WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle mission control

  1. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  2. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  3. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  4. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  5. Energy Management of the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Using a Goal-Oriented Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Julia M. B.; Wagner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Safe human exploration in space missions requires careful management of limited resources such as breathable air and stored electrical energy. Daily activities for astronauts must be carefully planned with respect to such resources, and usage must be monitored as activities proceed to ensure that they can be completed while maintaining safe resource margins. Such planning and monitoring can be complex because they depend on models of resource usage, the activities being planned, and uncertainties. This paper describes a system - and the technology behind it - for energy management of the NASA-Johnson Space Center's Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicles (SEV), that provides, in an onboard advisory mode, situational awareness to astronauts and real-time guidance to mission operators. This new capability was evaluated during this year's Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) planetary exploration analog test in Arizona. This software aided ground operators and crew members in modifying the day s activities based on the real-time execution of the plan and on energy data received from the rovers.

  6. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    on, gear is on neutral position, the vehicle is stationary, and the alternator powers the systems. The proposed energy saving strategy for silent surveillance mission minimizes unnecessary battery discharges by controlling the power states of systems according to the mission needs and available battery capacity. Initial experiments show that the proposed approach saves 3% energy when compared with the baseline strategy for one scenario and 1.8% for the second scenario. The proposed energy saving strategy for normal surveillance mission operates the engine at fuel-efficient speeds to meet vehicle demand and to save fuel. The experiment and simulation uses a computerized vehicle model and a test bench to validate the approach. In comparison to vehicles with fixed high-idle engine speed increments, experiments show that the proposed strategy saves fuel energy in the range of 0-4.9% for the tested power demand range of 44-69 kW. It is hoped to implement the proposed strategies on a real Army ground vehicle to start realizing the energy savings.

  7. Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle Systems Suitable For Individual or Cooperative Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew O. Anderson; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching autonomous unmanned vehicle systems for the past several years. Areas of research have included unmanned ground and aerial vehicles used for hazardous and remote operations as well as teamed together for advanced payloads and mission execution. Areas of application include aerial particulate sampling, cooperative remote radiological sampling, and persistent surveillance including real-time mosaic and geo-referenced imagery in addition to high resolution still imagery. Both fixed-wing and rotary airframes are used possessing capabilities spanning remote control to fully autonomous operation. Patented INL-developed auto steering technology is taken advantage of to provide autonomous parallel path swathing with either manned or unmanned ground vehicles. Aerial look-ahead imagery is utilized to provide a common operating picture for the ground and air vehicle during cooperative missions. This paper will discuss the various robotic vehicles, including sensor integration, used to achieve these missions and anticipated cost and labor savings.

  8. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  9. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  10. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  11. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  12. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  13. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  14. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 2: Missions and vehicle integration trades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Mission and vehicle integration tradeoffs involving the use of the pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear powered vehicles is discussed, with much of the information being given in viewgraph form. Information is given on propellant tank geometries, shield weight requirements for conventional tank configurations, effective specific impulse, radiation mapping, radiation dose rate after shutdown, space transfer vehicle design data, a Mars mission summary, sample pellet bed nuclear orbit transfer vehicle mass breakdown, and payload fraction vs. velocity increment

  15. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 2: Missions and vehicle integration trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloulakos, V. E.

    1991-01-01

    Mission and vehicle integration tradeoffs involving the use of the pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear powered vehicles is discussed, with much of the information being given in viewgraph form. Information is given on propellant tank geometries, shield weight requirements for conventional tank configurations, effective specific impulse, radiation mapping, radiation dose rate after shutdown, space transfer vehicle design data, a Mars mission summary, sample pellet bed nuclear orbit transfer vehicle mass breakdown, and payload fraction vs. velocity increment.

  16. A trainlike vehicle for intervention missions inside nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmann, F.; Villedieu, E.; Chameaud, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Unite Robotique (part of the Direction of Advanced Technologies of Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has worked on nuclear robotics in the field of master/slave manipulators with their associated computer-aided teleoperation controls and mobile robots. The CENTAURE mobile robot is tracked (for stair climbing) and articulated (for obstacle crossing and turning on stair landings) with a mobile platform (for increasing stability), designed for inspection missions. For intervention missions, a vehicle is needed with larger payload capabilities (volume and mass) but with the same geometrical and environmental constraints. This paper deals with a new kind of trainlike vehicle designed for intervention missions inside nuclear facilities after an incident or accident. This idea was conceived in 1986 for the EUREKA program advanced mobile robot for civilian safety and is now entering a new phase with the TELEMAN program technology for advanced locomotion systems (in partnership with Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe for the locomotion and Cybernetix for the tests) with the building of a two-module linkage mockup and a locomotion mockup

  17. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  18. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  19. MAIUS-1- Vehicle, Subsystems Design and Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamminger, A.; Ettl, J.; Grosse, J.; Horschgen-Eggers, M.; Jung, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Raith, G.; Saedtler, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Turner, J.; Wittkamp, M.

    2015-09-01

    In November 2015, the DLR Mobile Rocket Base will launch the MAIUS-1 rocket vehicle at Esrange, Northern Sweden. The MAIUS-A experiment is a pathfinder atom optics experiment. The scientific objective of the mission is the first creation of a BoseEinstein Condensate in space and performing atom interferometry on a sounding rocket [3]. MAIUS-1 comprises a two-stage unguided solid propellant VSB-30 rocket motor system. The vehicle consists of a Brazilian 53 1 motor as 1 st stage, a 530 motor as 2nd stage, a conical motor adapter, a despin module, a payload adapter, the MAIUS-A experiment consisting of five experiment modules, an attitude control system module, a newly developed conical service system, and a two-staged recovery system including a nosecone. In contrast to usual payloads on VSB-30 rockets, the payload has a diameter of 500 mm due to constraints of the scientific experiment. Because of this change in design, a blunted nosecone is necessary to guarantee the required static stability during the ascent phase of the flight. This paper will give an overview on the subsystems which have been built at DLR MORABA, especially the newly developed service system. Further, it will contain a description of the MAIUS-1 vehicle, the mission and the unique requirements on operations and attitude control, which is additionally required to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector. Additionally to a usual microgravity environment, the MAIUS-l payload requires attitude control to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector.

  20. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  1. Optimization of vehicle weight for Mars excursion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The excursion class mission to Mars is defined as a mission with one year durations coupled with a stay time of up to 30 days. The fuel budget for such a mission is investigated. The overall figure of merit in such an assessment is the vehicle weight ratio, the ratio between the wet vehicle weight to the dry vehicle weight. It is necessary to minimize the overall fuel budget for the mission in order to maximize the benefits that could be obtained by sending humans to Mars. Assumptions used in the analysis are: each mission will depart and terminate in low-earth-orbit (LEO) (500 km circular) and the maximum stay time at Mars is 30 days. The maximum mission duration is one year (355-375 days). The mass returned to LEO is 135,000 kg, the dropoff mass left at Mars is 168,000 kg. Three propulsive techniques for atmospheric interface are investigated: aerobraking, all-chemical propulsion, and nuclear thermal propulsion. By defining the fuel requirements, the space transfer vehicle's configuration is defined.

  2. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning

    2004-01-01

    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected......The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target...

  3. DEPSCOR: Research on ARL's Intelligent Control Architecture: Hierarchical Hybrid-Model Based Design, Verification, Simulation, and Synthesis of Mission Control for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Holloway, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    ... modeling, verification, simulation and automated synthesis of coordinators has lead to research in this area. We have worked and are working on these issues with Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Pennsylvania State University (PSU) who have designed autonomous underwater vehicles for over 50 years primarily under the support of the U.S. Navy through the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  4. NASA Mission Operations Directorate Preparations for the COTS Visiting Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Peek, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle looming, a series of new spacecraft is under development to assist in providing for the growing logistical needs of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of these vehicles are being built under a NASA initiative known as the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. These visiting vehicles ; Space X s Dragon and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus , are to be domestically produced in the United States and designed to add to the capabilities of the Russian Progress and Soyuz workhorses, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and the Japanese H-2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Most of what is known about the COTS program has focused on the work of Orbital and SpaceX in designing, building, and testing their respective launch and cargo vehicles. However, there is also a team within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA s Johnson Space Center working with their operational counterparts in these companies to provide operational safety oversight and mission assurance via the development of operational scenarios and products needed for these missions. Ensuring that the operational aspect is addressed for the initial demonstration flights of these vehicles is the topic of this paper. Integrating Dragon and Cygnus into the ISS operational environment has posed a unique challenge to NASA and their partner companies. This is due in part to the short time span of the COTS program, as measured from initial contract award until first launch, as well as other factors that will be explored in the text. Operational scenarios and products developed for each COTS vehicle will be discussed based on the following categories: timelines, on-orbit checkout, ground documentation, crew procedures, software updates and training materials. Also addressed is an outline of the commonalities associated with the operations for each vehicle. It is the intent of the authors to provide their audience with a better

  5. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  6. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  7. Fast mission reliability prediction for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.D.; Poole, J.; Chen, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a significant interest in the use of autonomous vehicles in many industrial sectors. One such example is the ever increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), particularly in military operations. This enables dangerous missions to be accomplished without risk to a pilot. UAVs also have potential civil applications which would require their certification and the demonstration that they are able to respond safety to any potential circumstances. The aircraft would therefore need to be capable of responding safely to the occurrence of component failures, the emergence of threats such as other aircraft in the neighboring airspace, and changing weather conditions. The likelihood that an aircraft will successfully complete any mission can be predicted using phased mission analysis techniques. The predicted mission unreliability can be updated in response to changing circumstances. In the event that the likelihood of mission failure becomes too high then changes have to be made to the mission plan. If these calculations could be carried out fast enough then the quantification procedure could be used to establish an acceptable response to any new conditions. With a view to using the methodology in the context described above, this paper investigates ways in which phased mission analysis can be improved to reduce the calculation time. The methodology improves the processing capability for a UAV phased mission analysis by taking into account the specific characteristics of the fault tree structures which provide the causes of phase failure for a UAV mission. It also carries out as much of the quantification as possible in advance of the mission plan being formulated

  8. A mission executor for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Jeng; Wilkinson, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting research into the design and testing of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). One facet of this research is to incrementally design a software architecture and implement it in an advanced testbed, the AUV II. As part of the high level architecture, a Mission Executor is being constructed using CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) version 5.0. The Mission Executor is an expert system designed to oversee progress from the AUV launch point to a goal area and back to the origin. It is expected that the executor will make informed decisions about the mission, taking into account the navigational path, the vehicle subsystem health, and the sea environment, as well as the specific mission profile which is downloaded from an offboard mission planner. Heuristics for maneuvering, avoidance of uncharted obstacles, waypoint navigation, and reaction to emergencies (essentially the expert knowledge of a submarine captain) are required. Many of the vehicle subsystems are modeled as objects using the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL) embedded in CLIPS 5.0. Also, truth maintenance is applied to the knowledge base to keep configurations updated.

  9. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R., E-mail: R.Remenyte-Prescott@nottingham.ac.u [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Andrews, J.D. [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chung, P.W.H. [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  10. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.; Chung, P.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  11. New space vehicle archetypes for human planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Contemporary, archetypal, crew-carrying spacecraft concepts developed for NASA are presented for: a lunar transportation system, two kinds of Mars landers, and five kinds of Mars transfer vehicles. These cover the range of propulsion technologies and mission modes of interest for the Space Exploration Initiative, and include both aerobraking and artificial gravity as appropriate. They comprise both upgrades of extant archetypes and completely new ones. Computer solid models, configurations and mass statements are presented for each.

  12. A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Autonomous Vehicles Joseph DiVita, PhD Robert L. Morris Maria Olinda Rodas SSC Pacific Approved...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 09–2013 Final A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles Joseph...Mission Area: Command and Control, Queueing Model; Supervisory Control; Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles M. O. Rodas U U U U 38 (619)

  13. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  14. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging

  15. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  16. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  17. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  18. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  19. Tasking and control of a squad of robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Feddema, John T.; Klarer, Paul

    2001-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories have developed a squad of robotic vehicles as a test-bed for investigating cooperative control strategies. The squad consists of eight RATLER vehicles and a command station. The RATLERs are medium-sized all-electric vehicles containing a PC104 stack for computation, control, and sensing. Three separate RF channels are used for communications; one for video, one for command and control, and one for differential GPS corrections. Using DGPS and IR proximity sensors, the vehicles are capable of autonomously traversing fairly rough terrain. The control station is a PC running Windows NT. A GUI has been developed that allows a single operator to task and monitor all eight vehicles. To date, the following mission capabilities have been demonstrated: 1. Way-Point Navigation, 2. Formation Following, 3. Perimeter Surveillance, 4. Surround and Diversion, and 5. DGPS Leap Frog. This paper describes the system and briefly outlines each mission capability. The DGPS Leap Frog capability is discussed in more detail. This capability is unique in that it demonstrates how cooperation allows the vehicles to accurately navigate beyond the RF communication range. One vehicle stops and uses its corrected GPS position to re-initialize its receiver to become the DGPS correction station for the other vehicles. Error in position accumulates each time a new vehicle takes over the DGPS duties. The accumulation in error is accurately modeled as a random walk phenomenon. This paper demonstrates how useful accuracy can be maintained beyond the vehicle's range.

  20. Multi-Mission Earth Vehicle Subsonic Dynamic Stability Testing and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Fremaux, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes, retro-rockets, and reaction control systems and rely on the natural aerodynamic stability of the vehicle throughout the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of flight. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs for an array of missions and develop and visualize the trade space. Testing in NASA Langley?s Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) was conducted to significantly improve M-SAPE?s subsonic aerodynamic models. Vehicle size and shape can be driven by entry flight path angle and speed, thermal protection system performance, terminal velocity limitations, payload mass and density, among other design parameters. The objectives of the VST testing were to define usable subsonic center of gravity limits, and aerodynamic parameters for 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations, for a range of MMEEV designs. The range of MMEEVs tested was from 1.8m down to 1.2m diameter. A backshell extender provided the ability to test a design with a much larger payload for the 1.2m MMEEV.

  1. Flight mission control for multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.

    1990-10-01

    A plan developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for mission control of unmanned spacecraft is outlined. A technical matrix organization from which, in the past, project teams were formed to uniquely support a mission is replaced in this new plan. A cost effective approach was needed to make best use of limited resources. Mission control is a focal point operations and a good place to start a multimission concept. Co-location and sharing common functions are the keys to obtaining efficiencies at minimum additional risk. For the projects, the major changes are sharing a common operations area and having indirect control of personnel. The plan identifies the still direct link for the mission control functions. Training is a major element in this plan. Personnel are qualified for a position and certified for a mission. This concept is more easily accepted by new missions than the ongoing missions.

  2. A Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis Approach for Multi Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.

  3. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  4. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  5. Inertial Navigation System for India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD HEX) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P.; Navas, A.; Karuturi, Kesavabrahmaji; Shukkoor, A. Abdul; Kumar, J. Krishna; Sreekumar, Sreejith; Basim, A. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the configuration of Inertial Navigation System (INS) used in India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) Program. In view of the specific features and requirements of the RLV-TD, specific improvements and modifications were required in the INS. A new system was designed, realised and qualified meeting the mission requirements of RLV-TD, at the same time taking advantage of the flight heritage attained in INS through various Launch vehicle Missions of the country. The new system has additional redundancy in acceleration channel, in-built inclinometer based bias update scheme for acceleration channels and sign conventions as employed in an aircraft. Data acquisition in micro cycle periodicity (10 ms) was incorporated which was required to provide rate and attitude information at higher sampling rate for ascent phase control. Provision was incorporated for acquisition of rate and acceleration data with high resolution for aerodynamic characterisation and parameter estimation. GPS aided navigation scheme was incorporated to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of the mission. Navigation system configuration for RLV-TD, specific features incorporated to meet the mission requirements, various tests carried out and performance during RLV-TD flight are highlighted.

  6. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  7. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  8. Planetary Mission Entry Vehicles Quick Reference Guide. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carol; Arcadi, Marla

    2006-01-01

    This is Version 3.0 of the planetary mission entry vehicle document. Three new missions, Re-entry F, Hayabusa, and ARD have been added to t he previously published edition (Version 2.1). In addition, the Huyge ns mission has been significantly updated and some Apollo data correc ted. Due to the changing nature of planetary vehicles during the desi gn, manufacture and mission phases, and to the variables involved in measurement and computation, please be aware that the data provided h erein cannot be guaranteed. Contact Carol Davies at cdavies@mail.arc. nasa.gov to correct or update the current data, or to suggest other missions.

  9. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  10. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  11. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  12. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  13. Virtual sensors for advanced vehicle stability control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Schouten, H.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced vehicle control technologies provide a great potential to further improve vehicle handling, ride and safety. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the added value of the TNO Vehicle State Estimation module to integrated active safety. State-of-the-art Electronic Stability Control

  14. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  15. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  16. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  17. A Survey of Missions for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    commands (much like wire-guided tor- pedoes ) have become possible. We regard this vehicle variety as a type of ROV. This study treats both AUVs and...energy offered by new technologies, power and energy are still an issue for tor- pedo -like AUVs. A survey of AUV developers conducted in the spring of...neutral buoyancy is also needed for vehicle recovery. For AUVs launched from tor- pedo tubes in particular, vehicle recovery can occur only when the

  18. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  19. Demonstration of a Concurrently Programmed Tactical Level Control Software for Autonomous Vehicles and the Interface to the Execution Level Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, William

    2000-01-01

    .... One of the greatest challenges to the successful development of truly autonomous vehicles is the ability to link logically based high-level mission planning with low-level vehicle control software...

  20. Different control applications on a vehicle using fuzzy logic control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicle vibrations; active suspensions; fuzzy logic control; vehicle model. 1. .... The general expression of the mathematical model is shown below: .... Figure 5a presents the time history of the control force when the controller exists only under.

  1. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  2. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  3. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~11.5) and a specific impulse of ~950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  4. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼11.5) and a specific impulse of ∼950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines

  5. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  6. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  7. Contribution to intelligent vehicle platoon control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao , Jin

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis is dedicated to the control strategies for intelligent vehicle platoon in highway with the main aims of alleviating traffic congestion and improving traffic safety. After a review of the different existing automated driving systems, the vehicle longitudinal and lateral dynamic models are derived. Then, the longitudinal control and lateral control strategies are studied respectively. At first, the longitudinal control system is designed to be hierarchical with an upper level co...

  8. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  9. Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0747 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ayers, Bradley...ANSI Std. Z39.18 CONTROL OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES USING TRANSVERSE JETS Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract N00014-13-1...fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle model using the thrust of the zero-net-mass-flux device. The experiments were conducted in NUWC Newport’ s

  10. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  11. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  12. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  13. Flight Vehicle Control and Aerobiological Sampling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Techy, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an exciting research field blending various scientific and engineering disciplines. The biological data collected using UAVs helps to better understand the atmospheric transport of microorganisms. Autopilot-equipped UAVs can accurately sample along pre-defined flight plans and precisely regulated altitudes. They can provide even greater utility when they are networked together in coordinated sampling missions: such measurements ...

