WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle incompatibility concurrent

  1. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles.

  2. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    In crashes between a car and a light truck or van (LTV), car occupants are more likely to be killed than LTV occupants. The extent this is due to the greater harm imposed by LTVs on cars or the greater protection they offer their own occupants is not known. We conducted a case-control study of collisions between two passenger vehicles in the USA during 1990-2008. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes (N=157,684); one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes (N=379,458). Adjusted for the type of vehicle they were riding in and other confounders, occupants of vehicles colliding with any type of LTVs (categorised as compact sport utility vehicles (SUV), full-size SUVs, minivans, full-size vans, compact pickups and full-size pickups) were at higher risk of death compared with occupants colliding with cars. Adjusted for the type of vehicle they crashed with and other confounders, occupants of LTVs in a collision with any vehicle were at lower risk of death compared with car occupants. Compared with a crash between two cars, the overall RR of death in a crash between any of the other 27 different combinations of vehicle types was 1.0 or greater, except for crashes between two full-size pickups, where the RR of death was 0.9. Although LTVs protect their own occupants better than cars do, LTVs are associated with an excess total risk of death in crashes with cars or other LTVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Rh incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incompatibility can be prevented with the use of RhoGAM. Therefore, prevention remains the best treatment. Treatment of ... their providers during pregnancy. Special immune globulins, called RhoGAM, are now used to prevent RH incompatibility in ...

  4. Concurrent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Taha

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: Postcricoid carcinoma comprises the majority of hypopharyngeal tumors in Egypt. Females are more commonly affected by these tumors, especially postcricoid carcinoma. There was no survival difference between the intended therapy for organ preservation and radical surgery groups. Patients who received concurrent radiochemotherapy had a better chance of survival with a preserved larynx compared with patients who underwent surgery.

  5. Incompatible Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, Michel J.; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    is, however, based on a taken-for-granted image of asthmatics as, per se, striving to be symptom-free. This image is incompatible with interviewed asthmatics' day-to-day performances of their asthma, and renders invisible (a) that their asthma performances emphasize an economy of good passages...

  6. Concurrent Provision of Frequency Regulation and Overvoltage Support by Electric Vehicles in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Expected deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) introduces big technical challenges for power system operation, but also offers advantages provided that EVs are not considered merely as passive loads. With the development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs will be able to provide a number of ancil......Expected deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) introduces big technical challenges for power system operation, but also offers advantages provided that EVs are not considered merely as passive loads. With the development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs will be able to provide a number...... of ancillary services for grid support, e.g. implemented electronic equipment will allow them to exchange reactive power with the grid for voltage regulation while using active power for other services. This paper investigates the concurrent provision of local and system wide services from EVs in a real Danish...

  7. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  8. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  9. Drug incompatibility chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, David W

    2009-02-15

    The chemical interactions that cause drug incompatibility in solutions, with emphasis on the acid-base and ionized-nonionized forms of organic, weak, electrolyte drugs, are examined. When the dilution or mixing of the salt or ionized forms of organic drugs results in precipitation, the most likely cause is formation of the nonionized drug forms. More than 90% of drugs are organic, weak electrolytes, especially those compounded, manufactured, or reconstituted as injections in predominantly ionized or salt forms. Acid-base reactions are the most common causes of drug incompatibility as precipitation of nonionized drug forms. Precipitation is likely when oppositely charged, organic drug ions that contain aromatic rings are combined in relatively strong concentrations. Salts of polyvalent anions and cations are generally less soluble than salts in which both ions are monovalent or in which one ion is monovalent and its opposite ion is polyvalent. The most clinically important potential precipitates among these ions are dibasic and monohydrogen calcium phosphate. Incompatibility of drug and nutrient injections is clinically hazardous. Knowledge of products' chemical facts, organic acid-base equilibria in relation to ionization and nonionization and aqueous solubility, and ranges of pH and ingredient strength from United States Pharmacopeia monographs and product labeling is the foundation of expertise in drug incompatibility. Precipitation in injectable drug solutions should be suspected, particularly when oppositely charged drug salts are mixed in relatively strong concentrations and when pH values of dilutions create more than 1% of nonionized drug forms.

  10. Driver distraction: the effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Anderson, Janet; Regan, Michael A; Triggs, Thomas J; Brown, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a simulator study that examined the effects of distraction upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. There were two in-vehicle distracter tasks: operating the vehicle entertainment system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone conversation. The effect of visual clutter was examined by requiring participants to drive in simple and complex road environments. Overall measures of driving performance were collected, together with responses to roadway hazards and subjective measures of driver perceived workload. The two in-vehicle distraction tasks degraded overall driving performance, degraded responses to hazards and increased subjective workload. The performance decrements that occurred as a result of in-vehicle distraction were observed in both the simple and complex highway environments and for drivers in different age groups. One key difference was that older drivers traveled at lower mean speeds in the complex highway environment compared with younger drivers. The conclusions of the research are that both in-vehicle tasks impaired several aspects of driving performance, with the entertainment system distracter having the greatest negative impact on performance, and that these findings were relatively stable across different driver age groups and different environmental complexities.

  11. [ABO INCOMPATIBLE KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Sigal; Orlin, Jacob; Nesher, Eviatar; Mazhybovsky, Vadym; Gurevich, Michael; Michowiz, Rachel; Rahamimov, Ruth; Mor, Eytan

    2017-04-01

    With the introduction of new therapies, the ABO barrier for kidney transplantation has been breached. In the recent decade the reported results with ABO incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation are similar to ABO compatible transplantation. We report on our initial experience with ABOi kidney transplantation performed at the Rabin Medical Center. During the period 3/2010 to 4/2015, 22 patients with PRA 0% underwent ABOi living-donor kidney transplantation. This group was compared to 325 non-sensitized live-donor transplant recipients of ABO-match transplants performed at the same period. The desensitization protocol included rituximab (375mg/kg/m2) and three sets of plasmapheresis every other day with IVIG (0.5g/kg) after each plasmapheresis. We compared graft and patient survivals, antibody mediated rejection (AMR) and graft function between the two groups. Graft survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years in the ABOi group were 95.5% at all intervals and 99.4% for the 1st year and 97.9% at 3 and 5 years after transplant (p=ns). Patient survival rates were 100% at all intervals and 100%, 98.3% and 97.5% at 1,3, and 5 years (p=ns). Two patients (9.1%) in the ABOi group experienced antibody mediated rejection (AMR), one lost his graft. In the ABO-matched group only two patients (0.85%) experienced AMR (p<0.05). Creatinine levels at followup were not statistically different between the groups. ABO incompatible kidney transplantation provides an additional option for transplant with excellent results. Strict monitoring of antibody levels should be conducted after ABOi transplantation to timely intervene and prevent AMR.

  12. Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nasrallah, June B

    2014-05-01

    Most wild plants and some crops of the Brassicaceae express self-incompatibility, which is a mechanism that allows stigmas to recognize and discriminate against "self" pollen, thus preventing self-fertilization and inbreeding. Self-incompatibility in this family is controlled by a single S locus containing two multiallelic genes that encode the stigma-expressed S-locus receptor kinase and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein. Physical interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S locus activates the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade that results in inhibition of "self" pollen. Sequence information for many S-locus haplotypes in Brassica species has spurred studies of dominance relationships between S haplotypes and of S-locus structure, as well as the development of methods for S genotyping. Furthermore, molecular genetic studies have begun to identify genes that encode putative components of the self-incompatibility signaling pathway. In parallel, standard genetic analysis and QTL analysis of the poorly understood interspecific incompatibility phenomenon have been initiated to identify genes responsible for the inhibition of pollen from other species by the stigma. Herewith, we review recent studies of self-incompatibility and interspecific incompatibility, and we propose a model in which a universal pollen-inhibition pathway is shared by these two incompatibility systems.

