WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle motion resistance

  1. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  2. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  3. Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.

  4. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  5. Computing motion using resistive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Mead, Carver; Hutchinson, James

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of early vision are described which lead from the formulation of the motion problem as an ill-posed one to its solution by minimizing certain 'cost' functions. These cost or energy functions can be mapped onto simple analog and digital resistive networks. It is shown how the optical flow can be computed by injecting currents into resistive networks and recording the resulting stationary voltage distribution at each node. These networks can be implemented in cMOS VLSI circuits and represent plausible candidates for biological vision systems.

  6. Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a computationally effective motion planning algorithm for autonomous ground vehicles operating in a semi-structured environment with a mission specified by waypoints, corridor widths and obstacles. The algorithm switches between two kinds of planners, (i static planners and (ii moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre planners, depending on the mobility of any detected obstacles. While the first is broken down into a path planner and a controller, the second generates a sequence of controls without global path planning. Each subsystem is implemented as follows. The path planner produces an optimal piecewise linear path by applying a variant of cell decomposition and dynamic programming. The piecewise linear path is smoothed by Bézier curves such that the maximum curvatures of the curves are minimized. The controller calculates the highest allowable velocity profile along the path, consistent with the limits on both tangential and radial acceleration and the steering command for the vehicle to track the trajectory using a pure pursuit method. The moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre produces a sequence of time-optimal local velocities, by minimizing the cost as determined by the safety of the current velocity against obstacles in the velocity obstacle paradigm and the deviation of the current velocity relative to the desired velocity, to satisfy the waypoint constraint. The algorithms are shown to be robust and computationally efficient, and to demonstrate a viable methodology for autonomous vehicle control in the presence of unknown obstacles.

  7. Fuzzy Logic Unmanned Air Vehicle Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Sabo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of scenarios in which the mission objectives rely on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV being capable of maneuvering in an environment containing obstacles in which there is little prior knowledge of the surroundings. With an appropriate dynamic motion planning algorithm, UAVs would be able to maneuver in any unknown environment towards a target in real time. This paper presents a methodology for two-dimensional motion planning of a UAV using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy inference system takes information in real time about obstacles (if within the agent's sensing range and target location and outputs a change in heading angle and speed. The FL controller was validated, and Monte Carlo testing was completed to evaluate the performance. Not only was the path traversed by the UAV often the exact path computed using an optimal method, the low failure rate makes the fuzzy logic controller (FLC feasible for exploration. The FLC showed only a total of 3% failure rate, whereas an artificial potential field (APF solution, a commonly used intelligent control method, had an average of 18% failure rate. These results highlighted one of the advantages of the FLC method: its adaptability to complex scenarios while maintaining low control effort.

  8. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  9. Vehicle ego-motion estimation with geometric algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, W. van der; Fontijne, D.; Dorst, L.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for estimating ego-motion with vehicle mounted stereo cameras is presented. This approach is based on finding corresponding features in stereo images and tracking them between succeeding stereo frames. Our approach estimates stereo ego-motion with geometric algebra techniques. Starting with

  10. INTERACTIVE MOTION PLATFORMS AND VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Thöndel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  11. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  12. Constrained optimal motion planning for autonomous vehicles using PRONTO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, A.P.; Bayer, F.A.; Hauser, J.; Häusler, A.J.; Notarstefano, G.; Pascoal, A.M.; Rucco, A.; Saccon, A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the authors’ efforts in vehicle trajectory exploration and motion planning based on PRONTO, a numerical method for solving optimal control problems developed over the last two decades. The chapter reviews the basics of PRONTO, providing the appropriate references

  13. Development Of Translational Motion Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thwe Thwe Htoo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the translational motion analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle UAV. Since the center of mass of the receiver is timevarying the equations are written in a reference frame that is geometrically fixed in the aircraft. Due to the fact that aerial vehicle simulation and control deal with the position and orientation of the UAV the equations of motion are derived in terms of the translational and rotational position and velocity with respect to the aircraft location. The formation relative motion control is a challenging problem due to the coupled translational and rotational dynamics. As the translational vector depends on the current attitude and its angular velocity and some of the attitude constraints also couple the position and attitude of the spacecraft it makes the formation control problem high dimensional. This work develops UAV stability conditions including translational vector maneuverability condition and included angle condition between the translational and the rotational motion of UAV system and then presents two methods to calculate the UAV attitude. Both of the two methods need first design the optimal trajectory of the translational vector and then use geometric and nonlinear programming methods to calculate the target trajectory. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a UAV by using MATLAB. The performance of the translational motion control is evaluated by the simulated results.

  14. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  15. Hierarchical Motion Planning for Autonomous Aerial and Terrestrial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V.

    Autonomous mobile robots---both aerial and terrestrial vehicles---have gained immense importance due to the broad spectrum of their potential military and civilian applications. One of the indispensable requirements for the autonomy of a mobile vehicle is the vehicle's capability of planning and executing its motion, that is, finding appropriate control inputs for the vehicle such that the resulting vehicle motion satisfies the requirements of the vehicular task. The motion planning and control problem is inherently complex because it involves two disparate sub-problems: (1) satisfaction of the vehicular task requirements, which requires tools from combinatorics and/or formal methods, and (2) design of the vehicle control laws, which requires tools from dynamical systems and control theory. Accordingly, this problem is usually decomposed and solved over two levels of hierarchy. The higher level, called the geometric path planning level, finds a geometric path that satisfies the vehicular task requirements, e.g., obstacle avoidance. The lower level, called the trajectory planning level, involves sufficient smoothening of this geometric path followed by a suitable time parametrization to obtain a reference trajectory for the vehicle. Although simple and efficient, such hierarchical decomposition suffers a serious drawback: the geometric path planner has no information of the kinematical and dynamical constraints of the vehicle. Consequently, the geometric planner may produce paths that the trajectory planner cannot transform into a feasible reference trajectory. Two main ideas appear in the literature to remedy this problem: (a) randomized sampling-based planning, which eliminates the geometric planner altogether by planning in the vehicle state space, and (b) geometric planning supported by feedback control laws. The former class of methods suffer from a lack of optimality of the resultant trajectory, while the latter class of methods makes a restrictive assumption

  16. An Integrated Model of Motion, Steering, Positioning and Stabilization of an Unmanned Autonomous Maritime Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Gerigk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the aim of an interdisciplinary research is presented. The research method is introduced. An object the unmanned autonomous maritime vehicle is briefly described. The key research problem concerns a combined model of the vehicle motion including the loads of lift and hydrodynamic nature. The model takes into account the gravity and displacement forces, resistance and thrust forces, lift and other hydrodynamic forces. One of the major research tasks is to precisely predict the position of the vehicle. To do that an integrated model of acquiring, analyzing and processing the signals is necessary. The processed signals may then be used for the precise steering of the vehicle. The vehicle should be equipped with a stabilization system. Some information on an integrated steering, positioning and stabilization system of the vehicle is briefly presented in the paper. Such the system enables to obtain a fully autonomous vehicle. Some information on the propulsion and underwater energy supply systems are presented in the paper, too.

  17. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  18. Energy-optimal motion planning for multiple robotic vehicles with collision avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häusler, A.J.; Saccon, A.; Aguiar, A.P.; Hauser, J.; Pascoal, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a numerical algorithm for multiple-vehicle motion planning that explicitly takes into account the vehicle dynamics, temporal and spatial specifications, and energy-related requirements. As a motivating example, we consider the case where a group of vehicles is tasked to reach a number of

  19. Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.

  20. Control of a Virtual Vehicle Influences Postural Activity and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao; Yoshida, Ken; Stoffregen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience suggests that drivers are less susceptible to motion sickness than passengers. In the context of inertial motion (i.e., physical displacement), this effect has been confirmed in laboratory research using whole body motion devices. We asked whether a similar effect would occur in the context of simulated vehicles in a visual…

  1. Real-time identification of vehicle motion-modes using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifu; Zhang, Nong; Du, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    A four-wheel ground vehicle has three body-dominated motion-modes, that is, bounce, roll, and pitch motion-modes. Real-time identification of these motion-modes can make vehicle suspensions, in particular, active suspensions, target on the dominant motion-mode and apply appropriate control strategies to improve its performance with less power consumption. Recently, a motion-mode energy method (MEM) was developed to identify the vehicle body motion-modes. However, this method requires the measurement of full vehicle states and road inputs, which are not always available in practice. This paper proposes an alternative approach to identify vehicle primary motion-modes with acceptable accuracy by employing neural networks (NNs). The effectiveness of the trained NNs is verified on a 10-DOF full-car model under various types of excitation inputs. The results confirm that the proposed method is effective in determining vehicle primary motion-modes with comparable accuracy to the MEM method. Experimental data is further used to validate the proposed method.

  2. Using the Theory of Combined Friction when Making Mathematical Models of Curvilinear Motion of Tracked Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vyaznikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study results of the nonlinear interaction processes between the supporting surface of the track Assembly and the ground in the contact patch, using the mathematical models of friction. For the case blaskapelle motion of a caterpillar, when the resultant of the elementary friction forces is limited by the coupling due to the sliding tracks on the ground, it appears that the increase of the lateral component leads to a decrease of the longitudinal component and the change of direction of the resulting force. As a result, with increasing angular velocity of the tracked vehicle a longitudinal component of the friction force decreases, which is the geometric factor and is defined by the locus of friction for a given type of soil. In the development of this well-known model is considered the general case of friction, which describes the effect of reducing the coefficient of friction in the contact patch at increasing the angular velocity of rotation. To describe this process is used the model of the combined friction which occurs when the surface of the body is doing at the same time the rotational and translational motion. The resulting expression for the resultant of forces of friction and the moment of resistance to rotation based on the decomposition of the first order Pade for a flat spot track Assembly with ground of rectangular shape. With combined friction any arbitrarily small perturbation force acting parallel to the surface of the contact spot, leads to slip. The paper considers the possibility of using the model of the combined friction to research a sustainability curvilinear motion of tracked vehicles. The proposed motion of the machine in the mode of skidding on the basis of the frictionslip. The interpretation of the physical processes occurring in the contact area, on the basis of the theory of the combined friction would allow using this mathematical model in the algorithm structure of automatic traffic control

  3. Motion modelling and control strategies of over-actuated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Edrén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With the growing concern for environmental change and uncertain oil resources, the development of new vehicle concepts will in many cases include full or partial electric propulsion. The introduction of more advanced powertrains enables vehicles that can be controlled with a variety of electric actuators, such as wheel hub motors and individual steering. With these actuators, the chassis can be enabled to adjust its properties depending on the driving situation. Manoeuvring of the vehicle, us...

  4. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-01-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to…

  5. Vehicle motion-state-estimation using distributed sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Papp, Z.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the position and speed of the vehicles on the road network in real-time is one of the major challenges that vehicle control and traffic management applications are facing. Wireless sensor networks received significant attention in the last decade and successful research put them in the

  6. Optimal Sensor-Based Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    FLS system designed for use on the NPS REMUS 100 AUV, for example, was designed with multiple blazed arrays mounted at a permanent tilt angle of VDE ... VDE . 116 Figure 5.6 Fraction of single-vehicle VDE simulations with feasible trajectories. 116 Figure 5.7 Average single-vehicle search performance...103 Table 5.1 Simulation parameters for Nt analysis (free parameters in bold). . 110 Table 5.2 Simulation parameters for VDE analysis (free parameters

  7. An efficient motion-resistant method for wearable pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2008-05-01

    Reduction of motion artifact and power saving are crucial in designing a wearable pulse oximeter for long-term telemedicine application. In this paper, a novel algorithm, minimum correlation discrete saturation transform (MCDST) has been developed for the estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), based on an optical model derived from photon diffusion analysis. The simulation shows that the new algorithm MCDST is more robust under low SNRs than the clinically verified motion-resistant algorithm discrete saturation transform (DST). Further, the experiment with different severity of motions demonstrates that MCDST has a slightly better performance than DST algorithm. Moreover, MCDST is more computationally efficient than DST because the former uses linear algebra instead of the time-consuming adaptive filter used by latter, which indicates that MCDST can reduce the required power consumption and circuit complexity of the implementation. This is vital for wearable devices, where the physical size and long battery life are crucial.

  8. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  9. Modular Estimation Strategy of Vehicle Dynamic Parameters for Motion Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawash Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motion control or active safety systems in vehicles have become increasingly important for improving vehicle performance and handling and negotiating dangerous driving situations. The performance of such systems would be improved if combined with knowledge of vehicle dynamic parameters. Since some of these parameters are difficult to measure, due to technical or economic reasons, estimation of those parameters might be the only practical alternative. In this paper, an estimation strategy of important vehicle dynamic parameters, pertaining to motion control applications, is presented. The estimation strategy is of a modular structure such that each module is concerned with estimating a single vehicle parameter. Parameters estimated include: longitudinal, lateral, and vertical tire forces – longitudinal velocity – vehicle mass. The advantage of this strategy is its independence of tire parameters or wear, road surface condition, and vehicle mass variation. Also, because of its modular structure, each module could be later updated or exchanged for a more effective one. Results from simulations on a 14-DOF vehicle model are provided here to validate the strategy and show its robustness and accuracy.

  10. On Motion Planning for Point-to-Point Maneuvers for a Class of Sailing Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Lin; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Despite their interesting dynamic and controllability properties, sailing vehicles have not been much studied in the control community. In this paper, we investigate motion planning of such vehicles. Starting from a simple dynamic model of sailing vessels in one dimension, this paper first...... considers their associated controllability issues, with the so-called no-sailing zone as a starting point, and it links them with a motion planning strategy using two-point boundary value problems as the main mathematical tool. This perspective is then expanded to do point-to-point maneuvers of sailing...

  11. THE CONTENT MODEL AND THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The calculation methods improvement of the electric vehicle curve movement and the cost of electricity with the aim of performance and accuracy of calculations improving are considered in the paper. Methodology. The method is based upon the general principles of mathematical simulation, when a conceptual model of problem domain is created and then a mathematic model is formulated according to the conceptual model. Development of an improved conceptual model of electric vehicles motion is proposed and a corresponding mathematical model is studied. Findings. The authors proposed model in which the vehicle considers as a system of interacting point-like particles with defined interactions under the influence of external forces. As a mathematical model the Euler-Lagrange equation of the second kind is used. Conservative and dissipative forces affecting the system dynamics are considered. Equations for calculating motion of electric vehicles with taking into account the energy consumption are proposed. Originality. In the paper the conceptual model of motion for electric vehicles with distributed masses has been developed as a system of interacting point-like particles. In the easiest case the system has only one degree of freedom. The mathematical model is based on Lagrange equations. The shown approach allows a detailed and physically based description of the electric vehicles dynamics. The derived motion equations for public electric transport are substantially more precise than the equations recommended in textbooks and the reference documentation. The motion equations and energy consumption calculations for transportation of one passenger with a trolleybus are developed. It is shown that the energy consumption depends on the data of vehicle and can increase when the manload is above the certain level. Practical value. The authors received the equations of motion and labour costs in the calculations focused on the use of computer methods

  12. Myoelectric stimulation on peroneal muscles resists simulated ankle sprain motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chu, Vikki Wing-Shan; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2012-07-26

    The inadequate reaction time of the peroneal muscles in response to an incorrect foot contact event has been proposed as one of the etiological factors contributing to ankle joint inversion injury. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a myoelectric stimulation applied to the peroneal muscles in the prevention of a simulated ankle inversion trauma. Ten healthy male subjects performed simulated inversion and supination tests on a pair of mechanical sprain simulators. An electrical signal was delivered to the peroneal muscles of the subjects through a pair of electrode pads. The start of the stimulus was synchronized with the drop of the sprain simulator's platform. In order to determine the maximum delay time which the stimulus could still resist the simulated ankle sprain motion, different delay time were test (0, 5, 10, and 15ms). Together with the control trial (no stimulus), there were 5 testing conditions for both simulated inversion and supination test. The effect was quantified by the drop in maximum ankle tilting angle and angular velocity, as determined by a motion analysis system with a standard laboratory procedure. Results showed that the myoelectric stimulation was effective in all conditions except the one with myoelectric stimulus delayed for 15ms in simulated supination test. It is concluded that myoelectric stimulation on peroneal muscles could resist an ankle spraining motion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Task and Motion Planning for Selective Weed Conrol using a Team of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Hansen, Karl Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    with the right amount. In this article, a task and motion planning for a team of autonomous vehicles to reduce chemicals in farming is presented. Field data are collected by small unmanned helicopters equipped with a range of sensors, including multispectral and thermal cameras. Data collected are transmitted...... to a ground station to be analyzed and triggers aerial and ground-based vehicles to start close inspection and/or plant/weed treatment in specified areas. A complete trajectory is generated to enable ground-based vehicle to visit infested areas and start chemical/mechanical weed treatment....

  14. Motion Control of Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles considering Tire Force Saturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle stability control approach for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA electric vehicles is presented. The proposed control method consists of a higher-level controller and a lower-level controller. An adaptive control-based higher-level controller is designed to yield the vehicle virtual control efforts to track the desired vehicle motions due to the possible modeling inaccuracies and parametric uncertainties. The lower-level controller considering tire force saturation is given to allocate the required control efforts to the four in-wheel motors for providing the desired tire forces. An analytic method is given to distribute the high-level control efforts, without using the numerical-optimization-based control allocation algorithms. Simulations based on a high-fidelity, CarSim, and full-vehicle model show the effectiveness of the control approach.

  15. Study on Determination of Preceding Vehicle Motion State at the Traffic Lights Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the security of automotive safety systems and reduce traffic accidents in traffic lights intersection, In view of this, it is proposed to apply the distance measurement technology of binocular vision ranging in determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection, We study the determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection based on binocular vision. The system, which is divided into four steps, adopts the theory combining the binocular stereo vision principle and the triangulation principle. First of all, from different angles, image information with preceding vehicles and traffic lights, collected by two CCD cameras, is processed and positioned. Next, two pairs of corresponding feature matching points is obtained by using the stereo matching method. Furthermore, the distance between the cameras and the preceding vehicle, and the distance between the cameras and the traffic lights are determined, according to the camera calibration technique, the parallax disparity principle and the triangulation principle. Finally, the determination about the motion state of traffic lights intersection is determined according to the distance difference principle. Experimental results show that the design, with high measurement accuracy and application value, realize the determination of preceding vehicle’s motion state at traffic lights intersection.

  16. Autonomous vehicle motion control, approximate maps, and fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1993-01-01

    Progress on research on the control of actions of autonomous mobile agents using fuzzy logic is presented. The innovations described encompass theoretical and applied developments. At the theoretical level, results of research leading to the combined utilization of conventional artificial planning techniques with fuzzy logic approaches for the control of local motion and perception actions are presented. Also formulations of dynamic programming approaches to optimal control in the context of the analysis of approximate models of the real world are examined. Also a new approach to goal conflict resolution that does not require specification of numerical values representing relative goal importance is reviewed. Applied developments include the introduction of the notion of approximate map. A fuzzy relational database structure for the representation of vague and imprecise information about the robot's environment is proposed. Also the central notions of control point and control structure are discussed.

