades with the exponential growth of world traffic demands. The reduction of road traffic-generated energy consumption and emissions have thus become unprecedentedly challenging and worth examining. This paper investigates energy consumption and environmental problems present at roundabout and signalized intersection to analyze the impact of the hybridization level's fleet and intersection type on vehicle consumption and pollution. Instantaneous fuel consumption and emission models coupled with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO are in this study. The authors started with modeling energy consumption. Then, an emission model emissions from traffic (EMIT was implemented to quantify vehicle emissions of CO2, CO and NOx. These models help investigate the influence of intersection type on energy consumption and environmental conditions. The authors implemented a signalized intersection and roundabout using SUMO. The input data are collected from the roundabout of Sousse (Tunisia using video data collection. Since there is a lack of econometric models that emulate hybridized stream behavior near intersections, two energy consumption models for the roundabout and crossroad are developed using traffic flow and hybridization level as the input variables. Compared to crossroads, a roundabout can obtain more environmental improvements and substantial reductions in energy consumption and road traffic emissions.

  10. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    stochastic programming rather than employing a deterministic model and using average data. Elements increasing the relevance of uncertainty are also investigated. Tests performed on the case of Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, a major liner shipping company, show that solutions to the model we present perform......This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by using...

  11. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...... and an exact solution method based on a set-partitioning formulation are developed. The latter approach allows very fast solution times. Computational results for a case study with a liner shipping company are presented, including an extensive sensitivity analysis to account for limited predictability of key...

  12. Public Works Center Guam Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    PT. S A/ oil. 4’ EC-2~~ * 1131690.6?’ A *T UFIGURE3. INER HARBO 3O P.I 146 LEGEND MOORING LOCATIONS N1143 843.15 __LEGEN_ CORAL TABLE 1 PWC GUAM FLEET...PIUC GUAM I NFO0 COrINAVFACENGCOrI 4LEXANDRIA VA PACNAVFACENGCOM PEARL HARBOR HI tUNCLAS //N!-.000// sLBj: FLEET MOORING INSPECTION 1. A...4ASHINGTON DC INFO COMNAVFACENGCOM ALEXANDRIA VA COMCBPAC PEARL HARBOR HZ COM THREE ONE NCR PORT HUENEME CA PACNAVFACENGCOM PEARL HARBOR HI COM THREE ZERO

  13. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  14. RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

    2007-05-01

    At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data

  15. A Qualitative Examination of the Administrative Process of Fleet Enlisted Personnel in Various Medical Categories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherford, Lenora

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the medical management process of placing and monitoring active duty fleet enlisted personnel in a temporary medical duty status and its impact on fleet readiness...

  16. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  17. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  18. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of...- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey. Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA...

  19. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  20. Forecasting the State of Health of Electric Vehicle Batteries to Evaluate the Viability of Car Sharing Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Semanjski; Sidharta Gautama

    2016-01-01

    Car sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles into their fleet. However, literature suggests that at this point shared electric vehicle systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. Potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage which is characteristic for car sharing, and the implication on the battery state of health. In this paper, we forecast state of health for two identical electric vehicles shared by two different car sharing practices. For ...

  1. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  2. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...

  3. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  4. The Management Control of Aviation Fleet Maintenance Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Audit of Aviation Fleet Maintenance Funds" (dated 4 April 1977). 8. Drucker, Peter F., Management, Harper & Row, New York, 1973. 9. Fayol , Henri , General...O’Donnell, and Fayol all stress the aspects of comparing performance with organizational objec- tives and making corrections as necessary to achieve

  5. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...

  6. FLEET for Unseeded Velocity Measurements in All Speed Regimes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FLEET uses a 100 fs laser to excite a multi-photon process that makes the gas (N2 or air) glow.  Images of the glowing gas taken at set time intervals allow the...

  7. Route and fleet design for cyclic inventory routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Birger; Dullaert, Wout

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution approach for planning cyclic distribution from a single depot to multiple customers with constant, deterministic demand rates. The objective is to minimize the total cost rate consisting of fleet costs, distribution costs from the depot to the customers and

  8. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  9. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  10. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  11. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  12. Page 1 Airworthiness. Fleet performance simulation 391 The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analysis of a typical fleet performance using Monte Carlo simulation 1s presented in the next section. 6. Analysis of a typical airline operation. As illustrative examples of the results obtainable from the simulation program, we consider the operational practices of a typical medium-haul airline. Table 1 lists the distributions ...

  13. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-29

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles.

  14. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  15. Fabrication of a Fleet of Mini-AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    We designed and fabricated four mini-autonomous underwater vehicles (mAUVs). These vehicles are used to provide an inexpensive method for testing communication and control algorithms for multiple vehicles...