  13. Quantum Incompatibility in Collective Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carmeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the compatibility (or joint measurability of quantum observables in a setting where the experimenter has access to multiple copies of a given quantum system, rather than performing the experiments on each individual copy separately. We introduce the index of incompatibility as a quantifier of incompatibility in this multi-copy setting, as well as the notion of the compatibility stack representing various compatibility relations present in a given set of observables. We then prove a general structure theorem for multi-copy joint observables and use it to prove that all abstract compatibility stacks with three vertices have realizations in terms of quantum observables.

  14. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible ......INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  15. Concurrent Breakpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-18

    motivated by recent testing techniques for concurrent programs, such as CalFuzzer [17, 39, 31, 18], AssetFuzzer [20], CTrigger [32], Penelope [40], and...40] F. Sorrentino, A. Farzan, and P. Madhusudan. Penelope : weaving threads to expose atomicity violations. In Eighteenth ACM SIGSOFT international

  16. Strange (and incompatible) bedfellows: The relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strange (and incompatible) bedfellows: The relationship between the National Health Act and the regulations relating to artificial fertilisation of persons, and its impact on individuals engaged in assisted reproduction.

  17. Evidence of incompatibility for topical anionic agents used in conjunction with chlorhexidine gluconate: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a widely used antiseptic agent for skin and wound disinfection. The cationic properties of CHG may allow its inactivation and precipitation by anionic agents in commonly used topical agents. We conducted a systematic review by searching through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases and selected original research articles reporting on CHG incompatibility, defined as inactivation or precipitation. The search yielded 22 publications that demonstrated CHG incompatibility via: 1 reduced antibacterial activity (carbomer, acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer, dentin, bovine serum albumin, copolymer M239144, sodium lauryl sulfate, heat-killed microbes, triethanolamine, and bark cork; and 2 visible precipitate formation (sodium hypochlorite, EDTA, saline, ethanol, andnystatin. Only three publications reported on CHG incompatibility in dermatology, specifically for carbomer, triethanolamine, and acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Although limited evidence linking CHG incompatibility and anionic agents exists, clinicians should carefully consider the nature of topical agents used if CHG is concurrently applied. Increased awareness of CHG incompatibility may result in better antibacterial activity thus ensuring optimal patient management.

  18. Incongruity and incompatibility in intimate partner relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, N.G.

    1973-01-01

    Non-functioning of an intensively studied relationship, the one between pistil and pollen in flowering plants, has generally been associated with incompatibility. An evolutionary study in Lycopersicon and related research demonstrated the existence of an independent second mechanism for

  19. Infection potential of vegetative incompatible Ganoderma boninense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase to degrade the lignin composition in plant cell walls. The present study aimed to evaluate the infection potential of vegetative incompatible isolates of G. boninense in causing Basal Stem Rot ...

  20. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  1. On the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; de Freitas Vala Salvador, F.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The most enigmatic sexual manipulation by Wolbachia endosymbionts is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): infected mates are reproductively incompatible with uninfected females. In this paper, we extend the theory on population dynamics and evolution of CI, with emphasis on haplodiploid species. First,

  2. The het-c heterokaryon incompatibility gene in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Pal, K.; Lee, T.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Heterokaryon incompatibility among Aspergillus niger strains is a widespread phenomenon that is observed as the inability to form stable heterokaryons. The genetic basis of heterokaryon incompatibility reactions is well established in some sexual filamentous fungi but largely unknown in presumed

  3. Most incompatible measurements for robust steering tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaresco, Jessica; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Guerini, Leonardo; Maciel, Thiago O.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Cunha, Marcelo Terra

    2017-08-01

    We address the problem of characterizing the steerability of quantum states under restrictive measurement scenarios, i.e., the problem of determining whether a quantum state can demonstrate steering when subjected to N measurements of k outcomes. We consider the cases of either general positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) or specific kinds of measurements (e.g., projective or symmetric). We propose general methods to calculate lower and upper bounds for the white-noise robustness of a d -dimensional quantum state under different measurement scenarios that are also applicable to the study of the noise robustness of the incompatibility of sets of unknown qudit measurements. We show that some mutually unbiased bases, symmetric informationally complete measurements, and other symmetric choices of measurements are not optimal for steering the isotropic states and provide candidates for the most incompatible sets of measurements in each case. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that nonprojective POVMs do not improve over projective ones for this task.

  4. Impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates: example of furosemide-midazolam incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in intensive care units receive many drugs simultaneously but through limited venous accesses. Several intravenous therapies have to be administered through the same catheter, thus increasing the risk of physicochemical incompatibility. The purpose of this work was to assess and to quantify the impact of physical incompatibility on the mass flow rates of drugs infused simultaneously to the patient, through an in vitro study. Methods Furosemide-midazolam incompatibility was used to assess the impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates. Furosemide, midazolam, and saline were simultaneously infused. A filter was added at the end of the infusion line to retain visible particles. Two infusion conditions were tested with and without visible particles. A partial least square method on UV spectra was used to determine simultaneously the concentrations of the two drugs at the egress of the terminal extension line. The drug mass flow rate (expressed as mg/h) was calculated as the product of drug concentration versus total flow rate. Observed/theoretical mass flow rate ratios for each drug (%) were determined per infusion condition. Results Even in the absence of visible particles, precipitation of furosemide led to a drug loss estimated at between 10% and 15%. Furosemide is more impacted by interaction because the pH of the mixture is acid and this form is poorly soluble in an aqueous solution. Conclusions Physical incompatibility between furosemide and midazolam leads to a significant reduction in drug delivered to the patient and may result in treatment failure. PMID:22794308

  5. Determinism, independence, and objectivity are incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2015-02-13

    Hidden-variable models aim to reproduce the results of quantum theory and to satisfy our classical intuition. Their refutation is usually based on deriving predictions that are different from those of quantum mechanics. Here instead we study the mutual compatibility of apparently reasonable classical assumptions. We analyze a version of the delayed-choice experiment which ostensibly combines determinism, independence of hidden variables on the conducted experiments, and wave-particle objectivity (the assertion that quantum systems are, at any moment, either particles or waves, but not both). These three ideas are incompatible with any theory, not only with quantum mechanics.

  6. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  7. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  8. Mechanisms of self-incompatibility and unilateral incompatibility in diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, R.

    1998-01-01

    In chapter 1 an overview is given of the major mechanisms operating in Angiosperms that prevent or limit the degree of inbreeding. The two major systems that function on the basis of interaction between pollen and stigma/style, are the sporophytic and the gametophytic self-incompatibility

  9. ABO Incompatible Kidney Transplantation—Current Status and Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milljae Shin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, ABO blood group incompatibility was considered an absolute contraindication for kidney transplantation. Progress in defined desensitization practice and immunologic understanding has allowed increasingly successful ABO incompatible transplantation during recent years. This paper focused on the history, disserted outcomes, desensitization modalities and protocols, posttransplant immunologic surveillance, and antibody-mediated rejection in transplantation with an ABO incompatible kidney allograft. The mechanism underlying accommodation and antibody-mediated injury was also described.

  10. Gametic incompatibilities between races of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipaz, J A; Wu, C I; Karr, T L

    2001-04-22

    Reproductive-isolating mechanisms between nascent species may involve sperm-egg recognition and have been best described in externally fertilizing organisms where such recognition is essential in preventing undesirable fertilizations. However, reproductive barriers in internally fertilizing species differ in significant ways, and a direct role for sperm-egg interactions has yet to be demonstrated. Females of many strains of Drosophila melanogaster from Zimbabwe, Africa, do not mate readily with cosmopolitan males. This polymorphism in mate choice is postulated to represent incipient speciation. We now report that, in one direction, crosses between the above populations produce far fewer offspring than reciprocal crosses due to a lower rate of egg hatch. We established that egg inviability in these crosses was due to defects in fertilization. Thus, even in taxa with internal fertilization, gametic incompatibility may be a mechanism relevant to reproductive isolation during incipient speciation.