  14. Cooperative control of a squad of mobile vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.; Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Tasks such as the localization of chemical sources, demining, perimeter control, surveillance and search and rescue missions are usually performed by teams of people. At least conceptually, large groups of relatively cheap mobile vehicles outfitted with sensors should be able to automatically accomplish some of these tasks. Sandia National Labs is currently developing a swarm of semi-autonomous all terrain vehicles for remote cooperative sensing applications. This paper will describe the capabilities of this system and outline some of its possible applications. Cooperative control and sensing strategies will also be described. Eight Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers (RATLERs) have been built at Sandia as a test platform for cooperative control and sensing applications. This paper will first describe the hardware capabilities of the RATLER system. Then it will describe the basic control algorithm for GPS based navigation and obstacle avoidance. A higher level cooperative control task will then be described

  15. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  16. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  17. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  18. Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.

  19. Transport vehicle for manned Mars missions powered by inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an ideal engine power source for manned spacecraft to Mars because of its inherently high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have produced a concept for a vehicle powered by ICF and utilizing a magnetic thrust chamber to avoid plasma thermalization with wall structures and the resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. This vehicle is capable of 100-day manned Mars missions with a 100-metric-ton payload and a total vehicle launch mass near 6000 metric tons, based on advanced technology assumed to be available by A.D. 2020. Such short-duration missions minimize radiation exposures and physiological deterioration of astronauts

  20. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  1. Habitability as a Tier One Criterion in Exploration Mission and Vehicle Design. Part 1; Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.; McCurdy, Matthew Riegel

    1999-01-01

    Habitability and human factors are necessary criteria to include in the iterative process of Tier I mission design. Bringing these criteria in at the first, conceptual stage of design for exploration and other human-rated missions can greatly reduce mission development costs, raise the level of efficiency and viability, and improve the chances of success. In offering a rationale for this argument, the authors give an example of how the habitability expert can contribute to early mission and vehicle architecture by defining the formal implications of a habitable vehicle, assessing the viability of units already proposed for exploration missions on the basis of these criteria, and finally, by offering an optimal set of solutions for an example mission. In this, the first of three papers, we summarize the basic factors associated with habitability, delineate their formal implications for crew accommodations in a long-duration environment, and show examples of how these principles have been applied in two projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center: the BIO-Plex test facility, and TransHab.

  2. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  3. Human Assisted Robotic Vehicle Studies - A conceptual end-to-end mission architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, B. A. E.; Mazzotta, D. G.; Teeney, L.; Spina, F.; Filosa, A.; Pou, A. Canals; Schlechten, J.; Campbell, S.; Soriano, P. López

    2017-11-01

    With current space exploration roadmaps indicating the Moon as a proving ground on the way to human exploration of Mars, it is clear that human-robotic partnerships will play a key role for successful future human space missions. This paper details a conceptual end-to-end architecture for an exploration mission in cis-lunar space with a focus on human-robot interactions, called Human Assisted Robotic Vehicle Studies (HARVeSt). HARVeSt will build on knowledge of plant growth in space gained from experiments on-board the ISS and test the first growth of plants on the Moon. A planned deep space habitat will be utilised as the base of operations for human-robotic elements of the mission. The mission will serve as a technology demonstrator not only for autonomous tele-operations in cis-lunar space but also for key enabling technologies for future human surface missions. The successful approach of the ISS will be built on in this mission with international cooperation. Mission assets such as a modular rover will allow for an extendable mission and to scout and prepare the area for the start of an international Moon Village.

  4. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  5. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.

    1980-09-01

    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  6. Velocity Controller for a Class of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Przemyslaw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of velocity tracking control for various fully-actuated robotic vehicles. The presented method, which is based on transformation of equations of motion allows one to use, in the control gain matrix, the dynamical couplings existing in the system. Consequently, the dynamics of the vehicle is incorporated into the control process what leads to fast velocity error convergence. The stability of the system under the controller is derived based on Lyapunov argument. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed controller is shown too. The general approach is valid for 6 DOF models as well as other reduced models of vehicles. Simulation results on a 6 DOF indoor airship validate the described velocity tracking methodology.

  7. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  8. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarrah, M.; Adiansyah, S.; Marji, Z. M.; Chowdhury, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  9. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  10. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  11. The SOFIA Mission Control System Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligman, G. M.; Brock, D. R.; Culp, S. D.; Decker, P. H.; Estrada, J. C.; Graybeal, J. B.; Nichols, D. M.; Paluzzi, P. R.; Sharer, P. J.; Pampell, R. J.; Papke, B. L.; Salovich, R. D.; Schlappe, S. B.; Spriestersbach, K. K.; Webb, G. L.

    1999-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be delivered with a computerized mission control system (MCS). The MCS communicates with the aircraft's flight management system and coordinates the operations of the telescope assembly, mission-specific subsystems, and the science instruments. The software for the MCS must be reliable and flexible. It must be easily usable by many teams of observers with widely differing needs, and it must support non-intrusive access for education and public outreach. The technology must be appropriate for SOFIA's 20-year lifetime. The MCS software development process is an object-oriented, use case driven approach. The process is iterative: delivery will be phased over four "builds"; each build will be the result of many iterations; and each iteration will include analysis, design, implementation, and test activities. The team is geographically distributed, coordinating its work via Web pages, teleconferences, T.120 remote collaboration, and CVS (for Internet-enabled configuration management). The MCS software architectural design is derived in part from other observatories' experience. Some important features of the MCS are: * distributed computing over several UNIX and VxWorks computers * fast throughput of time-critical data * use of third-party components, such as the Adaptive Communications Environment (ACE) and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) * extensive configurability via stored, editable configuration files * use of several computer languages so developers have "the right tool for the job". C++, Java, scripting languages, Interactive Data Language (from Research Systems, Int'l.), XML, and HTML will all be used in the final deliverables. This paper reports on work in progress, with the final product scheduled for delivery in 2001. This work was performed for Universities Space Research Association for NASA under contract NAS2-97001.

  12. Coordinated Control of Vehicle Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    .... There are three main objectives: (1) to develop a theoretical paradigm for formalizing the concepts of a group, a team, and control of groups, with specified tasks such as exploring, mapping, searching, and transporting objects; (2...

  13. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a

  15. Lagrangian coherent structure assisted path planning for transoceanic autonomous underwater vehicle missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A G; García-Garrido, V J; Mancho, A M; Wiggins, S; Coca, J; Glenn, S; Schofield, O; Kohut, J; Aragon, D; Kerfoot, J; Haskins, T; Miles, T; Haldeman, C; Strandskov, N; Allsup, B; Jones, C; Shapiro, J

    2018-03-15

    Transoceanic Gliders are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for which there is a developing and expanding range of applications in open-seas research, technology and underwater clean transport. Mature glider autonomy, operating depth (0-1000 meters) and low energy consumption without a CO 2 footprint enable evolutionary access across ocean basins. Pursuant to the first successful transatlantic glider crossing in December 2009, the Challenger Mission has opened the door to long-term, long-distance routine transoceanic AUV missions. These vehicles, which glide through the water column between 0 and 1000 meters depth, are highly sensitive to the ocean current field. Consequently, it is essential to exploit the complex space-time structure of the ocean current field in order to plan a path that optimizes scientific payoff and navigation efficiency. This letter demonstrates the capability of dynamical system theory for achieving this goal by realizing the real-time navigation strategy for the transoceanic AUV named Silbo, which is a Slocum deep-glider (0-1000 m), that crossed the North Atlantic from April 2016 to March 2017. Path planning in real time based on this approach has facilitated an impressive speed up of the AUV to unprecedented velocities resulting in major battery savings on the mission, offering the potential for routine transoceanic long duration missions.

  16. Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gacovski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combi­nation of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.

  17. Design and analysis of control strategies for vehicle platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, A.; Li, Hong; Goswami, D.; Math, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel vehicle platoon control algorithm using Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications between platoon members. A platoon forms a chain of vehicles (e.g., trucks) for improved traffic and fuel efficiency. Platooning algorithms aim to

  18. Labview Application For A Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Paladine Vieira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction of a vehicle driven by electric motors and that is automated, that is, that can move anywhere without human intervention. The control was done using the software Labview, with data acquisition and generation of control signs. The vehicle has an infrared sensors system that indicates the existence of an obstacle ahead the vehicle, informing it that it should stop and bypass the obstacle. The program is the responsible for the engine control, making it possible for the prototype to run and bypass the objects that block its way. The possibility of remote-controlling a vehicle is very important is risky situations for human beings, for example in radioactive places. The main advantage of this system is the total flexibility for making alterations in the control software, without being necessary to touch the physical part of the prototype. The conclusion of this work is that the system is efficient and able to move in a room with objects without touching them.

  19. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  20. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  1. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  2. Hybrid vehicle energy management: singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energymanagement is often studied in simulation as an optimal control problem. Under strict convexity assumptions, a solution can be developed using Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In practice, however, many engineers do not formally check these assumptions resulting in the possible

  3. Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and micron-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis is discussed. Airbreathing SSTO vehicles has a mutli-faceted mission that includes orbital operations, as well as re-entry and descent culminating in horizontal landing. However, the most challenging part of the operations is the ascent to orbit. The airbreathing propulsion requires lengthy atmospheric flight that may last as long as 30 minutes and take the vehicle half way around the globe. The vehicles's ascent is characterized by tight payload to orbit margins which translate into minimum fuel orbit as the performance criteria. Issues discussed include: SSTO airbreathing vehicle issues; control system performance requirements; robust control law framework; H(infinity) controller frequency analysis; and mu controller frequency analysis.

  4. Gaze-Based Controlling a Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    ) as an example of a complex gaze-based task in environment. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of how gaze interaction can be performed for controlling vehicles not only using a remote gaze tracker but also in general challenging situations where the user and robot are mobile...... modality if gaze trackers are embedded into the head- mounted devices. The domain of gaze-based interactive applications increases dramatically as interaction is no longer constrained to 2D displays. This paper proposes a general framework for gaze-based controlling a non- stationary robot (vehicle...... and the movements may be governed by several degrees of freedom (e.g. flying). A case study is also introduced where the mobile gaze tracker is used for controlling a Roomba vacuum cleaner....

  5. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Gauss Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control technique of autonomous vehicle is basic theory and one key complex technique which must have the reliability and precision of vehicle controller. The longitudinal control technique is one of the foundations of the safety and stability of autonomous vehicle control. In our paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The longitudinal control algorithm mainly uses cloud model generator to control the acceleration of the autonomous vehicle to achieve the goal that controls the speed of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The proposed longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model is verified by real experiments on Highway driving scene. The experiments results of the acceleration and speed show that the algorithm is validity and stability.

  6. Computer controlled motor vehicle battery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; McAuiliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent consists of a motor vehicle having a DC motor, a pedal biased to a released position and depressed by the driver to increase speed. An alternate switching means affects the vehicle speed control, a foot switch is operated by the pedal and operative when the pedal is depressed to close a circuit enabling energization of the alternate switching means. A microprocessor includes a program for controlling operation of the alternate switching means, the foot switch is operative when the pedal is released to open the enabling circuit. The program includes a register which is incremented with each passage of the logic and is responsive to the incremented count in the register to instruct a change in position of the alternate switching means.

  7. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  8. Operation and evaluation of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Mission Simulator in an automated terminal area metering and spacing ATC environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center on the development of a mission simulator for use in the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program. A brief description of the goals and objectives of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program is presented. A more detailed description of the Mission Simulator, in its present configuration, and its components is provided. Finally, a description of the first research study conducted in the Mission Simulator is presented along with a discussion of some preliminary results from this study.

  9. A Bayesian approach for predicting risk of autonomous underwater vehicle loss during their missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Mario; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are effective platforms for science research and monitoring, and for military and commercial data-gathering purposes. However, there is an inevitable risk of loss during any mission. Quantifying the risk of loss is complex, due to the combination of vehicle reliability and environmental factors, and cannot be determined through analytical means alone. An alternative approach – formal expert judgment – is a time-consuming process; consequently a method is needed to broaden the applicability of judgments beyond the narrow confines of an elicitation for a defined environment. We propose and explore a solution founded on a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), where the results of the expert judgment elicitation are taken as the initial prior probability of loss due to failure. The network topology captures the causal effects of the environment separately on the vehicle and on the support platform, and combines these to produce an updated probability of loss due to failure. An extended version of the Kaplan–Meier estimator is then used to update the mission risk profile with travelled distance. Sensitivity analysis of the BBN is presented and a case study of Autosub3 AUV deployment in the Amundsen Sea is discussed in detail. - Highlights: • Novel method to estimate risk of autonomous vehicle loss in uncertain environments. • A framework to integrate frequentist and subjective probability modelling. • A Bayesian belief updating method for capturing variation in operating environment. • Graphical approach for sensitivity analysis, applicable to any BBN model validation. • Pragmatic case studies showing the application of the proposed framework.

  10. Automation and traction control of articulated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Articulated machines such as load-haul-dump machines, wheel loaders and haulers operate in many different environments and driving conditions. In particular they need to be able to perform well with road conditions and loads that can change drastically, setting hard requirements on performances and robustness. The control challenges for off-road vehicles are hence quite different from standard cars or trucks, which mostly drive on regular roads. An important aspect characterising this is the ...

  11. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  12. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  13. Navy Requirements for Controlling Multiple Off-Board Robots Using the Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle Workbench

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monroe, Dennis W

    2007-01-01

    ... after a mission. This thesis examines a variety of strategic authoritative plans for autonomous vehicles to determine functional mission requirements that autonomous vehicles are expected to be performing in the near future...

  14. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  15. Autonomous control of a locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Senoh, Makoto; Miyata, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    A path planner and an execution system are proposed for autonomous vehicle control. The planner creates a near shortest path avoiding obstacles that are represented by combinations of circles and line segments on a two dimensional map. For realizing real time execution, path search procedures employ a heuristic pruning strategies in selecting a node to expand and in generating successor nodes. Nodes are selected for expansion in order, according to a cost assigned to each node. The cost is mainly evaluated by approximating a path length from the initial node to the goal node. In order to expand a node and to generate successor nodes, a specific search procedure is activated that finds positions avoiding obstacles in the direction of the goal, and creates successor nodes corresponding to the positions. The execution system, utilizing an ultrasonic range finder equipped to the vehicle performs a plan repair against unknown obstacles when echoes from the obstacles are observed. The plan repair is conducted by a map edition and replanning in such a way that new circles representing the echoes are added to the map. Obstacle avoidance tests with a vehicle controlled by microprocessors demonstrate the utility of heuristics just outlined. (author)

  16. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  17. Uniform Foam Crush Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Impact Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.

  18. The Role of Guidance, Navigation, and Control in Hypersonic Vehicle Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Soloway, Donald I.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Wolpert, David H.; Benavides, Jose Victor

    2009-01-01

    Airbreathing hypersonic systems offer distinct performance advantages over rocket-based systems for space access vehicles. However, these performance advantages are dependent upon advances in current state-of-the-art technologies in many areas such as ram/scramjet propulsion integration, high temperature materials, aero-elastic structures, thermal protection systems, transition to hypersonics and hypersonic control elements within the framework of complex physics and new design methods. The complex interactions between elements of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle represent a new paradigm in vehicle design to achieve the optimal performance necessary to meet space access mission objectives. In the past, guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) analysis often follows completion of the vehicle conceptual design process. Individual component groups design subsystems which are then integrated into a vehicle configuration. GNC is presented the task of developing control approaches to meet vehicle performance objectives given that configuration. This approach may be sufficient for vehicles where significant performance margins exist. However, for higher performance vehicles engaging the GNC discipline too late in the design cycle has been costly. For example, the X-29 experimental flight vehicle was built as a technology demonstrator. One of the many technologies to be demonstrated was the use of light-weight material composites for structural components. The use of light-weight materials increased the flexibility of the X- 29 beyond that of conventional metal alloy constructed aircraft. This effect was not considered when the vehicle control system was designed and built. The impact of this is that the control system did not have enough control authority to compensate for the effects of the first fundamental structural mode of the vehicle. As a result, the resulting pitch rate response of the vehicle was below specification and no post-design changes could recover the

  19. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  20. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  1. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  2. Robust Satisficing Decision Making for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Complex Missions under Severe Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ji

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust satisficing decision-making method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs executing complex missions in an uncertain environment. Motivated by the info-gap decision theory, we formulate this problem as a novel robust satisficing optimization problem, of which the objective is to maximize the robustness while satisfying some desired mission requirements. Specifically, a new info-gap based Markov Decision Process (IMDP is constructed to abstract the uncertain UAV system and specify the complex mission requirements with the Linear Temporal Logic (LTL. A robust satisficing policy is obtained to maximize the robustness to the uncertain IMDP while ensuring a desired probability of satisfying the LTL specifications. To this end, we propose a two-stage robust satisficing solution strategy which consists of the construction of a product IMDP and the generation of a robust satisficing policy. In the first stage, a product IMDP is constructed by combining the IMDP with an automaton representing the LTL specifications. In the second, an algorithm based on robust dynamic programming is proposed to generate a robust satisficing policy, while an associated robustness evaluation algorithm is presented to evaluate the robustness. Finally, through Monte Carlo simulation, the effectiveness of our algorithms is demonstrated on an UAV search mission under severe uncertainty so that the resulting policy can maximize the robustness while reaching the desired performance level. Furthermore, by comparing the proposed method with other robust decision-making methods, it can be concluded that our policy can tolerate higher uncertainty so that the desired performance level can be guaranteed, which indicates that the proposed method is much more effective in real applications.

  3. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  4. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  5. Tensegrity Models and Shape Control of Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabet, Benjamin; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2009-01-01

    Using dynamic models of tensegrity structures, we derive provable, distributed control laws for stabilizing and changing the shape of a formation of vehicles in the plane. Tensegrity models define the desired, controlled, multi-vehicle system dynamics, where each node in the tensegrity structure maps to a vehicle and each interconnecting strut or cable in the structure maps to a virtual interconnection between vehicles. Our method provides a smooth map from any desired planar formation shape ...

  6. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  7. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  8. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  9. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  10. Hybrid vehicle optimal control : Linear interpolation and singular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energy management can be formulated as an optimal control problem. Considering that the fuel consumption is often computed using linear interpolation over lookup table data, a rigorous analysis of the necessary conditions provided by the Pontryagin Minimum Principle is conducted. For

  11. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  12. Cooperative vehicle control, feature tracking and ocean sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Edward A.