  16. An empirical analysis of drivers for electric vehicle adoption : evidence from Norway 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Mads Fjeld; Ølness, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examine how government intervention in the automobile market aected the batteryelectric vehicle adoption in the Norwegian counties in the period between 2010 and 2014, and what regional dierences influenced the adoption rate. Norway has the world’s strongest means of support for electric vehicles and represents a mature market with a significant share of the total car fleet being electric. The government has promoted this growth on the basis that electric vehicles are ...

  17. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 1 of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  18. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  19. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  1. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  2. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  3. 76 FR 74853 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... agencies believe that the proposed standards should not have a negative effect on vehicle safety, as it... This Proposal A. Introduction B. Developing the Future Fleet for Assessing Costs, Benefits, and Effects... proposed standards and regulatory alternatives? D. Joint Vehicle Technology Assumptions 1. What...

  4. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  5. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  6. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  7. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  8. Designing the Control of a UAV Fleet with Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Designing the Control of a UAV Fleet with Model Checking Technical Report OSU-CISRC-1/04-TR06 Christopher A. Bohn∗ Paolo A.G. Sivilotti Bruce W...demonstrate that model checking can be used to suggest strategies by which a single UAV can locate targets. Moreover, model checking can be used to...better. Through model checking , we have shown that there are configurations in which all but one pursuer can remain stationary, and the single moving

  9. TQL: a case study of implementation into the operational fleet.

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes, Kevin L.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. In August of 1990, the CNO released a memorandum to all flag officers to bring Total Quality Leadership (TQL) to the fleet. This thesis is a case study of how an operational command goes about adopting the philosophies ofTQL Discussion of Dr. W.E. Deming's management philosophies and the Navy's Process Improvement Model are presented as background information. The case study presented is offered as a guide for implementation to ...

  10. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Papić Vladimir D.; Filipović Snežana M.; Jovanović Vojkan D.

    2011-01-01

    With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail...

  11. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  12. Public Works Center Pearl Harbor Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    AOA17 6 228 PUBLIC MORKS CENTER PERL HARBO FLEET MOORINGS 1/1 UNDERWATER INSPECTION PLAN(O) NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND WASHINGTON DC...PUBLIC WORKS .......... CENTER.... ..... PEARL HARBOR.... 00~ D...... CENRWTTE E 4PAR INSPCTIO voOEA ENGINEEORINS *...... AND.. COSTUCIN.ROET.FFC...Public Works Center Pearl Habor F’aet Moorings Underwater Inspection Plan 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF

  13. Can the Indian Navy respond to a growing Chinese fleet?

    OpenAIRE

    Quidachay, VIncent J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether the Indian Navy can respond to a growing Chinese fleet by analyzing the historical development of the Indian Navy since independence. Three naval expansion periods are identified, and three causal factors are measured to determine the effects of each factor on Indian naval expansion. The three factors are (1) responses to a perceived threat, (2) India's economic condition, and (3) the benefits of foreign military aid. The saidy shows that res...

  14. The Idea of a Fleet in Being in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Parliament explaining the ratio- nale for his actions in the battle of beachy Head (Cap béveziers). In that action, the comte de tourville, with...parture of a french squadron under the comte d’estaing to North america and then to the West Indies. the government in london now changed its...they fought were indecisive. Meanwhile, in european waters, in the first major naval battle of the war, a french fleet under the comte d’orvilliers

  15. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  16. Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent [Roskilde University, Institute for Nature, Systems and Models, Energy, Environment and Climate group, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insight obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles. Then, simulation methods are used to assess the performance of fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrids between the two. The latter are found to provide an optimum performance for a small, efficient passenger car. (author)

  17. Decision Support to Sustainable Management of Bottom Trawl Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bitunjac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A decision support concept (DSC for sustainable management of the bottom trawl fleet was created in line with ecosystem-based management. It is based on principles that integrate ecological, social and techno-economic aspects of trawl fisheries in a multicriteria analysis approach. For the sake of greater transparency and improved stakeholder participation, elements of the proposed multicriteria models were discussed, generated and evaluated in collaboration with designated experts from four stakeholder groups: fishers, environmentally focused non-governmental organizations, fisheries scientists and government representatives. The proposed DSC management could facilitate management and assist decision makers in adequately using data and scientific advice to shape management strategies and related policies for the bottom trawl fleet. It may also assist in finding compromise solutions based on deliverables from the multicriteria analysis, while taking stakeholder requirements into account by using the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE methods. The final decision is then based on a vast amount of knowledge and relevant information collected from different sources. The proposed DSC represents a novel approach to fishery fleet management and assists in systematizing management processes and instruments to make it operational at the strategic level. The method was applied to the Adriatic bottom trawl fishery, and the obtained results confirmed its managerial potential in the strategic decision-making process, aimed at improving conventional management, while considering the specific requirements of an ecosystem-based approach and ensuring stakeholder participation.