  17. Dynamic motion stabilization for front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dynamic motion stabilization approach to front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles. The approach includes functions such as traction control system, electronic differential system, and electronic stability control. The presented electric vehicle was endowed with anti-skid performance in longitudinal accelerated start; smooth turning with less tire scrubbing; and safe driving experience in two-dimensional steering. The analysis of the presented system is given in numerical derivations. For practical verifications, this article employed a hands-on electric vehicle named Corsa-electric vehicle to carry out the tests. The presented approach contains an integrated scheme which can achieve the mentioned functions in a single microprocessor. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented methodology.

  18. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  19. Combing VFH with bezier for motion planning of an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Yang, Jing; Ma, Chao; Rong, Haijun

    2017-08-01

    Vector Field Histogram (VFH) is a method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance. However, due to the nonholonomic constraints of the vehicle, the algorithm is seldom applied to autonomous vehicles. Especially when we expect the vehicle to reach target location in a certain direction, the algorithm is often unsatisfactory. Fortunately, the Bezier Curve is defined by the states of the starting point and the target point. We can use this feature to make the vehicle in the expected direction. Therefore, we propose an algorithm to combine the Bezier Curve with the VFH algorithm, to search for the collision-free states with the VFH search method, and to select the optimal trajectory point with the Bezier Curve as the reference line. This means that we will improve the cost function in the VFH algorithm by comparing the distance between candidate directions and reference line. Finally, select the closest direction to the reference line to be the optimal motion direction.

  20. Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

    To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

  1. Nonlinear finite element analysis of liquid sloshing in complex vehicle motion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolsen, Brynne; Wang, Liang; Shabana, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a new total Lagrangian continuum-based liquid sloshing model that can be systematically integrated with multibody system (MBS) algorithms in order to allow for studying complex motion scenarios. The new approach allows for accurately capturing the effect of the sloshing forces during curve negotiation, rapid lane change, and accelerating and braking scenarios. In these motion scenarios, the liquid experiences large displacements and significant changes in shape that can be captured effectively using the finite element (FE) absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). ANCF elements are used in this investigation to describe complex mesh geometries, to capture the change in inertia due to the change in the fluid shape, and to accurately calculate the centrifugal forces, which for flexible bodies do not take the simple form used in rigid body dynamics. A penalty formulation is used to define the contact between the rigid tank walls and the fluid. A fully nonlinear MBS truck model that includes a suspension system and Pacejka's brush tire model is developed. Specified motion trajectories are used to examine the vehicle dynamics in three different scenarios - deceleration during straight-line motion, rapid lane change, and curve negotiation. It is demonstrated that the liquid sloshing changes the contact forces between the tires and the ground - increasing the forces on certain wheels and decreasing the forces on other wheels. In cases of extreme sloshing, this dynamic behavior can negatively impact the vehicle stability by increasing the possibility of wheel lift and vehicle rollover.

  2. Metadata-Assisted Global Motion Estimation for Medium-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Video Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global motion estimation (GME is a key technology in unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVRS. However, when a UAV’s motion and behavior change significantly or the image information is not rich, traditional image-based methods for GME often perform poorly. Introducing bottom metadata can improve precision in a large-scale motion condition and reduce the dependence on unreliable image information. GME is divided into coarse and residual GME through coordinate transformation and based on the study hypotheses. In coarse GME, an auxiliary image is built to convert image matching from a wide baseline condition to a narrow baseline one. In residual GME, a novel information and contrast feature detection algorithm is proposed for big-block matching to maximize the use of reliable image information and ensure that the contents of interest are well estimated. Additionally, an image motion monitor is designed to select the appropriate processing strategy by monitoring the motion scales of translation, rotation, and zoom. A medium-altitude UAV is employed to collect three types of large-scale motion datasets. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and motion scale are computed. This study’s result is encouraging and applicable to other medium- or high-altitude UAVs with a similar system structure.

  3. Velocity and Motion Control of a Self-Balancing Vehicle Based on a Cascade Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Velazquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents balancing, velocity and motion control of a self-balancing vehicle. A cascade controller is implemented for both balancing control and angular velocity control. This controller is tested in simulations using a proposed mathematical model of the system. Motion control is achieved based on the kinematics of the robot. Control hardware is designed and integrated to implement the proposed controllers. Pitch is kept under 1° from the equilibrium position with no external disturbances. The linear cascade control is able to handle slight changes in the system dynamics, such as in the centre of mass and the slope on an inclined surface.

  4. Liveness-Based RRT Algorithm for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion planning is a crucial, basic issue in robotics, which aims at driving vehicles or robots towards to a given destination with various constraints, such as obstacles and limited resource. This paper presents a new version of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT, that is, liveness-based RRT (Li-RRT, to address autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs motion problem. Different from typical RRT, we define an index of each node in the random searching tree, called “liveness” in this paper, to describe the potential effectiveness during the expanding process. We show that Li-RRT is provably probabilistic completeness as original RRT. In addition, the expected time of returning a valid path with Li-RRT is obviously reduced. To verify the efficiency of our algorithm, numerical experiments are carried out in this paper.

  5. Experiential Learning in Vehicle Dynamics Education via Motion Simulation and Interactive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hulme, Kevin; Kasprzak, Edward; English, Ken; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Lewis, Kemper

    2009-01-01

    Creating active, student-centered learning situations in postsecondary education is an ongoing challenge for engineering educators. Contemporary students familiar with visually engaging and fast-paced games can find traditional classroom methods of lecture and guided laboratory experiments limiting. This paper presents a methodology that incorporates driving simulation, motion simulation, and educational practices into an engaging, gaming-inspired simulation framework for a vehicle dynamics c...

  6. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  7. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  8. Experiential Learning in Vehicle Dynamics Education via Motion Simulation and Interactive Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hulme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating active, student-centered learning situations in postsecondary education is an ongoing challenge for engineering educators. Contemporary students familiar with visually engaging and fast-paced games can find traditional classroom methods of lecture and guided laboratory experiments limiting. This paper presents a methodology that incorporates driving simulation, motion simulation, and educational practices into an engaging, gaming-inspired simulation framework for a vehicle dynamics curriculum. The approach is designed to promote active student participation in authentic engineering experiences that enhance learning about road vehicle dynamics. The paper presents the student use of physical simulation and large-scale visualization to discover the impact that design decisions have on vehicle design using a gaming interface. The approach is evaluated using two experiments incorporated into a sequence of two upper level mechanical engineering courses.

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2013-09-10

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras, sensors, or communication devices of micro air vehicles and to aid in the management of their power. The aerodynamic loads on flapping wings are simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method. Active wing shape morphing is considered to enhance the performance of the flapping motion. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to pinpoint the optimal kinematics maximizing the propellent efficiency. To benefit from the wing deformation, we place piezoelectric layers near the wing roots. Gauss law is used to estimate the electrical harvested power. We demonstrate that enough power can be generated to operate a camera. Numerical analysis shows the feasibility of exploiting wing morphing to harvest energy and improving the design and performance of micro air vehicles.

  10. Formulation of Equations of Motion for a Simply Supported Bridge under a Moving Railway Freight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy approach, the equations of motion in matrix form for the railway freight vehicle-bridge interaction system are derived, in which the dynamic contact forces between vehicle and bridge are considered as internal forces. The freight vehicle is modelled as a multi-rigid-body system, which comprises one car body, two bogie frames and four wheelsets. The bogie frame is linked with the car body through spring-dashpot suspension systems, and the bogie frame is rigidly linked with wheelsets. The bridge deck, together with railway track resting on bridge, is modelled as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam and its deflection is described by superimposing modes. The direct time integration method is applied to obtain the dynamic response of the vehicle-bridge interaction system at each time step. A computer program has been developed for analyzing this system. The correctness of the proposed procedure is confirmed by one numerical example. The effect of different beam mode numbers and various surface irregularities of beam on the dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge interaction system are investigated.

  11. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  12. Man-systems evaluation of moving base vehicle simulation motion cues. [human acceleration perception involving visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Brye, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A motion cue investigation program is reported that deals with human factor aspects of high fidelity vehicle simulation. General data on non-visual motion thresholds and specific threshold values are established for use as washout parameters in vehicle simulation. A general purpose similator is used to test the contradictory cue hypothesis that acceleration sensitivity is reduced during a vehicle control task involving visual feedback. The simulator provides varying acceleration levels. The method of forced choice is based on the theory of signal detect ability.

  13. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  14. Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV Flapping Motion Control Using an Immune Network with Different Immune Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Neural-Immunology/Memory Network to address the problem of motion control for flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs. This network is inspired by the human memory system as well as the immune system, and it is effective in attenuating the system errors and other lumped system uncertainties. In contrast to most existing Neural Networks, the convergence of this proposed Neural-Immunology/Memory Network can be theoretically proven. Both analyses and simulations that are based on different immune factors show that the proposed control method is effective in dealing with external disturbances, system nonlinearities, uncertainties and parameter variations.

  15. Imparting motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electro...

  16. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atman, Jamal; Popp, Manuel; Ruppelt, Jan; Trommer, Gert F

    2016-09-16

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV's navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P) problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.

  17. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Atman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.

  18. Theoretical research on laminar friction resistance in tubes in rolling motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Binghuo; Yu Lei; Yang Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    The model of laminar flow in tubes in rolling motion is established. The dimensionless correlation of velocity is derived, and the correlation of frictional resistance coefficient is also obtained. Of all the additional forces, only the tangential force effects on the flow. The effect of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the flow is counteracted. The correlation of average frictional resistance coefficient is the same with that of no rolling motion. The effect of rolling motion on frictional resistance coefficient of laminar flow diminishes with the increase of Reynolds number. (authors)

  19. Predicting the wheel rolling resistance regarding important motion parameters using the artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Gheshlaghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rolling resistance is one of the most substantial energy losses when the wheel moves on soft soil. Rolling resistance value optimization will help to improve energy efficiency. Accurate modeling of the interaction soil-tire is an important key to this optimization and has eliminated the need for costly field tests and has reduced the time required to test. Rolling resistance will change because of the tire and wheel motion parameters and characteristics of the ground surface. Some tire design parameters are more important such as the tire diameter, width, tire aspect ratio, lugs form, inflation pressure and mechanical properties of tire structure. On the other hand, the soil or ground surface characteristics include soil type; moisture content and bulk density have an important role in this phenomenon. In addition, the vertical load and the wheel motion parameters such as velocity and tire slip are the other factors which impact on tire rolling resistance. According to same studies about the rolling resistance of the wheel, the wheel is significantly affected by the dynamic load. Tire inflation pressure impacted on rolling resistance of tires that were moving on hard surfaces. Studies showed that the rolling resistance of tires with low inflation pressure (less than 100 kPa was too high. According to Zoz and Griss researches, increasing the tire pressure increases rolling resistance on soft soil but reduces the rolling resistance of on-road tires and tire-hard surface interaction. Based on these reports, the effect of velocity on tire rolling resistance for tractors and vehicles with low velocity (less than 5 meters per second is usually insignificant. According to Self and Summers studies, rolling resistance of the wheel is dramatically affected by dynamic load on the wheel. Artificial Neural Network is one of the best computational methods capable of complex regression estimation which is an advantage of this method compared with

  20. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  1. Metrological approach to the force exerted by the axle of a road vehicle in motion carrying liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruolo, Luciano Bruno; Pinto, Fernando Augusto de Noronha Castro

    2016-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are used for identifying the dynamic force exerted on the ground by axles of a vehicle. These systems are important for monitoring the gross vehicle weight and the vehicle axle load. Overweighted trucks on the roads increase pavement damage and traffic accidents. Knowing the accuracy of WIM systems is necessary. In the case of liquid transport the ‘sloshing effect’ affects this accuracy. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic measurement of the axle forces in vehicles carrying liquid during WIM up to 6 km h −1 . Laboratory experiments using one vehicle with six axles and liquid loads on different levels in weighing instruments are presented. A non-linear computational multi-mass-springs model was developed and laboratory experiments were carried out to show the acceleration influences on axle forces of vehicles with six axles and with and without baffles to vary the ‘sloshing effect’. (paper)

  2. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Keon Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  3. Intent-Estimation- and Motion-Model-Based Collision Avoidance Method for Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulin Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing collision avoidance methods for autonomous vehicles, which ignore the driving intent of detected vehicles, thus, cannot satisfy the requirements for autonomous driving in urban environments because of their high false detection rates of collisions with vehicles on winding roads and the missed detection rate of collisions with maneuvering vehicles. This study introduces an intent-estimation- and motion-model-based (IEMMB method to address these disadvantages. First, a state vector is constructed by combining the road structure and the moving state of detected vehicles. A Gaussian mixture model is used to learn the maneuvering patterns of vehicles from collected data, and the patterns are used to estimate the driving intent of the detected vehicles. Then, a desirable long-term trajectory is obtained by weighting time and comfort. The long-term trajectory and the short-term trajectory, which are predicted using a constant yaw rate motion model, are fused to achieve an accurate trajectory. Finally, considering the moving state of the autonomous vehicle, collisions can be detected and avoided. Experiments have shown that the intent estimation method performed well, achieving an accuracy of 91.7% on straight roads and an accuracy of 90.5% on winding roads, which is much higher than that achieved by the method that ignores the road structure. The average collision detection distance is increased by more than 8 m. In addition, the maximum yaw rate and acceleration during an evasive maneuver are decreased, indicating an improvement in the driving comfort.

  4. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  5. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Feng, Jinfu; Hu, Junhua; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass). A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  6. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  7. Modeling of the motion of automobile elastic wheel in real-time for creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakina, E. V.; Zotov, N. M.; Fedin, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Modeling of the motion of the elastic wheel of the vehicle in real-time is used in the tasks of constructing different models in the creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems, in the creation of automobile stand-simulators etc. The accuracy and the reliability of simulation of the parameters of the wheel motion in real-time when rolling with a slip within the given road conditions are determined not only by the choice of the model, but also by the inaccuracy and instability of the numerical calculation. It is established that the inaccuracy and instability of the calculation depend on the size of the step of integration and the numerical method being used. The analysis of these inaccuracy and instability when wheel rolling with a slip was made and recommendations for reducing them were developed. It is established that the total allowable range of steps of integration is 0.001.0.005 s; the strongest instability is manifested in the calculation of the angular and linear accelerations of the wheel; the weakest instability is manifested in the calculation of the translational velocity of the wheel and moving of the center of the wheel; the instability is less at large values of slip angle and on more slippery surfaces. A new method of the average acceleration is suggested, which allows to significantly reduce (up to 100%) the manifesting of instability of the solution in the calculation of all parameters of motion of the elastic wheel for different braking conditions and for the entire range of steps of integration. The results of research can be applied to the selection of control algorithms in vehicles motion control electronic systems and in the testing stand-simulators

  8. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  9. Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…

  10. Unmanned aerial vehicle-based structure from motion biomass inventory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Emily; Leslie, Monique; Fankhauser, Katie; Burnett, Jonathan; Wing, Michael G.; Thomas, Evan A.

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation restoration efforts require cost-effective, accurate, and replicable impact assessments. We present a method to use an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a GoPro digital camera to collect photogrammetric data of a 0.8-ha riparian restoration. A three-dimensional point cloud was created from the photos using "structure from motion" techniques. The point cloud was analyzed and compared to traditional, ground-based monitoring techniques. Ground-truth data were collected on 6.3% of the study site and averaged across the entire site to report stem heights in stems/ha in three height classes. The project site was divided into four analysis sections, one for derivation of parameters used in the UAV data analysis and the remaining three sections reserved for method validation. Comparing the ground-truth data to the UAV generated data produced an overall error of 21.6% and indicated an R2 value of 0.98. A Bland-Altman analysis indicated a 95% probability that the UAV stems/section result will be within 61 stems/section of the ground-truth data. The ground-truth data are reported with an 80% confidence interval of ±1032 stems/ha thus, the UAV was able to estimate stems well within this confidence interval.

  11. The Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) for Vehicle Motion State Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siwei; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Deng, Weiwen; Oh, Heekuck

    2016-07-16

    This paper proposes a multi-sensory Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) through extending innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) to estimate the motion state of the moving vehicles ahead. JAKF views Lidar and Radar data as the source of the local filters, which aims to adaptively adjust the measurement noise variance-covariance (V-C) matrix 'R' and the system noise V-C matrix 'Q'. Then, the global filter uses R to calculate the information allocation factor 'β' for data fusion. Finally, the global filter completes optimal data fusion and feeds back to the local filters to improve the measurement accuracy of the local filters. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that the JAKF has better adaptive ability and fault tolerance. JAKF enables one to bridge the gap of the accuracy difference of various sensors to improve the integral filtering effectivity. If any sensor breaks down, the filtered results of JAKF still can maintain a stable convergence rate. Moreover, the JAKF outperforms the conventional Kalman filter (CKF) and the innovation-based adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) with respect to the accuracy of displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively.

  12. Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymin, David J.

    This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory

  13. Effect of vertical ground motion on earthquake-induced derailment of railway vehicles over simply-supported bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhibin; Pei, Shiling; Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Hongyan; Qiang, Shizhong

    2016-11-01

    The running safety of railway vehicles on bridges can be negatively affected by earthquake events. This phenomenon has traditionally been investigated with only the lateral ground excitation component considered. This paper presented results from a numerical investigation on the contribution of vertical ground motion component to the derailment of vehicles on simply-supported bridges. A full nonlinear wheel-rail contact model was used in the investigation together with the Hertzian contact theory and nonlinear creepage theory, which allows the wheel to jump vertically and separate from the rail. The wheel-rail relative displacement was used as the criterion for derailment events. A total of 18 ground motion records were used in the analysis to account for the uncertainty of ground motions. The results showed that inclusion of vertical ground motion will likely increase the chance of derailment. It is recommended to include vertical ground motion component in earthquake induced derailment analysis to ensure conservative estimations. The derailment event on bridges was found to be more closely related to the deck acceleration rather than the ground acceleration.

  14. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Velescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids’ motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i velocity and pressure distributions, (ii average velocity, (iii volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv pressures difference, and (v radial clearance.

  15. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  16. Biogeography-based combinatorial strategy for efficient autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning and task-time management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, S. M.; Powers, D. M. W.; Sammut, K.; Yazdani, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are capable of spending long periods of time for carrying out various underwater missions and marine tasks. In this paper, a novel conflict-free motion planning framework is introduced to enhance underwater vehicle's mission performance by completing maximum number of highest priority tasks in a limited time through a large scale waypoint cluttered operating field, and ensuring safe deployment during the mission. The proposed combinatorial route-path planner model takes the advantages of the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm toward satisfying objectives of both higher-lower level motion planners and guarantees maximization of the mission productivity for a single vehicle operation. The performance of the model is investigated under different scenarios including the particular cost constraints in time-varying operating fields. To show the reliability of the proposed model, performance of each motion planner assessed separately and then statistical analysis is undertaken to evaluate the total performance of the entire model. The simulation results indicate the stability of the contributed model and its feasible application for real experiments.