    This dissertation concerns the development of a feedback control framework for coordinating multiple, sensor-equipped, autonomous vehicles into mobile sensing arrays to perform adaptive sampling of observed fields. The use of feedback is central; it maintains the array, i.e. regulates formation position, orientation, and shape, and directs the array to perform its sampling mission in response to measurements taken by each vehicle. Specifically, we address how to perform autonomous gradient tracking and feature detection in an unknown field such as temperature or salinity in the ocean. Artificial potentials and virtual bodies are used to coordinate the autonomous vehicles, modelled as point masses (with unit mass). The virtual bodies consist of linked, moving reference points called virtual leaders. Artificial potentials couple the dynamics of the vehicles and the virtual bodies. The dynamics of the virtual body are then prescribed allowing the virtual body, and thus the vehicle group, to perform maneuvers that include translation, rotation and contraction/expansion, while ensuring that the formation error remains bounded. This methodology is called the Virtual Body and Artificial Potential (VBAP) methodology. We then propose how to utilize these arrays to perform autonomous gradient climbing and front tracking in the presence of both correlated and uncorrelated noise. We implement various techniques for estimation of gradients (first-order and higher), including finite differencing, least squares error minimization, averaging, and Kalman filtering. Furthermore, we illustrate how the estimation error can be used to optimally choose the formation size. To complement our theoretical work, we present an account of sea trials performed with a fleet of autonomous underwater gliders in Monterey Bay during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) II project in August 2003. During these trials, Slocum autonomous underwater gliders were coordinated into triangle

  13. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  14. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Cloud Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Liu, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control method of autonomous is a key technique which has drawn the attention of industry and academe. In this paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. An experiments is applied to test the implementation of the longitudinal control algorithm. Empirical results show that if the longitudinal control algorithm based Gauss cloud model are applied to calculate the acceleration, and the vehicles drive at different speeds, a stable longitudinal control effect is achieved.

  15. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  16. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  17. Accelerated Aging of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Electric Vehicle Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) represent one of the solutions for reducing the carbon emissions worldwide. Even though EVs have recently gained more and more popularity, their adoption at a large scale is mainly prevented by several factors, such as range anxiety and battery degradation. The range of an...... to a European city. Furthermore, the study is performed for a Lithium-ion battery chemistry, which is nowadays very popular for EVs, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide-chemistry.......Electric vehicles (EVs) represent one of the solutions for reducing the carbon emissions worldwide. Even though EVs have recently gained more and more popularity, their adoption at a large scale is mainly prevented by several factors, such as range anxiety and battery degradation. The range...... of an EV is mainly limited by the energy density and specific energy of the battery, while the battery degradation is determined by the driving manner (i.e., the mission profile) to which the EV is subjected to. In this paper we analyze the EV-battery degradation, in terms of both capacity fade...

  18. Exergy analysis of a turbofan engine for an unmanned aerial vehicle during a surveillance mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şöhret, Yasin; Dinç, Ali; Karakoç, T. Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an exergy analysis of a turbofan engine, being the main power unit of an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) over the course of a surveillance mission flight, is presented. In this framework, an engine model is firstly developed, based upon engine design parameters and conditions using a genuine code. Next, the exergy analysis is performed according to thermodynamic laws. At the end of the study, the combustion chamber is identified as the most irreversible component of the engine, while the high pressure turbine and compressor are identified as the most efficient components throughout the flight. The minimum exergy efficiency is 58.24% for the combustion chamber at the end of the ingress flight phase, while the maximum exergy efficiency is found to be 99.09% for the high pressure turbine at the start of the ingress flight phase and landing loiter. The highest exergy destruction within the engine occurs at landing loiter, take-off and start of climb, with rates of 16998.768 kW, 16820.317 kW and 16564.378 kW respectively. - Highlights: • This study reveals the exergy parameters of a turbofan engine for an UAV. • Exergy analysis is conducted for a complete surveillance mission flight. • Variation of exergy parameters of engine components during the flight is presented. • The impact of the environment conditions on exergy parameters is proven.

  19. Exception detection and handling in mission control for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for robust, rule-based mission control for mobile robots in a modular framework. Due to the modularity of the framework, it is possible to use both hierarchical control and reactive behavior seamlessly to find solutions to both planned and unplanned event in the mis......This paper introduces a method for robust, rule-based mission control for mobile robots in a modular framework. Due to the modularity of the framework, it is possible to use both hierarchical control and reactive behavior seamlessly to find solutions to both planned and unplanned event...

  20. Obstacle Avoidance Control Design: An Experimental Evaluation in Vehicle Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed

  1. Evolving intelligent vehicle control using multi-objective NEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W.H. van; Haasdijk, E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The research in this paper is inspired by a vision of intelligent vehicles that autonomously move along motorways: they join and leave trains of vehicles (platoons), overtake other vehicles, etc. We propose a multi-objective algorithm based on NEAT and SPEA2 that evolves controllers for such

  2. Development of a multi-media crew-training program for the terminal configured vehicle mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouck, J. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center on the development of a multi-media crew-training program for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Mission Simulator. Brief descriptions of the goals and objectives of the TCV Program and of the TCV Mission Simulator are presented. A detailed description of the training program is provided along with a description of the performance of the first group of four commercial pilots to be qualified in the TCV Mission Simulator.

  3. The adaptive cruise control vehicles in the cellular automata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Rui; Wu Qingsong

    2006-01-01

    This Letter presented a cellular automata model where the adaptive cruise control vehicles are modelled. In this model, the constant time headway policy is adopted. The fundamental diagram is presented. The simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical ones. The mixture of ACC vehicles with manually driven vehicles is investigated. It is shown that with the introduction of ACC vehicles, the jam can be suppressed

  4. NASA Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicle Development Approach Builds on Lessons from Past and Present Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) Toward the end of the next decade, a heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will deliver the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) carrying the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), where it will rendezvous with the CEV launched on the CLV and return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in over 30 years. This paper outlines how NASA is building these new space transportation systems on a foundation of legacy technical and management knowledge, using extensive experience gained from past and ongoing launch vehicle programs to maximize its design and development approach, with the objective of reducing total life cycle costs through operational efficiencies such as hardware commonality. For example, the CLV in-line configuration is composed of a 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB), which is an upgrade of the current Space Shuttle 4- segment RSRB, and a new upper stage powered by the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X engine, which is an evolution of the J-2 engine that powered the Apollo Program s Saturn V second and third stages in the 1960s and 1970s. The CaLV configuration consists of a propulsion system composed of two 5-segment RSRBs and a 33- foot core stage that will provide the LOX/LED needed for five commercially available RS-68 main engines. The J-2X also will power the EDS. The Exploration Launch Projects, managed by the Exploration Launch Office located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is leading the design

  5. Simulation and Control Lab Development for Power and Energy Management for NASA Manned Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Soeder, James F.; McNelis, Nancy B.; May, Ryan; Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The development of distributed hierarchical and agent-based control systems will allow for reliable autonomous energy management and power distribution for on-orbit missions. Power is one of the most critical systems on board a space vehicle, requiring quick response time when a fault or emergency is identified. As NASAs missions with human presence extend beyond low earth orbit autonomous control of vehicle power systems will be necessary and will need to reliably function for long periods of time. In the design of autonomous electrical power control systems there is a need to dynamically simulate and verify the EPS controller functionality prior to use on-orbit. This paper presents the work at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where the development of a controls laboratory is being completed that will be utilized to demonstrate advanced prototype EPS controllers for space, aeronautical and terrestrial applications. The control laboratory hardware, software and application of an autonomous controller for demonstration with the ISS electrical power system is the subject of this paper.

  6. Fractional Control of An Active Four-wheel-steering Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianting; Tong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    A four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicle model and reference model with a drop filter are constructed. The decoupling of 4WS vehicle model is carried out. And a fractional PIλDμ controller is introduced into the decoupling strategy to reduce the effects of the uncertainty of the vehicle parameters as well as the unmodelled dynamics on the system performance. Based on optimization techniques, the design of fractional controller are obtained to ensure the robustness of 4WS vehicle during the special range of frequencies through proper choice of the constraints. In order to compare with fractional robust controller, an optimal controller for the same vehicle is also designed. The simulations of the two control systems are carried out and it reveals that the decoupling and fractional robust controller is able to make vehicle model trace the reference model very well with better robustness.

  7. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  8. Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles Casavola, A.; Garone, E. (2007) Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous ...Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 3.2 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-145 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Control allocation problem (CAP) - Given a virtual input v(t

  9. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  11. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  12. Mission management, planning, and cost: PULSE Attitude And Control Systems (AACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto unmanned long-range scientific explorer (PULSE) is a probe that will do a flyby of Pluto. It is a low weight, relatively low costing vehicle which utilizes mostly off-the-shelf hardware, but not materials or techniques that will be available after 1999. A design, fabrication, and cost analysis is presented. PULSE will be launched within the first decade of the twenty-first century. The topics include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion systems; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  13. Multiple-Vehicle Longitudinal Collision Mitigation by Coordinated Brake Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rear-end collision often leads to serious casualties and traffic congestion. The consequences are even worse for multiple-vehicle collision. Many previous works focused on collision warning and avoidance strategies of two consecutive vehicles based on onboard sensor detection only. This paper proposes a centralized control strategy for multiple vehicles to minimize the impact of multiple-vehicle collision based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication technique. The system is defined as a coupled group of vehicles with wireless communication capability and short following distances. The safety relationship can be represented as lower bound limit on deceleration of the first vehicle and upper bound on maximum deceleration of the last vehicle. The objective is to determine the desired deceleration for each vehicle such that the total impact energy is minimized at each time step. The impact energy is defined as the relative kinetic energy between a consecutive pair of vehicles (approaching only. Model predictive control (MPC framework is used to formulate the problem to be constrained quadratic programming. Simulations show its effectiveness on collision mitigation. The developed algorithm has the potential to be used for progressive market penetration of connected vehicles in practice.

  14. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuzzy logic control; active vehicle suspension; suspension space. 1. ... surface unevenness, stability and directional control during handling ..... Burton A W, Truscott A J, Wellstead P E 1995 Analysis, modeling and control of an advanced.

  15. Intelligent Control Management of Autonomous Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Innocenti, Mario; Pollini, Lorenzo; Bracci, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    .... The report briefly overviews some existing procedures used to solve both path planning and mission planning problems, and then proposes alternative algorithms which have a lower computational cost...

  16. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  17. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Vehicles in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-14

    COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN ADVERSARIAL ENVIRONMENTS Grant #F49620–01–1–0361 Final Report Jeff Shamma Department of...CONTRACT NUMBER F49620-01-1-0361 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN...single dominant language or a distribution of languages. A relation to multivehicle systems is understanding how highly autonomous vehicles on extended

  18. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  19. AUTOMATED COMPUTER SYSTEM OF VEHICLE VOICE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kravchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cars and foreign analogues are considered. Failings are marked related to absence of the auxiliary electronic system which serves for the increase of safety and comfort of vehicle management. Innovative development of the complex system of vocal management which provides reliability, comfort and simplicity of movement in a vehicle is offered.

  20. Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle ICEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Chaouachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle allows fast gentle quiet and environmentally friendly movements in industrial and urban environments. The automotive industry has seen the opportunity to revive its production by replacing existing vehicles due to the reluctance of oil reserves around the world. In order to greatly reduce countries dependence on oil strategic sectors such as transport must increasingly integrate technologies based primarily on clean and renewable energy. Governments must implement large-scale measures to equip themselves with electric vehicles and build large recharge networks. The traditional system for conversions of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles consists of replacing the internal combustion engine and the gearbox with electrical components engine and gearbox or engine and gearbox retaining the rest of the elements Transmission transmission shafts etc..

  1. Embedded model control GNC for the Next Generation Gravity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Luigi; Massotti, Luca; Canuto, Enrico; Novara, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    A Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM) concept for measuring the Earth's variable gravity field has been recently proposed by ESA. The mission objective consists in measuring the temporal variations of the Earth gravity field over a long-time span, with very high spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper focuses on the guidance, navigation and control (GNC) design for the science phase of the NGGM mission. NGGM will consist of a two-satellite long-distance formation like GRACE, where each satellite will be controlled to be drag-free like GOCE. Satellite-to-satellite distance variations, encoding gravity anomalies, will be measured by laser interferometry. The formation satellites, distant up to 200 km, will fly in a quasi-polar orbit at an Earth altitude between 300 and 450 km. Orbit and formation control counteract bias and drift of the residual drag-free accelerations, in order to reach orbit/formation long-term stability. Drag-free control allows the formation to fly counteracting the atmospheric drag, ideally subject only to gravity. Orbit and formation control, designed through the innovative Integrated Formation Control (IFC), have been integrated into a unique control system, aiming at stabilizing the formation triangle consisting of satellites and Earth Center of Masses. In addition, both spacecraft must align their control axis to the satellite-to-satellite line (SSL) with micro-radian accuracy. This is made possible by specific optical sensors and the inter-satellite laser interferometer, capable of materializing the SSL. Such sensors allow each satellite to pursue an autonomous alignment after a suitable acquisition procedure. Pointing control is severely constrained by the angular drag-free control, which must ideally zero the angular acceleration vector, in the science frequency band. The control unit has been designed according to the Embedded Model Control methodology and is organized in a hierarchical way, where the drag-free control plays the

  2. Decentralized Receding Horizon Control and Coordination of Autonomous Vehicle Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keviczky, T.; Borelli, F.; Fregene, K.; Godbole, D.; Bals, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel methodology for high-level control and coordination of autonomous vehicle teams and its demonstration on high-fidelity models of the organic air vehicle developed at Honeywell Laboratories. The scheme employs decentralized receding horizon controllers

  3. A NASA Strategy for Leveraging Emerging Launch Vehicles for Routine, Small Payload Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Orbital flight opportunities for small payloads have always been few and far between, and then on February 1, 2002, the situation got worse. In the wake of the loss of the Columbia during STS- 107, changing NASA missions and priorities led to the termination of the Shuttle Small Payloads Projects, including Get-Away Special, Hitcbker, and Space Experiment Module. In spite of the limited opportunities, long queue, and restrictions associated with flying experiments on a man-rated transportation system; the carriers provided a sustained, high quality experiment services for education, science, and technology payloads, and was one of the few games in town. Attempts to establish routine opportunities aboard existing ELVs have been unsuccessful, as the cost-per-pound on small ELVs and conflicts with primary spacecraft on larger vehicles have proven prohibitive. Ths has led to a backlog of existing NASA-sponsored payloads and no prospects or plans for fbture opportunities within the NASA community. The prospects for breaking out of this paradigm appear promising as a result of NASA s partnership with DARPA in pursuit of low-cost, responsive small ELVs under the Falcon Program. Through this partnership several new small ELVs, providing 1000 lbs. to LEO will be demonstrated in less than two years that promise costs that are reasonable enough that NASA, DoD, and other sponsors can once again invest in small payload opportunities. Within NASA, planning has already begun. NASA will be populating one or more of the Falcon demonstration flights with small payloads that are already under development. To accommodate these experiments, Goddard s Wallops Flight Facility has been tasked to develop a multi-payload ejector (MPE) to accommodate the needs of these payloads. The MPE capabilities and design is described in detail in a separately submitted abstract. Beyond use of the demonstration flights however, Goddard has already begun developing strategies to leverage these new ELVs

  4. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  5. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  6. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  7. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  8. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  9. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  10. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  11. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  12. Automatic control of a robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcreynolds, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last several years Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been engaged in a project to develop some of the technology required to build a robotic vehicle for exploring planetary surfaces. An overview of hardware and software being developed for this project is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of the current design for the Vehicle System required for locomotion and the path planning algorithm.

  13. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  14. Marine vehicle path following using inner-outer loop control.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.K.; Agular, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    constraints are imposed on the motion of the vehicle. This is in striking contrast with trajectory tracking, where the reference for the vehicle motion is given explicitly in terms of ”space versus time” coordinates. This strategy is seldom pursued in practice... that its output variables can be tracked infinitely fast by the inner dynamic loop. In practice, this does not hold true. Furthermore, many vehicle suppliers equip their platforms with inner dynamic control loops for which only a general characterization...

  15. Motion modelling and control strategies of over-actuated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Edrén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With the growing concern for environmental change and uncertain oil resources, the development of new vehicle concepts will in many cases include full or partial electric propulsion. The introduction of more advanced powertrains enables vehicles that can be controlled with a variety of electric actuators, such as wheel hub motors and individual steering. With these actuators, the chassis can be enabled to adjust its properties depending on the driving situation. Manoeuvring of the vehicle, us...

  16. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  17. Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: basic objectives of the NASA-wide AI program; inhouse research program; constraint-based scheduling; learning and performance improvement for scheduling; GEMPLAN multi-agent planner; planning, scheduling, and control; Bayesian learning; efficient learning algorithms; ICARUS (an integrated architecture for learning); design knowledge acquisition and retention; computer-integrated documentation; and some speculation on future applications.

  18. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  19. Hypersonic vehicle model and control law development using H(infinity) and micron synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.

    1994-01-01

    The control system design for a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing vehicle will be central to a successful mission because a precise ascent trajectory will preserve narrow payload margins. The air breathing propulsion system requires the vehicle to fly roughly halfway around the Earth through atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence, the high sensitivity of the propulsion system to inlet flow conditions, the relatively large uncertainty of the parameters characterizing the vehicle, and continuous acceleration make the problem especially challenging. Adequate stability margins must be provided without sacrificing payload mass since payload margins are critical. Therefore, a multivariable control theory capable of explicitly including both uncertainty and performance is needed. The H(infinity) controller in general provides good robustness but can result in conservative solutions for practical problems involving structured uncertainty. Structured singular value mu framework for analysis and synthesis is potentially much less conservative and hence more appropriate for problems with tight margins. An SSTO control system requires: highly accurate tracking of velocity and altitude commands while limiting angle-of-attack oscillations, minimized control power usage, and a stabilized vehicle when atmospheric turbulence and system uncertainty are present. The controller designs using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis procedures were compared. An integrated flight/propulsion dynamic mathematical model of a conical accelerator vehicle was linearized as the vehicle accelerated through Mach 8. Vehicle acceleration through the selected flight condition gives rise to parametric variation that was modeled as a structured uncertainty. The mu-analysis approach was used in the frequency domain to conduct controller analysis and was confirmed by time history plots. Results demonstrate the inherent advantages of the mu framework for this class of problems.

  20. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  1. Method of controlling innovative articulation for articulated vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumilas Mateusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of an articulated vehicle is dependent on an appropriate damping action taking place in its rotary articulation. In order to analyse an impact of the control of the articulation on the motion of the vehicle a model of the vehicle with a controllable hydraulic damping system has been developed. A 90 degree turn and lane change manoeuvres were simulated using LabVIEW software. Modification of the damping parameters of the articulation, according to the velocity and articulation angle of the vehicle, proved to have a significant impact on the vehicle motion stability. Moreover, the sensor layer necessary for the control algorithm as well as the diagnostic system is described.

  2. Design of a stable fuzzy controller for an articulated vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Kosaki, T

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a backward movement control of an articulated vehicle via a model-based fuzzy control technique. A nonlinear dynamic model of the articulated vehicle is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The concept of parallel distributed compensation is employed to design a fuzzy controller from the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model of the articulated vehicle. Stability of the designed fuzzy control system is guaranteed via Lyapunov approach. The stability conditions are characterized in terms of linear matrix inequalities since the stability analysis is reduced to a problem of finding a common Lyapunov function for a set of Lyapunov inequalities. Simulation results and experimental results show that the designed fuzzy controller effectively achieves the backward movement control of the articulated vehicle.