  18. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  19. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  20. Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway – estimation of fleet emission factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10–500 nm were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm−3 with a total range of 1200–168 000 cm−3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm−3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h−1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2 · 1014 km−1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01 · 1014 cm3 km−1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

  1. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  2. Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2007-01-01

    There is thus provided an underwater vehicle having facility for maneuvering alongside a retrieving vehicle, as by manipulation of bow and stern planes, for engaging a hull surface of the retrieving...

  3. Evaluation of emission factors for light-duty gasoline vehicles based on chassis dynamometer and tunnel studies in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Tao, Shikang; Lou, Shengrong; Hu, Qingyao; Wang, Hongli; Wang, Qian; Li, Li; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jian'gang; Quan, Yifeng; Zhou, Lanlan

    2017-11-01

    CO, THC, NOx, and PM emission factors of 51 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) spanning the emission standards from Euro 2 to Euro 5 were measured by a chassis dynamometer. High frequencies of high-emitting vehicles were observed in Euro 2 and Euro 3 LDGV fleet. 56% and 33% of high-emitting vehicles contributed 81%-92% and 82%-85% of the emissions in Euro 2 and Euro 3 test fleet, respectively. Malfunctions of catalytic convertors after high strength use are the main cause of the high emissions. Continuous monitoring of a gasoline vehicle dominated tunnel in Shanghai, China was conducted to evaluate the average emission factors of vehicles in real-world. The results indicated that the emission factors of LDGVs were considerably underestimated in EI guidebook in China. The overlook of high-emitting vehicles in older vehicle fleet is the main reason for this underestimation. Enhancing the supervision of high emission vehicles and strengthening the compliance tests of in-use vehicles are essential measures to control the emissions of in-use gasoline vehicles at the present stage in China.

  4. Road versus roadside particle size distribution in a hot Mediterranean summer--estimation of fleet emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalbaki, Rima; Al-Assaad, Kassem; Mehanna, Carl-Joe; Saliba, Najat A; Katurji, Marwan; Roumié, Mohamad

    2013-03-01

    Particle size distribution at major on-road, roadside, and university-ground sites in Lebanon were studied in summer 2011. In a predominant old traffic fleet, it is shown that calculated PM2.5 mass emission factors (EFs) conform to those of heavy duty vehicles. When compared to roads in California, higher PM2.5 mass but similar particle number EFs are obtained for the average fleet of the on-road sites. This confirms the observed particle size distribution pattern, rich in particles in the accumulation range mainly between 0.425 and 0.675 microm with a prevalent peak at 0.475 microm. Corresponding total particle counts (TC) measured on the roadside are as high as 14,050 particles/cm3 and are up to 67% higher than particle counts measured at the university-ground site. In a hot, dry and humid summer weather with consistent temperature oscillations, particle dispersion is shown to be a function of meteorological factors, mainly the effect of the boundary-layer thickness, with particle counts measured during the morning being around 40% higher than particle counts measured during the afternoon. In a hot and humid Mediterranean summer, high emission factors are associated with an old car fleet. The observed diurnal variation in the particle count is attributed to the change in the thickness boundary layer in summer. In comparison to road sites, the particle size distribution shows the prevalence of larger size particles. Particle counts measured at the roadside sites are at least 20% higher than those of the road sites. The findings call for the reinforcement of local regulations on car age. Furthermore, the high number of particles can cause or aggravate a number of health and ecosystem problems.

  5. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Steven [Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  6. Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.H.; McGill (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hillis, S.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  8. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  9. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  10. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  11. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  12. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  13. Identifying Key Factors for Introducing GPS-Based Fleet Management Systems to the Logistics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Yi-Chung; Chiu, Yu-Jing; Hsu, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    .... Global positioning system-based fleet management system technology provides synergy to transport companies and achieves many management goals such as monitoring and tracking commodity distribution...

  14. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  15. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  16. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  17. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  18. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  19. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  20. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... influences are more stringent U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and a global technical... automobiles. We believe manufacturers may begin using lighter materials to meet CAFE standards, including... assure protection against hood intrusion while the vehicle fleet evolves in response to CAFE standards...