  17. A High-Rate Virtual Instrument of Marine Vehicle Motions for Underwater Navigation and Ocean Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Gelin, Chrystel

    2013-01-01

    Dead-Reckoning aided with Doppler velocity measurement has been the most common method for underwater navigation for small vehicles. Unfortunately DR requires frequent position recalibrations and underwater vehicle navigation systems are limited to periodic position update when they surface. Finally standard Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are unable to provide the rate or precision required when used on a small vessel. To overcome this, a low cost high rate motion measurement system for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with underwater and oceanographic purposes is proposed. The proposed onboard system for the USV consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with accelerometers and rate gyros, a GPS receiver, a flux-gate compass, a roll and tilt sensor and an ADCP. Interfacing all the sensors proved rather challenging because of their different characteristics. The proposed data fusion technique integrates the sensors and develops an embeddable software package, using real time data fusion method...

  18. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  19. Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.

  20. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  1. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  2. ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF CHANGING THE SHOCK ABSORBER RESISTANCE FACTOR ON ACCELERATING THE VEHICLE SPRUNG MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rozhkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The change of acceleration of the vehicle sprung mass while changing the coefficient of resistance of the adaptive pendant shock absorber has been analyzed. Presentation of disturbing influence is taken as a harmonic function containing the initial phase. Solution of the system of differential equations is carried out taking into account the initial conditions. The mathematical modeling of the impact of the vehicle sprung mass vibrations at various moments of time of forming the actuating signal on the change of the coefficient of resistance allowed to formulate requirements to the system of adaptive suspension control.

  3. An Matching Method for Vehicle-borne Panoramic Image Sequence Based on Adaptive Structure from Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhengpeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panoramic image matching method with the constraint condition of local structure from motion similarity feature is an important method, the process requires multivariable kernel density estimations for the structure from motion feature used nonparametric mean shift. Proper selection of the kernel bandwidth is a critical step for convergence speed and accuracy of matching method. Variable bandwidth with adaptive structure from motion feature for panoramic image matching method has been proposed in this work. First the bandwidth matrix is defined using the locally adaptive spatial structure of the sampling point in spatial domain and optical flow domain. The relaxation diffusion process of structure from motion similarity feature is described by distance weighting method of local optical flow feature vector. Then the expression form of adaptive multivariate kernel density function is given out, and discusses the solution of the mean shift vector, termination conditions, and the seed point selection method. The final fusions of multi-scale SIFT the features and structure features to establish a unified panoramic image matching framework. The sphere panoramic images from vehicle-borne mobile measurement system are chosen such that a comparison analysis between fixed bandwidth and adaptive bandwidth is carried out in detail. The results show that adaptive bandwidth is good for case with the inlier ratio changes and the object space scale changes. The proposed method can realize the adaptive similarity measure of structure from motion feature, improves the correct matching points and matching rate, experimental results have shown our method to be robust.

  4. RESISTANCE TEST OF DEPOSITED ALUMINIUM LAYER ON PARABOLIC PARTS OF VEHICLE HEADLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ADAMIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a basic quality measurement in an automotive light industry. The experiment is based on a verification of reflective aluminium layer resistance against 100% humidity and higher temperature. This simulates the lifetime of a headlight on vehicle. The goal of this test is to prove that the reflective aluminium layer is able to resist to this environment without any changes in its structure. If any change occurs, the modification of production process will be needed.

  5. Co-Design Based Lateral Motion Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs have considerable advantages in terms of energy optimization, drivability and driving safety due to the remarkable actuation flexibility of electric motors. However, in their current implementations, various real-time data in the vehicle control system are exchanged via a controller area network (CAN, which causes network congestion and network-induced delays. These problems could lead to systemic instability and make the system integration difficult. The goal of this paper is to provide a design methodology that can cope with all these challenges for the lateral motion control of AWID-EVs. Firstly, a continuous-time model of an AWID-EV is derived. Then an expression for determining upper and lower bounds on the delays caused by CAN is presented and with which a discrete-time model of the closed-loop CAN system is derived. An expression on the bandwidth utilization is introduced as well. Thirdly, a co-design based scheme combining a period-dependent linear quadratic regulator (LQR and a dynamic period scheduler is designed for the resulting model and the stability criterion is also derived. The results of simulations and hard-in-loop (HIL experiments show that the proposed methodology can effectively guarantee the stability of the vehicle lateral motion control while obviously declining the network congestion.

  6. Vehicle lateral motion regulation under unreliable communication links based on robust H∞ output-feedback control schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Jing, Hui; Wang, Rongrong; Chen, Nan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a robust control schema for vehicle lateral motion regulation under unreliable communication links via controller area network (CAN). The communication links between the system plant and the controller are assumed to be imperfect and therefore the data packet dropouts occur frequently. The paper takes the form of parallel distributed compensation and treats the dropouts as random binary numbers that form Bernoulli distribution. Both of the tire cornering stiffness uncertainty and external disturbances are considered to enhance the robustness of the controller. In addition, a robust H∞ static output-feedback control approach is proposed to realize the lateral motion control with relative low cost sensors. The stochastic stability of the closed-loop system and conservation of the guaranteed H∞ performance are investigated. Simulation results based on CarSim platform using a high-fidelity and full-car model verify the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras

  8. Mathematical models of decision making on space vehicle motion control at fuzzy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanov, M.Z.; Ismail, E.E.; Oryspaev, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    the structure of decision making for control of spacecraft motion is considered. Mathematical models of decision making problems are investigated. New methods of criteria convolution are received. New convolution have properties of smoothness. (author)

  9. Motion Planning and Task Assignment for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Cooperating with Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-24

    constraints on its motion. This problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). In the second phase of the research we have...given constraints on its motion. This problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). The contributions of the study in the...assumptions were made on the magnitude of the intercity distances. The two algorithms complement each other in terms of their range of applicability

  10. An analytic solution of projectile motion with the quadratic resistance law using the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabushita, Kazuki; Yamashita, Mariko; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of two-dimensional projectile motion in which the resistance acting on an object moving in air is proportional to the square of the velocity of the object (quadratic resistance law). It is well known that the quadratic resistance law is valid in the range of the Reynolds number: 1 x 10 3 ∼ 2 x 10 5 (for instance, a sphere) for practical situations, such as throwing a ball. It has been considered that the equations of motion of this case are unsolvable for a general projectile angle, although some solutions have been obtained for a small projectile angle using perturbation techniques. To obtain a general analytic solution, we apply Liao's homotopy analysis method to this problem. The homotopy analysis method, which is different from a perturbation technique, can be applied to a problem which does not include small parameters. We apply the homotopy analysis method for not only governing differential equations, but also an algebraic equation of a velocity vector to extend the radius of convergence. Ultimately, we obtain the analytic solution to this problem and investigate the validation of the solution

  11. Design of Fuzzy Enhanced Hierarchical Motion Stabilizing Controller of Unmanned Ground Vehicle in Three DimensionalSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, stabilizing control of tracked unmanned ground vehicle in 3-D space was presented. Firstly, models of major modules of tracked UGV were established. Next, to reveal the mechanism of disturbances applied on the UGV, two kinds of representative disturbances (slope and general disturbances in yaw motion were discussed in depth. Consequently, an attempting PID method was employed to compensate the impacts of disturbances andsimulation results proved the validity for disturbance incited by slope force, but revealed the lack for general disturbance on yaw motion. Finally, a hierarchical fuzzy controller combined with PID controller was proposed. In lower level, there were two PID controllers to compensate the disturbance of slope force, and on top level, the fuzzy logic controller was employed to correct the yaw motion error based on the differences between the model and the real UGV, which was able to guide the UGV maintain on the stable state. Simulation results demonstrated the excellent effectiveness of the newly designed controller.

  12. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova G. Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS. The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment. Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°. Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness. Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.

  13. International Conference on Heavy Vehicles : HVParis 2008 : Weigh-In-Motion (ICWIM5)

    OpenAIRE

    JACOB, Bernard; O'BRIEN, Eugene; O'CONNOR, Alan; BOUTELDJA, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The conference addresses the broad range of technical issues related to heavy vehicles, surface transport technology, safety and weight measurement systems. It provides access to current research, best practice and related policy issues. It is a multi-disciplinary, inter-agency supported event.

  14. Passivity-based model predictive control for mobile vehicle motion planning

    CERN Document Server

    Tahirovic, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Passivity-based Model Predictive Control for Mobile Vehicle Navigation represents a complete theoretical approach to the adoption of passivity-based model predictive control (MPC) for autonomous vehicle navigation in both indoor and outdoor environments. The brief also introduces analysis of the worst-case scenario that might occur during the task execution. Some of the questions answered in the text include: • how to use an MPC optimization framework for the mobile vehicle navigation approach; • how to guarantee safe task completion even in complex environments including obstacle avoidance and sideslip and rollover avoidance; and  • what to expect in the worst-case scenario in which the roughness of the terrain leads the algorithm to generate the longest possible path to the goal. The passivity-based MPC approach provides a framework in which a wide range of complex vehicles can be accommodated to obtain a safer and more realizable tool during the path-planning stage. During task execution, the optimi...

  15. Assessing Constraints on Soldier Cognitive and Perceptual Motor Performance During Vehicle Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    vehicle systems are biomechanical (Sirouspour & Salcudean, 2003; Sövényi & Gillespie, 2007), cognitive (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997), and psychomotor...vs. velocity), pedals for braking/acceleration Environmental constraints associated with the support surface (Seat): Damping, inclination...steering and secondarily, performance differences between a joystick and pedals for throttle and brake control. Eleven participants com- pleted three

  16. Autonomous underwater vehicle motion tracking using a Kalman Filter for sensor fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen, S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AUVs are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures. In this paper...

  17. Autonomous underwater vehicle motion tracking using a Kalman filter for sensor fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available it will be shown how a Kalman Filter is used to estimate the position of an autonomous vehicle in a three dimensional space. The Kalman filter is used to estimate movement and position using measurements from multiple sensors...

  18. Parallel autonomy in automated vehicles : Safe motion generation with minimal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarting, Wilko; Alonso Mora, J.; Pauli, Liam; Karaman, Sertac; Rus, Daniela; Chen, I-Ming; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art vehicle safety systems, such as assistive braking or automatic lane following, are still only able to help in relatively simple driving situations. We introduce a Parallel Autonomy shared-control framework that produces safe trajectories based on human inputs even in much

  19. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.

    2016-04-07

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  20. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.; Shalaby, Mohamed; Passone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  1. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  2. Selection of Filtration Methods in the Analysis of Motion of Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzańska Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issues related to mapping the route and error correction in automated guided vehicle (AGV movement have been discussed. The nature and size of disruption have been determined using the registered runs in experimental studies. On the basis of the analysis a number of numerical runs have been generated, which mapped possible to obtain runs in a real movement of the vehicle. The obtained data set has been used for further research. The aim of this paper was to test the selected methods of digital filtering on the same data set and determine their effectiveness. The results of simulation studies have been presented in the article. The effectiveness of various methods has been determined and on this basis the conclusions have been drawn.

  3. Sampling-based real-time motion planning under state uncertainty for autonomous micro-aerial vehicles in GPS-denied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachuan; Li, Qing; Cheng, Nong; Song, Jingyan

    2014-11-18

    This paper presents a real-time motion planning approach for autonomous vehicles with complex dynamics and state uncertainty. The approach is motivated by the motion planning problem for autonomous vehicles navigating in GPS-denied dynamic environments, which involves non-linear and/or non-holonomic vehicle dynamics, incomplete state estimates, and constraints imposed by uncertain and cluttered environments. To address the above motion planning problem, we propose an extension of the closed-loop rapid belief trees, the closed-loop random belief trees (CL-RBT), which incorporates predictions of the position estimation uncertainty, using a factored form of the covariance provided by the Kalman filter-based estimator. The proposed motion planner operates by incrementally constructing a tree of dynamically feasible trajectories using the closed-loop prediction, while selecting candidate paths with low uncertainty using efficient covariance update and propagation. The algorithm can operate in real-time, continuously providing the controller with feasible paths for execution, enabling the vehicle to account for dynamic and uncertain environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate feasible trajectories that reduce the state estimation uncertainty, while handling complex vehicle dynamics and environment constraints.

  4. SIMULATION OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE CONTEXT OF SOLVING AN AUTONOMOUS ROBOTIC VEHICLE MOTION TASK ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLANE WITH OBSTACLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Prakapovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neurocontroller for autonomous robotic vehicle control, which is designed to generate control signals (according to preprogrammed motion algorithm and to develop individual reactions to some external impacts during functioning process, that allows the robot to adapt to external environment changes, is suggested. To debug and test the proposed neurocontroller a specially designed program, able to simulate the sensory and executive systems operation of the robotic vehicle, is used.

  5. Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments with Application to Self-Driving Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schwesinger, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of trajectory planning approaches targeting autonomous driving applications in dynamic environments shared with other traffic participants. The goal is to enable mobile robots to operate in challenging environments, characterized by narrow spaces and close proximity of other agents. With their broad range of private and commercial applications reaching from logistics to valet parking to name a few, driverless vehicles have gained increasing at...

  6. ANALYSIS OF PERTURBED MOTION STABILITY OF WHEELER VEHICLES BRAKES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verbytskiyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the perturbed motion stability of the brake automatic control system on the basis of Lyapunov’s second method is carried out. Using transformations of Lurie there has been ob-tained the canonical form of the system of equations of automatic control. It allowed determining the necessary and sufficient conditions of the asymptotic stability of the system irrespective of its initial condition and a definite choice of the admissible characteristic of the regulator.

  7. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between driver`s behavior and vehicle motion; Sharyo unten ni taisuru untensha no kyodo no teiryoka bunseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, H; Matsuura, Y [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, T

    1997-10-01

    In order to study the subject of driving safety about the human-vehicle interaction, driver`s maneuvering behavior was shot by CCD-cameras installed in a cabin and the motion of traveling vehicle was simultaneously taken by VTR-cameras set on the test course. These pictures were analyzed using the three-dimensional image processing system (Peak Motus system). Consequently, this system was effectively able to use for these measurements and analysis and introduced the correlation between the vehicle movement and the driver`s action. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Straight motion gear for vehicle brakes with electrical actuation; Translationsgetriebe fuer elektrisch betaetigte Fahrzeugbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, K.H.; Semsch, M. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    1998-01-01

    Electric brake systems and components are increasing in importance due to the easy wheel-selective operation in future vehicle concepts. Building electric brake systems economically is decisively dependent on the availability of wheel brakes suitable in terms of dynamic behaviour, energy requirements, space, size, reliability and costs. In particular, the coupling of the transducer and friction brake by means of a suitable gear system adapted to the requirements of a vehicle brake represents a problem which has not yet been satisfactorily solved. In Subproject B6 of the Sonderforschungsbereich 241-IMES, sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, research on new mechatronic brake systems is being conducted at the Automotive Engineering Department of Darmstadt University. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elektrische Bremssysteme und Komponenten gewinnen durch den leicht durchfuehrbaren radselektiven Eingriff bei kuenftigen Fahrzeugkonzepten eine zunehmende Bedeutung. Die wirtschaftliche Realisierung elektrischer Bremssysteme wird massgeblich von der Verfuegbarkeit geeigneter Radbremsen im Hinblick auf Dynamikverhalten, Energiebedarf, Bauraum, Masse, Zuverlaessigkeit und Kosten abhaengen. Besonders die Kopplung von Autor und Reibungsbremse durch ein geeignetes, an die Erfordernisse einer Fahrzeugbremse angepasstes Getriebesystem stellt ein bisher noch nicht befriedigend geloestes Problem dar. Im Teilprojekt B6 des Sonderforschungsbereiches 241-IMES, gefoerdert durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, werden hierzu an der Technischen Universitaet Darmstadt (TUD), Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik, mechatronische Bremssysteme entwickelt. (orig.)

  9. Fatigue resistance of rotary ProTaper Universal instruments after use with and without lateral pressure motion

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Evandro Pires; Pereira, Érika Sales Joviano; Peixoto, Isabella Faria da Cunha; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the fatigue resistance of rotary ProTaper Universal instruments after multiple clinical uses with and without lateral pressure motion. Methods: Thirty sets of ProTaper Universal (PTU) instruments (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), types S1, S2, F1 and F2, totaling 120 files, were analyzed and divided into three groups, as follows: Control Group (CG), with 10 sets of new instruments, which were fatigue tested until rupture to determine their fatigue resistance; Lat...

  10. Classification of resistance to passive motion using minimum probability of error criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H C; Manry, M T; Kondraske, G V

    1987-01-01

    Neurologists diagnose many muscular and nerve disorders by classifying the resistance to passive motion of patients' limbs. Over the past several years, a computer-based instrument has been developed for automated measurement and parameterization of this resistance. In the device, a voluntarily relaxed lower extremity is moved at constant velocity by a motorized driver. The torque exerted on the extremity by the machine is sampled, along with the angle of the extremity. In this paper a computerized technique is described for classifying a patient's condition as 'Normal' or 'Parkinson disease' (rigidity), from the torque versus angle curve for the knee joint. A Legendre polynomial, fit to the curve, is used to calculate a set of eight normally distributed features of the curve. The minimum probability of error approach is used to classify the curve as being from a normal or Parkinson disease patient. Data collected from 44 different subjects was processes and the results were compared with an independent physician's subjective assessment of rigidity. There is agreement in better than 95% of the cases, when all of the features are used.

  11. The Analysis of Motion Dynamics and Resistance of the Multipurpose Boat Operating in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kulczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polish market of small boats has been developed very dynamically in recent years. Market competition forces the shipyards to build new more efficient hull forms and to cut the cost of production as well. This is why modern computer simulation programs are used more often by naval architects. Another trend is to design more universal ships that may be used by larger number of diversified customers. This paper presents project proposal of multipurpose boat hull form. The boat was design to fulfil the requirements imposed by public services like water police, fire brigades, and border guards. It is supposed to be operated on unexplored floodplains and other type shallow waters. The analysis of boat’s motion was based on computer simulations. The resistance curve was evaluated with two methods: comparison study of model test results of similar ships and CFD methods. The results obtained from Ansys Fluent and FINE/Marine systems were compared in this paper. It was shown that taking into consideration dynamic trim and sinkage has a significant impact on free surface capture and resistance values.

  12. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  13. Orion Crew Module / Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Peter A.; Haddock, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    An Orion Crew Module Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and a Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing were designed during a summer 2014 internship in Kennedy Space Centers Structures and Mechanisms Design Branch. The simulator is a structure that supports ballast, which will be integrated into an existing Orion mock-up to simulate the mass properties of the Exploration Mission-1 flight vehicle in both fueled and unfueled states. The simulator mimics these configurations through the use of approximately 40,000 lbf of steel and water ballast, and a steel support structure. Draining four water tanks, which house the water ballast, transitions the simulator from the fueled to unfueled mass properties. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the simulator to verify and validate equipment used to maneuver and transport the Orion spacecraft in its fueled and unfueled configurations. The second design comprises a cantilevered tripod hoist structure that provides the capability to position a large Orion Service Module Umbilical in proximity to the Vehicle Motion Simulator. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the Vehicle Motion Simulator, with the hoist structure attached, to test the Orion Service Module Umbilical for proper operation prior to installation on the Mobile Launcher. Overall, these two designs provide NASA engineers viable concepts worthy of fabricating and placing into service to prepare for the launch of Orion in 2017.

  14. Analysis of projectile motion with quadratic air resistance from a nonzero height using the Lambert W function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Hadj Belgacem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Lambert W function, the quadratic resisted projectile motion with an approximation of low-angle trajectory has been studied where the launching point is assumed to be higher than the landing point. Analytical solutions for the range and the time of flight are presented in terms of the secondary branch of the Lambert function W−1.