  3. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

  4. Optimal Charge control of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Wu, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Environment constraints, petroleum scarcity, high price on fuel resources and recent advancements in battery technology have led to emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs). As increasing numbers of EVs enter the electricity market, these extra loads may cause peak load and need to be properly...... controlled. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for every individual vehicles to minimize the charging cost while satisfying the vehicle owner’s requirements. The algorithm is based on a given future electricity prices and uses dynamic programming. Optimization aims to find the economically optimal...... solution for each vehicle....

  5. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  6. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  7. A Fuzzy Rule-based Controller For Automotive Vehicle Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hessburg, Thomas; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based controller is applied to lateral guidance of a vehicle for an automated highway system. The fuzzy rules, based on human drivers' experiences, are developed to track the center of a lane in the presence of external disturbances and over a range of vehicle operating conditions.

  8. Port-based Modeling and Control of Underactuated Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic model and a controller design for a class of underactuated aerial vehicles, namely for unmanned aerial vehicles whose primary support against gravity is thrust. The approach followed is based on energetic consideration and uses the formalisms of port-Hamiltonian

  9. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  10. Wireless Control of Miniaturized Mobile Vehicle for Indoor Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saquib, Syed M Taha; Hameed, Sarmad; Jafri, Raza; Usman Ali, Syed M; Amin, Imran

    2013-01-01

    This work is based upon electronic automation and Smart Control techniques, which constitute the basis of Control Area Network (CAN) and Personal Area Network (PAN). Bluetooth technology has been interfaced with a programmable controller to provide multi-dimensional vehicle control. A network is proposed which contains a remote, mobile host controller and an android operating system based mobile set (Client). The client communicates with a host controller through a Bluetooth device. The system incorporates duplex communication after successful confirmation between the host and the client; the android based mobile unit controls the vehicle through the Bluetooth module

  11. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  12. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  14. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...

  15. Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i)...

  16. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  17. Controller synthesis for string stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Shukla, D.P.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) allows for short-distance automatic vehicle following using intervehicle wireless communication in addition to onboard sensors, thereby potentially improving road throughput. In order to fulfill performance, safety, and comfort requirements, a CACC-equipped

  18. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  19. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  20. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  1. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  2. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  3. Realistic control considerations for electromagnetically levitated urban transit vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, J R

    1976-04-01

    A discussion is given of realistic control considerations of suspension dynamics and vehicle/guideway interaction for electromagnetically-levitated urban transit vehicles in the context of revenue applications. The emphasis is on safety, reliability, and maintainability rather than performance. An example urban transit system is described, and the following considerations of dynamics and control are examined: stability, magnet force requirements, magnet airgap requirements, vehicle ride, and component failures. It is shown that it is a formidable problem to ensure suspension stability under all conditions; that operation on curves is a critical magnet and control system design case; that operation of the magnets in the non-linear regime is unavoidable and that component failures will be a major problem. However, good vehicle ride is to be expected. It is concluded that magnetic levitation suspension technology requires substantial development effort before it can be considered suitable for revenue operation.

  4. Signal processing and control challenges for smart vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Braun, Simon G.

    2017-03-01

    Smart phones have changed not only the mobile phone market but also our society during the past few years. Could the next potential intelligent device may be the vehicle? Judging by the visibility, in all media, of the numerous attempts to develop autonomous vehicles, this is certainly one of the logical outcomes. Smart vehicles would be equipped with an advanced operating system such that the vehicles could communicate with others, optimize the operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, enhance safety, or even become self-driving. These combined new features of vehicles require instrumentation and hardware developments, fast signal processing/fusion, decision making and online optimization. Meanwhile, the inevitable increasing system complexity would certainly challenges the control unit design.

  5. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  6. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  7. 14 CFR 431.43 - Reusable launch vehicle mission operational requirements and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle poses risk to public health and safety and the safety of property in excess of acceptable flight... energy; and (4) Vehicle safety operations personnel shall adhere to the following work and rest standards: (i) A maximum 12-hour work shift with at least 8 hours of rest after 12 hours of work, preceding...

  8. H∞ control of a remotely operated underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, G.; Serrani, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of H∞ control techniques to the design of a control system for a remotely operated underwater vehicle. As the main problem in defining a control strategy for such vehicles is the nonlinear and uncertain nature of the modeled dynamics, the robustness properties of H∞ controllers can in principle be used to provide stability and nominal performances for the closed loop system. Therefore, a control strategy based on a scheduling of such controllers has been proposed, and the overall performance of the closed loop system have been evaluated by means of nonlinear simulation in a broad range of working conditions, with particular attention to the effects of the underwater current that acts on the vehicle

  9. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  10. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Hardware Commonality for Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) technical community, along with associated stakeholders, held a workshop to review NASA s plans for Exploration missions and vehicles with two objectives: revisit the Exploration Atmospheres Working Group (EAWG) findings from 2006, and discuss preliminary ECLSS architecture concepts and technology choices for Exploration vehicles, identifying areas for potential common hardware or technologies to be utilized. Key considerations for selection of vehicle design total pressure and percent oxygen include operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) and prebreathe protocols, materials flammability, and controllability within pressure and oxygen ranges. New data for these areas since the 2006 study were presented and discussed, and the community reached consensus on conclusions and recommendations for target design pressures for each Exploration vehicle concept. For the commonality study, the workshop identified many areas of potential commonality across the Exploration vehicles as well as with heritage International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle hardware. Of the 36 ECLSS functions reviewed, 16 were considered to have strong potential for commonality, 13 were considered to have some potential commonality, and 7 were considered to have limited potential for commonality due to unique requirements or lack of sufficient heritage hardware. These findings, which will be utilized in architecture studies and budget exercises going forward, are presented in detail.

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  13. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  14. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  16. Vibrations control of light rail transportation vehicle via PID type fuzzy controller using parameters adaptive method

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Muzaffer; GÜÇLÜ, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conventional PID type fuzzy controller and parameter adaptive fuzzy controller are designed to control vibrations actively of a light rail transport vehicle which modeled as 6 degree-of-freedom system and compared performances of these two controllers. Rail vehicle model consists of a passenger seat and its suspension system, vehicle body, bogie, primary and secondary suspensions and wheels. The similarity between mathematical model and real system is shown by compar...

  17. Optimization of an Intelligent Controller for an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi Nor Shah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater environment poses a difficult challenge for autonomous underwater navigation. A standard problem of underwater vehicles is to maintain it position at a certain depth in order to perform desired operations. An effective controller is required for this purpose and hence the design of a depth controller for an unmanned underwater vehicle is described in this paper. The control algorithm is simulated by using the marine guidance navigation and control simulator. The project shows a radial basis function metamodel can be used to tune the scaling factors of a fuzzy logic controller. By using offline optimization approach, a comparison between genetic algorithm and metamodeling has been done to minimize the integral square error between the set point and the measured depth of the underwater vehicle. The results showed that it is possible to obtain a reasonably good error using metamodeling approach in much a shorter time compared to the genetic algorithm approach.

  18. A new controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.; Stone, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the development, under a NASA/DOE contract, of a new concept for efficient and reliable control of battery-powered vehicles. It avoids the detrimental effects of pulsed-power controllers like the SCR 'chopper' by using rotating machines to meter continuous currents to the traction motor. The concept is validated in a proof-of-principle demonstration system and a complete vehicle is simulated on an analog computer. Test results show exceptional promise for a full-scale system. Optimum control strategies to minimize controller weight are developed by means of the simulated vehicle. The design for an Engineering Model is then prepared in the form of a practical, compact two-bearing package with forced air cooling. Predicted performance is outstanding, with controller efficiency of over 90% at high speed.

  19. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  20. Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

  1. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  2. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  3. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  4. Intelligent Traffic Control System Implementation for Traffic Violation Control, Congestion Control and Stolen Vehicle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Suresh Kulkarni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.

  5. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Iep S 2 lep K R 2 ) T ( S 2 K R2 ) We + + lgp (R+S) + lvp (R+S) = e Igp (R+S) + Ivp (R+S) - CR STg KRTm ---+ (2) Ivp... Iep = Ic + Ie B = 4Rbatt Cbatt C = T + 1\\1! R. . f + 0.5 Cd Rtire3 apw/ fb t1re r 9 K 2 and the vehicle constants are defined as: Unclass·ified...3_ + lvpRWr + 2IvpSwr +. IvpS2 wr + IvpS2 w,.] lep K Iep K Iep I< R lgp K R Iep K Iep I< Iep K R Igp I< R b = R W + S W + C R + Iep S 2 we + Iep K

  6. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, of the time and date of the intended launch and reentry or other landing on Earth of the RLV and..., including the vehicle, launch site, planned launch and reentry flight path, and intended landing sites...

  7. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable, and reentry or descent flight, and concludes upon landing on Earth of the RLV. (b) Acceptable... reentry or descent of the vehicle through landing, including its three-sigma dispersion. [Docket No. FAA...

  8. Vehicle Dynamics Monitoring and Tracking System (VDMTS): Monitoring Mission Impacts in Support of Installation Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    mine vehicle velocity and turning radius 8 Using vehicle impact mod- els for prediction of im- pacts 7 Analyzing impact data for site-specific...Allocation of Land for Training and Non-Training Uses ( OPAL ). The objective of the OPAL work package is to predict impacts for cumulative military land-use...Management and Budget OPAL Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-Training Uses OTD Office of the Technical Director PI Principal Investigator

  9. Dynamic tensegrity based cooperative control of uninhabited vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Sook Yen; Naeem, Wasif [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2013-07-01

    A new formation control methodology is presented in this paper. The proposed technique is modelled by using the concept of cross-tensegrity structures. The main task is to regulate the desired formation of a group of vehicles and to perform point-to-point manoeuvring in the plane. The position of the controlled vehicles in the formation changes with respect to the admissible tendon forces by varying the lengths of bars in the dynamic tensegrity structure modelling. This change of bars' dimensions for geometric transformation is not possible in the application of tensegrity concept in the physical structural engineering. It has been demonstrated that this control method allows more flexibility over a wide range of different shape switching tasks using the predictable tendon control forces under the limited communication's range. The proposed approach is also scalable to any number of pairs of autonomous vehicles in the formation.

  10. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Pitts, Hank M.; Sharp, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update of design status following the preliminary design review of NASA s Ares I first stage roll and upper stage reaction control systems. The Ares I launch vehicle has been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. It consists of a first stage five segment solid rocket booster and an upper stage liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine. Similar to many launch vehicles, the Ares I has reaction control systems used to provide the vehicle with three degrees of freedom stabilization during the mission. During launch, the first stage roll control system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque. After first stage booster separation, the upper stage reaction control system will provide the upper stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. Trade studies and design assessments conducted on the roll and reaction control systems include: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Since successful completion of the preliminary design review, work has progressed towards the critical design review with accomplishments made in the following areas: pressurant / propellant tank, thruster assembly, and other component configurations, as well as thruster module design, and waterhammer mitigation approach. Also, results from early development testing are discussed along with plans for upcoming system testing. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.

  11. Recommendations relative to the scientific missions of a Mars Automated Roving Vehicle (MARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. L. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Scientific objectives of the MARV mission are outlined and specific science systems requirements and experimental payloads defined. All aspects of the Martian surface relative to biotic and geologic elements and those relating to geophysical and geochemical properties are explored.

  12. GEMMP - A Google Maps Enabled Mobile Mission Planning Tool for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Seeley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many applications for mobile robotics involve operations in remote, outdoor environments. In these environments, it can be difficult to plan missions dynamically due to the lack of portability of existing mission planning software. Mobile platforms allow access to the Web from nearly anywhere while other features, like touch interfaces, simplify user interaction, and GPS integration allows developers and users to take advantage to location-based services. In this paper, we describe a prototype AUV mission planner developed on the Android platform, created to aid and enhance the capability of an existing AUV mission planner, VectorMap, developed and maintained by OceanServer Technology, by taking advantage of the capabilities of existing mobile computing technology.

  13. Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi

    1993-01-01

    The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.

  14. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 degrees in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 degrees.

  15. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 deg. in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 deg.

  16. Reduced Attitude Control of a Robotic Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bláha Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with stabilization and reduced attitude control of a robotic underwater vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be able to perform a full stable rotations around all axes in underwater space, that is why the standard bottom-heavy structure is not used. The system preferably uses a vectored-thrust arrangement and is built as an overactuated system, which enables to gain a better robustness and guarantees a stable controlled motion even if some thruster suddenly stop working. Because the heading angle cannot be measured, the reduced attitude control strategy is designed and the stability of reduced state of the system is proved using perturbation method.

  17. GEMMP - A Google Maps Enabled Mobile Mission Planning Tool for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Seeley; Ramprasad Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Many applications for mobile robotics involve operations in remote, outdoor environments. In these environments, it can be difficult to plan missions dynamically due to the lack of portability of existing mission planning software. Mobile platforms allow access to the Web from nearly anywhere while other features, like touch interfaces, simplify user interaction, and GPS integration allows developers and users to take advantage to location-based services. In this paper, we describe a prototype...

  18. Design and control of a vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Yasir

    With the goal of extending capabilities of multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for wetland conservation missions, a novel hybrid aircraft design consisting of four tilting rotors and a fixed wing is designed and built. The tilting rotors and nonlinear aerodynamic effects introduce a control challenge for autonomous flight, and the research focus is to develop and validate an autonomous transition flight controller. The overall controller structure consists of separate cascaded Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers whose gains are scheduled according to the rotors' tilt angle. A control mechanism effectiveness factor is used to mix the multi-rotor and fixed-wing control actuators during transition. A nonlinear flight dynamics model is created and transition stability is shown through MATLAB simulations, which proves gain-scheduled control is a good fit for tilt-rotor aircraft. Experiments carried out using the prototype UAV validate simulation results for VTOL and tilted-rotor flight.

  19. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  20. Learning feedforward controller for a mobile robot vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, J.G.; Starrenburg, J.G.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; Oelen, W.; Oelen, W.; van Amerongen, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design and realisation of an on-line learning posetracking controller for a three-wheeled mobile robot vehicle. The controller consists of two components. The first is a constant-gain feedback component, designed on the basis of a second-order model. The second is a learning

  1. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  2. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  3. Model Predictive Control for Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model predictive control system for connected hybrid electric vehicles to improve fuel economy. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the battery charge and discharge profile and the driving velocity profile are simultaneously optimized. One is energy management for HEV for Pbatt; the other is for the energy consumption minimizing problem of acc control of two vehicles. Second, a system for connected hybrid electric vehicles has been developed considering varying drag coefficients and the road gradients. Third, the fuel model of a typical hybrid electric vehicle is developed using the maps of the engine efficiency characteristics. Fourth, simulations and analysis (under different parameters, i.e., road conditions, vehicle state of charge, etc. are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method to achieve higher fuel efficiency. The model predictive control problem is solved using numerical computation method: continuation and generalized minimum residual method. Computer simulation results reveal improvements in fuel economy using the proposed control method.

  4. Feedback control for a train-like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback nonlinear control law for a train-like vehicle (TLV) used in nuclear power-station maintenance. The front cart is either manual or automated guided. The rear carts are feedback controlled. The control objective is to ensure that the rear carts track the path produced (on-line) by the front cart. This controller was experimentally tested on the TLV-prototype. (authors). 4 figs., 4 refs

  5. SCOS 2: ESA's new generation of mission control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Head, N. C.; Keyte, K.; Howard, P.; Lynenskjold, S.

    1994-01-01

    New mission-control infrastructure is currently being developed by ESOC, which will constitute the second generation of the Spacecraft Control Operations system (SCOS 2). The financial, functional and strategic requirements lying behind the new development are explained. The SCOS 2 approach is described. The technological implications of these approaches is described: in particular it is explained how this leads to the use of object oriented techniques to provide the required 'building block' approach. The paper summarizes the way in which the financial, functional and strategic requirements have been met through this combination of solutions. Finally, the paper outlines the development process to date, noting how risk reduction was achieved in the approach to new technologies and summarizes the current status future plans.

  6. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  7. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Anh, Tuan; Koster, René

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resolution. We discuss and classify important models and results from key publications in literature on automated guided vehicle systems, including often-neglected areas, such as idle-vehicle positionin...

  8. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  9. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  10. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  11. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  12. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  13. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  14. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  15. Determination of an Optimal Control Strategy for a Generic Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    TERMS Autonomous Vehicles Boundary Value Problem Dynamic Programming Surface Vehicles Optimal Control Path Planning 16...to follow prescribed motion trajectories. In particular, for autonomous vehicles , this motion trajectory is given by the determination of the

  16. Design of a Tele-Control Electrical Vehicle System Using a Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boukhnifer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic design of a tele-control electrical vehicle system. We showed that the application of fuzzy logic control allows the stability of tele-vehicle system in spite of communication delays between the operator and the vehicle. A robust bilateral controller design using fuzzy logic frameworks was proposed. This approach allows a convenient means to trade off robustness and stability for a pre-specified time-delay margin. Both the performance and robustness of the proposed method were demonstrated by simulation results for a constant time delay between the operator and the electrical vehicle system.

  17. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  18. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict

  19. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  20. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  1. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned marine vehicles robotic control architecture based on service-oriented agents

    CERN Document Server

    Insaurralde, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an Intelligent Control Architecture (ICA) to enable multiple collaborating marine vehicles to autonomously carry out underwater intervention missions. The presented ICA is generic in nature but aimed at a case study where a marine surface craft and an underwater vehicle are required to work cooperatively. It is shown that they are capable of cooperating autonomously towards the execution of complex activities since they have different but complementary capabilities. The ICA implementation is verified in simulation, and validated in trials by means of a team of autonomous marine robots. This book also presents architectural details and evaluation scenarios of the ICA, results of simulations and trials from different maritime operations, and future research directions.

  2. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  3. Attitude control of an orbiting space vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherlin, D. W.; Boland, J. S. , III; Borelli, M. T.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the normal and clamped modes of operation and dynamic response characteristics of the gimbaled control moment gyro (CMG) designed to fulfill the stringent pointing requirements of the Skylab telescope mount when the spacecraft is under the influence of both external and internal torques. The results indicate that the clamped mode of operation provides a feasible approach for significantly improving the system characteristics.

  4. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  5. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  6. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  7. NOISE CONTROL OF VEHICLE DRIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gabbert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall simulation approach to control the noise emission of car engines at a very early stage of the design process where no real prototypes are available. The suggested approach combines different physical models and couples different software tools such as multi-body analysis, fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, magneto-electrodynamics, thermodynamics, acoustics and control as well. The general overall simulation methodology is presented first. Then, this methodology is applied to a combustion engine in order to improve its acoustical behavior by passive means, such as changing the stiffness and the use of damping materials to build acoustic and thermal encapsulations. The active control by applying piezoelectric patch actuators at the oil sump as the noisiest part of the engine is discussed as well. The sound emission is evaluated by hearing tests and a mathematical prediction model of the human perception. Finally, it is shown that the presented approach can be extended to electric engines, which is demonstrated at a newly developed electric wheel hub motor.