  11. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  12. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  13. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  14. Communicating concurrent functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we extend the framework of execution of concurrent functions on different abstract levels from previous work with communication between the concurrent functions. We classify the communications and identify problems that can occur with these communications. We present solutions for

  15. Clicks, Concurrency and Khoisan

    OpenAIRE

    Bradfield, Julian

    2014-01-01

    I propose that the notions of segment and phoneme be enriched to allow some concurrent clustering, even in classical theories. My main application is the Khoisan language !Xóõ, where treating clicks as phonemes concurrent with phonemic accompaniments allows the inventory size to be radically reduced, so solving the problems of many unsupported contrasts. I show also how phonological processes of !Xóõ can be described more elegantly in this setting, with support from metalinguistic evidence an...

  16. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  17. Alternative models of recreational off-highway vehicle site demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Englin; Thomas Holmes; Rebecca Niell

    2006-01-01

    A controversial recreation activity is off-highway vehicle use. Off-highway vehicle use is controversial because it is incompatible with most other activities and is extremely hard on natural eco-systems. This study estimates utility theoretic incomplete demand systems for four off-highway vehicle sites. Since two sets of restrictions are equally consistent with...

  18. Unilateral Incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): Occurrence and Taxonomic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONUS, A. NACI; PICKERSGILL, BARBARA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. • Methods All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3–24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. • Key results Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. • Conclusions Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C

  19. Des loyautés incompatibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bizeul

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Faire l’expérience directe des phénomènes, en participant aux activités des milieux concernés, représente un des moyens les plus naturels et les plus sûrs pour atteindre la complexité du monde social. C’est aussi un des moyens les plus perturbants pour le chercheur, souvent confronté aux interdits de contact entre des groupes dont les intérêts ou les principes de vie sont antagonistes. Établir des relations étroites avec des militants du Front national, certains d’entre eux « néo-nazis », certains vivant à quelques rues de chez soi, tout en étant « homo », avec pour proches amis des hommes de couleur, de plus entouré de personnes hostiles à ce parti, oblige ainsi à gérer des liens inconciliables. Un risque possible pour le chercheur est alors d’être soumis à des sentiments contradictoires et de mettre du temps pour aboutir à une analyse exempte de toute influence indue.Incompatible loyalties. Moral aspects of an immersion into the French National Front Party.Experiencing directly phenomenon while participating to activities of the concerned circles, represents one of the most natural and safer way to reach the complexity of the society. It is also one of the most disturbing means for the researcher, often confronted to interdicts of contacts between groups which interests or principles of life are antagonists. Creating close relationships with French National Front party activists, some of them “neo-nazis”, some of them living a few streets from your house, while being gay, with colored men as closed friends, surrounded by persons hostile to this party, thus forces to make opposed connections. A possible risk for the researcher can be to be divided between contradictory feelings and spending time finishing an analysis free of unwarranted influence.Lealtades incompatibles. Problemas morales derivados de los contactos con el « Frente nacional »Establecer un contacto directo con fenómenos de diferente

  20. Domain Theory for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel

    Concurrent computation can be given an abstract mathematical treatment very similar to that provided for sequential computation by domain theory and denotational semantics of Scott and Strachey. A simple domain theory for concurrency is presented. Based on a categorical model of linear logic and ...... towards more expressive languages than HOPLA and Affine HOPLA—in particular concerning extensions to cover independence models. The thesis concludes with a discussion of related work towards a fully fledged domain theory for concurrency.......Concurrent computation can be given an abstract mathematical treatment very similar to that provided for sequential computation by domain theory and denotational semantics of Scott and Strachey. A simple domain theory for concurrency is presented. Based on a categorical model of linear logic...... equivalence. One language, called HOPLA for Higher-Order Process LAnguage, derives from an exponential of linear logic. It can be viewed as an extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with CCS-like nondeterministic sum and prefix operations, in which types express the form of computation path of which...

  1. Complex networks of self-incompatibility signaling in the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantikanjana, Titima; Nasrallah, Mikhail E; Nasrallah, June B

    2010-10-01

    The self-pollination barrier of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae is based on the activity of a polymorphic stigma receptor and its pollen ligand, whose allele-specific interaction triggers a signaling cascade within the stigma epidermal cell that culminates in the inhibition of pollen tube development. Recent analyses have identified signaling intermediates and revealed unexpected cross-talk between self-incompatibility signaling and pistil development. The self-incompatibility response is now thought to be based on a phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathway that inhibits the secretion of factors required for successful pollination. Because manipulation of the identified signaling intermediates results in only partial disruption of the self-incompatibility reaction, this pathway likely functions in conjunction with other as-yet unidentified signaling pathways to effect complete inhibition of self-pollen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...... differences between ordinary and directed homotopy through examples. We also relate the topological view to a combinatorial view of concurrent programs closer to transition systems, through the notion of a cubical set. Finally we apply some of these concepts to the proof of the safeness of a two......-phase protocol, well-known and used in concurrent database theory. We end up with a list of problems from both a mathematical and a computer-scientific point of view....

  3. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  4. Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny. Given divergent exercise induces similar signalling and gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of untrained or recreationally active individuals, what is currently unclear is how the specificity of the molecular response is modified by prior training history. The time course of adaptation and when 'phenotype specificity' occurs has important implications for exercise prescription. This context is essential when attempting to concomitantly develop resistance to fatigue (through endurance-based exercise) and increased muscle mass (through resistance-based exercise), typically termed 'concurrent training'. Chronic training studies provide robust evidence that endurance exercise can attenuate muscle hypertrophy and strength but the mechanistic underpinning of this 'interference' effect with concurrent training is unknown. Moreover, despite the potential for several key regulators of muscle metabolism to explain an incompatibility in adaptation between endurance and resistance exercise, it now seems likely that multiple integrated, rather than isolated, effectors or processes generate the interference effect. Here we review studies of the molecular responses in skeletal muscle and evidence for the interference effect with concurrent training within the context of the specificity of training adaptation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  5. endurance, resistance, concurrent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khalid Mohamadzadeh Salamat

    2016-01-23

    Jan 23, 2016 ... circuit resistance training don't change serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1b, IL6, IL8, IL10 and TNF-a).8. Finally, exercise training, especially endurance type train- ing, can decrease some of inflammatory indices. Moreover, in this case endurance and somedeal concurrent training has more effects on ...

  6. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...

  7. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  8. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  9. RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility increases schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G S; Turunen, Joni A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Minassian, Sonia; Paunio, Tiina; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Woodward, J Arthur

    2002-12-01

    Fetal events and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia. Here we report the results of a family-based candidate-gene study that assesses the role of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility at the RHD locus in schizophrenia. We adapted the case-parent-trio log-linear modeling approach to test for RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility and to distinguish this effect from a high-risk allele at or near the RHD locus and from a direct maternal effect alone. Eighty-eight patient-parent trios, 72 patient-mother pairs, and 21 patient-father pairs were genotyped at the RHD locus. Of the 181 patients, 62% were male and 81% were second born or later. Only three patients were born after prophylaxis against maternal isoimmunization had become common practice. There was significant evidence for an RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility, and the incompatibility parameter was estimated at 2.6. There was no evidence to support linkage/association with schizophrenia at or near the RHD locus nor any evidence to support the role of maternal genotype effect alone. Our results replicate previous findings that implicate the RHD locus in schizophrenia, and the candidate-gene design of this study allows the elimination of alternative explanations for the role of this locus in disease. Thus, the present study provides increasing evidence that the RHD locus increases schizophrenia risk through a maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility mechanism that increases risk of an adverse prenatal environment (e.g., Rh incompatibility) rather than through linkage/association with the disorder, linkage disequilibrium with an unknown nearby susceptibility locus, or a direct maternal effect alone. This is the first candidate-gene study to explicitly test for and provide evidence of a maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility mechanism in schizophrenia.