  15. An Evaluation of the Frequency and Severity of Motion Sickness Incidences in Personnel Within the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and severity of motion sickness in personnel during a field exercise in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). This vehicle contains four workstations where military personnel are expected to perform command decisions in the field during combat conditions. Eight active duty military men (U.S. Army) at the Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona participated in this study. All subjects were given baseline performance tests while their physiological responses were monitored on the first day. On the second day of their participation, subjects rode in the C2V while their physiological responses and performance measures were recorded. Self-reports of motion sickness were also recorded. Results showed that only one subject experienced two incidences of emesis. However, seven out of the eight subjects reported other motion sickness symptoms; most predominant was the report of drowsiness, which occurred a total of 19 times. Changes in physiological responses were observed relative to motion sickness symptoms reported and the different environmental conditions (i.e., level, hills, gravel) during the field exercise. Performance data showed an overall decrement during the C2V exercise. These findings suggest that malaise and severe drowsiness can potentially impact the operational efficiency of the C2V crew. It was concluded that conflicting sensory information from the subject's visual displays and movements of the vehicle during the field exercise significantly contributed to motion sickness symptoms. It was recommended that a second study be conducted to further evaluate the impact of seat position or orientation and C2V experience on motion sickness susceptibility. Further, it was recommended that an investigation be performed on behavioral methods for improving crew alertness, motivation, and performance and for reducing malaise.

  16. Characterizing ground motions that collapse steel special moment-resisting frames or make them unrepairable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Hall, John F.

    2015-01-01

    This work applies 64,765 simulated seismic ground motions to four models each of 6- or 20-story, steel special moment-resisting frame buildings. We consider two vector intensity measures and categorize the building response as “collapsed,” “unrepairable,” or “repairable.” We then propose regression models to predict the building responses from the intensity measures. The best models for “collapse” or “unrepairable” use peak ground displacement and velocity as intensity measures, and the best models predicting peak interstory drift ratio, given that the frame model is “repairable,” use spectral acceleration and epsilon (ϵ) as intensity measures. The more flexible frame is always more likely than the stiffer frame to “collapse” or be “unrepairable.” A frame with fracture-prone welds is substantially more susceptible to “collapse” or “unrepairable” damage than the equivalent frame with sound welds. The 20-story frames with fracture-prone welds are more vulnerable to P-delta instability and have a much higher probability of collapse than do any of the 6-story frames.

  17. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV for High-Resolution Reconstruction of Topography: The Structure from Motion Approach on Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of high-resolution Digital Surface Models of coastal environments is of increasing interest for scientists involved in the study of the coastal system processes. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of the Structure from Motion (SfM approach to low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The SfM image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a dense point cloud and successively a high-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSM of a beach dune system in Marina di Ravenna (Italy. The quality of the elevation dataset produced by the UAV-SfM was initially evaluated by comparison with point cloud generated by a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS surveys. Such a comparison served to highlight an average difference in the vertical values of 0.05 m (RMS = 0.19 m. However, although the points cloud comparison is the best approach to investigate the absolute or relative correspondence between UAV and TLS methods, the assessment of geomorphic features is usually based on multi-temporal surfaces analysis, where an interpolation process is required. DSMs were therefore generated from UAV and TLS points clouds and vertical absolute accuracies assessed by comparison with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS survey. The vertical comparison of UAV and TLS DSMs with respect to GNSS measurements pointed out an average distance at cm-level (RMS = 0.011 m. The successive point by point direct comparison between UAV and TLS elevations show a very small average distance, 0.015 m, with RMS = 0.220 m. Larger values are encountered in areas where sudden changes in topography are present. The UAV-based approach was demonstrated to be a straightforward one and accuracy of the vertical dataset

  18. Cyclic fatigue resistance of RaCe and Mtwo rotary files in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadhana, Sekar; SaravanaKarthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Nandini, Suresh; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) rotary files in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. A total of 60 new rotary Mtwo and RaCe files (ISO size = 25, taper = 0.06, length = 25 mm) were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 15 each): Mtc (Mtwo NiTi files in continuous rotation), Rc (RaCe NiTi files in continuous rotation), Mtr (Mtwo NiTi files in reciprocating motion), and Rr (RaCe NiTi files in reciprocating motion). A cyclic fatigue testing device was fabricated with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius. All instruments were rotated or reciprocated until fracture occurred. The time taken for each instrument to fracture and the length of the broken fragments were recorded. All the fractured files were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope to detect the mode of fracture. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of samples distribution, and statistical analysis was performed using the independent sample t test. The time taken for the instruments of the Mtr and Rr groups to fail under cyclic loading was significantly longer compared with the Mtc and Rc groups (P ductile mode of fracture. The length of the fractured segments was between 5 and 6 mm, which was not statistically significant among the experimental groups. Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments showed a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance in reciprocating motion compared with continuous rotation motion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimum differential terms for lateral motion control performance on the vehicle; Yokoundo seigyo seino ni oyobosu hisenkei bibunko no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamori, A [Japan Consumer Information Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakaya, H [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As general knowledge, the lateral control performance of vehicle improves as differential terms increases. But subjective rating has its limits of effect. The coefficient of differential terms and saturated steer angle velocity were set up using the experimental vehicle in several steps. Consequently, the optimum range, that subjective and objective rating were compatible, were made clear. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Recovery of BMIPP uptake and regional wall motion in insulin resistant patients following angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Takayuki; Ishii, Yoshinao; Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Hirasawa, Kunihiko; Tateda, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2003-09-01

    The effect of insulin resistance (IR) on the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium, and therefore on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) wall motion, has not been established in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of consecutive 58 non-diabetic AMI patients who had successfully undergone emergency coronary angioplasty were analyzed retrospectively. They were categorized into 2 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The parameters of OGTT, myocardial scintigraphy (n=58) (thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)) and left ventriculography (n=24) were compared in the 2 groups after reperfusion (acute phase) and 3-4 weeks after the AMI (chronic phase). The insulin resistance (IR), estimated by the serum concentration of insulin at 120 min (IRI 120') of the OGTT and by the HOMA (the homeostasis model assessment) index, was higher in the IGT group than in NGT group. An inverse correlation was found between the recovery of regional LV wall motion in the ischemic lesion and the IRI 120' and HOMA index. Although the recovery of BMIPP uptake from the acute to the chronic phase was higher in the IGT group, it was only correlated with the degree of IRI 120', not with the HOMA. IR accompanied by IGT can negatively influence the recovery of regional LV wall motion.

  1. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  2. Resistance and resilience of tundra plant communities to disturbance by winter seismic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, N.A.; Raynolds, M.K.; Jorgenson, J.C.; DuBois, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of winter seismic exploration on arctic tundra were evaluated on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, four to five growing seasons after disturbance. Plant cover, active layer depths, and track depression were measured at plots representing major tundra plant communities and different levels of initial disturbance. Results are compared with the initial effects reported earlier. Little resilience was seen in any vegetation type, with no clearly decreasing trends in community dissimilarity. Active layer depths remained greater on plots in all nonriparian vegetation types, and most plots still had visible trails. Decreases in plant cover persisted on most plots, although a few species showed recovery or increases in cover above predisturbance level. Moist sedge-shrub tundra and dryas terraces had the largest community dissimilarities initially, showing the least resistance to high levels of winter vehicle disturbance. Community dissimilarity continued to increase for five seasons in moist sedge-shrub tundra, with species composition changing to higher sedge cover and lower shrub cover. The resilience amplitude may have been exceeded on four plots which had significant track depression

  3. Why is it so difficult to determine the lateral Position of the Rails by a Measurement of the Motion of an Axle on a moving Vehicle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    impossible to draw any conclusions. We may therefore ask: does a wheel set follow the track disturbances exactly? In this article we investigate the lateral dynamics of a half-car vehicle model with two-axle bogies running on a rigid tangent track with sinusoidal lateral disturbances of the rails...... or period or several of these together. The results are discussed, and we must conclude that it is in general impossible to determine the track geometry from the motion of a wheel set....

  4. Transient Acoustic Environment Prediction Tool for Launch Vehicles in Motion during Early Lift-Off, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicles experience extreme acoustic loads dominated by rocket exhaust plume interactions with ground structures during lift-off, which can produce damaging...

  5. Evaluation equivalent pulse of pulse-like ground motion to estimate the response of RC moment-resisting frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Rohollah Hosseini Vaez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ability of equivalent pulse extracted by a mathematical model from pulse-like ground motion is investigated in order to estimate the response of RC moment-resisting frames. By examining the mathematical model, it is obvious that the model-based elastic response spectra are compatible with the actual pulse-like record. Also, the model simulates the long-period portion of actual pulse-like records by a high level of precision. The results indicate that the model adequately simulates the components of time histories. In order to investigate the ability of equivalent pulse of pulse-like ground motion in estimating the response of RC moment-resisting frames, five frame models including 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 stories analyzed under actual record and simulated one. The results of the base shear demand, the maximum value of the inter-story drift and the distribution of inter-story drift along the height of the structures in three levels of design ductility is investigated. According to the results of this study, the equivalent pulses can predict accurately the response of regular RC moment-resisting frames when the fundamental period of the structure is equal to or greater than the equivalent pulse of the record. For the ground motion with high-frequency content the difference is high; but with increasing the number of stories and approaching pulse period to the fundamental period of the structure and increasing the level of design ductility of structure, more accurately predict the structural response.

  6. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  7. Recovery of BMIPP uptake and regional wall motion in insulin resistant patients following angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, Takayuki; Ishii, Yoshinao; Hirasawa, Kunihiko; Tateda, Kunihiko [Asahikawa City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan); Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    The effect of insulin resistance (IR) on the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium, and therefore on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) wall motion, has not been established in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of consecutive 58 non-diabetic AMI patients who had successfully undergone emergency coronary angioplasty were analyzed retrospectively. They were categorized into 2 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The parameters of OGTT, myocardial scintigraphy (n=58) (thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-{beta}-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)) and left ventriculography (n=24) were compared in the 2 groups after reperfusion (acute phase) and 3-4 weeks after the AMI (chronic phase). The IR, estimated by the serum concentration of insulin at 120 min (IRI 120') of the OGTT and by the HOMA (the homeostasis model assessment) index, was higher in the IGT group than in NGT group. An inverse correlation was found between the recovery of regional LV wall motion in the ischemic lesion and the IRI 120' and HOMA index. Although the recovery of BMIPP uptake from the acute to the chronic phase was higher in the IGT group, it was only correlated with the degree of IRI 120', not with the HOMA. IR accompanied by IGT can negatively influence the recovery of regional LV wall motion. (author)

  8. Recovery of BMIPP uptake and regional wall motion in insulin resistant patients following angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Takayuki; Ishii, Yoshinao; Hirasawa, Kunihiko; Tateda, Kunihiko; Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insulin resistance (IR) on the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium, and therefore on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) wall motion, has not been established in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of consecutive 58 non-diabetic AMI patients who had successfully undergone emergency coronary angioplasty were analyzed retrospectively. They were categorized into 2 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The parameters of OGTT, myocardial scintigraphy (n=58) (thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-β-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)) and left ventriculography (n=24) were compared in the 2 groups after reperfusion (acute phase) and 3-4 weeks after the AMI (chronic phase). The IR, estimated by the serum concentration of insulin at 120 min (IRI 120') of the OGTT and by the HOMA (the homeostasis model assessment) index, was higher in the IGT group than in NGT group. An inverse correlation was found between the recovery of regional LV wall motion in the ischemic lesion and the IRI 120' and HOMA index. Although the recovery of BMIPP uptake from the acute to the chronic phase was higher in the IGT group, it was only correlated with the degree of IRI 120', not with the HOMA. IR accompanied by IGT can negatively influence the recovery of regional LV wall motion. (author)

  9. 75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... that the challenge was to push to a level where the safety benefits are still reasonable in relation to... it is inequitable to those who travel in large vans and large sport utility vehicles (SUVs) for those... pickup trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles that have the capacity to seat three or more occupants...

  10. 76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., power train, steering system, suspension system, and braking system, in the state that those systems are..., Light Vehicle Brake Systems; 204, Steering Control Rearward Displacement; 201, Occupant Protection in... the incomplete vehicle by final-stage manufacturers, the regulatory system of ``pass-through...

  11. Robust motion artefact resistant circuit for calculation of Mean Arterial Pressure from pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tinish; Gupta, Ankesh; Singh, Salam ThoiThoi; Roy, Sitikantha; Prasad, Anamika

    2017-07-01

    Cuff-less and non-invasive methods of Blood Pressure (BP) monitoring have faced a lot of challenges like stability, noise, motion artefact and requirement for calibration. These factors are the major reasons why such devices do not get approval from the medical community easily. One such method is calculating Blood Pressure indirectly from pulse transit time (PTT) obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG). In this paper we have proposed two novel analog signal conditioning circuits for ECG and PPG that increase stability, remove motion artefacts, remove the sinusoidal wavering of the ECG baseline due to respiration and provide consistent digital pulses corresponding to blood pulses/heart-beat. We have combined these two systems to obtain the PTT and then correlated it with the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP). The aim was to perform major part of the processing in analog domain to decrease processing load over microcontroller so as to reduce cost and make it simple and robust. We have found from our experiments that the proposed circuits can calculate the Heart Rate (HR) with a maximum error of ~3.0% and MAP with a maximum error of ~2.4% at rest and ~4.6% in motion.

  12. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  13. Jointly reconstructing ground motion and resistivity for ERT-based slope stability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alistair; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Adler, Andy

    2018-02-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly being used to investigate unstable slopes and monitor the hydrogeological processes within. But movement of electrodes or incorrect placement of electrodes with respect to an assumed model can introduce significant resistivity artefacts into the reconstruction. In this work, we demonstrate a joint resistivity and electrode movement reconstruction algorithm within an iterative Gauss-Newton framework. We apply this to ERT monitoring data from an active slow-moving landslide in the UK. Results show fewer resistivity artefacts and suggest that electrode movement and resistivity can be reconstructed at the same time under certain conditions. A new 2.5-D formulation for the electrode position Jacobian is developed and is shown to give accurate numerical solutions when compared to the adjoint method on 3-D models. On large finite element meshes, the calculation time of the newly developed approach was also proven to be orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D adjoint method and addressed modelling errors in the 2-D perturbation and adjoint electrode position Jacobian.

  14. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  15. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  16. A Temperature Compensation Method for Piezo-Resistive Pressure Sensor Utilizing Chaotic Ions Motion Algorithm Optimized Hybrid Kernel LSSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A piezo-resistive pressure sensor is made of silicon, the nature of which is considerably influenced by ambient temperature. The effect of temperature should be eliminated during the working period in expectation of linear output. To deal with this issue, an approach consists of a hybrid kernel Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM optimized by a chaotic ions motion algorithm presented. To achieve the learning and generalization for excellent performance, a hybrid kernel function, constructed by a local kernel as Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel, and a global kernel as polynomial kernel is incorporated into the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The chaotic ions motion algorithm is introduced to find the best hyper-parameters of the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The temperature data from a calibration experiment is conducted to validate the proposed method. With attention on algorithm robustness and engineering applications, the compensation result shows the proposed scheme outperforms other compared methods on several performance measures as maximum absolute relative error, minimum absolute relative error mean and variance of the averaged value on fifty runs. Furthermore, the proposed temperature compensation approach lays a foundation for more extensive research.

  17. A Temperature Compensation Method for Piezo-Resistive Pressure Sensor Utilizing Chaotic Ions Motion Algorithm Optimized Hybrid Kernel LSSVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Yonghong; Zou, Chong; Peng, Wei; Alam Sm, Jahangir

    2016-10-14

    A piezo-resistive pressure sensor is made of silicon, the nature of which is considerably influenced by ambient temperature. The effect of temperature should be eliminated during the working period in expectation of linear output. To deal with this issue, an approach consists of a hybrid kernel Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) optimized by a chaotic ions motion algorithm presented. To achieve the learning and generalization for excellent performance, a hybrid kernel function, constructed by a local kernel as Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel, and a global kernel as polynomial kernel is incorporated into the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The chaotic ions motion algorithm is introduced to find the best hyper-parameters of the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The temperature data from a calibration experiment is conducted to validate the proposed method. With attention on algorithm robustness and engineering applications, the compensation result shows the proposed scheme outperforms other compared methods on several performance measures as maximum absolute relative error, minimum absolute relative error mean and variance of the averaged value on fifty runs. Furthermore, the proposed temperature compensation approach lays a foundation for more extensive research.

  18. Measurement method of a motion of traveling vehicle via three-dimensional image processing system; Sanjigen gazo kaisekiho ni yoru sharyo undo no keisoku to sono bunseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Matsuura, Y [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motion of traveling vehicle was taken by VTR-cameras set on the test course, as well as it also was measured by conventional measurement methods using sensors and devices installed in the vehicle. lotion pictures of the VTR were analyzed using three-dimensional image processing system (Peak lotus system). As a result, this system was especially effective for the measurement of traveling traces of the actual vehicle and the results were good agreement with the data obtained by conventional measurement methods. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  19. An Enhanced Error Model for EKF-Based Tightly-Coupled Integration of GPS and Land Vehicle's Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Tashfeen B; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-22

    Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based on the assumption that the vehicle is mostly moving on a flat horizontal plane. Another limitation is the simplified estimation of the horizontal tilt angles, which is based on simple averaging of the accelerometers' measurements without modelling their errors or tilt angle errors. In this paper, a new error model is developed for RISS that accounts for the effect of tilt angle errors and the accelerometer's errors. Additionally, it also includes important terms in the system dynamic error model, which were ignored during the linearization process in earlier works. An augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to incorporate tilt angle errors and transversal accelerometer errors. The new error model and the augmented EKF design are developed in a tightly-coupled RISS/GPS integrated navigation system. The proposed system was tested on real trajectories' data under degraded GPS environments, and the results were compared to earlier works on RISS/GPS systems. The findings demonstrated that the proposed enhanced system introduced significant improvements in navigational performance.

  20. 75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...-Stage Vehicles A. Introduction B. The Current Certification Scheme Is Not an Unlawful Delegation of...-stage manufacturers.\\20\\ As a group, final-stage manufacturers do not operate in an informational vacuum... that it demonstrated through the submission of IVDs with its petition that NHTSA's market forces theory...

  1. RAW TROPICAL OYSTERS AS VEHICLES FOR MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from fresh and frozen oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae sold in Fortaleza-Brazil. An antibiogram was performed on 87 isolates using nine antibiotics: gentamicin (Gen 10 µg, ampicillin (Amp 10 µg, penicillin G (Pen 10U, ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg, chloramphenicol (Chl 30 µg, nalidixic acid (Nal 30 µg, tetracycline (Tet 30 µg, vancomycin (Van 30 µg and erythromycin (Ery 15 µg. All strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 85 (97.7% were multi-resistant, with predominance of the Van+ Pen+Amp resistance profile (n = 46. Plasmid resistance to Pen, Amp and Ery was detected. Thus, the risk that raw oyster consumption poses to the health of consumers is highlighted, due to the fact that these bivalves may host antibacterial-resistant microorganisms.