  1. Determining which Orders to Outsource in the Vehicle Routing Problem with Order Outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijink, Sybren; Kant, Goos; Peeters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In practice, many package transportation companies lower their costs by hiring outside carriers to serve orders that cannot be served efficiently by their own trucks. The problem which takes the order outsource option into account is the Vehicle Routing Problem with Private Fleet and Common Carrier.

  2. An Adaptable Variable Neighborhood Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Order Outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijink, S.; Kant, G.; Peeters, M.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In practice, many package transportation companies lower their costs by hiring outside carriers to serve orders that cannot be served efficiently by their own trucks. The problem which takes the order outsource option into account is the Vehicle Routing Problem with Private Fleet and Common Carrier.

  3. S/EV 1992: Solar and Electric Vehicles. Volume 1: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    These proceedings include the morning plenary sessions and then sessions on each of the following topics: Electric Vehicle (EV) fundamentals, advanced EV's, photovoltaics, policy, and fleets. Many individual topics are considered to include: EV races, environmental benefits, demonstration programs, lightweight composite materials, advanced components, and electric batteries.

  4. Challenges in the Tracking and Prediction of Scheduled-Vehicle Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Tiesyte, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    A number of applications in areas such as logistics, cargo delivery, and collective transport involve the management of fleets of vehicles that are expected to travel along known routes according to fixed schedules. Due to road construction, accidents, and other unanticipated conditions, the vehi......A number of applications in areas such as logistics, cargo delivery, and collective transport involve the management of fleets of vehicles that are expected to travel along known routes according to fixed schedules. Due to road construction, accidents, and other unanticipated conditions...... this type of knowledge with minimal cost. This paper characterizes the problem of real-time vehicle tracking using wireless communication, and of predicting the future status of the vehicles when their movements are restricted to given routes and when they follow schedules with a best effort. The paper...... discusses challenges related to tracking, to the prediction of future travel times, and to historical data analysis. It also suggests approaches to addressing the challenges....

  5. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  6. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  7. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  8. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    locations, which is a common and important constraint in real-world routing and planning problems. We solve this problem by means of branch-and-price as well as proposing a hybrid heuristic, which combines an Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search with an embedded local search and labeling procedure...

  9. Minimum vehicle fleet size under time window constraints at a container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, I.F.A.; de Koster, R.; Savelsbergh, M.W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Products can be transported in containers from one port to another. At a container terminal these containers are transshipped from one mode of transportation to another. Cranes remove containers from a ship and put them at a certain time (i.e., release time) into a buffer area with limited capacity.

  10. Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Infrastructure at Hickam Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    busbar in the manifold region of the fuel cell power module. To address this accelerated corrosion problem, the endplate and busbar were both...there has been no evidence of busbar or endplate corrosion in the manifold region. The crossover leak was the result of a failed humidification device

  11. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles Final Report Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    conventional engine and the battery pack. It is integrated together with the APGEN’s inverter software and electric P (ePTO) software that controls...Transfer Case Oil Check Level Baseline, 6-Months Brake Pads Thickness Baseline, 6-Months *HEV Sub-System Cases: Power Electronics Carrier, Inverter ...light illumination during regenerative braking events. Chassis supplier representatives provided classroom instruction covering primary maintenance

  12. Locomotive Assignment Problem with Heterogeneous Vehicle Fleet and Hiring External Locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Teichmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on solving the problem of how to assign locomotives to assembled trains optimally. To solve the problem, linear programming is applied. The situation we model in the paper occurs in the conditions of a transport operator that provides rail transport in the Czech Republic. In the paper, an extended locomotive assignment problem is modeled; the transport operator can use different classes of the locomotives to serve individual connections, some connections must be served by a predefined locomotive class, and the locomotives can be allocated to several depots at the beginning. The proposed model also takes into consideration the fact that some connections can be served by the locomotives of external transport companies or operators. The presented model is applied to a real example in order to test its functionality.

  13. Cooperative Intelligence for Remotely Piloted Vehicle Fleet Control. Analysis and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Packet Radio Technology," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, November 1978, pp. 1468-1496. Kiviat, P., R. Villanueva , and H. Markowitz, The... Cesar , and S. Turner, TWIRL: Tactical Warfare in the ROSS Language, The Rand Corporation, R-3158-AF, October 1984. Klass, P., "Multi-Drone Control Unit in

  14. The U.S. Combat and Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleets: Issues and Suggestions for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Army After Next: The First Postindustrial Army, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Modeling and Simulation 91 and strategic...en-US Adams, Thomas K., The Army After Next: The First Postindustrial Army, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Anulare, Louis, Program

  15. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  16. Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Junpeng Zhu; Ping Jiang; Wei Gu; Wanxing Sheng; Xiaoli Meng; Jun Gao

    2014-01-01

    The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED) problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA)-based approach that has t...