  10. Les mélanges de polymères incompatibles Incompatible Polymer Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpe G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les mélanges de polymères thermoplastiques font actuellement l'objet d'un effort considérable de recherche et de développement. Cette synthèse bibliographique concerne principalement les mélanges mécaniques de polymères incompatibles à l'état fondu. Ceux-ci ont une morphologie hétérogène qui dépend des conditions de mise en oeuvre autant que de la nature des constituants. De plus, pour ce type de matériaux, la nature de l'interface joue un rôle déterminant sur la formation de la morphologie hétérogène et donc sur les propriétés du produit final. D'autre part un problème important réside dans la stabilité des mélanges réalisés. L'ajout d'une faible quantité d'agent tensioactif de type copolymère séquencé, ou greffé, ou la modification chimique des constituants (greffage ou réticulation par exemple permet, dans certains cas d'améliorer très sensiblement les propriétés des mélanges en augmentant l'adhérence entre les phases immiscibles. L'ensemble de ces considérations permettent la réalisation industrielle de nouveaux matériaux polymères aux caractéristiques spécifiques. Thermoplastic polymer mixtures are currently the subject of considerable research and development efforts. This bibliographic synthesis deals mainly with melt blending process of incompatible polymers. These blends have a heterogeneous morphology that depends on the processing conditions as much as on the chemical structure of the componants. Likewise, for these materials the nature of the interface plays a decisive role on the formation of the heterogeneous morphology and hence on the properties on the end product. Furthermore, an important problem is to stabilize the morphology of the blends. Adding a small amount of surfactant of the sequenced of grafted copolymer type or, else, the chemical reaction of the constituents (e. g. grafting or branching during processing are ways in some cases of considerably improving the properties of

  11. Discontinuation of steroids in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, C.

    2016-01-01

    A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results....... A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone...... to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 mol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal...

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1997-01-01

    The stationary frequency distribution and allelic dynamics in finite populations are analyzed through stochastic simulations in three models of single-locus, multi-allelic sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance relationships among alleles. In one model, alleles act...... of gametophytic self-incompatibility, but the selection intensity is stronger. With dominance, dominant alleles invade the population more easily than recessive alleles and have a lower frequency at equilibrium. In the SSIdom model, recessive alleles have both a higher allele frequency and higher expected life...... is closely approximated by a random walk on a dominance ladder. Implications of the results for experimental studies of sporophytic self-incompatibility in natural populations are discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Oct...

  13. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model...... action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles...

  14. Genomic consequences of selection on self-incompatibility genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-dependent selection at plant self-incompatibility systems is inherent and well understood theoretically. A self-incompatibility locus leads to a strong peak of diversity in the genome, to a unique distribution of diversity across the species and possibly to increased introgression between...... closely related species. We review recent empirical studies demonstrating these features and relate the empirical findings to theoretical predictions. We show how these features are being exploited in searches for other genes under multi-allelic balancing selection and for inference on recent breakdown...

  15. RHD Maternal-Fetal Genotype Incompatibility Increases Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Turunen, Joni A.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Minassian, Sonia; Paunio, Tiina; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Woodward, J. Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Fetal events and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia. Here we report the results of a family-based candidate-gene study that assesses the role of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility at the RHD locus in schizophrenia. We adapted the case-parent–trio log-linear modeling approach to test for RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility and to distinguish this effect from a high-risk allele at or near the RHD locus and from a direct maternal effect alone. Eighty-eight pat...

  16. Detention and incompatibility of HIV patients in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dell'Isola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 231/99 and subsequent amendments standardize the conditions allowing or not a HIV positive inmate to remain in jail. Currently such clinical conditions are not automatically associated with the decline of preventive detention and the Court evaluates the incompatibility with detention on the basis of two additional and independent criteria. We have been observing the tendency by jailed HIV-positive patients to manipulate the disease state believing that the rules of incompatibility with the prison system are always applied. The management of HIV positive patients in jail involves significant sanitary and relational efforts, particularly for those suffering AIDS and/or with severe immunodeficiency.

  17. Mastering concurrency in Go

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyra, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach covering everything you need to know to get up and running with Go, starting with the basics and imparting increasingly more detail as the examples and topics become more complicated. The book utilizes a casual, conversational style, rife with actual code and historical anecdotes for perspective, as well as usable and extensible example applications. This book is intended for systems developers and programmers with some experience in either Go and/or concurrent programming who wish to become fluent in building high-performance applications that scale by leveraging single-c

  18. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...... topological reasoning in which there is no information about relation "in time" among points. The main task is to define equivalence of paths reflecting execution of a program. We use the notion of homotopy history equivalence relation. The model space considered in this work is a differentiable manifold...

  19. Identification of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7-36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03-56.50% and 0.04-87.50, respectively. The cultivar "Q10-33-1" had the highest seed set (56.50%) and compatible index (87.50), but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0-37.23%) and compatible index (0-68.65). The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  20. Optimising glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases : an incompatible triangle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, J.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815276

    2011-01-01

    As this thesis discusses, an incompatible situation arises when toxicity predominates over efficacy particularly in case high cumulative doses of GCs have been used. This has stigmatised their usage, which is often unwarranted when GC therapy is applied with sufficient precautionary measures

  1. Information complementarity: A new paradigm for decoding quantum incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-22

    The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave--particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even two (generalized) observables, despite the overarching importance of this problem and intensive efforts of many researchers. Here we introduce an information theoretic paradigm together with an intuitive geometric picture for decoding incompatible observables, starting from two simple ideas: Every observable can only provide limited information and information is monotonic under data processing. By virtue of quantum estimation theory, we introduce a family of universal criteria for detecting incompatible observables and a natural measure of incompatibility, which are applicable to arbitrary number of arbitrary observables. Based on this framework, we derive a family of universal measurement uncertainty relations, provide a simple information theoretic explanation of quantitative wave--particle duality, and offer new perspectives for understanding Bell nonlocality, contextuality, and quantum precision limit.

  2. SINGLE-CENTER EXPERIENCE OF ABO-INCOMPATIBLE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 up to 2010 eight ABO-incompatible liver transplantations have been performed in our center: one of them was urgent liver transplantation to adult patient from deceased donor, other seven were transplantations of left lateral segment to children from living relative donors. Own experience, as well as world one, proves, that barrier of ABO-incompatibility can be overcome more successfully in liver transplantation, particularly in pediatric population, that in other solid organs transplantation. Good results can be achieved even with less ag- gressive immunosuppressive therapy. Recipient conditioning before operation can significantly improve results of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, but as own experience has shown, often there’s no need to hold some special preparation of children, because their anti-ABO antibodies are very low or absent before transplantation and do not increase after it. Thereby ABO-incompatible liver transplantation is reasonable in urgent cases and in pediatric population because of the limited pull of living relative donors for children. 

  3. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C.; de Boer, Jetske G.; Hoffmeister, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex

  4. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  5. Role of plasma exchange in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soohun; Lee, Eun Young; Huh, Kyu Ha; Kim, Myoung Soo; Kim, Yu Seun; Kim, Hyun Ok

    2012-07-01

    In the past, ABO incompatibility was an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplantation. However, multiple recent trials have suggested strategies for overcoming the reactions between graft antigens and recipient antibodies that cause graft rejection. In this study, we determined the usefulness of plasma exchange (PE) for removing anti-A/B antibodies that cause hyperacute/acute humoral graft rejection in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. In our study, 12 patients underwent ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. All recipients received pre-transplantation conditioning by PE or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration. After pre-transplantation conditioning, anti-A/B antibody titers were evaluated, and transplantation was performed when the titer was below 1:8. To assess the transplantation outcome, anti-A/B antibody titers, creatinine level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria levels were measured. Anti-A/B antibody titers were below 1:8 in all patients at the time of transplantation. eGFR measured on post-transplant day 14 showed that 10 patients had immediate recovery of graft function, while 2 patients had slow recovery of graft function. Short-term outcomes of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (measured as creatinine levels) after reducing anti-A/B antibody titers were similar to those of ABO-compatible kidney transplantation. After transplantation, the anti-A/B antibody titers were below 1:8 in 7 patients, but the remaining 5 patients required post-transplantation PE and IVIG treatment to prevent antigen-antibody reactions. With the increasing demand for kidney donations, interest in overcoming the ABO incompatibility barrier has increased. PE may be an important breakthrough in increasing the availability of kidneys for transplantation.