  2. Protocol optimization of sacroiliac joint MR Imaging at 3 Tesla: Impact of coil design and motion resistant sequences on image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, P A; Bravetti, M; Hossu, G; Lecocq, S; Petit, D; Loeuille, D; Blum, A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of coil design and motion-resistant sequences on the quality of sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in patients with spondyloarthropathy. One hundred and twenty-one patients with suspected sacroiliitis and referred for MRI of the sacroiliac joints were retrospectively evaluated with MRI at 3-Tesla. There were 78 women and 43 men with a mean age of 36.7±11.5 (SD) years (range: 15.8-78.4 years). Conventional and motion-resistant fat-saturated fast-spin echo T2-weighted sequences were performed with two different coils. Image quality was subjectively evaluated by two independent readers (R1 and R2) using a four-point scale. Confidence in the identification of bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) was also evaluated subjectively using a three-point scale. Phased array body coil yielded improved image quality compared to surface coil (14.1 to 30.4% for R1 and 14.6 to 25.7% for R2; Pcoil with motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence (kappa 0.990). The smallest number of indeterminate BMEP zones was seen on MRI set acquired with the phased-array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence. Phased array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequences perform better than surface coil and conventional T2-weighted sequences for the evaluation of sacroiliac joints, increasing confidence in the identification of BMEP. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-yu; Xie, Chang; Zhang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Da-gang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the ice-going ship's performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.

  4. An Automated Technique for Generating Georectified Mosaics from Ultra-High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery, Based on Structure from Motion (SfM Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Watson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are an exciting new remote sensing tool capable of acquiring high resolution spatial data. Remote sensing with UAVs has the potential to provide imagery at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. The small footprint of UAV imagery, however, makes it necessary to develop automated techniques to geometrically rectify and mosaic the imagery such that larger areas can be monitored. In this paper, we present a technique for geometric correction and mosaicking of UAV photography using feature matching and Structure from Motion (SfM photogrammetric techniques. Images are processed to create three dimensional point clouds, initially in an arbitrary model space. The point clouds are transformed into a real-world coordinate system using either a direct georeferencing technique that uses estimated camera positions or via a Ground Control Point (GCP technique that uses automatically identified GCPs within the point cloud. The point cloud is then used to generate a Digital Terrain Model (DTM required for rectification of the images. Subsequent georeferenced images are then joined together to form a mosaic of the study area. The absolute spatial accuracy of the direct technique was found to be 65–120 cm whilst the GCP technique achieves an accuracy of approximately 10–15 cm.

  5. Using unmanned aerial vehicles and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to characterize sedimentary outcrops: An example from the Morrison Formation, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, J. T.; Leier, A. L.; White, S.; Torres, R.

    2017-06-01

    Recently developed data collection techniques allow for improved characterization of sedimentary outcrops. Here, we outline a workflow that utilizes unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce sub-meter-scale outcrop reconstructions in 3-D. SfM photogrammetry uses multiple overlapping images and an image-based terrain extraction algorithm to reconstruct the location of individual points from the photographs in 3-D space. The results of this technique can be used to construct point clouds, orthomosaics, and digital surface models that can be imported into GIS and related software for further study. The accuracy of the reconstructed outcrops, with respect to an absolute framework, is improved with geotagged images or independently gathered ground control points, and the internal accuracy of 3-D reconstructions is sufficient for sub-meter scale measurements. We demonstrate this approach with a case study from central Utah, USA, where UAV-SfM data can help delineate complex features within Jurassic fluvial sandstones.

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jonathan K; van Balen, Joany; Crawford, John Mac; Wilkins, John R; Lee, Jiyoung; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Hoet, Armando E

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in public transportation in the United States. This research sought to determine the background prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA strains circulating on buses from a large, metropolitan transportation agency. Electrostatic wipes were used to collect 237 surface samples from 40 buses randomly selected from July-October 2010. Six samples were collected from each bus immediately postservice and before any cleaning and disinfection. Positive isolates were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; and potential epidemiologic factors were examined. Of the buses, 68% (27/40) were contaminated with S aureus, and 63% (25/40) were contaminated with MRSA. Seats and seat rails were the surfaces most frequently contaminated, followed by the back door and stanchions. Most (62.9%) of the MRSA isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type IV), and 22.9% were health care-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type II). Of the MRSA strains, 65% (5/20) were multidrug resistant. MRSA was frequently isolated from commonly touched surfaces in buses serving both hospital and community routes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis demonstrated that buses may be effective mixing vessels for MRSA strains of both community and health care-associated origin. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  8. Vehicle Animation Software (VAS) to Animate Results Obtained from Vehicle Handling and Rollover Simulations and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Results from vehicle computer simulations usually take the form of numeric data or graphs. While these graphs provide the investigator with the insight into vehicle behavior, it may be difficult to use these graphs to assess complex vehicle motion. C...

  9. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  10. Determination of an Optimal Control Strategy for a Generic Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    TERMS Autonomous Vehicles Boundary Value Problem Dynamic Programming Surface Vehicles Optimal Control Path Planning 16...to follow prescribed motion trajectories. In particular, for autonomous vehicles , this motion trajectory is given by the determination of the

  11. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  12. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Ruud J A W; Cardullo, Frank M.; Bos, Jelte E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  13. The effect of moment redistribution on the stability of reinforced concrete moment resisting frame buildings under the ground motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Golpayegani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years some studies have been done on the moment rredistribution in buildings and new methods offered for calculating of redistribution. Observations demonstrated that the combination of moment and shear force is important in analysis of reinforced concrete structures. But little research is done about the effect of redistribution by using moding in software. In order to study the effect of moment redistribution on the stability of RC moment resisting frame structures, four buildings with 4, 7, 10 and 13 story have been considered. In these models, the nonlinear behavior of elements (beam and column is considered by the use of interaction PMM hinges. The average plastic rotation was calculated by performing pushover analysis and storing stiffness matrix for 5 points and then the buckling coefficients were obtained by conducting buckling analysis. By the use of modal analysis natural frequency was calculated and it was attempted to be related the average plastic rotation with the buckling coefficients and the natural frequency.   It could be concluded that increase in the plastic rotation reduce the buckling coefficients to about 96% which this amount of reduction is related to the average plastic rotation. Moreover, the buildings experience instability state when the average plastic rotation reached to 0.006 radian.

  14. An Innovative Framework for Delivering Psychotherapy to Patients With Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Rationale for Interactive Motion-Assisted Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke J. van Gelderen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders. In the current paper we explore if a combination of personalized virtual reality, multi-sensory input, and walking during exposure can enhance treatment engagement, overcome avoidance, and thereby optimize treatment effectiveness. Virtual reality holds potential to increase presence and in-session attention and to facilitate memory retrieval. Multi-sensory input such as pictures and music can personalize this experience. Evidence for the positive effect of physical activity on fear extinction and associative thinking, as well as embodied cognition theories, provide a rationale for decreased avoidance by literally approaching cues of the traumatic memories. A dual-attention task further facilitates new learning and reconsolidation. These strategies have been combined in an innovative framework for trauma-focused psychotherapy, named Multi-modular Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reconsolidation (3MDR. In this innovative treatment the therapeutic setting is changed from the face-to-face sedentary position to a side-by-side activating context in which patients walk toward trauma-related images in a virtual environment. The framework of 3MDR has been designed as a boost for patients with treatment-resistant PTSD, which is illustrated by three case examples. The intervention is discussed in context of other advancements in treatment for treatment-resistant PTSD. Novel elements of this approach are

  15. An Innovative Framework for Delivering Psychotherapy to Patients With Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Rationale for Interactive Motion-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marieke J; Nijdam, Mirjam J; Vermetten, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders. In the current paper we explore if a combination of personalized virtual reality, multi-sensory input, and walking during exposure can enhance treatment engagement, overcome avoidance, and thereby optimize treatment effectiveness. Virtual reality holds potential to increase presence and in-session attention and to facilitate memory retrieval. Multi-sensory input such as pictures and music can personalize this experience. Evidence for the positive effect of physical activity on fear extinction and associative thinking, as well as embodied cognition theories, provide a rationale for decreased avoidance by literally approaching cues of the traumatic memories. A dual-attention task further facilitates new learning and reconsolidation. These strategies have been combined in an innovative framework for trauma-focused psychotherapy, named Multi-modular Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reconsolidation (3MDR). In this innovative treatment the therapeutic setting is changed from the face-to-face sedentary position to a side-by-side activating context in which patients walk toward trauma-related images in a virtual environment. The framework of 3MDR has been designed as a boost for patients with treatment-resistant PTSD, which is illustrated by three case examples. The intervention is discussed in context of other advancements in treatment for treatment-resistant PTSD. Novel elements of this approach are activation

  16. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  17. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  18. Can innovative business models overcome resistance to electric vehicles? Better Place and battery electric cars in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budde Christensen, Thomas; Wells, Peter; Cipcigan, Liana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the geographical and policy context for an emergent business model from Better Place to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. It argues that the combination of radically different technologies and a highly complex multi-agency operating environment theoretically provide the conditions and requirements for such an emergent business model. While focused on battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids, the paper has wider applicability to an understanding of the interplay between place, innovation and sustainability which suggests that diverse solutions are likely to be the characteristic solution rather than ubiquity and standardization. The paper argues, however, that the innovative business model, the deployment of electric vehicles, and the use of renewable energy systems, in this case largely based on wind power, while mutually supportive and contributing to wider policy aims with respect to the reduction of carbon emissions, may still fail in the face of entrenched practices. At the theoretical level it is concluded that theorization of business models needs a broader perspective beyond the typical ‘value creation, value capture’ rubric to better understand the wider role such models have in meeting societal goals, and to understand the structural impediments to organizational and technical innovation. - Highlights: ► We explore the context for an innovative emergent business model to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. ► We explore the interplay between battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids. ► We discuss the integration of electric cars in energy systems based on renewable energy sources. ► We discuss the likely success of the Better Place business model.

  19. Motion sickness symptoms in a ship motion simulator: effects of inside, outside, and no view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; MacKinnon, S.N.; Patterson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Vehicle motion characteristics differ between air, road, and sea environments, both vestibularly and visually. Effects of vision on motion sickness have been studied before, though less systematically in a naval setting. It is hypothesized that appropriate visual information on self-motion is

  20. Ready-to-eat street-vended food as a potential vehicle of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: An exploratory study in Porto region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joana; Gil, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia

    2015-08-03

    )/ST297] and the two L. monocytogenes clones were spread in different samples/trailers, suggesting cross-contamination or a common source of contamination. This exploratory study, in Porto region, showed ready-to-eat street foods from vending trailers as potential vehicles of clinically relevant L. monocytogenes serotypes and/or E. coli carrying clinically relevant virulence/antibiotic resistance features, and food-handlers as a critical risk factor in this expanding food sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Space robot simulator vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  2. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  3. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  4. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  5. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  6. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  7. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  8. Treatment of Multiple-Resistant and/or Recurrent Cutaneous Warts With Squaric Acid Dibutylester: A Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallʼOglio, Federica; Luca, Maria; Barresi, Sebastiano; Micali, Giuseppe

    Contact immunotherapy with squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) for cutaneous warts has been reported to be effective, although no controlled studies are available so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SADBE on cutaneous warts by a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to SADBE (18 cases) or vehicle (18 cases) group. At 8 weeks, subjects were clinically evaluated for number/size reduction rate and for Investigator Global Assessment. Those who showed improvement extended therapy up to 40 weeks, whereas those who showed unresponsiveness were either switched to SADBE application for up to 48 weeks (if in the vehicle group) or withdrawn from the study (if under SADBE). At 8 weeks, a significant reduction in wart number (P = 0.020) and size (P = 0.010) in the SADBE group, with clearing rates of 41.2% versus 12.5% in the SADBE and vehicle groups, respectively, was observed. Nine remaining SADBE responders who underwent treatment extension up to 40 weeks achieved clearing versus 2 patients of the vehicle group who remained unresponsive. Clearing was obtained in 81.8% of patients who underwent previous ineffective vehicle treatment and had been switched to SADBE. Squaric acid dibutylester is an effective therapeutic option and is significantly more effective than vehicle.

  9. Selection of earthquake resistant design criteria for nuclear power plants: Methodology and technical cases: Dislocation models of near-source earthquake ground motion: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luco, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    The solutions available for a number of dynamic dislocation fault models are examined in an attempt at establishing some of the expected characteristics of earthquake ground motion in the near-source region. In particular, solutions for two-dimensional anti-plane shear and plane-strain models as well as for three-dimensional fault models in full space, uniform half-space and layered half-space media are reviewed

  10. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  11. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  12. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  13. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  14. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  15. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  16. Marine vehicle path following using inner-outer loop control.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.K.; Agular, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    constraints are imposed on the motion of the vehicle. This is in striking contrast with trajectory tracking, where the reference for the vehicle motion is given explicitly in terms of ”space versus time” coordinates. This strategy is seldom pursued in practice... that its output variables can be tracked infinitely fast by the inner dynamic loop. In practice, this does not hold true. Furthermore, many vehicle suppliers equip their platforms with inner dynamic control loops for which only a general characterization...

  17. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  18. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  19. Flight simulation program for high altitude long endurance unmanned vehicle; Kokodo mujinki no hiko simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Hashidate, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    An altitude of about 20 km has the atmospheric density too dilute for common aircraft, and the air resistance too great for satellites. Attention has been drawn in recent years on a high-altitude long-endurance unmanned vehicle that flies at this altitude for a long period of time to serve as a wave relaying base and perform traffic control. Therefore, a development was made on a flight simulation program to evaluate and discuss the guidance and control laws for the high-altitude unmanned vehicle. Equations of motion were derived for three-dimensional six freedom and three-dimensional three freedom. Aerodynamic characteristics of an unmanned vehicle having a Rectenna wing were estimated, and formulation was made according to the past research results on data of winds that the unmanned vehicle is anticipated to encounter at an altitude of 20 km. Noticing the inside of a horizontal plane, a proposal was given on a guidance law that follows a given path. A flight simulation was carried out to have attained a prospect that the unmanned vehicle may be enclosed in a limited space even if the vehicle is encountered with a relatively strong wind. 18 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  1. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  2. Enhancement of absorption and resistance of motion utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to effectively monitor physiological signs during sport exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an effective engineering approach for human vital signs monitoring as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work is to study how to capture critical physiological parameters efficiently through a well-constructed electronic system and a robust multi-channel opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS), together with a wireless communication. A unique design comprising multi-wavelength illumination sources and a rapid response photo sensor with a 3-axis accelerometer enables to recover pulsatile features, compensate motion and increase signal-to-noise ratio. An approved protocol with designated tests was implemented at Loughborough University a UK leader in sport and exercise assessment. The results of sport physiological effects were extracted from the datasets of physical movements, i.e. sitting, standing, waking, running and cycling. t-test, Bland-Altman and correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of the OEPS system against Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha.There was no difference in heart rate measured using OEPS and both Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha (both p<0.05). Strong correlations were observed between HR measured from the OEPS and both the Acti-graph and Mio-Alpha (r = 0.96, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis for the Acti-Graph and OEPS found the bias 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm for lower and upper limits of agreement respectively, for the Mio-Alpha and OEPS the bias is 1.63 bpm, standard deviation SD8.62 bpm, lower and upper limits of agreement, - 15.27 bpm and +18.58 bpm respectively. The OEPS demonstrates a real time, robust and remote monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  3. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  4. Development of an omnidirectional Automated Guided Vehicle with MY3 wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyang Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an omnidirectional Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV with a novel omnidirectional wheel named MY3 wheel. Due to the special structure and material of the MY3 wheel, the AGV has full three DOFs in the motion plane and good capabilities of load carrying and slip resisting. In addition, the kinematic model of the AGV is derived, and the guiding method that can make the AGV to follow a specified path is established. Finally, experiments are performed to verify the kinematic model and guiding method.

  5. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  6. CFD simulation of three-dimensional motion of a vehicle with movable wings. Application to the keel of a racing yacht; 3 jigen undo suru kado yokufu shinko buttai no CFD simulation. Racing yacht keel eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is so remarkably developed in the various kinds of science and technology fields that it is utilized in aeroplane and other machines and structures. The introduction of Navier-Stokes equation into the fixed coordinate system makes it possible to perform the CFD simulation of vigorously moving body. Combining its procedure with the moving grid scheme enables us to maneuver a moving wing. A body with complicated shape like the keel of racing yacht is expressed by the multi-block grid to develop the CFD code corresponding to it. The simulation of forced motion, which is the first step of the motion simulation system, is applied to the keel of racing yacht to prove that the viscous flow field around the complicatedly shaped body. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  8. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  9. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  10. Art in Motion: A Sailboat Regatta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Julie; Foster, Gayla

    2011-01-01

    The activity described here uses the creative natures of visual art and music to enhance students' potential for creativity while increasing their understanding of the science associated with force and motion. Students design, test, and redesign a sailboat vehicle; collect data; make interpretations; and then defend their design. Music is used to…

  11. Motion Cues in Flight Simulation and Simulator Induced Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    military F7 .. vehicles, surface excavation equipment, underground mining devices, railway locomotives, .A space vehicles, shiv bridges, and submarines. Of...Evaluatort Rleference to Fukuda is: Fukuda, T. Postural behavior and motion sickness. Acca Otolaryngol. (Stockholm), 1976, B1:37-241.) %kI RTD-5

  12. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  13. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  14. Dynamics and Control of Underwater Gliders I: Steady Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudian, N.; Geisbert, J.; Woolsey, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of steady motions for underwater gliders, a type of highly efficient underwater vehicle which uses gravity for propulsion. Underwater gliders are winged underwater vehicles which locomote by modulating their buoyancy and their attitude. Several such vehicles have been developed and have proven their worth as efficient long-distance, long-duration ocean sampling platforms. To date, the primary emphasis in underwater glider development has been on locomotive effici...

  15. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  16. Consideration on the dynamics of course-driver-vehicle system of four-wheel steering vehicles. annex. Static directional stability and approximation of general motion by chain of steady-state circular turns; 4WS sha no shinro-driver-jidoshakei no undo rikigaku ni kansuru ichikosatsu. Seiteki hoko anteisei oyobi teijoen senkai de tsunagu kinjisei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, K [Yomiuri Koto Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    One of the authors intended before to understand the fundamentals of automobile steering emphasizing the importance of the driver`s forward view point. This idea was called Kondo`s hypothesis by several Professors and has been used and developed by many researchers in Japan. Using this thought, dynamical properties and steering of four-wheel steering vehicles, of which two points of the vehicle`s body can trace the designated course, are studied in this paper. Some numerical calculations have shown the tendency similar to the actual steering now used by a Japanese manufacturer. This idea would be useful in the automatic driving systems such as ITS. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 tab.

  17. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  18. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  19. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  20. LQR pitch control strategy of AUVs based on the optimum of sailing resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Xuliang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle(AUV sails near the surface of the sea,it will inevitably be subjected to wave disturbance. The heave and pitch motion caused by wave disturbance not only affects the navigation attitude of the AUV,but also leads to an increase in sailing resistance. As such, its energy consumption is increased. In this paper,the six degrees of freedom model of AUVs is established and linearized in order to achieve the weighted optimization of the sailing attitude and the resistance of the AUVs. The drag force model of the AUV is derived using the theory of potential flow. The Q matrix and R matrix are determined in the controller based on research into the drag force model. The Linear Quadratic Regulator(LQRcontroller of the AUV is designed using the drag force model as the performance index. The simulation results show that after adding the LQR controller,the effects of reducing heave motion and pitch motion are 46.64% and 77.62% respectively, and the increased resistance caused by the pitch motion is reduced to 1/6 of its original value. The results show that the multiple optimum of attitude and sailing resistance is realized,the energy consumption is decreased and the endurance of the AUV is increased.