  17. Advances in consumer electric vehicle adoption research : A review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bodin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the purported positive environmental consequences of electrifying the light duty vehicle fleet, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) in use is still insignificant. One reason for the modest adoption figures is that the mass acceptance of EVs to a large extent is reliant on consumers’ perception of EVs. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the drivers for and barriers against consumer adoption of plug-in EVs, as well as an overview of the theoretical perspectives that h...

  18. Foreign Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    3 4.19 Broadband Electromagnetic Interference ...... ........ 3 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons...accordance with TOP 2-2-61333. 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons. Characterize the angular-displacement type control handle used in tank...Main Weapon Firing Tests. Determine the ability of the test vehicle’s main armament and fire/ gun control system to hit its target. a. Artillery

  19. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T. [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I. [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. [Scientific Production Association ``Typhoon``, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  20. Refinements of the column generation process for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem. A homogeneous fleet of vehicles has to service a set of the customers and fulfill their demands. The service of the customers can only start within a well-defined time......-and-Bound, also known as Branch-and-Price. This paper presents two ideas for run-time improvements of the Branch-and-Price framework for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows. Both ideas reveal a significant potential for using run-time refinements when speeding up an exact approach without compromising...

  1. Vehicle choice in aging population: Some insights from a stated preference survey for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalec, C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential effects that an aging baby boomer generation will have on gasoline use through their vehicle choice decisions. The study uses stated preference data for both conventional and alternative fuel vehicles, and measures the impact of age of survey respondent on the perceived value of vehicle characteristics such as fuel economy, performance, and body style (e.g., car vs. truck). The results suggest the possibility that average fleet fuel economy may improve in the next few years, if survey preferences translate to actual purchase behavior. No clear implications can be drawn regarding the demand for alternative fuel vehicles.

  2. Minimizing the health and climate impacts of emissions from heavy-duty public transportation bus fleets through operational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Brian; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Ries, Francis J

    2013-04-16

    In contrast to capital control strategies (i.e., investments in new technology), the potential of operational control strategies (e.g., vehicle scheduling optimization) to reduce the health and climate impacts of the emissions from public transportation bus fleets has not been widely considered. This case study demonstrates that heterogeneity in the emission levels of different bus technologies and the exposure potential of bus routes can be exploited though optimization (e.g., how vehicles are assigned to routes) to minimize these impacts as well as operating costs. The magnitude of the benefits of the optimization depend on the specific transit system and region. Health impacts were found to be particularly sensitive to different vehicle assignments and ranged from worst to best case assignment by more than a factor of 2, suggesting there is significant potential to reduce health impacts. Trade-offs between climate, health, and cost objectives were also found. Transit agencies that do not consider these objectives in an integrated framework and, for example, optimize for costs and/or climate impacts alone, risk inadvertently increasing health impacts by as much as 49%. Cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate trade-offs between objectives, but large uncertainties make identifying an optimal solution challenging.

  3. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kang Miao; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Yong, Jia Ying

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of electric vehicles into the transportation sector helps reduce global warming and carbon emissions. The interaction between electric vehicles and the power grid has spurred the emergence of a smart grid technology, denoted as vehicle-to grid-technology. Vehicle-to-grid technology...... manages the energy exchange between a large fleet of electric vehicles and the power grid to accomplish shared advantages for the vehicle owners and the power utility. This paper presents an optimal scheduling of vehicle-to-grid using the genetic algorithm to minimize the power grid load variance......-to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance...

  4. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...

  5. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  6. Privacy and Security in Connected Vehicles Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern vehicles could not be figured out without Internet connections in order to provide customers a wide range of services in the vehicle: infotainment platforms, third-party support, on-board and online monitor and maintenance, business analytics for car fleets. Exposure of the vehicles to the Internet turns them into targets for viruses, worms, Trojans, DoS and lot of other threats for connected vehicle security. Beside the classic threats of the Internet exposure, other new threats are introduced by the Internet of Things (IoT new technologies that are poor regulated or undefined yet from the security point of view. Also, the large variety of the IoT technologies not being standardized yet contribute to security issues in this area of the automotive industry. This paper provides an overview of the connected vehicle environment, considering the main components of such kind of system and the main security challenges to be considered for building reliable secure online systems for connected vehicles.

  7. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  8. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Tomić, Jasna

    Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

  9. Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) located in North Carolina. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the MCBCL fleet. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  10. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  12. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Administrator to represent each engine-displacement-system combination. The configuration (engine...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and... manufacturer's option, the Administrator will only select one vehicle to represent each engine family where the...