  6. Concurrent engineering research center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects undertaken by The Concurrent Engineering Research Center (CERC) at West Virginia University are reported and summarized. CERC's participation in the Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Project relating to technology needed to improve the product development process is described, particularly in the area of advanced weapon systems. The efforts committed to improving collaboration among the diverse and distributed health care providers are reported, along with the research activities for NASA in Independent Software Verification and Validation. CERC also takes part in the electronic respirator certification initiated by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, as well as in the efforts to find a solution to the problem of producing environment-friendly end-products for product developers worldwide. The 3M Fiber Metal Matrix Composite Model Factory Program is discussed. CERC technologies, facilities,and personnel-related issues are described, along with its library and technical services and recent publications.

  7. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews diff...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  8. The polymorphic prelude to Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Asher D

    2012-04-01

    Speciation research has largely assumed that the genetic causes of reproductive isolation are the work of fixed, divergent alleles that interact to cause genetic problems in hybrids: Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. However, many recent studies demonstrate substantial heritable polymorphism within species for hybrid incompatibility, herein called variable reproductive isolation (VRI). In this review, I outline the causes and importance of this general phenomenon. I also identify the new challenges of quantifying the relative contributions to reproductive isolation of fixed alleles versus polymorphisms, and the change in these contributions over the course of speciation. Explicit integration of VRI into speciation theory will help to quantify the relative roles of genetic drift and selection in speciation, but this synthesis requires substantial new contributions from both theory and empirical studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytomechanical properties of papaver pollen tubes are altered after self-incompatibility challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, A.; McConnaughey, W.; Lang-Pauluzzi, I.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas triggers a ligand-mediated signal transduction cascade, resulting in the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth. Using a cytomechanical approach we have demonstrated that dramatic changes to the mechanical properties of incompatible pollen tubes are

  10. Information security risk management and incompatible parts of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Talabeigi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: we prepared a questionnaire to evaluate Incompatible parts and also risk management in University of Science and Technology E-Learning Center and studying the Incompatible parts impacts on utility of organization. Design/methodology/approach: By using coalitional game theory we present a new model to recognize the degrees of incompatibility among independent divisions of an organization with dependent security assets. Based on positive and negative interdependencies in the parts, the model provides how the organization can decrease the security risks through non-cooperation rather than cooperation. we implement the proposed model of this paper by analyzing the data which have been provided by questionnaires from different three managers' ideas of Iran University of Science and Technology E-Learning Center located in Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. Findings: In general, by collecting data and analyzing them, the survey showed that Incompatible parts of organizations have negative impacts on utility of organization risk management process. Furthermore, it adds values to other organizations and provides the best practices in planning, developing, implementing and monitoring risk management in organizations. Research limitations/implications: Since Information security and also Risk Management are still areas which need to improve in some Iranian universities, we couldn’t consider them in our analysis. On the other hand, due to questionnaire limitation, the study’s sample size is 1. This size may be considered large for our statistical analysis. Originality/value:  The main contribution of this paper is to propose a model for non-cooperation among a number of divisions in a organization and using risk management factors.

  11. Optimising glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases : an incompatible triangle?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoes, J N

    2011-01-01

    As this thesis discusses, an incompatible situation arises when toxicity predominates over efficacy particularly in case high cumulative doses of GCs have been used. This has stigmatised their usage, which is often unwarranted when GC therapy is applied with sufficient precautionary measures (safety). The most obvious example is osteoporosis prophylaxis in patients on long-term GC therapy. When the three dimensions or axes related to the use of GCs namely efficacy, toxicity and safety of GC t...

  12. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  13. Strain incompatibility and residual strains in ferroelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A; Jones, J L; Tutuncu, G; Ghosh, D; Stoica, A D; An, K

    2012-01-01

    Residual strains in ferroelectrics are known to adversely affect the material properties by aggravating crack growth and fatigue degradation. The primary cause for residual strains is strain incompatibility between different microstructural entities. For example, it was shown in polycrystalline ferroelectrics that residual strains are caused due to incompatibility between the electric-field-induced strains in grains with different crystallographic orientations. However, similar characterization of cause-effect in multidomain ferroelectric single crystals is lacking. In this article, we report on the development of plastic residual strains in [111]-oriented domain engineered BaTiO(3) single crystals. These internal strains are created due to strain incompatibility across 90° domain walls between the differently oriented domains. The average residual strains over a large crystal volume measured by in situ neutron diffraction is comparable to previous X-ray measurements of localized strains near domain boundaries, but are an order of magnitude lower than electric-field-induced residual strains in polycrystalline ferroelectrics.

  14. Compatibility and incompatibility in hyphal anastomosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Barreto de Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which live in symbiosis with 80 % of plants, are not able to grow when separated from their hosts. Spore germination is not host-regulated and germling growth is shortly arrested in the absence of host roots. Germling survival chances may be increased by hyphal fusions (anastomoses, which allow access to nutrients flowing in the extraradical mycelium (ERM. Perfect anastomoses, occurring with high frequency among germlings and the ERM of the same isolate, show protoplasm continuity and disappearance of hyphal walls. A low frequency of perfect fusions has been detected among co-specific genetically different isolates, although fungal nuclei have been consistently detected in all perfect fusions, suggesting active nuclear migration. When plants of different taxa establish symbioses with the same AMF species, anastomoses between ERM spreading from single root systems establish a common mycelium, which is an essential element to plant nutrition and communication. The interaction among mycelia produced by different isolates may also lead to pre-fusion incompatibility which hinders anastomosis formation, or to incompatibility after fusion, which separates the hyphal compartments. Results reported here, obtained by analyses of hyphal compatibility/incompatibility in AMF, suggest that anastomosis formation and establishment of protoplasm flow, fundamental to the maintenance of mycelial physiological and genetic continuity, may affect the fitness of these ecologically important biotrophic fungi.

  15. Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-07-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.

  16. True Concurrency can be Traced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on closures of sets of labelled partial orders, a simple algebraic language with ref......In this paper sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on closures of sets of labelled partial orders, a simple algebraic language...

  17. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...... and that supports the definition of a 3-valued modal logic for validating as well as refuting properties of systems. The construction is illustrated on a few examples, including the Ingemarsson-Tang-Wong key agreement protocol. © 2011 ACM....

  18. Public perceptions of incompatibility between "science and religion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    Narratives of conflict regarding the connections between science and religion receive considerable attention in multiple forums of public discourse. These discussions tend to focus on philosophical, abstract, and/or polemical, rather than empirical issues. Data from a 2007 national survey indicate that a relatively small proportion of American adults perceive incompatibility between science and religion. Those who do are divided evenly into groups privileging science and privileging religion. These groups are markedly different with regard to sociodemographic and religious characteristics. Overall, I advocate a theoretical perspective on "science and religion" that is culturally constructionist, but methodologically empiricist.

  19. Chromosomal replication incompatibility in Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Ulrik Von

    1996-01-01

    Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells containing minichromosomes were constructed. Free plasmid DNA could not be detected in these cells and the minichromosomes were found to be integrated in multiple copies in the origin of replication (oriC) region of the host chromosome...... and functional oriC sequence. The seqA2 mutation was found to overcome the incompatibility phenotype by increasing the cellular oriC copy nnumber 3-fold thereby allowing minichromosomes to coexist with the chromosome. The replication pattern of a wild type strain with multiple integrated minichromosomes...