  1. Kinetics of the Shanghai Maglev: Kinematical Analysis of a Real "Textbook" Case of Linear Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tung

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle starts from rest at constant acceleration, then cruises at constant speed for a time. Next, it decelerates at a constant rate.… This and similar statements are common in elementary physics courses. Students are asked to graph the motion of the vehicle or find the velocity, acceleration, and distance traveled by the vehicle from a given…

  2. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  3. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  4. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  5. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  6. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  7. Sliding mode observer design for automatic steering of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.R.; Rachid, A. [LSA, Amiens (France); Xu, S.J. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)]|[IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France); Darouach, M. [IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the observer design problem for automatic steering of vehicles. The lateral motion of the vehicles is considered. A sliding mode observer is derived such that the observation errors converge to zero asymptotically in finite time. The simulation results have shown that the design is very effective. (orig.)

  8. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  9. An Exercise in Vehicle Kinematics and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Solomon; Gluck, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We physics teachers are forever in search of real-life applications of the theoretical concepts we teach. In mechanics we often utilize vehicle motion exercises, yet most textbook problems involving these are rather tame and deal with constant acceleration. What often captures the imagination of students is the actual performance of cars they…

  10. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  11. Navigation of the autonomous vehicle reverse movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, M.; Petukhov, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the vehicle reverse motion along a multi-link polygonal trajectory consisting of rectilinear segments interconnected by nodal points. Relevance of the problem is caused by the need to solve a number of tasks: to save the vehicle in the event of а communication break by returning along the trajectory already passed, to avoid a turn on the ground in constrained obstacles or dangerous conditions, or a partial return stroke for the subsequent bypass of the obstacle and continuation of the forward movement. The method of navigation with direct movement assumes that the reverse path is elaborated by using landmarks. To measure landmarks on board, a block of cameras is placed on a vehicle controlled by the operator through the radio channel. Errors in estimating deviation from the nominal trajectory of motion are determined using the multidimensional correlation analysis apparatus based on the dynamics of a lateral deviation error and a vehicle speed error. The result of the experiment showed a relatively high accuracy in determining the state vector that provides the vehicle reverse motion relative to the reference trajectory with a practically acceptable error while returning to the start point.

  12. Measuring of noise emitted by moving vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrúcaný Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to measure the intensity of the exterior noise of a vehicle in motion. It provides the results of the measurements of the external noise of selected vehicles in motion and the impact of selected factors on the sound level of driving. There are done two measurements in the paper. Results from the first one are comparing noise level of 9 passenger cars according to the Directive 71/157/EEC. The second one shows the road surface influence on the exterior noise of moving vehicle where the sound level was measured by a road whose surface was made of slightly degraded concrete, and at a different place of the same road, where the surface was renovated by applying asphalt mix onto it.

  13. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  14. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  15. The plane motion control of the quadrocopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kanatnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a large number of modern flying vehicles, the quadrocopter relates to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV which are relatively cheap and easy to design. Quadrocopters are able to fly in bad weather, hang in the air for quite a long time, observe the objects and perform many other tasks. They have been applied in rescue operations, in agriculture, in the military and many other fields.For quadrocopters, the problems of path planning and control are relevant. These problems have many variants in which limited resources of modern UAV, possible obstacles, for instance, for flying in a cross-country terrain or in a city environment and weather conditions (particularly, wind conditions are taken into account. Many research studies are concerned with these problems and reflected in series of publications (note the interesting survey [1] and references therein. Various methods were used for the control synthesis for these vehicles: linear approximations [2], sliding mode control [3], the covering method [4] and so on.In the paper, a quadrocopter is considered as a rigid body. The kinematic and dynamic equations of the motion are analyzed. Two cases of motion are emphasized: a motion in a vertical plane and in a horizontal plane. The control is based on transferring of the affine system to the canonical form [5] and the nonlinear stabilization method [6].

  16. Korelasi Skid Resistance dengan Kedalaman Tekstur pada Permukaan Perkerasan Lentur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Jaya Pandia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Skid Resistance is the force generated between the pavement surface and vehicle’s tires to resist the vehicle advance motion when braking. In this research the correlation between skid resistance value and texture depth on the pavement surface will be determined. The skid resistance value determined by using the British Pendulum Tester (BPT and to determine the texture depth used Sand Patch Method. The research is conducted directly on a macro textured surface with two methods. The first method is applied on Ngumban Surbakti Road where the samples tested with the same distance from the edge of the pavement along the road; The second method is applied on Jend. Sudirman Road where the samples tested with specific distances from the edge of the pavement until the median. From the results of the analysis, there are some conclusions: (1 there is a positive correlation between the texture depth and skid resistance with a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.028 on Ngumban Surbakti Road and (R2 = 0.191 on  Jend. Sudirman Road;(2 the increase of skid resistance value is directly proportional to the increase of surface texture depth value; and (3 the different methods did not cause significant yield differences.

  17. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  18. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  19. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  20. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  1. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  2. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  3. Method of controlling innovative articulation for articulated vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumilas Mateusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of an articulated vehicle is dependent on an appropriate damping action taking place in its rotary articulation. In order to analyse an impact of the control of the articulation on the motion of the vehicle a model of the vehicle with a controllable hydraulic damping system has been developed. A 90 degree turn and lane change manoeuvres were simulated using LabVIEW software. Modification of the damping parameters of the articulation, according to the velocity and articulation angle of the vehicle, proved to have a significant impact on the vehicle motion stability. Moreover, the sensor layer necessary for the control algorithm as well as the diagnostic system is described.

  4. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  5. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  6. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  7. Brownian motion and stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Karatzas, Ioannis

    1998-01-01

    This book is designed as a text for graduate courses in stochastic processes. It is written for readers familiar with measure-theoretic probability and discrete-time processes who wish to explore stochastic processes in continuous time. The vehicle chosen for this exposition is Brownian motion, which is presented as the canonical example of both a martingale and a Markov process with continuous paths. In this context, the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus is developed. The power of this calculus is illustrated by results concerning representations of martingales and change of measure on Wiener space, and these in turn permit a presentation of recent advances in financial economics (option pricing and consumption/investment optimization). This book contains a detailed discussion of weak and strong solutions of stochastic differential equations and a study of local time for semimartingales, with special emphasis on the theory of Brownian local time. The text is complemented by a large num...

  8. General Automatic Components of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, S.; Toscano, W. B.; Kamiya, J.; Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the space shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adaptation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth is reviewed. For these supporting studies, the automatic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness was examined. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during and after exposure to nauseogenic rotating chair tests. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests. Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed. Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome on Earth and in Space.

  9. Customer loads of two-wheeled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Öztürk, K.; Liebich, R.

    2017-12-01

    Customer usage profiles are the most unknown influences in vehicle design targets and they play an important role in durability analysis. This publication presents a customer load acquisition system for two-wheeled vehicles that utilises the vehicle's onboard signals. A road slope estimator was developed to reveal the unknown slope resistance force with the help of a linear Kalman filter. Furthermore, an automated mass estimator was developed to consider the correct vehicle loading. The mass estimation is performed by an extended Kalman filter. Finally, a model-based wheel force calculation was derived, which is based on the superposition of forces calculated from measured onboard signals. The calculated wheel forces were validated by measurements with wheel-load transducers through the comparison of rainflow matrices. The calculated wheel forces correspond with the measured wheel forces in terms of both quality and quantity. The proposed methods can be used to gather field data for improved vehicle design loads.

  10. 3-D model-based vehicle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter.

  11. Robust Control and Motion Planning for Nonlinear Underactuated Systems Using H infinity Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toussaint, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents new techniques for planning and robustly controlling the motion of nonlinear underactuated vehicles when disturbances are present and only imperfect state measurements are available for feedback...

  12. Weigh-in-Motion Sensor and Controller Operation and Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research project utilized statistical inference and comparison techniques to compare the performance of different Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors. First, we analyzed test-vehicle data to perform an accuracy check of the results reported by the sen...

  13. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : final report, June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  14. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  16. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  17. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  18. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  19. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  20. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  1. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  2. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  3. Design of an urban driverless ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson , Rodrigo; Parent , Michel ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the design and implementation of a driverless car for populated urban environments. We propose a system that explicitly map the static obstacles, detects and track the moving obstacle, consider the unobserved areas, provide a motion plan with safety guarantees and executes it. All of it was implemented and integrated into a single computer maneuvering on real time an electric vehicle into an unvisited area with moving obstacles. The overview of the ...

  4. Selecting Design Parameters for Flying Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, V. I.; Strel'nikova, E. A.; Trofimenko, P. E.; Bondar', A. V.

    2013-09-01

    Studying the influence of a number of design parameters of solid-propellant rockets on the longitudinal and lateral dispersion is an important applied problem. A mathematical model of a rigid body of variable mass moving in a disturbed medium exerting both wave drag and friction is considered. The model makes it possible to determine the coefficients of aerodynamic forces and moments, which affect the motion of vehicles, and to assess the effect of design parameters on their accuracy

  5. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  6. Vertical Takeoff and Landing Vehicle with Increased Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J. (Inventor); Moore, Mark D. (Inventor); Busan, Ronald C. (Inventor); Rothhaar, Paul M. (Inventor); North, David D. (Inventor); Langford, William M. (Inventor); Laws, Christopher T. (Inventor); Hodges, William T. (Inventor); Johns, Zachary R. (Inventor); Webb, Sandy R. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that combine an advance vehicle configuration, such as an advanced aircraft configuration, with the infusion of electric propulsion, thereby enabling a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining a full vertical takeoff and landing ("VTOL") and hover capability for the vehicle. Embodiments may provide vehicles with both VTOL and cruise efficient capabilities without the use of ground infrastructure. An embodiment vehicle may comprise a wing configured to tilt through a range of motion, a first series of electric motors coupled to the wing and each configured to drive an associated wing propeller, a tail configured to tilt through the range of motion, a second series of electric motors coupled to the tail and each configured to drive an associated tail propeller, and an electric propulsion system connected to the first series of electric motors and the second series of electric motors.

  7. Magnetic suspension and pointing system. [on a carrier vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for providing accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for providing isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances is presented. The apparatus includes two assemblies, with connecting interfaces, each assembly having a separate function. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing of the instruments by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plate around which a continuous annular rim is attached which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  8. Energy optimized automatic public transportation system with a microprocessor in the vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchinda, A.

    1980-09-11

    The matter with energy optimizing running is, that the train reaches the final state (target station) from the initial state (original station) in time with consideration of the given safety demands and other limitations and the consumed energy has its minimal value. This principle was extended for a driverless train operation in a sense that the optimization problem was formulated new and solved with regards to extensive secondary conditions as: velocity-dependent train and braking power and motion resistance force, path-dependent maximum velocity of the route and hazardous points. The algorithms for optimal vehicle control were developed by means of E. Bellmann's dynamic programming with regards to the secondary conditions mentioned above.

  9. Vertical dynamics of the Maglev vehicle Transrapid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, Nora; Dignath, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The Maglev vehicle Transrapid is levitated by magnetic forces which pull the vehicles levitation frames toward the guideway from below. The magnets possess poles with alternating fluxes which are part of the synchronous long stator linear motor. Although the Transrapid glides along its guideway without mechanical contact, this alternation as well as the loading and unloading of the guideway girders excite vibrations of the ground. In order to calculate the time behavior of the vibrational emissions, a simulation of the transfer of a Transrapid vehicle over several guideway girders is proposed. The equations of motion for the vehicle and the girders are calculated separately by the MBS software NEWEUL and assembled and numerically integrated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The control law for the magnet forces is simplified by the characteristics of linear spring-damper elements. The controlled magnet forces travel along the guideway continuously and include the dynamic component due to the alternating fluxes and the geometry of the poles and stator. Results of a complete vehicle moving along a guideway consisting of several girders can be obtained within a few minutes of computation time. Therefore, the mechanism of excitations can be analyzed by numerical time integration in the full state space. The results are validated by measurements of the forces in the joints of the guideway girders. The vibrational emission along the Transrapid guideway differs from the vibrations of contact-afflicted vehicles as no impacts and fewer stochastic effects occur

  10. Vertical dynamics of the Maglev vehicle Transrapid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegele, Nora [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: Nora.Haegele@gmx.de; Dignath, Florian [ThyssenKrupp Transrapid, Basic Technologies (Germany)], E-mail: Florian.Dignath@ThyssenKrupp.com

    2009-04-15

    The Maglev vehicle Transrapid is levitated by magnetic forces which pull the vehicles levitation frames toward the guideway from below. The magnets possess poles with alternating fluxes which are part of the synchronous long stator linear motor. Although the Transrapid glides along its guideway without mechanical contact, this alternation as well as the loading and unloading of the guideway girders excite vibrations of the ground. In order to calculate the time behavior of the vibrational emissions, a simulation of the transfer of a Transrapid vehicle over several guideway girders is proposed. The equations of motion for the vehicle and the girders are calculated separately by the MBS software NEWEUL and assembled and numerically integrated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The control law for the magnet forces is simplified by the characteristics of linear spring-damper elements. The controlled magnet forces travel along the guideway continuously and include the dynamic component due to the alternating fluxes and the geometry of the poles and stator. Results of a complete vehicle moving along a guideway consisting of several girders can be obtained within a few minutes of computation time. Therefore, the mechanism of excitations can be analyzed by numerical time integration in the full state space. The results are validated by measurements of the forces in the joints of the guideway girders. The vibrational emission along the Transrapid guideway differs from the vibrations of contact-afflicted vehicles as no impacts and fewer stochastic effects occur.

  11. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active'

  12. The Effect of Predicted Vehicle Displacement on Ground Crew Task Performance and Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA continues to explore new launch vehicle concepts that will carry astronauts to low- Earth orbit to replace the soon-to-be retired Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle. A tall vertically stacked launch vehicle (> or =300 ft) is exposed to the natural environment while positioned on the launch pad. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding cause the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. Ground crews working high on the tower and inside the vehicle during launch preparations will be subjected to this motion while conducting critical closeout tasks such as mating fluid and electrical connectors and carrying heavy objects. NASA has not experienced performing these tasks in such environments since the Saturn V, which was serviced from a movable (but rigid) service structure; commercial launchers are likewise attended by a service structure that moves away from the vehicle for launch. There is concern that vehicle displacement may hinder ground crew operations, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability. The vehicle sway assessment objective is to replicate predicted frequencies and displacements of these tall vehicles, examine typical ground crew tasks, and provide insight into potential vehicle design considerations and ground crew performance guidelines. This paper outlines the methodology, configurations, and motion testing performed while conducting the vehicle displacement assessment that will be used as a Technical Memorandum for future vertically stacked vehicle designs.

  13. Effects of ship motions on laminar flow in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, B.H., E-mail: yanbh1986@163.co [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yu, L. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The thermal-hydraulics of barge-mounted floating nuclear desalination plants is the incentive for this study. Laminar flow in tubes in heaving motion is modeled. The friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are obtained. All the equations of laminar flow in steady state are applicable for heeling motion. The effect of ship motions on the laminar developing region is also analyzed. The ship motions can weaken the boundary layer in the laminar developing region and strengthen the laminar frictional resistance. The effect of ship motions on the instability of laminar flow is also investigated. The ship motions do not affect the instability point, but they can shorten the distance between the instability point and the transition point, and cause the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow to occur earlier.

  14. Velocity Controller for a Class of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Przemyslaw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of velocity tracking control for various fully-actuated robotic vehicles. The presented method, which is based on transformation of equations of motion allows one to use, in the control gain matrix, the dynamical couplings existing in the system. Consequently, the dynamics of the vehicle is incorporated into the control process what leads to fast velocity error convergence. The stability of the system under the controller is derived based on Lyapunov argument. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed controller is shown too. The general approach is valid for 6 DOF models as well as other reduced models of vehicles. Simulation results on a 6 DOF indoor airship validate the described velocity tracking methodology.

  15. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  16. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  17. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  18. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  19. Effects of aging on perception of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Wilder, Joseph; Hung, George; Julesz, Bela

    1997-09-01

    Driving requires two basic visual components: 'visual sensory function' and 'higher order skills.' Among the elderly, it has been observed that when attention must be divided in the presence of multiple objects, their attentional skills and relational processes, along with impairment of basic visual sensory function, are markedly impaired. A high frame rate imaging system was developed to assess the elderly driver's ability to locate and distinguish computer generated images of vehicles and to determine their direction of motion in a simulated intersection. Preliminary experiments were performed at varying target speeds and angular displacements to study the effect of these parameters on motion perception. Results for subjects in four different age groups, ranging from mid- twenties to mid-sixties, show significantly better performance for the younger subjects as compared to the older ones.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  1. Possible roles of remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROV and robotics in mariculture of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys some possible future trends in mariculture technology emphasizing new principles for controlling animal motion. Against this background possible applications of remotely operated underwater vehicles and robotics are reviewed.

  2. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  3. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  4. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  5. Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.

  6. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  7. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  8. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  9. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  10. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  11. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  12. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  13. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  14. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    ...., and Armor Holdings, Inc., for armored vehicles. This report addresses armored vehicles, specifically the Buffalo Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle, the Cougar, the Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV...

  15. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  16. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  17. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  18. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  19. Zero emission vehicle for dense grid urban public transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ovidio, G. [University of l' Aquila, Faculty of Engineering, DAU (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports the operating scheme of a public transportation vehicle with zero polluting emission, working in urban areas in a transport network which has short and regular stop spacing not greater than 400-500 m, and by segments covered by 'shuttle-type' vehicles with high operating frequencies. In particular, the traction of the vehicle, of electric type exclusively, is supported by the functional coupling of an accumulation and alimentation system composed respectively of Fuel Cell e Flywheel Energy Storage Unite. This study proposes and analyzes a typology of hybrid vehicle of which the configuration of traction is specialized for the exigency connected to the different phases of the motion. The study contains the analysis and the measurement of the principal components of the propulsion system to the vary of the loading capabilities of the vehicles and of the geometric characteristic of the transport network.

  20. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  1. Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.

  2. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  3. A polynomial chaos approach to the analysis of vehicle dynamics under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewlani, Gaurav; Crawford, Justin; Iagnemma, Karl

    2012-05-01

    The ability of ground vehicles to quickly and accurately analyse their dynamic response to a given input is critical to their safety and efficient autonomous operation. In field conditions, significant uncertainty is associated with terrain and/or vehicle parameter estimates, and this uncertainty must be considered in the analysis of vehicle motion dynamics. Here, polynomial chaos approaches that explicitly consider parametric uncertainty during modelling of vehicle dynamics are presented. They are shown to be computationally more efficient than the standard Monte Carlo scheme, and experimental results compared with the simulation results performed on ANVEL (a vehicle simulator) indicate that the method can be utilised for efficient and accurate prediction of vehicle motion in realistic scenarios.