  13. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  14. Environmental impacts of future urban deployment of electric vehicles: Assessment framework and case study of Copenhagen for 2016-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnes, Florence Alexia; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    To move towards environmentally-sustainable transport systems, electric vehicles (EVs) are increasingly seen as viable alternatives to internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). To ensure effectiveness of such deployment, holistic assessments of environmental impacts can help decision-makers determine...... a fleet-based, foresight perspective. The analysis of the passenger car fleet development in the city of Copenhagen for the years 2016-2030 is used as a proof-of-concept. We modelled and compared five powertrain technologies, and we assessed four fleet-based scenarios for the entire city. Our results...... showed relative environmental benefits from range-extended and fuel-cell EVs over ICVs and standard EVs. These results were found to be sensitive to local settings, like electricity grid mix, which could alter the relative environmental performances across EV technologies. The comprehensive framework...

  15. A algorithm for the Vehicle Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ezzatneshan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid ACO algorithm for solving vehicle routing problem (VRP heuristically in combination with an exact In the basic VRP, geographically scattered customers of known demand are supplied from a single depot by a fleet of identically capacitated vehicles. The intuition of the proposed algorithm is that nodes which are near to each other will probably belong to the same branch of the minimum spanning tree of the problem graph and thus will probably belong to the same route in VRP. Given a clustering of client nodes, the solution is to find a route in these clusters by using ACO with a modified version of transition rule of the ants. At the end of each iteration, ACO tries to improve the quality of solutions by using a local search algorithm, and update the associated weights of the graph arcs.

  16. A Algorithm for the Vehicle Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ezzatneshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid ACO algorithm for solving vehicle routing problem (VRP heuristically in combination with an exact In the basic VRP, geographically scattered customers of known demand are supplied from a single depot by a fleet of identically capacitated vehicles. The intuition of the proposed algorithm is that nodes which are near to each other will probably belong to the same branch of the minimum spanning tree of the problem graph and thus will probably belong to the same route in VRP. Given a clustering of client nodes, the solution is to find a route in these clusters by using ACO with a modified version of transition rule of the ants. At the end of each iteration, ACO tries to improve the quality of solutions by using a local search algorithm, and update the associated weights of the graph arcs.

  17. Fleet leaders' attitudes about subordinates' use of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Mental disorders are a significant source of medical and occupational morbidity for sailors. Stigma, fear of negative career impact, and subordinates concern about leaders' attitudes are significant barriers to the use of mental health services. Semistructured interviews and military policies were data sources used to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health treatment using Foucault's concept of discourse analysis. A discourse is a system of knowledge that influences language, perceptions, values, and social practices. The results showed that leaders' concerns about sailors' mental combat readiness, not mental illness stigma, was the dominant discourse about mental illness and mental health services use. In particular, organizational differences between the surface warfare and the mental health communities may influence leaders' attitudes more than stigma. This study provides an elaborated view of mental health knowledge and power within a Navy community.

  18. Fleeting images: a new look at early emotion discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghöfer, M; Bradley, M M; Elbert, T R; Lang, P J

    2001-03-01

    The visual brain quickly sorted stimuli for emotional impact despite high-speed presentation (3 or 5 per s) in a sustained, serial torrent of 700 complex pictures. Event-related potentials, recorded with a dense electrode array, showed selective discrimination of emotionally arousing stimuli from less affective content. Primary sources of this activation were over the occipital cortices, extending to right parietal cortex, suggesting a processing focus in the posterior visual system. Emotion discrimination was independent of formal pictorial properties (color, brightness. spatial frequency, and complexity). The data support the hypothesis of a very short-term conceptual memory store (M. C. Potter, 1999)-shown here to include a fleeting but reliable assessment of affective meaning.

  19. Study on Fleet Assignment Problem Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fleet Assignment Problem (FAP of aircraft scheduling in airlines is studied, and the optimization model of FAP is proposed. The objective function of this model is revenue maximization, and it considers comprehensively the difference of scheduled flights and aircraft models in flight areas and mean passenger flows. In order to solve the model, a self-adapting genetic algorithm is supposed to solve the model, which uses natural number coding, adjusts dynamically crossover and mutation operator probability, and adopts intelligent heuristic adjusting to quicken optimization pace. The simulation with production data of an airline shows that the model and algorithms suggested in this paper are feasible and have a good application value.