  8. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  9. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  10. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  11. Reentry Vehicle Flight Controls Design Guidelines: Dynamic Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daigoro; Georgie, Jennifer; Valasek, John; Ward, Donald T.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses issues in developing a flight control design for vehicles operating across a broad flight regime and with highly nonlinear physical descriptions of motion. Specifically it addresses the need for reentry vehicles that could operate through reentry from space to controlled touchdown on Earth. The latter part of controlled descent is achieved by parachute or paraglider - or by all automatic or a human-controlled landing similar to that of the Orbiter. Since this report addresses the specific needs of human-carrying (not necessarily piloted) reentry vehicles, it deals with highly nonlinear equations of motion, and then-generated control systems must be robust across a very wide range of physics. Thus, this report deals almost exclusively with some form of dynamic inversion (DI). Two vital aspects of control theory - noninteracting control laws and the transformation of nonlinear systems into equivalent linear systems - are embodied in DI. Though there is no doubt that the mathematical tools and underlying theory are widely available, there are open issues as to the practicality of using DI as the only or primary design approach for reentry articles. This report provides a set of guidelines that can be used to determine the practical usefulness of the technique.

  12. Slip Ratio Estimation and Regenerative Brake Control for Decelerating Electric Vehicles without Detection of Vehicle Velocity and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toru; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    In slip ratio control systems, it is necessary to detect the vehicle velocity in order to obtain the slip ratio. However, it is very difficult to measure this velocity directly. We have proposed slip ratio estimation and control methods that do not require the vehicle velocity with acceleration. In this paper, the slip ratio estimation and control methods are proposed without detecting the vehicle velocity and acceleration when it is decelerating. We carried out simulations and experiments by using an electric vehicle to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  14. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  15. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  16. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  18. Neuro-fuzzy controller to navigate an unmanned vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira

    2013-12-01

    A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

  19. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  20. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  1. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  2. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  3. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; Mccallum, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  4. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Aerial Vehicle Mission and Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. The mining aerospacecraft (ASC) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points.

  5. A model predictive control approach combined unscented Kalman filter vehicle state estimation in intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiao Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking and state estimation are significant in the motion planning and intelligent vehicle control. This article focuses on the model predictive control approach for the trajectory tracking of the intelligent vehicles and state estimation of the nonlinear vehicle system. The constraints of the system states are considered when applying the model predictive control method to the practical problem, while 4-degree-of-freedom vehicle model and unscented Kalman filter are proposed to estimate the vehicle states. The estimated states of the vehicle are used to provide model predictive control with real-time control and judge vehicle stability. Furthermore, in order to decrease the cost of solving the nonlinear optimization, the linear time-varying model predictive control is used at each time step. The effectiveness of the proposed vehicle state estimation and model predictive control method is tested by driving simulator. The results of simulations and experiments show that great and robust performance is achieved for trajectory tracking and state estimation in different scenarios.

  6. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  7. Nonlinear analysis of vehicle control actuations based on controlled invariant sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Balázs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an analysis method is applied to the lateral stabilization problem of vehicle systems. The aim is to find the largest state-space region in which the lateral stability of the vehicle can be guaranteed by the peak-bounded control input. In the analysis, the nonlinear polynomial sum-of-squares programming method is applied. A practical computation technique is developed to calculate the maximum controlled invariant set of the system. The method calculates the maximum controlled invariant sets of the steering and braking control systems at various velocities and road conditions. Illustration examples show that, depending on the environments, different vehicle dynamic regions can be reached and stabilized by these controllers. The results can be applied to the theoretical basis of their interventions into the vehicle control system.

  8. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  9. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  10. Modelling and Simulation of Cooperative Control for Bus Rapid Transit Vehicle Platoon in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a cooperative control model for improving the operational efficiency of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT vehicles. The model takes advantage of the emerging connected vehicle technology. A connected vehicle centre is established to assign a specific reservation time interval and transmit the corresponding dynamic speed guidance to each BRT vehicle. Furthermore, a set of constraints have been set up to avoid bus queuing and waiting phenomena in downstream BRT stations. Therefore, many BRT vehicles are strategically guided to form a platoon, which can pass through an intersection with no impedance. An actual signalized intersection along the Guangzhou BRT corridor is employed to verify and assess the cooperative control model in various traffic conditions. The simulation-based evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can reduce delays, decrease the number of stops, and improve the sustainability of the BRT vehicles.

  11. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  12. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  13. Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Rigid Vehicle Control System Design and Simulation for Human Mars Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Breanna J.; Cerimele, Christopher J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Matz, Daniel A.; Lu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Rigid Vehicle (MRV) is a proposed candidate in the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign's (EMC) Pathfinder Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) architecture study. The purpose of the study is to design a mission and vehicle capable of transporting a 20mt payload to the surface of Mars. The MRV is unique in its rigid, asymmetrical lifting-body shape which enables a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than the typical robotic Mars entry capsule vehicles that carry much less mass. This paper presents the formulation and six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) performance of the MRV's control system, which uses both aerosurfaces and a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) to affect longitudinal and lateral directional behavior.

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Development of wireless vehicle remote control for fuel lid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, N.; Jadin, M. S.; Najib, M. S.; Mustafa, M.; Azmi, S. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of the vehicle technology had made the vehicle especially car to be equipped with a remote control to control the operation of the locking and unlocking system of the car’s door and rear’s bonnet. However, for the fuel or petrol lid, it merely can be opened from inside the car’s cabin by handling the fuel level inside the car’s cabin to open the fuel lid. The petrol lid can be closed by pushing the lid by hand. Due to the high usage of using fuel lever to open the fuel lid when refilling the fuel, the car driver might encounter the malfunction of fuel lid (fail to open) when pushing or pulling the fuel lever. Thus, the main aim of the research is to enhance the operation of an existing car remote control where the car fuel lid can be controlled using two techniques; remote control-based and smartphone-based. The remote control is constructed using Arduino microcontroller, wireless sensors and XCTU software to set the transmitting and receiving parameters. Meanwhile, the smartphone can control the operation of the fuel lid by communicating with Arduino microcontroller which is attached to the fuel lid using Bluetooth sensor to open the petrol lid. In order to avoid the conflict of instruction between wireless systems with the existing mechanical-based system, the servo motor will be employed to release the fuel lid merely after receiving the instruction from Arduino microcontroller and smartphone. As a conclusion, the prototype of the multipurpose vehicle remote control is successfully invented, constructed and tested. The car fuel lid can be opened either using remote control or smartphone in a sequential manner. Therefore, the outcome of the project can be used to serve as an alternative solution to solve the car fuel lid problem even though the problem rarely occurred.

  16. Flight Path Control Design for the Cassini Solstice Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Christopher G.; Ionasescu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn for just over 7 years, with a planned 7-year extension, called the Solstice Mission, which started on September 27, 2010. The Solstice Mission includes 205 maneuvers and 70 flybys which consist of the moons Titan, Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. This mission is designed to use all available propellant with a statistical margin averaging 0.6 m/s per encounter, and the work done to prove and ensure the viability of this margin is highlighted in this paper.

  17. Method and system for control of upstream flowfields of vehicle in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.

  18. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  19. Implementation of Autonomous Mission Control for Mine Reconnaissance AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, B; Davies, G; Myers, V; Bellettini, A; Pinto, Manuel; Munk, P

    2007-01-01

    Whilst autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being used to perform MCM tasks, the capability of these systems is limited in terms of their ability to network and co-operate effectively with other manned or unmanned assets...

  20. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  1. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  2. Fast, Autonomous Chemical Interplanetary Mission Design via Hybrid Optimal Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interplanetary mission design is historically a complex and expensive process requiring many human-hours of work. This proposal outlines a novel technique for...

  3. A Morphing Radiator for High-Turndown Thermal Control of Crewed Space Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Hardtl, Darren; Sheth, Rubik; Dinsmore, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft designed for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) face a difficult thermal control challenge, particularly in the case of crewed vehicles where the thermal control system (TCS) must maintain a relatively constant internal environment temperature despite a vastly varying external thermal environment and despite heat rejection needs that are contrary to the potential of the environment. A thermal control system is in other words required to reject a higher heat load to warm environments and a lower heat load to cold environments, necessitating a quite high turndown ratio. A modern thermal control system is capable of a turndown ratio of on the order of 12:1, but for crew safety and environment compatibility these are massive multi-loop fluid systems. This paper discusses the analysis of a unique radiator design which employs the behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA) to vary the turndown of, and thus enable, a single-loop vehicle thermal control system for space exploration vehicles. This design, a morphing radiator, varies its shape in response to facesheet temperature to control view of space and primary surface emissivity. Because temperature dependence is inherent to SMA behavior, the design requires no accommodation for control, instrumentation, nor power supply in order to operate. Thermal and radiation modeling of the morphing radiator predict a turndown ranging from 11.9:1 to 35:1 independent of TCS configuration. Stress and deformation analyses predict the desired morphing behavior of the concept. A system level mass analysis shows that by enabling a single loop architecture this design could reduce the TCS mass by between 139 kg and 225 kg. The concept is demonstrated in proof-of-concept benchtop tests.

  4. Command and Control of Joint Air Operations through Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and outlines the C2 architecture systems, processes, and philosophy of com- mand required to enable mission command effectively. Mission Command...General Dempsey highlights the fact that “trust is the moral sinew that binds the distributed Joint Force 2020 together” and observes that “unless...con- fident about how their subordinates will make decisions and adapt to the dynamic battlespace environment. Processes, Systems, and Philosophy of

  5. Route-Based Signal Preemption Control of Emergency Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of emergency vehicles (EV. A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV based on route can reduce the time delay of EV and improve the evacuation efficiency of the system.

  6. Robust Design of H-infinity Controller for a Launch Vehicle Autopilot against Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Graells, Antonio; Carrabina, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle is utilized to evaluate the performance of an H-infinity controller in the presence of disturbances. Dynamics of the vehicle is linearly modeled using time-varying parameters. An operating point was found to design a robust command tracker using H-infinity control theory that guarantees a stable maneuver. At the end, the controller was employed on the launch vehicle to assess the capability of control design on the linearized aerospace vehicle. Exp...

  7. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  8. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

    2011-04-01

    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  9. Control concepts for vehicle drive line to reduce fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossyra, J.C.

    2005-07-01

    In this work advanced drive line control concepts for off-road vehicles have been developed and investigated to reduce the power losses and finally the fuel consumption of the entire drive system by use of on-line optimization procedure. Two separate closed loop speed controls have been developed for the use on a microcontroller onboard the vehicle: one to control the hydrostatic transmission and the other to control the engine speed. Considering the loss characteristics of the displacement machines in the hydrostatic transmission and the steady state characteristics of the combustion engine by use of pure mathematical approximations of measured curves, a direct optimization strategy is used, which works on-line on a microcontroller. A laboratory hardware-in-the loop test rig has been used to investigate the proposed control concepts. For different typical and desired work cycles of an off-road machine on level ground and uphill a slope the effectiveness of the proposed control concepts have been proven. (orig.)

  10. The problem of the driverless vehicle specified path stability control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, S. E.; Endachev, D. V.; Elkin, D. S.; Strukov, V. O.

    2018-02-01

    Currently the effort of many leading foreign companies is focused on creation of driverless transport for transportation of cargo and passengers. Among many practical problems arising while creating driverless vehicles, the problem of the specified path stability control occupies a central place. The purpose of this paper is formalization of the problem in question in terms of the quadratic functional of the control quality, the comparative analysis of the possible solutions and justification of the choice of the optimum technical solution. As square value of the integral of the deviation from the specified path is proposed as the quadratic functional of the control quality. For generation of the set of software and hardware solution variants the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used within the hardware and software environments. The heading control algorithms use the wheel steering angle data and the deviation from the lane centerline (specified path) calculated based on the navigation data and the data from the video system. Where the video system does not detect the road marking, the control is carried out based on the wheel navigation system data and where recognizable road marking exits - based on to the video system data. The analysis of the test results allows making the conclusion that the application of the combined navigation system algorithms that provide quasi-optimum solution of the problem while meeting the strict functional limits for the technical and economic indicators of the driverless vehicle control system under development is effective.

  11. Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyong Zhai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

  12. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Bradley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical system (CPS is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  13. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M; Atkins, Ella M

    2015-09-11

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  15. Converted vehicle for battery electric drive. Aspects on the design of the software-driven vehicle control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessler, Martin; Paul, Jens; Gauterin, Frank [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugsystemtechnik (FAST); Fritz, Alexander; Sander, Oliver; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technik der Informationsverarbeitung (ITIV)

    2012-11-01

    At the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) a vehicle was converted for full battery electric drive within a cooperation of several faculties under the direction of the chair of vehicle technology. Within this paper the developed software to control the main functions of the vehicle will be presented and potentials to increase the energy efficiency will be discussed. The software based vehicle control unit is the central control unit to realize drivers command with respect to the system parameters, which are important for safety, dynamics, range and comfort of the vehicle. The structure of the software architecture, the interaction with the main electric vehicle specific control units and components and the main implemented functions will be described within this paper. The converted vehicle consists mainly of one electric motor with water cooled power electronics that drives the front axle, 21 battery modules controlled and managed by the battery management system, one on board charging device and an universal control unit. Not only strategies for power recovery while braking, but also strategies for driving and operation can help increase the energy efficiency. Select measures to recover and safe energy are also shown. (orig.)

  16. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  17. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  18. A new robust control for minirotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new robust control based on finite-time Lyapunov stability controller and proved with backstepping method for the position and the attitude of a small rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle subjected to bounded uncertainties and disturbances. The dynamical motion equations are obtained by the Newton-Euler formalism. The proposed controller combines the advantage of the backstepping approach with finite-time convergence techniques to generate a control laws to guarantee the faster convergence of the state variables to their desired values in short time and compensate for the bounded disturbances. A formal proof of the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking errors is derived using the Lyapunov function technique. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PWM Inverter control and the application thereof within electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Steven

    1982-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  20. Aggregation of Single-phase Electric Vehicles for Frequency Control Provision Based on Unidirectional Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæmundsson, Valgeir Thor; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    As the use of electric vehicles grows there is a greater possibility of using aggregated sets of electric vehicles as a large flexible unit to assist with the control of the power system. In this paper, the possibility of using electric vehicles as a flexible load for frequency control...... is investigated. The investigations are performed in a Pan-European interconnected grid with varying wind power penetration and different operational scenarios. Within this grid, the paper focuses on primary frequency control provision from electric vehicles and how the system behaves as the vehicles are being...... controlled within their respective areas. The investigations show that electric vehicles can be used for primary frequency control with different wind power penetration. By controlling the vehicles, the steady state frequency is improved and, since the vehicles react fast enough to the frequency changes...

  1. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  2. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  3. Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles Vincent Nguyen, Doctor of...relates to the dynamics of non-smooth vehicle systems, and in particular, supercavitating vehicles. These high-speed under- water vehicles are...Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  4. Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Road Vehicles Equipped with Adaptive Cruise Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automotive vehicle following systems are essential for the design of automated highway system. The problem associated with the automatic vehicle following system is the string stability of the platoon of vehicles, i.e. the problem of uniform velocity and spacing errors propagation. Different control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon are discussed based on different spacing policies, communication link among the vehicles of a platoon, and the performance of a platoon have been analysed in the presence of disturbance (noise and parametric uncertainties. This paper presented the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative feedback control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon in the presence of noise signal and investigates the performance of platoon under the influence of sudden acceleration and braking in severe conditions. This model has been applied on 6 vehicles moving in a platoon. The platoon has been analysed to retain the uniform velocity and safe spacing among the vehicles. The limitations of PID control algorithm have been discussed and the alternate methods have been suggested. Model simulations, in comparison with the literature, are also presented.

  5. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.

    1994-01-01

    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  6. Vehicle handling and stability control by the cooperative control of 4WS and DYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huan; Tan, Yun-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes an integrated control system that cooperates with the four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC) to improve the vehicle handling and stability. The design works of the four-wheel steering and DYC control are based on sliding mode control. The integration control system produces the suitable 4WS angle and corrective yaw moment so that the vehicle tracks the desired yaw rate and sideslip angle. Considering the change of the vehicle longitudinal velocity that means the comfort of driving conditions, both the driving torque and braking torque are used to generate the corrective yaw moment. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.

  7. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible while rejecting the effects of wind gusts. We compared the controller based on both simple and complex bicycle models without and with the roll vehicle dynamics for different types of model predictive control manoeuvres. The simulation result showed that the model predictive control gave a better performance in terms of robustness for both forward speeds and road surface variation in autonomous path-following control. It also demonstrated that model predictive control is useful to maintain vehicle stability along the desired path and has an ability to eliminate the crosswind effect.

  8. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix. In 2016, this publication was revised by international experts who had participated in previous IERICS missions. The revision reflects experiences and lessons learned from the preparation and conduct of those missions

  9. Fuzzy Traffic Control with Vehicle-to-Everything Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muntaser A; Ozdemir, Suat; Celebi, Fatih V

    2018-01-27

    Traffic signal control (TSC) with vehicle-to everything (V2X) communication can be a very efficient solution to traffic congestion problem. Ratio of vehicles equipped with V2X communication capability in the traffic to the total number of vehicles (called penetration rate PR) is still low, thus V2X based TSC systems need to be supported by some other mechanisms. PR is the major factor that affects the quality of TSC process along with the evaluation interval. Quality of the TSC in each direction is a function of overall TSC quality of an intersection. Hence, quality evaluation of each direction should follow the evaluation of the overall intersection. Computational intelligence, more specifically swarm algorithm, has been recently used in this field in a European Framework Program FP7 supported project called COLOMBO. In this paper, using COLOMBO framework, further investigations have been done and two new methodologies using simple and fuzzy logic have been proposed. To evaluate the performance of our proposed methods, a comparison with COLOMBOs approach has been realized. The results reveal that TSC problem can be solved as a logical problem rather than an optimization problem. Performance of the proposed approaches is good enough to be suggested for future work under realistic scenarios even under low PR.

  10. Adaptive Augmenting Control and Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control Flight Experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at NASA Armstrong are working to further the development of an adaptive augmenting control algorithm (AAC). The AAC was developed to improve the...

  11. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  12. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  13. Inter-vehicle gap statistics on signal-controlled crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krbalek, Milan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a microscopical structure in a chain of cars waiting at a red signal on signal-controlled crossroads. A one-dimensional space-continuous thermodynamical model leading to an excellent agreement with the data measured is presented. Moreover, we demonstrate that an inter-vehicle spacing distribution disclosed in relevant traffic data agrees with the thermal-balance distribution of particles in the thermodynamical traffic gas (discussed in [1]) with a high inverse temperature (corresponding to a strong traffic congestion). Therefore, as we affirm, such a system of stationary cars can be understood as a specific state of the traffic sample operating inside a congested traffic stream

  14. Subjective and objective assessment of manual, supported, and automated vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Godthelp, J.; Käppler, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper subjective and objective assessments of vehicle control are illustrated by means of ex-periments concerning manipulation of vehicle dynamics, driver support, and automated driving. Subjective ratings are discussed in relation to objective performance measures.

  15. Learning Mobility: Adaptive Control Algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Mobility is a serious limiting factor in the usefulness of unmanned ground vehicles, This paper contains a description of our approach to develop control algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV...

  16. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Situational Awareness Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebalj, Derek

    2008-01-01

    ... > 1. The ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1...