  4. Investigation Into The Model Of The Vehicle System For Speed Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Grigorovič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rectilinear motion of a car modelled applyingsoftware package “Matlab/Simulink“ where two vehicles aremoving simultaneously one after the other. The parameters ofeach vehicle have been identified separately assessing a driver,road and environment.

  5. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  6. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  7. Linear quadratic regulator design for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the design of an attitude controller for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle. The decoupling of the symmetric and asymmetric motion makes it possible to design two separate controllers, one for the pitch mot ion and one for the lateral motion. The design of the controller, a

  8. Dr. von Braun With a Model of a Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. von Braun stands beside a model of the upper stage (Earth-returnable stage) of the three-stage launch vehicle built for the series of the motion picture productions of space flight produced by Walt Disney in the mid-1950's.

  9. Vehicle state estimation using GPS/IMU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Mangnus, J.; Kostić, D.; Nijmeijer, H.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2011-01-01

    New driver support systems require knowledge of the vehicle position with great accuracy and reliability. Satellite navigation (GNSS) is generally insufficiently accurate for positioning and as an alternative to using a ground station, combinations with high quality motion sensors are used in

  10. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload.

  11. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  12. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  13. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  14. A model for the pilot's use of motion cues in roll-axis tracking tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Simulated target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks were explored with subjects using visual-only and combined visual and motion cues. The effects of motion cues on task performance and pilot response behavior were appreciably different for the two task configurations and were consistent with data reported in earlier studies for similar task configurations. The optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems provided a task-independent framework for accounting for the pilot's use of motion cues. Specifically, the availability of motion cues was modeled by augmenting the set of perceptual variables to include position, rate, acceleration, and accleration-rate of the motion simulator, and results were consistent with the hypothesis of attention-sharing between visual and motion variables. This straightforward informational model allowed accurate model predictions of the effects of motion cues on a variety of response measures for both the target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks.

  15. Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the latest manned spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype launch and reentry spacesuit architectures were evaluated for eventual down selection by NASA based on the performance of a set of designated tasks. A consolidated approach was taken to testing, concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances and movement strategies within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. To achieve the objectives of the test, a requirement was set forth to maintain high mockup fidelity while using advanced motion capture technologies. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The mockup was constructed such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motion capture system. This paper will describe the method used to create a motion capture compatible space vehicle mockup, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, as well as the various methods for generating hardware requirements for an entire population from the resulting complex data set using a limited number of test subjects. Kinematics, hardware clearance, suited anthropometry, and subjective feedback data were recorded on fifteen unsuited and five suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly by anthropometry, in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited subjects and tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. Since the prototype spacesuits were fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average sized male, the findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes of the population to anticipate likely problem areas. This extrapolation was achieved by first performing population analysis through a comparison of suited

  16. Analysis of the dynamics of movement of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device on the final trajectory under the influence of wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Harri, A.-M.; Heilimo, J.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    This research work is devoted to analysis of angular motion of the landing vehicle (LV) with an inflatable braking device (IBD), taking into account the influence of the wind load on the final stage of the movement. Using methods to perform a calculation of parameters of angular motion of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device based on the availability of small asymmetries, which are capable of complex dynamic phenomena, analyzes motion of the landing vehicle at the final stage of motion in the atmosphere.

  17. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  18. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  19. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  20. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  1. On Autonomous Articulated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nayl, Thaker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to address the problems of modeling, path planning and path following for an articulated vehicle in a realistic environment and in the presence of multiple obstacles.In greater detail, the problem of the kinematic modeling of an articulated vehicle is revisited through the proposal of a proper model in which the dimensions and properties of the vehicle can be fully described, rather than considering it as a unit point. Based on this approach, nonlinear and line...

  2. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  3. Muscle Synergy-Driven Robust Motion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Iwamoto, Masami; Kakei, Shinji; Kimpara, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    Humans are able to robustly maintain desired motion and posture under dynamically changing circumstances, including novel conditions. To accomplish this, the brain needs to optimize the synergistic control between muscles against external dynamic factors. However, previous related studies have usually simplified the control of multiple muscles using two opposing muscles, which are minimum actuators to simulate linear feedback control. As a result, they have been unable to analyze how muscle synergy contributes to motion control robustness in a biological system. To address this issue, we considered a new muscle synergy concept used to optimize the synergy between muscle units against external dynamic conditions, including novel conditions. We propose that two main muscle control policies synergistically control muscle units to maintain the desired motion against external dynamic conditions. Our assumption is based on biological evidence regarding the control of multiple muscles via the corticospinal tract. One of the policies is the group control policy (GCP), which is used to control muscle group units classified based on functional similarities in joint control. This policy is used to effectively resist external dynamic circumstances, such as disturbances. The individual control policy (ICP) assists the GCP in precisely controlling motion by controlling individual muscle units. To validate this hypothesis, we simulated the reinforcement of the synergistic actions of the two control policies during the reinforcement learning of feedback motion control. Using this learning paradigm, the two control policies were synergistically combined to result in robust feedback control under novel transient and sustained disturbances that did not involve learning. Further, by comparing our data to experimental data generated by human subjects under the same conditions as those of the simulation, we showed that the proposed synergy concept may be used to analyze muscle synergy

  4. Electrical Properties of PPy-Coated Conductive Fabrics for Human Joint Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body motion signals indicate several pathological features of the human body, and a wearable human motion monitoring system can respond to human joint motion signal in real time, thereby enabling the prevention and treatment of some diseases. Because conductive fabrics can be well integrated with the garment, they are ideal as a sensing element of wearable human motion monitoring systems. This study prepared polypyrrole conductive fabric by in situ polymerization, and the anisotropic property of the conductive fabric resistance, resistance–strain relationship, and the relationship between resistance and the human knee and elbow movements are discussed preliminarily.

  5. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  6. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  7. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  8. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  9. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  10. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  11. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  12. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  13. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  14. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  15. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  16. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  17. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Arrichiello

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the

  18. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  19. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  20. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  1. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  2. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  3. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  4. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  5. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  6. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  7. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  8. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  9. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  10. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  11. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  12. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R

    1978-04-01

    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  13. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achi...

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  15. A model predictive control approach combined unscented Kalman filter vehicle state estimation in intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiao Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking and state estimation are significant in the motion planning and intelligent vehicle control. This article focuses on the model predictive control approach for the trajectory tracking of the intelligent vehicles and state estimation of the nonlinear vehicle system. The constraints of the system states are considered when applying the model predictive control method to the practical problem, while 4-degree-of-freedom vehicle model and unscented Kalman filter are proposed to estimate the vehicle states. The estimated states of the vehicle are used to provide model predictive control with real-time control and judge vehicle stability. Furthermore, in order to decrease the cost of solving the nonlinear optimization, the linear time-varying model predictive control is used at each time step. The effectiveness of the proposed vehicle state estimation and model predictive control method is tested by driving simulator. The results of simulations and experiments show that great and robust performance is achieved for trajectory tracking and state estimation in different scenarios.

  16. The use of vestibular models for design and evaluation of flight simulator motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Young, Laurence R.; Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative models for the dynamics of the human vestibular system are applied to the design and evaluation of flight simulator platform motion. An optimal simulator motion control algorithm is generated to minimize the vector difference between perceived spatial orientation estimated in flight and in simulation. The motion controller has been implemented on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center and evaluated experimentally through measurement of pilot performance and subjective rating during VTOL aircraft simulation. In general, pilot performance in a longitudinal tracking task (formation flight) did not appear to be sensitive to variations in platform motion condition as long as motion was present. However, pilot assessment of motion fidelity by means of a rating scale designed for this purpose, were sensitive to motion controller design. Platform motion generated with the optimal motion controller was found to be generally equivalent to that generated by conventional linear crossfeed washout. The vestibular models are used to evaluate the motion fidelity of transport category aircraft (Boeing 727) simulation in a pilot performance and simulator acceptability study at the Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. Eighteen airline pilots, currently flying B-727, were given a series of flight scenarios in the simulator under various conditions of simulator motion. The scenarios were chosen to reflect the flight maneuvers that these pilots might expect to be given during a routine pilot proficiency check. Pilot performance and subjective rating of simulator fidelity was relatively insensitive to the motion condition, despite large differences in the amplitude of motion provided. This lack of sensitivity may be explained by means of the vestibular models, which predict little difference in the modeled motion sensations of the pilots when different motion conditions are imposed.

  17. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  18. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  19. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  20. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  1. The efficiency of direct torque control for electric vehicle behavior improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the electric vehicle motorization control takes a great interest of industrials for commercialized electric vehicles. This paper is one example of the proposed control methods that ensure both safety and stability the electric vehicle by the means of Direct Torque Control (DTC. For motion of the vehicle the electric drive consists of four wheels: two front ones for steering and two rear ones for propulsion equipped with two induction motors, due to their lightweight simplicity and high performance. Acceleration and steering are ensured by the electronic differential, permitting safe and reliable steering at any curve. The direct torque control ensures efficiently controlled vehicle. Electric vehicle direct torque control is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. Electric vehicle (EV demonstrated satisfactory results in all type of roads constraints: straight, ramp, downhill and bends.

  2. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  3. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  4. Modelling and analysis of the dynamics of a tilting three-wheeled vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, Johannes; Plöchl, Manfred; Lugner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To understand the handling behaviour of a three-wheeled tilting vehicle, models of the vehicle with different level of detail, corresponding to specific fields of investigation, have been developed. Then the proposed kinematics of the three-wheeler are assessed and optimized with respect to desired dynamic properties by applying a detailed multibody system model. The partially unstable nature of the motion of the vehicle suggests the application of an analytically derived, simplified model, to allow for focusing on stability aspects and steady-state handling properties. These investigations reveal the necessity of employing a steer-by-wire control system to support the driver by stabilizing the motion of the vehicle. Thus, an additional basic vehicle model is derived for control design, and an energy-efficient control strategy is presented. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the dynamic properties of the optimized kinematics and the control system, approved by successful test runs of a prototype.

  5. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  6. Design of Omni Directional Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimuddin; Hasan, Hasnawiya; Rivai, Haryanti A.; Iskandar, Yanu; Claudio, P.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, underwater activities are increased with the increase of oil resources finding. The gap between demand and supply of oil and gas cause engineers to find oil and gas resources in deep water. In other side, high risk of working in deep underwater environment can cause a dangerous situation for human. Therefore, many research activities are developing an underwater vehicle to replace the human’s work such as ROV or Remotely Operated Vehicles. The vehicle operated using tether to transport the signals and electric power from the surface vehicle. Arrangements of weight, buoyancy, and the propeller placements are significant aspect in designing the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents design concept of ROV for survey and observation the underwater objects with interaction vectored propellers used for vehicle’s motions.

  7. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  8. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.

    1998-01-01

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants

  9. Scalable Photogrammetric Motion Capture System "mosca": Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment) has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  10. Motion control of rigid bodies in SE(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Ashton

    This thesis investigates the control of motion for a general class of vehicles that rotate and translate in three-space, and are propelled by a thrust vector which has fixed direction in body frame. The thesis addresses the problems of path following and position control. For path following, a feedback linearization controller is presented that makes the vehicle follow an arbitrary closed curve while simultaneously allowing the designer to specify the velocity profile of the vehicle on the path and its heading. For position control, a two-stage approach is presented that decouples position control from attitude control, allowing for a modular design and yielding almost global asymptotic stability of any desired hovering equilibrium. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified both in simulation and experimentally by means of a hardware-in-the-loop setup emulating a co-axial helicopter.

  11. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  12. Motion Planning in Multi-robot Systems using Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael. S.; Jensen, Rune S.; Bak, Thomas

    This paper dscribes how interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems for systems with multiple mobile robots. The method assumes an infra-structure of simple unicycle type robots, moving om a planar grid. The motion of the robots, including simple...... kinematics, is captured in an automata formalism that allows formal composition and symbolic reasoning. The verification software UppAal is used to verify specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL), generating all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications. The results...... of the planning are demonstrateted in a testbed that allows execution of the planned paths and motion primitives by synchronizing the planning results from UppAal with actual robotic vehicles. The planning problem may be modified online by moving obstacles in the physical environment, which causes a re...

  13. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  14. Golf Blue-e-Motion. The electric Volkswagen; Golf Blue-e-Motion. Der elektrische Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler, Jens; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Lueck, Peter; Tousen, Jonas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The particular challenges of our time require a consistent focus on the development activities of powertrain technologies with continuously reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The past years have seen many technological milestones by Volkswagen's Powertrain Development as illustrated by the exceptional success of the TSI and TDI engines as well as the double clutch transmissions. As a part of this comprehensive list of powertrain strategy, the development of drivetrains for alternative fuels, such as CNG, has also been included. With particular emphasis Volkswagen is pressing forward the electrification of the drivetrain with the goal of appealing to more customers through these new technologies. A milestone of the electrification activity is the Golf Blue-e-Motion, in which the comfort and especially the city driving performance are improved compared with the conventional vehicle. This driving performance is achieved by an electric drivetrain which consists of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor together with associated power electronics and a Li-Ion battery. This presentation will pay particular attention to the characteristics of the drivetrain system and its components. The efficient powertrain including the recovering of braking energy (recuperation) as well as the attention paid on optimising all system components, has increased the driving range of the vehicle. Environmental awareness and driving pleasure - the electric drivetrain of the Golf Blue-e-Motion shows that these both requirements are possible to be realised by an electric drivetrain. (orig.)

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  16. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  17. Intelligent Motion and Interaction Within Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Slater, Mel (Editor); Alexander, Thomas (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    What makes virtual actors and objects in virtual environments seem real? How can the illusion of their reality be supported? What sorts of training or user-interface applications benefit from realistic user-environment interactions? These are some of the central questions that designers of virtual environments face. To be sure simulation realism is not necessarily the major, or even a required goal, of a virtual environment intended to communicate specific information. But for some applications in entertainment, marketing, or aspects of vehicle simulation training, realism is essential. The following chapters will examine how a sense of truly interacting with dynamic, intelligent agents may arise in users of virtual environments. These chapters are based on presentations at the London conference on Intelligent Motion and Interaction within a Virtual Environments which was held at University College, London, U.K., 15-17 September 2003.

  18. Global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mashadi

    Full Text Available In this paper, the global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle is proposed. In this study, the autonomous vehicle overtakes a moving vehicle by performing a double lane-change maneuver after detecting it in a proper distance ahead. The optimal path of vehicle for performing the lane-change maneuver is generated by a path planning program in which the sum of lateral deviation of the vehicle from a reference path and the rate of steering angle become minimum while the lateral acceleration of vehicle does not exceed a safe limit value. A nonlinear optimal control theory with the lateral vehicle dynamics equations and inequality constraint of lateral acceleration are used to generate the path. The indirect approach for solving the optimal control problem is used by applying the calculus of variation and the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle to obtain first-order necessary conditions for optimality. The optimal path is generated as a global optimal solution and can be used as the benchmark of the path generated by the local motion planning of autonomous vehicles. A full nonlinear vehicle model in CarSim software is used for path following simulation by importing path data from the MATLAB code. The simulation results show that the generated path for the autonomous vehicle satisfies all vehicle dynamics constraints and hence is a suitable overtaking path for the following vehicle.

  19. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  20. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  2. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  4. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  6. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  7. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  8. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  9. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  10. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  11. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  12. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  13. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  14. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  15. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  16. Control of a virtual ambulation influences body movement and motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrom Jens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drivers typically are less susceptible to motion sickness than passengers. The influence of vehicle control has theoretical implications for the etiology of motion sickness, and has practical implications for the design of virtual environments. In the present study, participants either controlled or did not control a nonvehicular virtual avatar (i.e., an ambulatory character in a console video game. We examined the incidence of motion sickness and patterns of movement of the head and torso as participants either played or watched the game. Motion sickness incidence was lower when controlling the virutal avatar than when watching an avatar that was controlled by someone else. Patterns of head and torso movement differed between particpants who did and did not control the avatar. Indepenently, patterns of movement differed between participants who reported motion sickness and those who did not. The results suggest that motion sickness is influenced by control of stimulus motion, whether that motion arises from a vehicle or from any other source. We consider implications for the design of humancomputer interfaces.

  17. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  18. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  19. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  20. Temporomandibular joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Itou, S.; Odori, T.; Ishii, Y.; Torizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates MR imaging with the therapeutic effect after splint therapy in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients (19 TMJs) with internal derangement of the TMJ and five normal volunteers (10 TMJs) were examined with sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) MR imaging. MR studies of the patients undergoing splint therapy were performed with an without splints. Pseudodynamic images of TMJ motion provide information that was not available from spin-echo T1-weighted images

  1. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  2. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  3. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  4. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  5. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  6. Reactive Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles operate in real time traffic scenarios and aim to reach their destination from their source in the most efficient manner possible. Research in mobile robotics provides a variety of sophisticated means with which to plan the path of these vehicles. Conversely professional human drivers usually drive using instinctive means, which enables them to reach their goal almost optimally whilst still obeying all traffic laws. In this paper we propose the use of fuzzy logic for novel motion planning. The planner is generated using an evolutionary algorithm which resembles the learning stage of professional drivers. Whether to overtake or not, is a decision which affects one’s driving and the decision is made using some deliberation. We further extend the approach to perform decision making regarding overtaking for all vehicles. Further we coordinate the motion of the vehicles at a traffic crossing to avoid any potential jam or collision. Experimental results prove that by using this approach we have been able to make the vehicles move in an optimal manner in a variety of scenarios.

  7. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)

  8. Observation of nonresonant vortex motion in a long Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeevakumar, T.V.; Przybysz, J.X.; Chen, J.T.; Langenberg, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    We have observed resistive branches in the I-V characteristics of long Josephson junctions which can be simply understood in terms of the motion of individual Josephson fluxoids with reflection as antifluxoids at the junction edges. The characteristics of these resistive branches differ qualitatively from those of the current singularities previously reported by Chen et al. and by Fulton and Dynes. Our results indicate that the current singularities are not simply related to the motion of individual fluxoids

  9. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  10. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  11. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  12. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  13. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  14. Reduced Attitude Control of a Robotic Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bláha Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with stabilization and reduced attitude control of a robotic underwater vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be able to perform a full stable rotations around all axes in underwater space, that is why the standard bottom-heavy structure is not used. The system preferably uses a vectored-thrust arrangement and is built as an overactuated system, which enables to gain a better robustness and guarantees a stable controlled motion even if some thruster suddenly stop working. Because the heading angle cannot be measured, the reduced attitude control strategy is designed and the stability of reduced state of the system is proved using perturbation method.

  15. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  16. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  17. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  18. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  19. Flux motion and dissipation in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkham, M.