  20. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  1. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  2. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  3. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  4. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  5. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  6. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-03

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  7. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  9. Loading models for electric vehicles; Lademodelle fuer Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Tomas [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    About 5 to 7 million electric vehicles have adverse effects on the electricity grid. Thus, there is a need to develop optimized loading concepts, which generate an added value both for the energy industry as well as for the vehicle owners. A two-stage analysis method is used for this. Within the first step it is examined, how defined fleet of electric vehicles can be loaded optimally with electricity taking into account the specific vehicle usage. In the second step, the charging models are again evaluated from a user perspective. The impact of the driving behavior and charge characteristics on the aging of the battery are considered specifically. Charging possibilities are identified in order to increase the battery life.

  10. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  11. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  12. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects; Massnahmen zur Absenkung des Flottenverbrauchs. Abschaetzung der Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R. [Institut fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie (IWOE-HSG), Universitaet St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  13. Cost and benefit estimates of partially-automated vehicle collision avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Corey D; Hendrickson, Chris T; Samaras, Constantine

    2016-10-01

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. Partially-automated crash avoidance features offer the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of vehicle crashes that occur due to distracted driving and/or human error by assisting in maintaining control of the vehicle or issuing alerts if a potentially dangerous situation is detected. This paper evaluates the benefits and costs of fleet-wide deployment of blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning crash avoidance systems within the US light-duty vehicle fleet. The three crash avoidance technologies could collectively prevent or reduce the severity of as many as 1.3 million U.S. crashes a year including 133,000 injury crashes and 10,100 fatal crashes. For this paper we made two estimates of potential benefits in the United States: (1) the upper bound fleet-wide technology diffusion benefits by assuming all relevant crashes are avoided and (2) the lower bound fleet-wide benefits of the three technologies based on observed insurance data. The latter represents a lower bound as technology is improved over time and cost reduced with scale economies and technology improvement. All three technologies could collectively provide a lower bound annual benefit of about $18 billion if equipped on all light-duty vehicles. With 2015 pricing of safety options, the total annual costs to equip all light-duty vehicles with the three technologies would be about $13 billion, resulting in an annual net benefit of about $4 billion or a $20 per vehicle net benefit. By assuming all relevant crashes are avoided, the total upper bound annual net benefit from all three technologies combined is about $202 billion or an $861 per vehicle net benefit, at current technology costs. The technologies we are exploring in this paper represent an early form of vehicle automation and a positive net benefit suggests the fleet-wide adoption of these technologies would be beneficial

  14. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  15. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  16. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  17. Maximizing Launch Vehicle and Payload Design Via Early Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The United States? current fleet of launch vehicles is largely derived from decades-old designs originally made for payloads that no longer exist. They were built primarily for national security or human exploration missions. Today that fleet can be divided roughly into small-, medium-, and large-payload classes based on mass and volume capability. But no vehicle in the U.S. fleet is designed to accommodate modern payloads. It is usually the payloads that must accommodate the capabilities of the launch vehicles. This is perhaps most true of science payloads. It was this paradigm that the organizers of two weekend workshops in 2008 at NASA's Ames Research Center sought to alter. The workshops brought together designers of NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle (CLV) with scientists and payload designers in the astronomy and planetary sciences communities. Ares V was still in a pre-concept development phase as part of NASA?s Constellation Program for exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The space science community was early in a Decadal Survey that would determine future priorities for research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations. The primary purpose of the meetings in April and August of 2008, including the novel format, was to bring vehicle designers together with space scientists to discuss the feasibility of using a heavy lift capability to launch large observatories and explore the Solar System. A key question put to the science community was whether this heavy lift capability enabled or enhanced breakthrough science. The meetings also raised the question of whether some trade-off between mass/volume and technical complexity existed that could reduce technical and programmatic risk. By engaging the scientific community early in the vehicle design process, vehicle engineers sought to better understand potential limitations and requirements that could be added to the Ares V from the mission planning community. From the vehicle

  18. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  19. The Application of Time Resolved Dielectric Instruments to Air Force Ground Fleet Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the Military Equipment Evaluation Program (MEEP) located at Eglin Air Force Base, FL, evaluated a time resolved dielectric instrument for use in air force ground fleet maintenance applications...

  20. Analysis of the potential benefits of larger trucks for U.S. businesses operating private fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the current operational and economic performance of a sample of companies that operate private fleets and establishes a present-day baseline of transport productivity and efficiency. It also estimates how transportation performanc...

  1. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  2. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  3. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  4. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  5. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p work problems were noise, risk of an accident and vibrations from the hull of the ship. The safety climate was high in comparison with that in land-based occupations. One-fourth had experienced personal harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  6. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  7. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  8. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  9. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N. N.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M. M.; King, B. A.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.

    2016-12-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASA's Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as "a few hours ago", GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development.