  20. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  1. On the evolution of genetic incompatibility systems. V. Origin of sporophytic self-incompatibility in response to overdominance in viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyenoyama, M K

    1989-12-01

    Conditions for the origin of partial sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) are obtained from two quantitative models, which differ with respect to the determination of offspring viability. Offspring viability depends solely on the source (self or nonself) of the fertilizing pollen in the first model, which describes changes only at a primitive S-locus itself. Two loci evolve in the second model: overdominant viability selection maintains an arbitrary number of alleles at one locus, with SSI under the control of a separate locus. In both cases, the origin of SSI requires that the relative change in the numbers of offspring derived by the two reproductive modes compensate for the twofold cost of outcrossing. In the first model studied, the viability of inbred offspring fully determines the relative change in the numbers of inbred and outbred offspring produced. In the second model, the relative change in offspring numbers depends in addition on associations between the S-locus and the viability locus. Because these two-locus associations are comparable in magnitude to the differences between the viabilities of inbred and outbred offspring, SSI can arise under less restrictive conditions than expected from the one-locus model. Greater allelic multiplicity at the viability locus facilitates the origin of SSI by reducing the relative viability of inbred offspring. Tight linkage between the S-locus and the viability locus and high rates of receipt of self-pollen promote the generation and maintenance of associations between the S-locus and the viability locus. In populations in which more than two viability alleles are maintained, the active S-allele can invade even in the absence of linkage with the viability locus. The present study establishes that incompatibility systems can arise in response to identity disequilibrium between a modifier of incompatibility and a locus subject to overdominant viability selection; in particular, compensation for the twofold cost of

  2. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  3. Functional conservation of the Drosophila hybrid incompatibility gene Lhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbash Daniel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid incompatibilities such as sterility and lethality are commonly modeled as being caused by interactions between two genes, each of which has diverged separately in one of the hybridizing lineages. The gene Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr encodes a rapidly evolving heterochromatin protein that causes lethality of hybrid males in crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males. Previous genetic analyses showed that hybrid lethality is caused by D. simulans Lhr but not by D. melanogaster Lhr, confirming a critical prediction of asymmetry in the evolution of a hybrid incompatibility gene. Results Here we have examined the functional properties of Lhr orthologs from multiple Drosophila species, including interactions with other heterochromatin proteins, localization to heterochromatin, and ability to complement hybrid rescue in D. melanogaster/D. simulans hybrids. We find that these properties are conserved among most Lhr orthologs, including Lhr from D. melanogaster, D. simulans and the outgroup species D. yakuba. Conclusions We conclude that evolution of the hybrid lethality properties of Lhr between D. melanogaster and D. simulans did not involve extensive loss or gain of functions associated with protein interactions or localization to heterochromatin.

  4. Managing Complexity of Control Software through Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we are concerned with the development of concurrent software for embedded systems. The emphasis is on the development of control software. Embedded systems are concurrent systems whereby hardware and software communicate with the concurrent world. Concurrency is essential, which

  5. Sindrome de costillas cortas y polidactilia: displasia esqueletica fetal incompatible con la vida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huertas, Erasmo; Ingar, Jaime; Gutierrez, Guiselle; Quinones, Eva Maria

    2010-01-01

    El sindrome costillas cortas polidactilia es una categoria descriptiva para un grupo de displasias esqueleticas incompatibles con la vida, caracterizadas por torax estrecho, costillas extremadamente...

  6. Molecular aspects of self-incompatibility in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A E; Newbigin, E

    1993-01-01

    It is seven years since the first reports of cDNAs encoding pistil glycoproteins that segregated with particular S-alleles. During this time, the S-glycoproteins of the Solanaceae have been identified as RNases. This enzymatic activity relies on the presence of histidine residues at the putative active site of the RNase, and these are conserved in all S-glycoproteins so far characterized. The proteins also contain "hypervariable" regions that may have some role in allelic specificity. It is particularly interesting that putative S-glycoproteins from Japanese pear, which is from a different family, the Rosaceae, are also RNases. To counter the temptation to extrapolate to other families with gametophytic self-incompatibility, there is evidence that in another family, the Papaveraceae, poppy S-glycoproteins are not RNases. The current evidence is consistent with a process in which the S-RNase moves into the incompatible pollen tube and degrades RNA, including rRNA. As rRNA genes are not transcribed in pollen, the resulting degradation would lead to the death of the cell. But still we are left with some important gaps in our knowledge. How does the S-RNase move across the wall and membrane and into the pollen tube? How is the specificity of the interaction controlled? What is the mechanism of signal transduction? A major bottleneck in unraveling the story is understanding the nature of the S-locus product in pollen. Is it related to the stylar S-locus product or is it the product of a different gene in the same locus? Each question underlines the sketchiness of our knowledge of many plant processes that are not specific to pollination, but that we need to understand if we are to work out the details of self-incompatibility. For example, we have a very incomplete understanding of cell wall synthesis generally and pollen wall synthesis in particular. How do macronutrients move through cell walls to the cytoplasm of cells generally and pollen tubes in particular? What is

  7. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  8. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    semantics, which is a necessary foundation for asynchronously executing distributed processes, is not obvious for declarative formalisms and is so far virtually unexplored. This is in stark contrast to the very successful Petri-net–based process languages, which have an inherent notion of concurrency...... of concurrency in DCR Graphs admits asynchronous execution of declarative workflows both conceptually and by reporting on a prototype implementation of a distributed declarative workflow engine. Both the theoretical development and the implementation is supported by an extended example; moreover, the theoretical...

  9. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    .e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  10. Artificial DNA lattice fabrication by noncomplementarity and geometrical incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Junghoon; Amin, Rashid; Kim, Seungjae; Kwon, Young Hun; Park, Sung Ha

    2011-06-28

    Fabrication of DNA nanostructures primarily follows two fundamental rules. First, DNA oligonucleotides mutually combine by Watson-Crick base-pairing rules between complementary base sequences. Second, the geometrical compatibility of the DNA oligonucleotide must match for lattices to form. Here we present a fabrication scheme of DNA nanostructures with noncomplementary and/or geometrically incompatible DNA oligonucleotides, which contradicts conventional DNA structure creation rules. Quantitative analyses of DNA lattice sizes were carried out to verify the unfavorable binding occurrences, which correspond to errors in algorithmic self-assembly. Further studies of these types of bindings may shed more light on the exact mechanisms at work in the self-assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  11. Analysis of aeronautical information potential incompatibility – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a continuation of the authors’ study on the ways to ensure the quality and safety of aeronautical data and information. In its content the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package was presented and its fundamental part AIP Poland was described. In addition, the docking guidance system A-VDGS, being an example of implementation of telematics system in air transport, was discussed as well as its requirements and schematic representation were attached. In the following part of the publication an analysis of AIP Poland in terms of the mentioned aircrafts’ docking systems was performed and a discrepancy between the requirements published in ICAO Annex 14 and published information for aerodrome EPWA was noticed. The indicated case of published incompatibility confirms the necessity to develop and implement a complex method of aeronautical data and information quality assurance at all stages of aeronautical data and information chain, which will be the subject of authors’ further study.

  12. Doomed lovers: mechanisms of isolation and incompatibility in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation to local conditions likely plays an important role in plant diversity and speciation. A fuller understanding of the role of adaptation in speciation requires connecting particular molecular events with selection occurring at individual, population, or community levels. Here I discuss five areas in which we understand the molecular basis of adaptation and isolation sufficiently to begin examining patterns. These examples highlight the importance of understanding both biotic and abiotic factors and the potential overlap between them, and demonstrate that understanding molecular mechanisms aids in interpreting pleiotropy and constraint. For example, mutations affecting anthocyanin production can affect both pollinator visitation and parasite attack, while edaphic adaptation can alter parasite susceptibility and reproductive timing. Adaptation is also implicated in postzygotic incompatibility: Potentially adaptive cytoplasmic divergence can lead to sterility or inviability; hybrid sterility genes may have pleiotropic effects in biotic or abiotic stress; and the plant immune system is implicated in hybrid failure.