  17. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  19. Electric vehicle charge planning using Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels K.; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide...... grid services, both for peak reduction and for ancillary services, by absorbing short term variations in the electricity production. In this paper the Economic MPC minimizes the cost of electricity consumption for a single EV. Simulations show savings of 50–60% of the electricity costs compared...... to uncontrolled charging from load shifting based on driving pattern predictions. The future energy system in Denmark will most likely be based on renewable energy sources e.g. wind and solar power. These green energy sources introduce stochastic fluctuations in the electricity production. Therefore, energy...

  20. Concept development of control system for perspective unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryanov Vsevolod V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented actual aspects of the development of the control system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the example of perspective. Because the current and future UAV oriented to implementation of a wide range of tasks, taking into account the use of several types of payload, in this paper discusses the general principles of construction of onboard control complex, in turn, a hardware implementation of the automatic control system has been implemented in the microcontroller Arduino platform and the Raspberry Pi. In addition, in the paper presents the most common and promising way to ensure the smooth and reliable communication of the command post with the UAV as well as to the ways of parry considered and abnormal situations.

  1. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost

  2. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  3. Traffic Control Models Based on Cellular Automata for At-Grade Intersections in Autonomous Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Yang Liu; Yue Xu; Quanlun Wei; Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle is able to facilitate road safety and traffic efficiency and has become a promising trend of future development. With a focus on highways, existing literatures studied the feasibility of autonomous vehicle in continuous traffic flows and the controllability of cooperative driving. However, rare efforts have been made to investigate the traffic control strategies in autonomous vehicle environment on urban roads, especially in urban intersections. In autonomous vehicle enviro...

  4. The efficiency of direct torque control for electric vehicle behavior improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the electric vehicle motorization control takes a great interest of industrials for commercialized electric vehicles. This paper is one example of the proposed control methods that ensure both safety and stability the electric vehicle by the means of Direct Torque Control (DTC. For motion of the vehicle the electric drive consists of four wheels: two front ones for steering and two rear ones for propulsion equipped with two induction motors, due to their lightweight simplicity and high performance. Acceleration and steering are ensured by the electronic differential, permitting safe and reliable steering at any curve. The direct torque control ensures efficiently controlled vehicle. Electric vehicle direct torque control is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. Electric vehicle (EV demonstrated satisfactory results in all type of roads constraints: straight, ramp, downhill and bends.

  5. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  6. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  7. Temperature control of the Mariner class spacecraft - A seven mission summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    Mariner spacecraft have completed five missions of scientific investigation of the planets. Two additional missions are planned. A description of the thermal design of these seven spacecraft is given herein. The factors which have influenced the thermal design include the mission requirements and constraints, the flight environment, certain programmatic considerations and the experience gained as each mission is completed. These factors are reviewed and the impact of each on thermal design and developmental techniques is assessed. It is concluded that the flight success of these spacecraft indicates that adequate temperature control has been obtained, but that improvements in design data, hardware performance and analytical techniques are needed.

  8. Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

    1994-01-01

    New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

  9. Investigation of crew performance in a multi-vehicle supervisory control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. A.; Plamondon, B. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.; Kirlik, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Crew information processing and decision making in a supervisory control task which is loosely based on the mission of future generation helicopters is measured and represented. Subjects control the motion and activities of their own vehicle and direct the activities of four additional craft. The task involves searching an uncertain environment for cargo and enemies, returning cargo to home base and destroying enemies while attempting to avoid destruction of the scout and the supervised vehicles. A series of experiments with two-person crews and one-person crews were performed. Resulting crew performance was modeled with the objective of describing and understanding the information processing strategies utilized. Of particular interest are problem simplification strategies under time stress and high work load, simplification and compensation in the one-person cases, crew coordination in the two-person cases, and the relationship between strategy and errors in all cases. The results should provide some insight into the effective use of aids, particularly aids based on artificial intelligence, for similar tasks. The simulation is described which is used for the study and some preliminary results from the first two-person crew study are discussed.

  10. Technologies for low-bandwidth high-latency unmanned ground vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Teresa; Cogan, Ken; Hunt, Lee; Restine, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Automation technology has evolved at a rapid pace in recent years; however, many real-world problems require contextual understanding, problem solving, and other forms of higher-order thinking that extends beyond the capabilities of robots for the foreseeable future. This limits the complexity of automation which can be supplied to modern unmanned ground robots (UGV) and necessitates human-in-the-loop monitoring and control for some portions of missions. In order for the human operator to make decisions and provide tasking during key portions of the mission, existing solutions first derive significant information from a potentially dense reconstruction of the scene utilizing LIDAR, video, and other onboard sensors. A dense reconstruction contains too much data for real-time transmission over a modern wireless data link, so the robot electronics must first condense the scene representation prior to transmission. The control station receives this condensed scene representations and provides visual information to the human operator; the human operator then provides tele-operation commands in real-time to the robot. This paper discusses approaches to dense scene reduction of the data required to transmit to a human-in-the loop as well as the challenges associated with them. In addition, the complex and unstructured nature of real-world environments increases the need for tele-operation. Furthermore, many environments reduce the bandwidth and increase the latency of the link. Ultimately, worsening conditions will cause the tele-operation control process to break down, rendering the robot ineffective. In a worst-case scenario, extreme conditions causing a complete loss-of-communications could result in mission failure and loss of the vehicle.

  11. Autonomous Reconfigurable Control Allocation (ARCA) for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronnie; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector delta(sub c) may govern the behavior of, e.g., acrosurfaces, reaction thrusters, engine gimbals and/or thrust vectoring. Typically, the individual moments generated in response to each of the n(sub a) commands does not lie strictly in the roll, pitch, or yaw axes, and so a common practice is to group or gang actuators so that a one-to-one mapping from torque commands tau(sub c) actuator commands delta(sub c) may be achieved in an off-line computed CA function.

  12. Velocity and Motion Control of a Self-Balancing Vehicle Based on a Cascade Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Velazquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents balancing, velocity and motion control of a self-balancing vehicle. A cascade controller is implemented for both balancing control and angular velocity control. This controller is tested in simulations using a proposed mathematical model of the system. Motion control is achieved based on the kinematics of the robot. Control hardware is designed and integrated to implement the proposed controllers. Pitch is kept under 1° from the equilibrium position with no external disturbances. The linear cascade control is able to handle slight changes in the system dynamics, such as in the centre of mass and the slope on an inclined surface.

  13. Flight Control Laws for NASA's Hyper-X Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Lallman, F.; McMinn, J. D.; Martin, J.; Pahle, J.; Stephenson, M.; Selmon, J.; Bose, D.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the Hyper-X program is to demonstrate and validate technology for design and performance predictions of hypersonic aircraft with an airframe-integrated supersonic-combustion ramjet propulsion system. Accomplishing this goal requires flight demonstration of a hydrogen-fueled scramjet powered hypersonic aircraft. A key enabling technology for this flight demonstration is flight controls. Closed-loop flight control is required to enable a successful stage separation, to achieve and maintain the design condition during the engine test, and to provide a controlled descent. Before the contract award, NASA developed preliminary flight control laws for the Hyper-X to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed scramjet test sequence and descent trajectory. After the contract award, a Boeing/NASA partnership worked to develop the current control laws. This paper presents a description of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle control law architectures with performance and robustness analyses. Assessments of simulated flight trajectories and stability margin analyses demonstrate that these control laws meet the flight test requirements.

  14. Remotely Piloted Vehicles for Experimental Flight Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.

    2009-01-01

    A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division

  15. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  16. Motion Control of Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles considering Tire Force Saturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle stability control approach for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA electric vehicles is presented. The proposed control method consists of a higher-level controller and a lower-level controller. An adaptive control-based higher-level controller is designed to yield the vehicle virtual control efforts to track the desired vehicle motions due to the possible modeling inaccuracies and parametric uncertainties. The lower-level controller considering tire force saturation is given to allocate the required control efforts to the four in-wheel motors for providing the desired tire forces. An analytic method is given to distribute the high-level control efforts, without using the numerical-optimization-based control allocation algorithms. Simulations based on a high-fidelity, CarSim, and full-vehicle model show the effectiveness of the control approach.

  17. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  18. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  19. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  20. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah A. Hassan; Hesham A. Rakha

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is ques...

  1. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  2. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  3. Neural Adaptive Sliding-Mode Control of a Vehicle Platoon Using Output Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maode Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output feedback control problem of a vehicle platoon with a constant time headway (CTH policy, where each vehicle can communicate with its consecutive vehicles. Firstly, based on the integrated-sliding-mode (ISM technique, a neural adaptive sliding-mode control algorithm is developed to ensure that the vehicle platoon is moving with the CTH policy and full state measurement. Then, to further decrease the measurement complexity and reduce the communication load, an output feedback control protocol is proposed with only position information, in which a higher order sliding-mode observer is designed to estimate the other required information (velocities and accelerations. In order to avoid collisions among the vehicles, the string stability of the whole vehicle platoon is proven through the stability theorem. Finally, numerical simulation results are provided to verify its effectiveness and advantages over the traditional sliding-mode control method in vehicle platoons.

  4. Control and state estimation for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, P.; Lidberg, M.; Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Iersel, S. van

    2011-01-01

    Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles is mainly limited by the requirement to preserve vehicle stability but it is also dependent on the brake system design and the ability of the control system. The boundaries of vehicle stability are difficult to assess, and must be approached with care,

  5. On distributed model predictive control for vehicle platooning with a recursive feasibility guarantee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Shengling; Lazar, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed model predictive control algorithm for vehicle platooning and more generally networked systems in a chain structure. The distributed models of the vehicle platoon are coupled through the input of the preceding vehicles. Using the principles of robust model

  6. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  7. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; hide

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  8. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  9. Statistical methods for launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael Benjamin

    A novel trajectory and attitude control and navigation analysis tool for powered ascent is developed. The tool is capable of rapid trade-space analysis and is designed to ultimately reduce turnaround time for launch vehicle design, mission planning, and redesign work. It is streamlined to quickly determine trajectory and attitude control dispersions, propellant dispersions, orbit insertion dispersions, and navigation errors and their sensitivities to sensor errors, actuator execution uncertainties, and random disturbances. The tool is developed by applying both Monte Carlo and linear covariance analysis techniques to a closed-loop, launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system. The nonlinear dynamics and flight GN&C software models of a closed-loop, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF), Monte Carlo simulation are formulated and developed. The nominal reference trajectory (NRT) for the proposed lunar ascent trajectory is defined and generated. The Monte Carlo truth models and GN&C algorithms are linearized about the NRT, the linear covariance equations are formulated, and the linear covariance simulation is developed. The performance of the launch vehicle GN&C system is evaluated using both Monte Carlo and linear covariance techniques and their trajectory and attitude control dispersion, propellant dispersion, orbit insertion dispersion, and navigation error results are validated and compared. Statistical results from linear covariance analysis are generally within 10% of Monte Carlo results, and in most cases the differences are less than 5%. This is an excellent result given the many complex nonlinearities that are embedded in the ascent GN&C problem. Moreover, the real value of this tool lies in its speed, where the linear covariance simulation is 1036.62 times faster than the Monte Carlo simulation. Although the application and results presented are for a lunar, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), ascent vehicle, the tools, techniques, and mathematical

  10. Designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller to Enhance Directional Stability of Vehicles under Difficult Maneuvers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad N. Khajavi; Golamhassan Paygane; Ali Hakima

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is ca...

  11. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  12. A Novel Extreme Learning Control Framework of Unmanned Surface Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Jing-Chao; Er, Meng Joo; Liu, Yan-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an extreme learning control (ELC) framework using the single-hidden-layer feedforward network (SLFN) with random hidden nodes for tracking an unmanned surface vehicle suffering from unknown dynamics and external disturbances is proposed. By combining tracking errors with derivatives, an error surface and transformed states are defined to encapsulate unknown dynamics and disturbances into a lumped vector field of transformed states. The lumped nonlinearity is further identified accurately by an extreme-learning-machine-based SLFN approximator which does not require a priori system knowledge nor tuning input weights. Only output weights of the SLFN need to be updated by adaptive projection-based laws derived from the Lyapunov approach. Moreover, an error compensator is incorporated to suppress approximation residuals, and thereby contributing to the robustness and global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop ELC system. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons demonstrate that the ELC framework achieves high accuracy in both tracking and approximation.

  13. An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate urban traffic congestions to achieve desirable objectives (e.g., delay minimization. Connected vehicle technology, as an emerging technology, is a mobile data platform that enables the real-time data exchange among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure. Although several reviews about traffic signal control or connected vehicles have been written, a systemic review of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has not been made. Twenty-six eligible studies searched from six databases constitute the review. A quality evaluation was established based on previous research instruments and applied to the current review. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing methods of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment and to compare the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. Further, a systematic framework on connected vehicle based adaptive traffic signal control is summarized to support the future research. Future research is needed to develop more efficient and generic adaptive traffic signal control methods in a connected vehicle environment.

  14. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  15. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  16. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD. In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  17. NASA flight controllers - Meeting cultural and leadership challenges on the critical path to mission success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L., Jr.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2006-01-01

    As part of its preparation for missions to the Moon and Mars, NASA has identified high priority critical path roadmap (CPR) questions, two of which focus on the performance of mission control personnel. NASA flight controllers have always worked in an incredibly demanding setting, but the International Space Station poses even more challenges than prior missions. We surveyed 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers about the management and cultural challenges they face and the most effective strategies for addressing them. There was substantial consensus among participants on some issues, such as the importance of building a personal relationship with Russian colleagues. Responses from junior and senior controllers differed in some areas, such as training. We frame the results in terms of two CPR questions. We aim to use our results to improve flight controller training.

  18. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  19. Control of an Autonomous Vehicle for Registration of Weed and Crop in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an autonomous electrical vehicle to be used for weed mapping in precision agriculture with special focus on the conceptual framework of the control system. The lowest layer of the control system is the propulsion and steering control, the second layer...... coordinates the movements of the wheel units, the third layer is path execution and perception and the upper layer performs planning and reasoning. The control system is implemented on an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle has been tested for path following and position accuracy. Based on the results a new...... vehicle is under construction....

  20. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and rescue, surveillance, and electronic warfare, but almost all UAVs are controlled remotely by humans...

  1. Astrionic system optimization and modular astrionics for NASA missions after 1974. Preliminary definition of astrionic system for space tug Mission Vehicle Payload (MVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Results of preliminary studies to define the space tug astrionic system, subsystems, and components to meet requirements for a variety of missions are reported. Emphasis is placed on demonstration of the modular astrionics approach in the design of the space tug astrionic system.

  2. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  3. Solving Algebraic Riccati Equation Real Time for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, A; Corno, M.; Bonsen, B.; Holweg, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison study of different computational methods to implement State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) based control in real time for a vehicle dynamics control application. Vehicles are mechatronic systems with nonlinear dynamics. One of the promising nonlinear control

  4. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  5. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  6. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  7. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

  8. Optimal Path Planning and Control of Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Area Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiankun

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by computers onboard the vehicle, or remotely by a pilot on the ground, or by another vehicle. In recent years, UAVs have been used more commonly than prior years. The example includes areo-camera where a high speed camera was attached to a UAV which can be used as an airborne camera to obtain aerial video. It also could be used for detecting events on ground for tasks such as surveillance and monitoring which is a common task during wars. Similarly UAVs can be used for relaying communication signal during scenarios when regular communication infrastructure is destroyed. The objective of this thesis is motivated from such civilian operations such as search and rescue or wildfire detection and monitoring. One scenario is that of search and rescue where UAV's objective is to geo-locate a person in a given area. The task is carried out with the help of a camera whose live feed is provided to search and rescue personnel. For this objective, the UAV needs to carry out scanning of the entire area in the shortest time. The aim of this thesis to develop algorithms to enable a UAV to scan an area in optimal time, a problem referred to as "Coverage Control" in literature. The thesis focuses on a special kind of UAVs called "quadrotor" that is propelled with the help of four rotors. The overall objective of this thesis is achieved via solving two problems. The first problem is to develop a dynamic control model of quadrtor. In this thesis, a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) based feedback control system is developed and implemented on MATLAB's Simulink. The PID controller helps track any given trajectory. The second problem is to design a trajectory that will fulfill the mission. The planed trajectory should make sure the quadrotor will scan the whole area without missing any part to make sure that the quadrotor will find the lost

  9. Modelling, Design and Robust Control of a Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Govinda García-Valdovinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs play an important role in a number of shallow and deep-water missions for marine science, oil and gas extraction, exploration and salvage. In these applications, the motions of the ROV are guided either by a human pilot on a surface support vessel through an umbilical cord providing power and telemetry, or by an automatic pilot. In the case of automatic control, ROV state feedback is provided by acoustic and inertial sensors and this state information, along with a controller strategy, is used to perform several tasks such as station-keeping and auto-immersion/heading, among others. In this paper, the modelling, design and control of the Kaxan ROV is presented: i The complete six degrees of freedom, non linear hydrodynamic model with its parameters, ii the Kaxan hardware/software architecture, iii numerical simulations in Matlab/Simulink platform of a model-free second order sliding mode control along with ocean currents as disturbances and thruster dynamics, iv a virtual environment to visualize the motion of the Kaxan ROV and v experimental results of a one degree of freedom underwater system.

  10. Training to Operate a Simulated Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Continuous or Discrete Manual Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Paula J; Neumann, John L; Billings, Deborah R

    2008-01-01

    .... They were then given training missions during which performance was measured. Eight conditions were investigated, formed by crossing three 2-level factors: input device (mouse vs. game controller...

  11. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen; Wu, Zongsheng

    2017-05-30

    The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS), the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative) controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  12. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaining Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS, the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  13. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  14. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is questionable. Consequently, in this paper a fully distributed algorithm is proposed where vehicles in the vicinity of an intersection continuously cooperate with each other to develop a schedule that allows them to safely proceed through the intersection while incurring minimum delay. Unlike other distributed approaches described in the literature, the wireless communication constraints are considered in the design of the control algorithm. Specifically, the proposed algorithm requires vehicles heading to an intersection to communicate only with neighboring vehicles, while the lead vehicles on each approach lane share information to develop a complete intersection utilization schedule. The scheduling rotates between vehicles to identify higher traffic volumes and favor vehicles coming from heavier lanes to minimize the overall intersection delay. The simulated experiments show significant reductions in the average delay using the proposed approach compared to other methods reported in the literature and reduction in the maximum delay experienced by a vehicle especially in cases of heavy traffic demand levels.

  15. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  16. Fuzzy-Skyhook Control for Active Suspension Systems Applied to a Full Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M.A. Soliman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most modern vehicles are equipped with controlled suspension systems for improving the vehicle ride comfort. Therefore, this paper is concerned with a theoretical study for the ride comfort performance of the vehicle. The theoretical investigation includes a suggestion of an active suspension system controller using fuzzy-skyhook control theory, which offers new opportunities for the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The ride comfort of the active suspension system has been evaluated using a 7 degree of freedom full vehicle mathematical model. The simulation results are presented in the time and frequency domain, also in terms of RMS values, and it’s shown that the proposed active suspension system with fuzzy-skyhook control improved the vehicle ride quality in terms of body acceleration, suspension working space and dynamic tyre load in comparison with the passive and skyhook suspension systems.