  10. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  11. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  12. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. 2011 Honda CR-Z 2982 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Tyler [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Wishart, Jeffrey [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Trends over time in the risk of driver death: what if vehicle designs had not improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Lund, Adrian K

    2006-12-01

    Passenger vehicle driver death rates per million vehicle registrations declined steadily during calendar years 1985-2004. The present study sought to separate the effect of vehicle design changes from this trend. Restricting the trend to a fixed set of model years removed the vehicle design effects, but there were still effects due to vehicle aging. Risk of driver death was found to increase each year vehicles aged, probably due to changes in vehicle use patterns. After separating out the vehicle design effects and making adjustments for the vehicle age effects, a different picture emerged of trends in death rates over time. Absent the vehicle design changes, the historical decline in driver fatality risk would have ended in 1993, with risk climbing ever since. This underlying trend has been obscured by changes in the vehicle fleet. The push for vehicle improvements has been worthwhile and can be credited with saving thousands of lives. However, the analysis shows that the gains in occupant protection from vehicle design improvements have been offset partially by an increasingly risky environment in recent years. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to programs targeting improvement in roadway design and driver behavior.

  15. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  16. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed Replacement of Pope Air Force Base’s C-130E Fleet Using a Fleet Replacement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-11

    elements ( Messias , 1999:14-15). These cost elements are tied to the different acquisition phases. 1. Research and Development Costs. These costs...Imperative,” Army Logistician, 31: 139-139 (Winter 1999). Messias , Julio C. The Challenge of Maintaining or Replacing an Aging Airlift Fleet: A Cost

  17. Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-02-01

    DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies sponsored a research project with Ralphs Grocery Company to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation of 15 diesel trucks fueled with EC-Diesel in commercial service. These trucks were compared to 5 diesel trucks fueled with CARB diesel and operating on similar routes. This document reports this evaluation.

  18. The Army’s Cargo Fleet in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-01

    light--principally because of much " ballon " cargo in the form or assembled vehicles ana aircraft. The Army an~c Navy supply agencies were cooperating...Guards to cope with the enemy. The dis- parity between the modest pay of the Navy gun crew and the war- inflated wages of the seamen frequently led to ill

  19. Natural gas for vehicles; Le gaz naturel pour vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-04

    The natural gas for vehicles (GNV) represents an important item in the energy, environmental and industrial planning. It reduces the energy dependency relative to oil, allowing at the same time to improve significantly the air quality and avoid the pollution peaks. For the France's industry it is indeed an important challenge. Manufacturers and equipment makers should meet on this emergent market that already appears to be successful in North America. GNV as well as GPL (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) may be used in the bi-carburation mode for gasoline-fuelled vehicles provided with an adapting device allowing the driver to change from one type of fuel to another. For Diesel motored vehicles the bi-carburation is not possible, and consequently an engine transformation into a GNV-dedicated version is required. A network of GNV supplying stations is to be installed as well as a network of backup stations for store, compression and distribution for this type of fuel. Public authorities intend to take part in promoting GNV by a number economic, fiscal and regulating measures as follows: - maintaining the para-fiscal taxes upon gas fuels at a level much lower than for other fuels; - VAT refunding for gas fuels as well as for the electricity consumed by alternate vehicles; - capacity afforded to General Councils of exonerating totally or partially the tax for automobile taxation; -assigning future green label which will allow these vehicles to be excepted from traffic restrictions applied to cope with pollution peaks. The law for Air and Rational Use of Energy of 29 December 1996 stipulates for alternate vehicles: - an exoneration from the tax upon society vehicles; - an exceptional liquidation over 12 months afforded for purchasing vehicles and associated equipment; - refunding for a given amount of fuel of para-fiscal taxes on GNV and GPL in favour of urban public transport employers; - obligation for public fleet owning more than 20 vehicles, to integrate at least 20

  20. On the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    2006-01-01

    by examining possible future lines of research in the area of the VRPTW. In the second paper ‘Lagrangian duality applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows’ (Kallehauge, Larsen, and Madsen, Computers & Operations Research, 33:1464-1487, 2006) we consider the Lagrangian relaxation...... inequalities are facet defining under certain assumptions. We also introduce precedence constraints in the context of the VRPTW. Computational experiments are performed with a branch-and-cut algorithm on the Solomon test problems with wide time windows. Based on results on 25-node problems the outcome......The vehicle routing problem with time windows is concerned with the optimal routing of a fleet of vehicles between a depot and a number of customers that must be visited within a specified time interval, called a time window. The purpose of this thesis is to develop new and efficient solution...