  13. Potential intravenous drug incompatibilities in a pediatric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student's t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (ptipo transversal realizado na unidade de pediatria de um hospital de ensino no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de junho a outubro de 2014 a partir da análise das prescrições de crianças (0 a 15 anos) hospitalizadas. Foram excluídas prescrições sem medicamento intravenoso e com posologia incompletas ou grafia inadequada. A associação entre as variáveis e o risco de potenciais incompatibilidades foi determinada pelo teste t de Student e ANOVA, considerando significativo para ptipos de incompatibilidades mais comuns foram: não testada (93,4%), precipitação (5,5%), turbidez (0,7%) e decomposição química (0,4%). Os fatores associados a potenciais incompatibilidades foram: número de medicamentos e a prescrição dos medicamentos diazepam, fenitoína, fenobarbital e metronidazol. A maioria das prescrições pediátricas apresentou potenciais incompatibilidades e a incompatibilidade não testada foi o tipo mais comum. O número de medicamentos e a prescrição dos medicamentos diazepam, fenobarbital, fenitoína e metronidazol foram fatores de risco para potenciais incompatibilidades.

  14. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  15. Relationships between models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro; Winskel, Glynn

    1994-01-01

    Models for concurrency can be classified with respect to the three relevant parameters: behaviour/system, interleaving/noninterleaving, linear/branching time. When modelling a process, a choice concerning such parameters corresponds to choosing the level of abstraction of the resulting semantics....... The classifications are formalized through the medium of category theory....

  16. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation and hid...

  17. The system of concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent engineering (CE) has been a major theme in the 80s and 90s of the previous century in research and practice. Its main aim is to reduce time-tomarket, improve quality and reduce costs by taking into account downstream requirements and constraints already in the design phase. While

  18. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1993-01-01

    The expression of incompatible A carbohydrate antigens in some adenocarcinomas may provide an explanation for the generally observed lower incidence of adenocarcinoma among types O and B versus type A individuals. The chemistry and genetic basis of incompatible A expression is largely unknown. He...

  19. Toward genome-wide identification of Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities in yeast: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2013-01-01

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model of reproductive isolation by genetic incompatibility is a widely accepted model of speciation. Because of the exceptionally rich biological information about the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the identification of BDM incompatibilities in yeast would greatly deepen our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. However, despite repeated efforts, BDM incompatibilities between nuclear genes have never been identified between S. cerevisiae and its sister species S. paradoxus. Such negative results have led to the belief that simple nuclear BDM incompatibilities do not exist between the two yeast species. Here, we explore an alternative explanation that such incompatibilities exist but were undetectable due to limited statistical power. We discover that previously employed statistical methods were not ideal and that a redesigned method improves the statistical power. We determine, under various sample sizes, the probabilities of identifying BDM incompatibilities that cause F1 spore inviability with incomplete penetrance, and confirm that the previously used samples were too small to detect such incompatibilities. Our findings call for an expanded experimental search for yeast BDM incompatibilities, which has become possible with the decreasing cost of genome sequencing. The improved methodology developed here is, in principle, applicable to other organisms and can help detect epistasis in general.

  20. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Weerd (Annelies); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); H. van der Hoek (Hans); M. van Groningen (Marian); W. Weimar (Willem); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); M. Agteren (Madelon)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital

  1. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  2. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  3. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Brian; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    2010-01-01

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, that take advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads in a master-worker benchmark....

  4. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, taking advantage of CSP’s formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads using a benchmark....

  5. High Strength Development at Incompatible Semicrystalline Polymer-Polymer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C. H.; Wool, Richard

    2007-03-01

    For incompatible A/B interfaces, the strength G1c is related to the equilibrium width w (normalized to the tube diameter) of the interface by G1c/G* = (w-1), where G* is the virgin strength [R.P. Wool, C.R, Chimie, 9 (2006) 25]. However, the interface strength is quite weak due to very limited interdiffusion. The mechanism of high strength development of a series of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU) bonding with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) was investigated. During cool down of the A/B interface in the co-extruded melt, there exits a unique process window---the α-β window-which promotes considerable strength development. We used the differences in melting points and the volume contraction during asymmetric crystallization to generate influxes (σ nano-nails/unit area), where an influx occurs by the fluid being pulled into the crystallizing side. TPU samples with higher degree of crystallization typically exhibited higher peel strengths, due to the formation of both inter- and intra- spherulitic influxes of nano-dimension across the interface. The peel energy now behaves as G1c˜ σL^2, where L is the length of the influx and L>>w. Annealing between the α and βt relaxation temperatures of the EVOH generated additional influxes which provided significant connectivity and peel strength.

  6. Does a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia induce vestigial cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Reumer, Barbara M.; Mouton, Laurence; Kremer, Natacha; Vavre, Fabrice; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising the possibility that latent CI may be widespread among Wolbachia. Here, we investigate whether a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain can also induce CI. Parthenogenetic females of the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica regularly produce a small number of males that may be either infected or not. Uninfected males were further obtained through removal of the Wolbachia using antibiotics and from a naturally uninfected strain. Uninfected females that had mated with infected males produced a slightly, but significantly more male-biased sex ratio than uninfected females that had mated with uninfected males. This effect was strongest in females that mated with males that had a relatively high Wolbachia titer. Quantitative PCR indicated that infected males did not show higher ratios of nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA content. Wolbachia therefore does not cause diploidization of cells in infected males. While these results are consistent with CI, other alternatives such as production of abnormal sperm by infected males cannot be completely ruled out. Overall, the effect was very small (9%), suggesting that if CI is involved it may have degenerated through the accumulation of mutations.

  7. What Do People Find Incompatible With Causal Determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Adam; Knobe, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Four studies explored people's judgments about whether particular types of behavior are compatible with determinism. Participants read a passage describing a deterministic universe, in which everything that happens is fully caused by whatever happened before it. They then assessed the degree to which different behaviors were possible in such a universe. Other participants evaluated the extent to which each of these behaviors had various features (e.g., requiring reasoning). We assessed the extent to which these features predicted judgments about whether the behaviors were possible in a deterministic universe. Experiments 1 and 2 found that people's judgments about whether a behavior was compatible with determinism were not predicted by their judgments about whether that behavior relies on physical processes in the brain and body, is uniquely human, is unpredictable, or involves reasoning. Experiment 3, however, found that a distinction between what we call "active" and "passive" behaviors can explain people's judgments. Experiment 4 extended these findings, showing that we can measure this distinction in several ways and that it is robustly predicted by two different cues. Taken together, these results suggest that people carve up mentally guided behavior into two distinct types-understanding one type to be compatible with determinism, but another type to be fundamentally incompatible with determinism. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Stereocomplex Formation in Incompatible Racemic Chiral Polylactide Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Zhu, Lei

    2006-03-01

    Stereocomplexes in incompatible racemic chiral polylactide (PLA) block copolymers have not been widely studied. In this work, we synthesized PLLA and PDLA containing block copolymers by ring opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) (PEB)] oligomers, respectively. Two samples PEO-b-PLLA (2,000-5,400) and PEB-b-PDLA (4,200-5,400) were chosen. The stereocomplexes were cast from equal molar blends of above two block copolymers in chloroform solution, followed by two different thermal treatments before stereocomplex formation; The blend was either heated to 250 C and quickly quench to 160 C or heated to 250 C for 15 min and quench to 160 C for stereocomplex crystal growth. Before the formation of stereocomplexes, lamellar and cylindrical morphologies were observed in blends for the first and second thermal treatments, respectively, as evidenced by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). After complete crystal growth, the 100% stereocomplexes was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The morphologies of stereocomplexes grown from these two pre-existing microphases (lamellar vs. cylindrical) were studied by time-resolved SAXS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  9. Incompatible multiple consistent sets of histories and measures of quantumness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    In the consistent histories approach to quantum theory probabilities are assigned to histories subject to a consistency condition of negligible interference. The approach has the feature that a given physical situation admits multiple sets of consistent histories that cannot in general be united into a single consistent set, leading to a number of counterintuitive or contrary properties if propositions from different consistent sets are combined indiscriminately. An alternative viewpoint is proposed in which multiple consistent sets are classified according to whether or not there exists any unifying probability for combinations of incompatible sets which replicates the consistent histories result when restricted to a single consistent set. A number of examples are exhibited in which this classification can be made, in some cases with the assistance of the Bell, Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt, or Leggett-Garg inequalities together with Fine's theorem. When a unifying probability exists logical deductions in different consistent sets can in fact be combined, an extension of the "single framework rule." It is argued that this classification coincides with intuitive notions of the boundary between classical and quantum regimes and in particular, the absence of a unifying probability for certain combinations of consistent sets is regarded as a measure of the "quantumness" of the system. The proposed approach and results are closely related to recent work on the classification of quasiprobabilities and this connection is discussed.