  17. Sliding mode-based lateral vehicle dynamics control using tyre force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Anil; Corno, Matteo; Holweg, Edward

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a lateral vehicle dynamics control based on tyre force measurements is proposed. Most of the lateral vehicle dynamics control schemes are based on yaw rate whereas tyre forces are the most important variables in vehicle dynamics as tyres are the only contact points between the vehicle and road. In the proposed method, active front steering is employed to uniformly distribute the required lateral force among the front left and right tyres. The force distribution is quantified through the tyre utilisation coefficients. In order to address the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the vehicle model, a gain scheduling sliding-mode control technique is used. In addition to stabilising the lateral dynamics, the proposed controller is able to maintain maximum lateral acceleration. The proposed method is tested and validated on a multi-body vehicle simulator.

  18. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  19. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  20. LMI-Based H¥ Anti-Rollover Control Algorithm of Vehicle Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Cong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the anti-rollover ability for vehicles, a 4 DOF vehicle rollover dynamics model is established, base on which we have designed an active suspension anti-rollover controller and proposed the H¥ control strategy. Simulations were carried out using Matlab/Simulink, and results show that the proposed control scheme can not only reduce the roll angle and roll angular velocity, but also improve the rollover stability of the vehicle and reduce the probability of vehicle rollover accidents.

  1. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  2. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  3. Robust two degree of freedom vehicle steering control satisfying mixed sensitivity constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Aksun-Güvenc, B.; Güvenc, L.; Odenthal, D.; Bünte, T.

    2001-01-01

    Robust steering control is used here for improving the yaw dynamics of a passenger car. A specific two degree of freedom control structure is adapted to the vehicle yaw dynamics problem and shown to robustly improve performance. The design study is based on six operating conditions for vehicle speed and the coefficient of friction between the tires and the road representing the operating domain of the vehicle. The relevant design specifications are formulated as attaining Hurwitz stability a...

  4. Modelling and control of an electric vehicle; Modelisation et controle d`un vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwartnik, J

    1995-11-28

    The work described in this report provides to engineers or researchers a tool for electric vehicle simulation. The different components included in the system are described with in particular the choppers, the pedal accelerator and the vehicle dynamic represented by the different constraints applied to the vehicle (efforts of drag, of lift, of rolling and slope resistance). This study has been realized by considering nonlinear phenomenons such as the armature magnetic reaction or the resistance change due to temperature increasing. The complexity of the system leads to use several of control. The theory of linear systems made possible the synthesis of PID controllers after few hypothesis. An on line adaptation technique completed this synthesis by considering nonlinear effects. For the cruise control we have used a control based on fuzzy set theory. We showed through two examples, the cruise control and the motor control using a strategy which minimize the Joule effect looses, the interest and the possibilities of the model evolution. (author) 21 refs.

  5. Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles: Advanced Sensing & Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From To) 7/1/05-12/31708 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles Advanced Sensing...assimilating data from underwater and surface autonomous vehicles in addition to the usual sources of Eulerian and Lagrangian systems into a small scale

  6. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  7. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  8. H∞ control of railway vehicle suspension with MR damper using scaled roller rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; You, Won-Hee; Hur, Hyun-Moo; Park, Joon-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper was applied to the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of a car body. The control performance of the MR damper was verified by numerical analysis with a 1/5 scale railway vehicle model in accordance with the similarity law. The analysis results were then validated in tests. In particular, the objective of the study was to understand how the control performance affected the dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle and to systematically analyze the relationship between control performance and dynamic characteristics depending on various running speeds. To achieve this, experimental results for the dynamic characteristics of the scaled MR damper designed for the 1/5 scale railway vehicle model were applied to the railway vehicle model. The H ∞ control method was applied to the controller. The means of designing the railway vehicle body vibration controller and the effectiveness of its results were studied. (paper)

  9. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  10. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  11. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  12. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  13. Battery- and aging-aware embedded control systems for electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.; Probstl, A.; Goswami, D.; Zamani, M.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, we propose a battery- and aging-aware optimization framework for embedded control systems design in electric vehicles (EVs). Performance and reliability of an EV are influenced by feedback control loops implemented into in-vehicle electrical/electronic (E/E)

  14. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  15. Control of a self guided tracked vehicle for hazardous waste removal using GPS positioning and ultrasonic collision avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.; Lokhorst, D.; Fung, P.; Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 a large hydraulic telerobotic tracked transport vehicle (TTV) was built for Lockheed Idaho Technologies by a team of companies consisting of RAHCO International of Spokane, Spar Aerospace of Toronto and RSI Research of Victoria. The TTV was developed as a part of the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program to transport low level transuranic waste in a safe, dust-free manner minimizing the potential spread of airborne contaminants. The TTV was controlled from a remote control station by an operator relying on video and sensor feedback. This paper describes the control system of SGTV, a self guided version of the TTV developed in 1995 to travel autonomously between loading and off-loading points while automatically avoiding obstacles in its path. Self-guidance is divided between a supervisory Mission Planning and Control computer (WC) and an on-board system of five networked computers

  16. Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Stability Control Based on a New Multimachine Nonlinear Model Predictive Direct Torque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Sekour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the driving performance and the stability of electric vehicles (EVs, a new multimachine robust control, which realizes the acceleration slip regulation (ASR and antilock braking system (ABS functions, based on nonlinear model predictive (NMP direct torque control (DTC, is proposed for four permanent magnet synchronous in-wheel motors. The in-wheel motor provides more possibilities of wheel control. One of its advantages is that it has low response time and almost instantaneous torque generation. Moreover, it can be independently controlled, enhancing the limits of vehicular control. For an EV equipped with four in-wheel electric motors, an advanced control may be envisaged. Taking advantage of the fast and accurate torque of in-wheel electric motors which is directly transmitted to the wheels, a new approach for longitudinal control realized by ASR and ABS is presented in this paper. In order to achieve a high-performance torque control for EVs, the NMP-DTC strategy is proposed. It uses the fuzzy logic control technique that determines online the accurate values of the weighting factors and generates the optimal switching states that optimize the EV drives’ decision. The simulation results built in Matlab/Simulink indicate that the EV can achieve high-performance vehicle longitudinal stability control.

  17. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  18. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  19. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  20. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  1. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  2. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  3. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge. [for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests on an electric vehicle battery, using a simulated electric vehicle chopper-speed controller, show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average current of 100 A. However, an energy output increase of 22 percent is noticed at the 200 A average level and 44 percent increase at the 300 A level using pulse discharging. Because of these complex results, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interactions must be considered in vehicle design.

  4. Effect of Space Vehicle Structure Vibration on Control Moment Gyroscope Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) are used for non-propulsive attitude control of satellites and space stations, including the International Space Station (ISS). CMGs could be essential for future long duration space missions due to the fact that they help to save propellant. CMGs were successfully tested on the ground for many years, and have been successfully used on satellites. However, operations have shown that the CMG service life on the ISS is significantly shorter than predicted. Since the dynamic environment of the ISS differs greatly from the nominal environment of satellites, it was important to analyze how operations specific to the station (dockings and undockings, huge solar array motion, crew exercising, robotic operations, etc) can affect the CMG performance. This task became even more important since the first CMG failure onboard the ISS. The CMG failure resulted in the limitation of the attitude control capabilities, more propellant consumption, and additional operational issues. Therefore, the goal of this work was to find out how the vibrations of a space vehicle structure, caused by a variety of onboard operations, can affect the CMG dynamics and performance. The equations of CMG motion were derived and analyzed for the case when the gyro foundation can vibrate in any direction. The analysis was performed for unbalanced CMG gimbals to match the CMG configuration on ISS. The analysis showed that vehicle structure vibrations can amplify and significantly change the CMG motion if the gyro gimbals are unbalanced in flight. The resonance frequencies were found. It was shown that the resonance effect depends on the magnitude of gimbal imbalance, on the direction of a structure vibration, and on gimbal bearing friction. Computer modeling results of CMG dynamics affected by the external vibration are presented. The results can explain some of the CMG vibration telemetry observed on ISS. This work shows that balancing the CMG gimbals decreases the effect

  5. Modular space vehicle boards, control software, reprogramming, and failure recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Delapp, Jerry; Prichard, Dean; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Stein, Paul; Michel, John; Tripp, Justin; Palmer, Joseph; Storms, Steven

    2017-09-12

    A space vehicle may have a modular board configuration that commonly uses some or all components and a common operating system for at least some of the boards. Each modular board may have its own dedicated processing, and processing loads may be distributed. The space vehicle may be reprogrammable, and may be launched without code that enables all functionality and/or components. Code errors may be detected and the space vehicle may be reset to a working code version to prevent system failure.

  6. COMPLETE VEHICLE PROTECTION USING AT MEGA MICRO CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Satheeshkumar; S. Vimalnath; G. Nandhakumar

    2017-01-01

    The Primary aim of this Project is to design the project for a Complete Vehicle Protection with Embedded Technology. In this project there are two sections, one is a vehicle unit another one is a monitoring unit. In a vehicle unit Accident is measured with the help of vibration sensor. Temperature is measured with the help of temperature sensor. Fuel Level measurement using Float. Those sensor’s output is given to the amplifier unit. After the amplification this output is given to the ATMEGA ...

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  8. The precision segmented reflectors: Moderate mission figure control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevaston, G.; Redding, D.; Lau, K.; Breckenridge, W.; Levine, B.; Nerheim, N.; Sirlin, S.; Kadogawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    A system concept for a space based segmented reflector telescope figure control subsystem is described. The concept employs a two phase architecture in which figure initialization and figure maintenance are independent functions. Figure initialization is accomplished by image sharpening using natural reference targets. Figure maintenance is performed by monitoring the relative positions and alignments of the telescope components using an optical truss. Actuation is achieved using precision positioners. Computer simulation results of figure initialization by pairwise segment coalignment/cophasing and simulated annealing are presented along with figure maintenance results using a wavefront error regulation algorithm. Both functions are shown to perform at acceptable levels for the class of submillimeter telescopes that are serving as the focus of this technology development effort. Component breadboard work as well as plans for a system testbed are discussed.

  9. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Masmitja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  10. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmitja, Ivan; Gonzalez, Julian; Galarza, Cesar; Gomariz, Spartacus; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Del Rio, Joaquin

    2018-04-17

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II) as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  11. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  12. How to build an antimatter rocket for interstellar missions - systems level considerations in designing advanced propulsion technology vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the general mission requirements and system technologies that would be required to implement an antimatter propulsion system where a magnetic nozzle is used to direct charged particles to produce thrust.

  13. Anti-Windup Control for an Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, Kevin P; Serrani, Andrea; Yurkovich, Stephen; Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B

    2005-01-01

    .... Anti-windup control allows the input constraints to be considered explicitly in the design of linear controllers to track a reference trajectory for the vehicle velocity, altitude, and angle of attack...

  14. Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable wind power generation units and electricity consumption in power systems demands additional ancillary services for its reliable operation. The battery storages of electric vehicles are one of the substitute solutions for replacing conventional fossil......-fuelled generators to supply future grid support functions. The quick start and fast response characteristics of battery storages enable the electric vehicles to provide most of the power system auxiliary tasks. This chapter discusses key ancillary services that could be supplied by electric vehicles to maintain...... the system balance in power systems with high volumes of wind power generation. To analyse the applications and performance of electric vehicles in supplying active power balancing services, the case studies simulated in wind-power-dominated Danish power systems are also presented....

  15. Perception, Planning, Control, and Coordination for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Drew Pendleton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are expected to play a key role in the future of urban transportation systems, as they offer potential for additional safety, increased productivity, greater accessibility, better road efficiency, and positive impact on the environment. Research in autonomous systems has seen dramatic advances in recent years, due to the increases in available computing power and reduced cost in sensing and computing technologies, resulting in maturing technological readiness level of fully autonomous vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of the recent developments in the realm of autonomous vehicle software systems. Fundamental components of autonomous vehicle software are reviewed, and recent developments in each area are discussed.

  16. Optimal Control of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Roundabouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liuhui [University of Delaware; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity and automation in vehicles provide the most intriguing opportunity for enabling users to better monitor transportation network conditions and make better operating decisions to improve safety and reduce pollution, energy consumption, and travel delays. This study investigates the implications of optimally coordinating vehicles that are wirelessly connected to each other and to an infrastructure in roundabouts to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We apply an optimization framework and an analytical solution that allows optimal coordination of vehicles for merging in such traffic scenario. The effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed approach is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of vehicles can reduce total travel time by 3~49% and fuel consumption by 2~27% with respect to different traffic levels. In addition, network throughput is improved by up to 25% due to elimination of stop-and-go driving behavior.

  17. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  18. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  19. A path-following driver/vehicle model with optimized lateral dynamic controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Mashadi

    Full Text Available Reduction in traffic congestion and overall number of accidents, especially within the last decade, can be attributed to the enormous progress in active safety. Vehicle path following control with the presence of driver commands can be regarded as one of the important issues in vehicle active safety systems development and more realistic explanation of vehicle path tracking problem. In this paper, an integrated driver/DYC control system is presented that regulates the steering angle and yaw moment, considering driver previewed path. Thus, the driver previewed distance, the heading error and the lateral deviation between the vehicle and desired path are used as inputs. Then, the controller determines and applies a corrective steering angle and a direct yaw moment to make the vehicle follow the desired path. A PID controller with optimized gains is used for the control of integrated driver/DYC system. Genetic Algorithm as an intelligent optimization method is utilized to adapt PID controller gains for various working situations. Proposed integrated driver/DYC controller is examined on lane change manuvers andthe sensitivity of the control system is investigated through the changes in the driver model and vehicle parameters. Simulation results show the pronounced effectiveness of the controller in vehicle path following and stability.

  20. Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jihua; Lu, Guang; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the findings of research performed under TO4204, "Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors" during the year 2000- 2001. The research goal of TO4204 is to develop vehicle lateral control strategies under faulty operation of the magnetometers. The main objectives of the project are: (1) to design controllers that use the output from only one set of magnetometers, and (2) to develop an autonomous lateral control scheme that uses no magnetometers. New...

  1. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  2. Direct Yaw Control of Vehicle using State Dependent Riccati Equation with Integral Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDHU, F.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct yaw control of four-wheel vehicles using optimal controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and the sliding mode controller (SMC either considers only certain parameters constant in the nonlinear equations of vehicle model or totally neglect their effects to obtain simplified models, resulting in loss of states for the system. In this paper, a modified state-dependent Ricatti equation method obtained by the simplification of the vehicle model is proposed. This method overcomes the problem of the lost states by including state integrals. The results of the proposed system are compared with the sliding mode slip controller and state-dependent Ricatti equation method using high fidelity vehicle model in the vehicle simulation software package, Carsim. Results show 38% reduction in the lateral velocity, 34% reduction in roll and 16% reduction in excessive yaw by only increasing the fuel consumption by 6.07%.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Control System for Testing an Experimental Electrical Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bermejo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Vehicle Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart is developing an experimental electric vehicle. With that vehicle different research topics in the scope of e-mobility will be investigated. Some of these topics are range prediction and optimization issues, adapted control of inverter and electric motor, as well as, different battery charging techniques. The aim of this master thesis is to design and to implement the contr...

  4. A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    AD-A282 787 " A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly CMU-RI-TR-94-17 The Robotics...follow, or a direction to prefer, it cannot generate its own strategic goals. Therefore, it solves the local planning problem for autonomous vehicles . The... autonomous vehicles . It is intelligent because it uses range images that are generated from either a laser rangefinder or a stereo triangulation

  5. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  6. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  7. Nonlinear output feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers using feedback form estimated axial flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T. I.; Blanke, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... compensates for variations in thrust due to time variations in advance speed. This is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems, The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. The simulations demonstrate that the axial water...

  8. Stability Assessment and Tuning of an Adaptively Augmented Classical Controller for Launch Vehicle Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Zhu, J. Jim; Adami, Tony; Berry, Kyle; Grammar, Alex; Orr, Jeb S.; Best, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a robust and practical adaptive control scheme for launch vehicles [ [1] has been introduced. It augments a classical controller with a real-time loop-gain adaptation, and it is therefore called Adaptive Augmentation Control (AAC). The loop-gain will be increased from the nominal design when the tracking error between the (filtered) output and the (filtered) command trajectory is large; whereas it will be decreased when excitation of flex or sloshing modes are detected. There is a need to determine the range and rate of the loop-gain adaptation in order to retain (exponential) stability, which is critical in vehicle operation, and to develop some theoretically based heuristic tuning methods for the adaptive law gain parameters. The classical launch vehicle flight controller design technics are based on gain-scheduling, whereby the launch vehicle dynamics model is linearized at selected operating points along the nominal tracking command trajectory, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) controller design techniques are employed to ensure asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics, typically by meeting some prescribed Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) specifications. The controller gains at the design points are then scheduled, tuned and sometimes interpolated to achieve good performance and stability robustness under external disturbances (e.g. winds) and structural perturbations (e.g. vehicle modeling errors). While the GM does give a bound for loop-gain variation without losing stability, it is for constant dispersions of the loop-gain because the GM is based on frequency-domain analysis, which is applicable only for LTI systems. The real-time adaptive loop-gain variation of the AAC effectively renders the closed-loop system a time-varying system, for which it is well-known that the LTI system stability criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient when applying to a Linear Time-Varying (LTV) system in a frozen-time fashion. Therefore, a

  9. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  10. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  11. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The mission for Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems (IERICS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been established with the aim of conducting peer reviews of I and C design documents, implementation processes, prototype I and C systems, and actual systems already deployed in operating NPPs. Organizations in IAEA Member States, such as nuclear utilities, regulators, and technical support organizations can benefit from I and C technical reviews through requesting IERICS missions that provide a detailed technical assessment on I and C systems, as well as recommendations for improvement. The IERICS mission is conducted by a team of international subject matter experts from various complementing technical areas. The review is based on appropriate IAEA documents, such as Safety Guides and Nuclear Energy Series, and the mission's findings are summarized in a mission report, including a list of recommendations, suggestions, and identified good practices. The review is not intended to be a regulatory inspection or an audit against international codes and standards. Rather, it is a peer review aimed at improving design and implementation procedures through an exchange of technical experiences and practices at the working level. The IERICS mission is applicable at any stages of the life cycle of I and C systems in NPPs and it is initiated based on a formal request through official IAEA channels from an organization of a Member State. The formation of the IERICS mission is based on the recommendation of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (TWG-NPPIC). The recommendation came from the recognition that the IAEA can play an important role in the independent assessment and review of NPP I and C systems in terms of their compliance with IAEA safety guides and technical documents.