    1991-01-01

    Two quite different motivations spark the study of flux motion and resistance in the new high-temperature superconductors. Achievement of usefully low resistance at usefully large current densities is the key to most practical applications, but conceptual understanding of the idealized resistive behavior in the O current limit motivates much theoretical work. Some analyses emphasize the pinning of individual flux lines to inhomogeneities in the underlying material; others emphasize the collective aspects of the interacting flux lines, whether liquid, solid, crystalline, or glassy; still others emphasize the concept of percolative Josephson coupling between grains. In this paper an overview is given of these various approaches, their interrelation, and the experiment evidence, including some new results on flux motion in large SNS arrays, treated as a model system

  20. Vertical Axis Rotational Motion Cues in Hovering Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A previous study that examined how yaw motion affected a pilot's ability to perform realistic hovering flight tasks indicated that any amount of pure yaw motion had little-to-no effect on pilot performance or opinion. In that experiment, pilots were located at the vehicle's center of rotation; thus lateral or longitudinal accelerations were absent. The purpose of the new study described here was to investigate further these unanticipated results for additional flight tasks, but with the introduction of linear accelerations associated with yaw rotations when the pilot is not at the center of rotation. The question of whether a yaw motion degree-of-freedom is necessary or not is important to government regulators who specify what simulator motions are necessary according to prescribed levels of simulator sophistication. Currently, specifies two levels of motion sophistication for flight simulators: full 6-degree-of-freedom and 3-degree-of-freedom. For the less sophisticated simulator, the assumed three degrees of freedom are pitch, roll, and heave. If other degrees of freedom are selected, which are different f rom these three, they must be qualified on a case-by-case basis. Picking the assumed three axes is reasonable and based upon experience, but little empirical data are available to support the selection of critical axes. Thus, the research described here is aimed at answering this question. The yaw and lateral degrees of freedom were selected to be examined first, and maneuvers were defined to uncouple these motions from changes in the gravity vector with respect to the pilot. This approach simplifies the problem to be examined. For this experiment, the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator was used in a comprehensive investigation. The math model was an AH-64 Apache in hover, which was identified from flight test data and had previously been validated by several AH-64 pilots. The pilot's head was located 4.5 ft in front of the vehicle center of gravity, which is

  1. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-02-01

    The vertical motion of a tokamak plasma is analytically modelled during its non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod inductively coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires or a cylindrical conducting shell. The solutions capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the surrounding vacuum vessel. The plasma shape and profiles are assumed not to vary during the vertical drifting phase such that the plasma column behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented to come in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers created by the induced Eddy currents. Resistivity in the wall allows the equilibrium point to drift towards the vessel on the slow timescale of flux penetration. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, understood as a resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear "sinking" behaviour shown to be algebraic and decelerating. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus concluded to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma, and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current.

  3. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  5. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  6. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  7. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  8. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  9. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  10. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  11. Study on scaling law of PWR natural circulation with motion condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Donghua; Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde

    2009-01-01

    For some nuclear reactors installed on automobiles, boats or deep sea vehicles, it is an important way to investigate their system safety by performing natural circulation experiments under motion condition. This paper studied the natural circulation on moving plants based on work of static natural circulation scaling method. With rigid motion theory, acceleration at each point was obtained on primary system and introduced to momentum equation. Thus a set of motion similar criteria were obtained. Furthermore, equal and unequal height simulation were analyzed. As to the unequal one, non isochronous simulation was needed for displacement and angular acceleration. (authors)

  12. Soft Sensor of Vehicle State Estimation Based on the Kernel Principal Component and Improved Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the car control systems, it is hard to measure some key vehicle states directly and accurately when running on the road and the cost of the measurement is high as well. To address these problems, a vehicle state estimation method based on the kernel principal component analysis and the improved Elman neural network is proposed. Combining with nonlinear vehicle model of three degrees of freedom (3 DOF, longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motion, this paper applies the method to the soft sensor of the vehicle states. The simulation results of the double lane change tested by Matlab/SIMULINK cosimulation prove the KPCA-IENN algorithm (kernel principal component algorithm and improved Elman neural network to be quick and precise when tracking the vehicle states within the nonlinear area. This algorithm method can meet the software performance requirements of the vehicle states estimation in precision, tracking speed, noise suppression, and other aspects.

  13. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  14. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  15. Markerless motion estimation for motion-compensated clinical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Se, Stephen; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2018-05-01

    Motion-compensated brain imaging can dramatically reduce the artifacts and quantitative degradation associated with voluntary and involuntary subject head motion during positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). However, motion-compensated imaging protocols are not in widespread clinical use for these modalities. A key reason for this seems to be the lack of a practical motion tracking technology that allows for smooth and reliable integration of motion-compensated imaging protocols in the clinical setting. We seek to address this problem by investigating the feasibility of a highly versatile optical motion tracking method for PET, SPECT and CT geometries. The method requires no attached markers, relying exclusively on the detection and matching of distinctive facial features. We studied the accuracy of this method in 16 volunteers in a mock imaging scenario by comparing the estimated motion with an accurate marker-based method used in applications such as image guided surgery. A range of techniques to optimize performance of the method were also studied. Our results show that the markerless motion tracking method is highly accurate (brain imaging and holds good promise for a practical implementation in clinical PET, SPECT and CT systems.

  16. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  17. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  18. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a supporting memorandum. Within 10 days after a written motion is served, or such other time period... writing. If made at the hearing, motions may be stated orally; but the Administrative Law Judge may require that they be reduced to writing and filed and served on all parties in the same manner as a formal...

  19. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  20. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  1. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  2. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  3. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  4. The numerical assessment of motion strategies for integrated linear motor during starting of a free-piston engine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali Hanipah, M.; Razul Razali, Akhtar

    2017-10-01

    Free-piston engine generator (FPEG) provides a novel method for electrical power generation in hybrid electric vehicle applications with scarcely reported prototype development and testing. This paper is looking into the motion control strategy for motoring the FPEG during starting. There are two motion profiles investigated namely, trapezoidal velocity and Scurve velocity. Both motion profiles were investigated numerically and the results have shown that the S-curve motion can only achieve 80% of the stroke when operated at the proposed motoring speed of 10Hz.

  5. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  6. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  7. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  8. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  9. Ferroelectric Zinc Oxide Nanowire Embedded Flexible Sensor for Motion and Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Park, Dae Hoon; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Min Hyung; Nah, Junghyo

    2017-03-22

    We report a simple method to realize multifunctional flexible motion sensor using ferroelectric lithium-doped ZnO-PDMS. The ferroelectric layer enables piezoelectric dynamic sensing and provides additional motion information to more precisely discriminate different motions. The PEDOT:PSS-functionalized AgNWs, working as electrode layers for the piezoelectric sensing layer, resistively detect a change of both movement or temperature. Thus, through the optimal integration of both elements, the sensing limit, accuracy, and functionality can be further expanded. The method introduced here is a simple and effective route to realize a high-performance flexible motion sensor with integrated multifunctionalities.

  10. Influence of earthquake strong motion duration on nonlinear structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskouris, K.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of motion duration on nonlinear structural response of high-rise, moment resisting frames are studied by subjecting shear beam models of a 10- and a 5-story frame to a series of synthetic accelerograms, all matching the same NEWMARK/HALL design spectrum. Two different hysteretic laws are used for the story springs, and calculations are carried out for target ductility values of 2 and 4. Maximum ductilities reached and energy-based damage indicators (maximum seismically input energy, hysteretically dissipated energy) are evaluated and correlated with the motion characteristics. A reasonable extrapolative determination of structural response characteristics based on these indicators seems possible. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    types of coupling used for particular truck superstructures. Types of truck superstructure A truck superstructure is generally a torsionally stiffer structure of the vehicle chassis and by its mounting on the vehicle main frame the torsion stiffness of the whole vehicle increases. In order to retain the vehicle torsional elasticity because of its positive reaction to strain, it is necessary to apply a particular type of coupling for a particular type of truck superstructure. Regarding the torsional stiffness, truck superstructures can be divided into three groups: 1. Torsionally elastic 2. Torsionally semielastic 3. Torsionally rigid Connection of the chassis and the truck superstructure In order to retain the vehicle torsional elasticity because of its positive reaction to strain, it is necessary to apply a particular type of coupling for a particular type of truck superstructure: Panel connection Panel connection allows longitudinal motion and prevents lateral or vertical motion of the chassis runner in relation to the main vehicle frame. Stirrup (U bolt connection Stirrup connections enable longitudinal motion of the chassis runner in relation to the main frame but they cannot accept lateral forces, so additional leading plates are mounted for that purpose. Simplex elastic connection Simplex elastic connections enable vertical motions of the automotive frames due to the effect of longitudinal torsion moments as well as longitudinal motion of the chassis runner due to the effect of longitudinal forces and frame flexion moments. Two - way elastic connection This kind of connections is used to connect the truck tank with the vehicle automotive frame. The connection supports lateral and longitudinal forces and enables vertical motion of the automotive frame in relation to the truck tank, during the torsion and lifting of the vehicle. Stiff connection (connection plates, sheets This type of connections enables rigid connection of the automotive frame and the chassis

  12. Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicle with Increased Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J. (Inventor); Moore, Mark D. (Inventor); Busan, Ronald C. (Inventor); Rothhaar, Paul M. (Inventor); North, David D. (Inventor); Langford, William M. (Inventor); Laws, Christopher T. (Inventor); Hodges, William T. (Inventor); Johns, Zachary R. (Inventor); Webb, Sandy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that combine an advance vehicle configuration, such as an advanced aircraft configuration, with the infusion of electric propulsion, thereby enabling a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining a full vertical takeoff and landing ("VTOL") and hover capability for the vehicle. Embodiments may provide vehicles with both VTOL and cruise efficient capabilities without the use of ground infrastructure. An embodiment vehicle may comprise a wing configured to tilt through a range of motion, a first series of electric motors coupled to the wing and each configured to drive an associated wing propeller, a tail configured to tilt through the range of motion, a second series of electric motors coupled to the tail and each configured to drive an associated tail propeller, and an electric propulsion system connected to the first series of electric motors and the second series of electric motors.

  13. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  14. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  15. Dynamic force profile in hydraulic hybrid vehicles: a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh-Motlagh, Amin; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2010-04-01

    A hybrid hydraulic vehicle (HHV) combines a hydraulic sub-system with the conventional drivetrain in order to improve fuel economy for heavy vehicles. The added hydraulic module manages the storage and release of fluid power necessary to assist the motion of the vehicle. The power collected by a pump/motor (P/M) from the regenerative braking phase is stored in a high-pressure accumulator and then released by the P/M to the driveshaft during the acceleration phase. This technology is effective in significantly improving fuel-economy for heavy-class vehicles with frequent stop-and-go drive schedules. Despite improved fuel economy and higher vehicle acceleration, noise and vibrations are one of the main problems of these vehicles. The dual function P/Ms are the main source of noise and vibration in a HHV. This study investigates the dynamics of a P/M and particularly the profile and frequency-dependence of the dynamic forces generated by a bent-axis P/M unit. To this end, the fluid dynamics side of the problem has been simplified for investigating the system from a dynamics perspective. A mathematical model of a bent axis P/M has been developed to investigate the cause of vibration and noise in HHVs. The forces are calculated in time and frequency domains. The results of this work can be used to study the vibration response of the chassis and to design effective vibration isolation systems for HHVs.

  16. Cellular neural networks for motion estimation and obstacle detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Feiden

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstacle detection is an important part of Video Processing because it is indispensable for a collision prevention of autonomously navigating moving objects. For example, vehicles driving without human guidance need a robust prediction of potential obstacles, like other vehicles or pedestrians. Most of the common approaches of obstacle detection so far use analytical and statistical methods like motion estimation or generation of maps. In the first part of this contribution a statistical algorithm for obstacle detection in monocular video sequences is presented. The proposed procedure is based on a motion estimation and a planar world model which is appropriate to traffic scenes. The different processing steps of the statistical procedure are a feature extraction, a subsequent displacement vector estimation and a robust estimation of the motion parameters. Since the proposed procedure is composed of several processing steps, the error propagation of the successive steps often leads to inaccurate results. In the second part of this contribution it is demonstrated, that the above mentioned problems can be efficiently overcome by using Cellular Neural Networks (CNN. It will be shown, that a direct obstacle detection algorithm can be easily performed, based only on CNN processing of the input images. Beside the enormous computing power of programmable CNN based devices, the proposed method is also very robust in comparison to the statistical method, because is shows much less sensibility to noisy inputs. Using the proposed approach of obstacle detection in planar worlds, a real time processing of large input images has been made possible.

  17. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory of mot...

  18. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively .... rigid body rotation. The solid body rotation makes sense in the context of small Reynolds. (Re) number flows ...

  19. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  20. Motion simulator with exchangeable unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.; Beukers, A.; Baarspul, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.; De Winter, S.E.E.

    2001-01-01

    A motion simulator provided with a movable housing, preferably carried by a number of length-adjustable legs, in which housing projection means are arranged for visual information supply, while in the housing a control environment of a motion apparatus to be simulated is situated, the control

  1. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis

    2005-01-01

    of motors, in similar form al GNC, is completely feasible, but their high cost (more than 10 times the gasoline), the need to create a provision points network, and the autonomy limited (almost 4 times less than the GNC) limit hardly their real impact al problem of the cities.In the case of the hybrid vehicles with cells PEM, regarding the previous case, the cost of the fuel (of high purity) multiplies for ten and the investment in the motor assembly (by the present cost of the cells) in more than 50 times.Its possibility of effective insertion appears thus a lot more far away, acquiring still very important advances in the more resistant and cheapest development of catalysers to the contaminants, so that they can be competitive

  2. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  3. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  4. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ~200 μm s-1. By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ~10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric

  5. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  6. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  7. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  8. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  9. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  10. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  11. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  12. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  13. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  14. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  15. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  16. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions....... The contributions are organized in topical sections named: road; rail; and air....

  17. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. Approximate Pressure Distribution in an Accelerating Launch-Vehicle Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing the pressure in a generic liquid-fuel launch vehicle tank subjected to uniformly accelerated motion is presented. The equations obtained are then for the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank at approximately 70 seconds into flight. This generic derivation is applicable to any fuel tank in the form of a surface of revolution and should be useful in the design of future launch vehicles

  20. Human-like motion planning model for driving in signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly automated and fully autonomous vehicles are much more likely to be accepted if they react in the same way as human drivers do, especially in a hybrid traffic situation, which allows autonomous vehicles and human-driven vehicles to share the same road. This paper proposes a human-like motion planning model to represent how human drivers assess environments and operate vehicles in signalized intersections. The developed model consists of a pedestrian intention detection model, gap detection model, and vehicle control model. These three submodels are individually responsible for situation assessment, decision making, and action, and also depend on each other in the process of motion planning. In addition, these submodels are constructed and learned on the basis of human drivers' data collected from real traffic environments. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed motion planning model, we compared the proposed model with actual human driver and pedestrian data. The experimental results showed that our proposed model and actual human driver behaviors are highly similar with respect to gap acceptance in intersections.

  1. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  2. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han

    2006-01-01

    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability

  3. Focus group testing for the vehicle scrappage program : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Canada's national vehicle scrappage program was designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-forming emissions by removing personal vehicles with model years of 1995 and older from Canadian road systems. The program will also promote sustainable transportation alternatives and recycling programs to prevent the release of other toxic substances into the environment. Incentives designed to encourage Canadians to scrap older vehicles may include cash incentives and rebates towards the purchase of a new vehicle, free transit passes, and other options designed to support sustainable transportation. This paper discussed a research program conducted to assess target audience responses to the programs and its proposed incentives. The survey was conducted with a series of 20 focus groups located in major cities across Canada. Sessions were comprised of between 6 to 10 participants from lower-income and higher-income households. All groups responded negatively to both the overall policy as well as to specific program elements. The study showed that most participants were not aware that older vehicles emit significantly higher levels of harmful emissions. The research audience did not understand distinctions between smog-producing emissions and GHG emissions. Participants also believed that personal vehicles had a minor negative impact on the environment compared to trucks, industry, and vehicle fleets. Participants felt a sense of pride in the ways in which they had maintained their older vehicles, and also perceived them as safer than newer vehicles. It was concluded that many participants were resistant to facts presented to them about older vehicles, and felt that the incentives were insufficient to trigger action. The effectiveness of advertising materials designed to promote the program was also assessed. 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the subject of straight-line target tracking for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs. Target-tracking represents motion control scenarios where no information about the target behavior is known in advance, i.e., the path that the target traverses is not defined apriori. Specifically, this work presents the design of a motion control system which enables an underactuated USV to track a target that moves in a straight line at high speed. The motion control system employs a guidance principle originally developed for interceptor missiles, as well as a novel velocity controller inspired by maneuverability and agility concepts found in fighter aircraft literature. The performance of the suggested design is illustrated through full-scale USV experiments in the Trondheimsfjord.

  5. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  6. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  7. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  8. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  9. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  10. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) connected vehicle research : program is a multimodal initiative to enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless : communications among vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications : dev...

  11. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  12. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  14. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  15. Motion perception in motion : how we perceive object motion during smooth pursuit eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souman, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in

  16. Development of collision dynamics models to estimate the results of full-scale rail vehicle impact tests : Tufts University Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In an effort to study occupant survivability in train collisions, analyses and tests were conducted to understand and improve the crashworthiness of rail vehicles. A collision dynamics model was developed in order to estimate the rigid body motion of...

  17. Tracked vehicles in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Walton, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    A programme of remote inspections has been conducted on the Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd Power Station using climbing vehicles. Tracked remotely operated vehicles supported the inspection programme by assisting with the delivery and recovery of the climbing vehicles and facilitating the use of various accessory packages. This paper presents details of the support project, the tracked vehicles and of the uses made of them during the inspection programme. (author)

  18. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    optimize vehicle operation, and capture vehicle kinetic energy during braking ( regenerative energy). As much as two-thirds of this imported oil comes... categories . Figure 4 provides a visual representation of many of the HEV and BEV options available on the 2010 GSA Schedule. Figure 4 - GSA...gallon • Renewable energy generated 24 • Vehicle miles driven by vehicle category • Implementation costs – Infrastructure modifications required

  19. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  20. Experimental and theoretical study on natural circulation capacity under rolling motion condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen

    2007-01-01

    Effect of rolling motion on natural circulation capacity was studied experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were conducted under the conditions of rolling and unrolling motions. The experimental results show that natural circulation capacity decreases under rolling motion condition. A mathematic model was developed to calculate the natural circulation capacity under rolling motion condition, considering the characteristics of natural circulation, the model was modified. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. Effect of rolling motion on natural circulation was analyzed through calculation and the following conclusions were obtained: (1) The increase of flow resistance coefficient is the main reason that the natural circulation capacity decreases under rolling motion condition; (2) Non-uniform distribution of fluid mass in the pipe has also influence on natural circulation capacity. (author)

  1. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  2. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  5. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  6. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  7. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  8. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  9. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.; Tapia, Lydia; Thomas, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer's disease

  10. What motion is: William Neile and the laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Max

    2017-07-01

    In 1668-1669 William Neile and John Wallis engaged in a protracted correspondence regarding the nature of motion. Neile was unhappy with the laws of motion that had been established by the Royal Society in three papers published in 1668, deeming them not explanations of motion at all, but mere descriptions. Neile insisted that science could not be informative without a discussion of causes, meaning that Wallis's purely kinematic account of collision could not be complete. Wallis, however, did not consider Neile's objections to his work to be serious. Rather than engage in a discussion of the proper place of natural philosophy in science, Wallis decided to show how Neile's preferred treatment of motion lead to absurd conclusions. This dispute is offered as a case study of dispute resolution within the early Royal Society.

  11. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  12. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  13. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  15. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound. PMID:26493681

  16. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light's Orbital Angular Momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-10-23

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound.

  17. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  18. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  19. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.