  12. Intelligent Hybrid Vehicle Power Control - Part 1: Machine Learning of Optimal Vehicle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    the motor or both can provide the traction power to the drivetrain. During vehicle deceleration, the regenerative braking power is captured to charge...and Amax is the maximum acceleration. The 11 drive cycles are divided into four categories of roadway types and traffic congestion levels, freeway...freeway ramp, arterial, and local. Two of the categories , freeway and arterial, are further divided into subcategories based on a qualitative measure

  13. A Path Tracking Algorithm Using Future Prediction Control with Spike Detection for an Autonomous Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking is an important aspect of autonomous vehicles. The idea behind trajectory tracking is the ability of the vehicle to follow a predefined path with zero steady state error. The difficulty arises due to the nonlinearity of vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper proposes a stable tracking control for an autonomous vehicle. An approach that consists of steering wheel control and lateral control is introduced. This control algorithm is used for a non-holonomic navigation problem, namely tracking a reference trajectory in a closed loop form. A proposed future prediction point control algorithm is used to calculate the vehicle's lateral error in order to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking. A feedback sensor signal from the steering wheel angle and yaw rate sensor is used as feedback information for the controller. The controller consists of a relationship between the future point lateral error, the linear velocity, the heading error and the reference yaw rate. This paper also introduces a spike detection algorithm to track the spike error that occurs during GPS reading. The proposed idea is to take the advantage of the derivative of the steering rate. This paper aims to tackle the lateral error problem by applying the steering control law to the vehicle, and proposes a new path tracking control method by considering the future coordinate of the vehicle and the future estimated lateral error. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by a simulation and a GPS experiment with noisy data. The approach used in this paper is not limited to autonomous vehicles alone since the concept of autonomous vehicle tracking can be used in mobile robot platforms, as the kinematic model of these two platforms is similar.

  14. Magnetic dipole moment estimation and compensation for an accurate attitude control in nano-satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2011-06-01

    Nano-satellites provide space access to broader range of satellite developers and attract interests as an application of the space developments. These days several new nano-satellite missions are proposed with sophisticated objectives such as remote-sensing and observation of astronomical objects. In these advanced missions, some nano-satellites must meet strict attitude requirements for obtaining scientific data or images. For LEO nano-satellite, a magnetic attitude disturbance dominates over other environmental disturbances as a result of small moment of inertia, and this effect should be cancelled for a precise attitude control. This research focuses on how to cancel the magnetic disturbance in orbit. This paper presents a unique method to estimate and compensate the residual magnetic moment, which interacts with the geomagnetic field and causes the magnetic disturbance. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the magnetic disturbance. For more practical considerations of the magnetic disturbance compensation, this method has been examined in the PRISM (Pico-satellite for Remote-sensing and Innovative Space Missions). This method will be also used for a nano-astrometry satellite mission. This paper concludes that use of the magnetic disturbance estimation and compensation are useful for nano-satellites missions which require a high accurate attitude control.

  15. Control-oriented modeling and adaptive backstepping control for a nonminimum phase hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linqi; Zong, Qun; Tian, Bailing; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the nonminimum phase problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is investigated. The main challenge of nonminimum phase is the prevention of dynamic inversion methods to nonlinear control design. To solve this problem, we make research on the relationship between nonminimum phase and backstepping control, finding that a stable nonlinear controller can be obtained by changing the control loop on the basis of backstepping control. By extending the control loop to cover the internal dynamics in it, the internal states are directly controlled by the inputs and simultaneously serve as virtual control for the external states, making it possible to guarantee output tracking as well as internal stability. Then, based on the extended control loop, a simplified control-oriented model is developed to enable the applicability of adaptive backstepping method. It simplifies the design process and releases some limitations caused by direct use of the no simplified control-oriented model. Next, under proper assumptions, asymptotic stability is proved for constant commands, while bounded stability is proved for varying commands. The proposed method is compared with approximate backstepping control and dynamic surface control and is shown to have superior tracking accuracy as well as robustness from the simulation results. This paper may also provide a beneficial guidance for control design of other complex systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  17. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohner, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed

  18. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  19. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed.

  20. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  1. Slip Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time change of tire-road friction coefficient is one of the important factors that influence vehicle safety performance. Besides, the vehicle wheels’ locking up has become an important issue. In order to solve these problems, this paper comes up with a novel slip control of electric vehicle (EV based on tire-road friction coefficient estimation. First and foremost, a novel method is proposed to estimate the tire-road friction coefficient, and then the reference slip ratio is determined based on the estimation results. Finally, with the reference slip ratio, a slip control based on model predictive control (MPC is designed to prevent the vehicle wheels from locking up. In this regard, the proposed controller guarantees the optimal braking torque on each wheel by individually controlling the slip ratio of each tire within the stable zone. Theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed controller is effective for better braking performance.

  2. Year 2000 Compliance of Selected Mission Critical Command, Control, and Communications Systems Managed by The Defense Information Systems Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) has adequately planned for and managed year 2000 conversion risks to avoid undue disruption to selected mission critical command, control, and communications systems used in support of Unified...

  3. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation

  4. Vehicle Lateral Control Under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guang; Huang, Jihua; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the research results of Task Order 4204(TO4204), "Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors". This project is a continuing effort of the Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) on the research of passenger vehicles for Automated Highway Systems (AHS).

  5. Nonlinear model predictive control of a passenger vehicle for automated lane changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, A.F.; Marquez-Ruiz, A.; Espinosa, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) for lane changes, based on a simplified Single Track Model (STM) of the vehicle. The STM includes the position of the vehicle in global coordinates as a state so that the position of the target lane can be specified to the MPC for

  6. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  7. Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadkhast, S.

    2017-01-01

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they

  8. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  9. A control strategy for steering an autonomous surface sailing vehicle in a tacking maneuver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Sailing vessels such as sailboats but also landyachts are vehicles representing a real challenge for automation. However, the control aspects of such vehicles were hitherto very little studied. This paper presents a simplied dynamic model of a so-called landyacht allowing to capture the main...

  10. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  11. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EV's) represents an important challenge, because vapor-compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline-powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. The authors' work has two major parts: a cooling and heating load calculation for EV's, and an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. Four cases are studied: short-range and full-range EV's are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat-reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Results indicate that for the batteries currently available for EV propulsion, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor-compression air conditioners have the minimum for battery storage capacities above 270 kJ/kg

  12. Solar Sail Attitude Control System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.

  13. Active flywheel control for hybrid vehicle; Compensation active des pulsations de couple dans un vehicule hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tnani, S.; Coirault, P.; Champenois, G. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs, Lab. d' Automatique et d' Informatique Industrielle, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose a novel control strategy of torque ripple on hybrid vehicle. The combustion engine ripple's are reduced by using an active filter and an AC machine which is mounted on the crank-shaft to generate on inverse torque sequence. The control strategy is based on a multi-objectives state feedback synthesis. A complete modelling of the hybrid propulsion of the vehicle is achieved. Simulation results highlight the interest of the control scheme. (authors)

  14. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  15. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the tw...

  16. Dynamics control of autonomous vehicle at driving limits and experiment on an autonomous formula racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamics controller for autonomous vehicle to simultaneously control it to the driving limits and follow the desired path is proposed. The dynamics controller consists of longitudinal and lateral controllers. In longitudinal controller, the G-G diagram is utilized to describe the driving and handling limits of the vehicle. The accurate G-G diagram is obtained based on phase plane approach and a nonlinear vehicle dynamic model with accurate tyre model. In lateral controller, the tyre cornering stiffness is estimated to improve the robustness of the controller. The stability analysis of the closed-looped error dynamics shows that the controller remains stable against parameters uncertainties in extreme condition such as tyre saturation. Finally, an electric autonomous Formula race car developed by the authors is used to validate the proposed controller. The autonomous driving experiment on an oval race track shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller.

  17. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  18. On-road vehicle emissions and their control in China: A review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Jingnan; Walsh, Michael P; Wallington, Timothy J; Zhang, K Max; Stevanovic, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The large (26-fold over the past 25years) increase in the on-road vehicle fleet in China has raised sustainability concerns regarding air pollution prevention, energy conservation, and climate change mitigation. China has established integrated emission control policies and measures since the 1990s, including implementation of emission standards for new vehicles, inspection and maintenance programs for in-use vehicles, improvement in fuel quality, promotion of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel vehicles, and traffic management programs. As a result, emissions of major air pollutants from on-road vehicles in China have peaked and are now declining despite increasing vehicle population. As might be expected, progress in addressing vehicle emissions has not always been smooth and challenges such as the lack of low sulfur fuels, frauds over production conformity and in-use inspection tests, and unreliable retrofit programs have been encountered. Considering the high emission density from vehicles in East China, enhanced vehicle, fuel and transportation strategies will be required to address vehicle emissions in China. We project the total vehicle population in China to reach 400-500 million by 2030. Serious air pollution problems in many cities of China, in particular high ambient PM 2.5 concentration, have led to pressure to accelerate the progress on vehicle emission reduction. A notable example is the draft China 6 emission standard released in May 2016, which contains more stringent emission limits than those in the Euro 6 regulations, and adds a real world emission testing protocol and a 48-h evaporation testing procedure including diurnal and hot soak emissions. A scenario (PC[1]) considered in this study suggests that increasingly stringent standards for vehicle emissions could mitigate total vehicle emissions of HC, CO, NO X and PM 2.5 in 2030 by approximately 39%, 57%, 59% and 79%, respectively, compared with 2013 levels. With additional actions

  19. An analytical guidance law of planetary landing mission by minimizing the control effort expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed Hossein; Novinzadeh, Alireza Basohbat; Roshanian, Jafar

    2009-01-01

    An optimal trajectory design of a module for the planetary landing problem is achieved by minimizing the control effort expenditure. Using the calculus of variations theorem, the control variable is expressed as a function of costate variables, and the problem is converted into a two-point boundary-value problem. To solve this problem, the performance measure is approximated by employing a trigonometric series and subsequently, the optimal control and state trajectories are determined. To validate the accuracy of the proposed solution, a numerical method of the steepest descent is utilized. The main objective of this paper is to present a novel analytic guidance law of the planetary landing mission by optimizing the control effort expenditure. Finally, an example of a lunar landing mission is demonstrated to examine the results of this solution in practical situations

  20. NASA's OCA Mirroring System: An Application of Multiagent Systems in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron J. J.; Seah, Chin H.; Scott, Michael S.; Nado, Robert A.; Blumenberg, Susan F.; Shafto, Michael G.; Anderson, Brian L.; Bruins, Anthony C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Orbital Communications Adaptor (OCA) Flight Controllers, in NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, use different computer systems to uplink, downlink, mirror, archive, and deliver files to and from the International Space Station (ISS) in real time. The OCA Mirroring System (OCAMS) is a multiagent software system (MAS) that is operational in NASA's Mission Control Center. This paper presents OCAMS and its workings in an operational setting where flight controllers rely on the system 24x7. We also discuss the return on investment, based on a simulation baseline, six months of 24x7 operations at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and a projection of future capabilities. This paper ends with a discussion of the value of MAS and future planned functionality and capabilities.

  1. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  2. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  3. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  4. Possible Periodic Orbit Control Maneuvers for an eLISA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Welter, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible application of periodic orbit control maneuvers for so-called evolved-LISA (eLISA) missions, i.e., missions for which the constellation arm lengths and mean distance from the Earth are substantially reduced. We find that for missions with arm lengths of 106 km and Earth-trailing distance ranging from approx. 12deg to 20deg over the science lifetime, the occasional use of the spacecraft micro-Newton thrusters for constellation configuration maintenance should be able to essentially eliminate constellation distortion caused by Earth-induced tidal forces at a cost to science time of only a few percent. With interior angle variation kept to approx. +/-0:1deg, the required changes in the angles between the laser beam pointing directions for the two arms from any spacecraft could be kept quite small. This would considerably simplify the apparatus necessary for changing the transmitted beam directions.

  5. Discrete event command and control for networked teams with multiple missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Frank L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Pang, Chee Khiang; Middleton, Matthew B.; McMurrough, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    During mission execution in military applications, the TRADOC Pamphlet 525-66 Battle Command and Battle Space Awareness capabilities prescribe expectations that networked teams will perform in a reliable manner under changing mission requirements, varying resource availability and reliability, and resource faults. In this paper, a Command and Control (C2) structure is presented that allows for computer-aided execution of the networked team decision-making process, control of force resources, shared resource dispatching, and adaptability to change based on battlefield conditions. A mathematically justified networked computing environment is provided called the Discrete Event Control (DEC) Framework. DEC has the ability to provide the logical connectivity among all team participants including mission planners, field commanders, war-fighters, and robotic platforms. The proposed data management tools are developed and demonstrated on a simulation study and an implementation on a distributed wireless sensor network. The results show that the tasks of multiple missions are correctly sequenced in real-time, and that shared resources are suitably assigned to competing tasks under dynamically changing conditions without conflicts and bottlenecks.

  6. MICROSCOPE mission: drag-free and attitude control system expertise activities toward the scientific team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavault, Stéphanie; Prieur, Pascal; Liénart, Thomas; Robert, Alain; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Microscope is a CNES-ESA-ONERA-CNRS-OCA-DLR-ZARM mission dedicated to the test of the Equivalence Principle with an improved accuracy of 10-15. The 300 kg drag-free microsatellite was launched on April 25th 2016 into a 710 km dawndusk sun-synchronous orbit for a 2-year mission. To comply with stringent requirements, the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) involves the scientific accelerometer as main sensor and a set of 8 cold gas proportional thrusters. Once in mission mode, within the CNES drag-free expertise center (CECT) the DFACS team provides several services to the system and to the scientific mission center: cold gas monitoring and management, `Attitude' ancillary data, DFACS expertise ancillary data. For this purpose, expertise tools have been implemented in the CECT, using the flexibility and efficiency of Matlab™ utilities. This paper presents the role of the CECT within the mission and details the expertise activities of the DFACS team illustrated with some typical in flight results.

  7. The psychology of computer displays in the modern mission control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Work at NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) has demonstrated the need for increased consideration of psychological factors in the design of computer displays for the WATR mission control center. These factors include color perception, memory load, and cognitive processing abilities. A review of relevant work in the human factors psychology area is provided to demonstrate the need for this awareness. The information provided should be relevant in control room settings where computerized displays are being used.

  8. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  9. Energy management control concepts with preview for hybrid commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeven, van V.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Pesgens, M.F.M.; Koffrie, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), the main task of an Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is to determine the power-split of the total power demand into a power requests to the internal combustion engine and the electro motor. In this work, real-time implementable previewing strategies (utilizing

  10. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  11. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  12. Port-based Telemanipulation Control of Underactuated Flying Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the interest in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing due to the existence of diverse potential applications in civilian sector. These applications often require high level reasoning, which, in some cases, need specialist in the led. The step forward towards achieving

  13. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  14. Control Relevant Modeling and Design of Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickeson, Jeffrey James

    This report provides an overview of scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicle modeling and control challenges. Such vehicles are characterized by unstable non-minimum phase dynamics with significant coupling and low thrust margins. Recent trends in hypersonic vehicle research are summarized. To illustrate control relevant design issues and tradeoffs, a generic nonlinear 3DOF longitudinal dynamics model capturing aero-elastic-propulsive interactions for wedge-shaped vehicle is used. Limitations of the model are discussed and numerous modifications have been made to address control relevant needs. Two different baseline configurations are examined over a two-stage to orbit ascent trajectory. The report highlights how vehicle level-flight static (trim) and dynamic properties change over the trajectory. Thermal choking constraints are imposed on control system design as a direct consequence of having a finite FER margin. The implication of this state-dependent nonlinear FER margin constraint, the right half plane (RHP) zero, and lightly damped flexible modes, on control system bandwidth (BW) and FPA tracking has been discussed. A control methodology has been proposed that addresses the above dynamics while providing some robustness to modeling uncertainty. Vehicle closure (the ability to fly a trajectory segment subject to constraints) is provided through a proposed vehicle design methodology. The design method attempts to use open loop metrics whenever possible to design the vehicle. The design method is applied to a vehicle/control law closed loop nonlinear simulation for validation. The 3DOF longitudinal modeling results are validated against a newly released NASA 6DOF code.

  15. Integration of virtual control units in the total vehicle simulation; Integration virtueller Steuergeraete in die Gesamtfahrzeugsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Andreas; Lund, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this article the simulation of information and energetics of vehicles with model-integration of electronic control units (ECU) in a simulation, based on the coupling of physical and control components of the total vehicle are investigated. For that simplified models of ECU's, simulating the functionally of the real ECU's, were used. The integration of virtual EUC's in models of full vehicles makes it possible to simulate the energetics for different driving cycles in a realistic way. By better simulation results an evaluation of physical components and the amount of functions are possible. In the area of the thermal management of vehicles by this analyses and optimizations of functions become possible. This article shows the advantages of embedding virtual ECU's in simulations of full vehicles. (orig.)

  16. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  17. Unified Brake Service by a Hierarchical Controller for Active Deceleration Control in an Electric and Automated Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Nie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unified brake service is a universal service for generating certain brake force to meet the demand deceleration and is essential for an automated driving system. However, it is rather difficult to control the pressure in the wheel cylinders to reach the target deceleration of the automated vehicle, which is the key issue of the active deceleration control system (ADC. This paper proposes a hierarchical control method to actively control vehicle deceleration with active-brake actuators. In the upper hierarchical, the target pressure of wheel cylinders is obtained by dynamic equations of a pure electric vehicle. In the lower hierarchical, the solenoid valve instructions and the pump speed of hydraulic control unit (HCU are determined to satisfy the desired pressure with the feedback of measured wheel cylinder pressure by pressure sensors. Results of road experiments of a pure electric and automated vehicle indicate that the proposed method realizes the target deceleration accurately and efficiently.

  18. Development of autonomous multirotor platform for exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyba, Roman; Janik, Marcin; Kurgan, Oliver; Niezabitowski, Michał; Nocoń, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines development process of unmanned multirotor aerial vehicle HF-4X, which consists of design and manufacturing semi-autonomous UAV dedicated for indoor flight, which would be capable of stable and controllable mission flight. A micro air vehicle was designed to participate in the International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition. In this paper much attention was paid to the structure of flight control system, stabilization algorithms, analysis of IMU sensors, fusion algorithms.

  19. Development of autonomous multirotor platform for exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Janik, Marcin; Kurgan, Oliver; Niezabitowski, Michał; Nocoń, Marek

    2016-06-08

    This paper outlines development process of unmanned multirotor aerial vehicle HF-4X, which consists of design and manufacturing semi-autonomous UAV dedicated for indoor flight, which would be capable of stable and controllable mission flight. A micro air vehicle was designed to participate in the International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition. In this paper much attention was paid to the structure of flight control system, stabilization algorithms, analysis of IMU sensors, fusion algorithms.

  20. Study on Active Suppression Control of Drivetrain Oscillations in an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cui, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Due to the low damping in a central driven electric vehicle and lack of passive damping mechanisms as compared with a conventional vehicle, the vehicle may endure torsional vibrations which may deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. Thus active damping control strategy is required to reduce the undesirable oscillations in an EV. In this paper, the origin of the vibration and the design of a damping control method to suppress such oscillations to improve the drivability of an EV are studied. The traction motor torque that is given by the vehicle controller is adjusted according to the acceleration rate of the motor speed to attenuate the resonant frequency. Simulations and experiments are performed to validate the system. The results show that the proposed control system can effectively suppress oscillations and hence improve drivability.