  10. Cardinium symbionts cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, T; Noda, H; Ito, S

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular symbiotic bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides lineage have recently been described and are widely distributed in arthropod species. The newly discovered bacteria, named Cardinium sp, cause the expression of various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), induction of parthenogenesis and feminization of genetic males. We detected 16S ribosomal DNA sequences similar to those of Cardinium from seven populations of five spider mite species, suggesting a broad distribution of infection of Cardinium in spider mites. To clarify the effect of Cardinium on the reproductive traits of the infected spider mites, infected mites were crossed with uninfected mites for each population. In one of the populations, Eotetranychus suginamensis, CI was induced when infected males were crossed with uninfected females. The other six populations of four species showed no reproductive abnormalities in the F(1) generation, but the possibility of CI effects in the F(2) generation remains to be tested. One species of spider mite, Tetranychus pueraricola, harbored both Cardinium and Wolbachia, but these symbionts seemed to have no effect on the reproduction of the host, even when the host was infected independently with each symbiont.

  11. Pregnancies and Fetal Anomalies Incompatible with Life in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldi, Lieta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chile allows abortion under no circumstances. Whether it’s fetal anomaly incompatible with life or congenital malformation resulting in little or no life expectancy, all Chilean women are expected to carry their pregnancies to term. In this context, in January 2015 the Chilean Congress began debating a bill to legalize abortion on three grounds, including fatal congenital malformation. The medical community, including midwives, has presented its views for and against, especially on how the law may affect clinical practices; in addition, women, many of whom have experienced a fatal congenital malformation diagnosis, have weighed in. This qualitative study draws on 22 semi-structured interviews with nine certified nurse-midwives, one neonatologist, nine obstetrician-gynecologists, one psychiatrist, one psychologist, and one sociologist who provide care during gestation, pregnancy, delivery, and post-delivery in the public and private sectors, plus three interviews with two women and the former partner of a woman who underwent the experience. These interviews starkly illustrate the plight facing women carrying nonviable fetuses, including women’s shock upon receiving the diagnosis, their feelings of bereavement and loss, and the clinical practices used in an attempt to ease their suffering under the weight of exceedingly difficult legal restrictions. These interviews confirmed that compelling women to carry nonviable fetuses to term violates their human rights. They also show that the chances of legislative change are real and that such change will present new challenges to the Chilean health care system. PMID:28630544

  12. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  13. ACT++: Building a Concurrent C++ with Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Kafura, Dennis G.; Lee, Keung Hae

    1989-01-01

    ACT++ (Actors in C++) is a concurrent object-oriented language being designed for distributed real-time applications. The language is a hybrid of the actor kernel language and the object-oriented language C++. The concurrency abstraction of ACT++ is derived from the actor model as defined by Agha. This paper discusses our experience in building a concurrent extension of C++ with the concurrency abstraction of the actor model. The current design of ACT++ and its implementation are described. S...

  14. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  15. Genetic incompatibility dampens hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability: yeast as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Xu

    Full Text Available Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.

  16. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hien P. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a root nodule symbiosis between a leguminous plant and a rhizobium requires complex molecular interactions between the two partners. Compatible interactions lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules, however, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific rhizobial strains and restrict nodulation by the strains. Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61 is incompatible with mung bean (Vigna radiata cv. KPS1 and soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 allele. Here, we explored genetic loci in USDA61 that determine incompatibility with V. radiata KPS1. We identified five novel B. elkanii genes that contribute to this incompatibility. Four of these genes also control incompatibility with soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 allele, suggesting that a common mechanism underlies nodulation restriction in both legumes. The fifth gene encodes a hypothetical protein that contains a tts box in its promoter region. The tts box is conserved in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS, which is known for its delivery of virulence effectors by pathogenic bacteria. These findings revealed both common and unique genes that are involved in the incompatibility of B. elkanii with mung bean and soybean. Of particular interest is the novel T3SS-related gene, which causes incompatibility specifically with mung bean cv. KPS1.

  17. Incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during oogenesis results in ovarian failure and embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Montooth, Kristi L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause female infertility. An important unresolved issue is the extent to which incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes contributes to female infertility. It has previously been shown that a mitochondrial haplotype from D. simulans ( simw 501 ) is incompatible with a nuclear genome from the D. melanogaster strain Oregon-R ( OreR ), resulting in impaired development, which was enhanced at higher temperature. This mito-nuclear incompatibility is between alleles of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase ( Aatm ) and the mitochondrial-encoded tyrosyl-tRNA that it aminoacylates. Here, we show that this mito-nuclear incompatibility causes a severe temperature-sensitive female infertility. The OreR nuclear genome contributed to death of ovarian germline stem cells and reduced egg production, which was further enhanced by the incompatibility with simw 501  mitochondria. Mito-nuclear incompatibility also resulted in aberrant egg morphology and a maternal-effect on embryonic chromosome segregation and survival, which was completely dependent on the temperature and mito-nuclear genotype of the mother. Our findings show that maternal mito-nuclear incompatibility during Drosophila oogenesis has severe consequences for egg production and embryonic survival, with important broader relevance to human female infertility and mitochondrial replacement therapy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Identification of the het-r vegetative incompatibility gene of Podospora anserina as a member of the fast evolving HNWD gene family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevanne, D.; Bastiaans, E.; Debets, A.J.M.; Saupe, S.J.; Clave, C.; Paoletti, M.

    2009-01-01

    In fungi, vegetative incompatibility is a conspecific non-self recognition mechanism that restricts formation of viable heterokaryons when incompatible alleles of specific het loci interact. In Podospora anserina, three non-allelic incompatibility systems have been genetically defined involving

  19. Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2007-01-01

    There is thus provided an underwater vehicle having facility for maneuvering alongside a retrieving vehicle, as by manipulation of bow and stern planes, for engaging a hull surface of the retrieving...

  20. Desensitization in HLA-incompatible kidney recipients and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Robert A; Lonze, Bonnie E; King, Karen E; Kraus, Edward S; Kucirka, Lauren M; Locke, Jayme E; Warren, Daniel S; Simpkins, Christopher E; Dagher, Nabil N; Singer, Andrew L; Zachary, Andrea A; Segev, Dorry L

    2011-07-28

    More than 20,000 candidates for kidney transplantation in the United States are sensitized to HLA and may have a prolonged wait for a transplant, with a reduced transplantation rate and an increased rate of death. One solution is to perform live-donor renal transplantation after the depletion of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. Whether such antibody depletion results in a survival benefit as compared with waiting for an HLA-compatible kidney is unknown. We used a protocol that included plasmapheresis and the administration of low-dose intravenous immune globulin to desensitize 211 HLA-sensitized patients who subsequently underwent renal transplantation (treatment group). We compared rates of death between the group undergoing desensitization treatment and two carefully matched control groups of patients on a waiting list for kidney transplantation who continued to undergo dialysis (dialysis-only group) or who underwent either dialysis or HLA-compatible transplantation (dialysis-or-transplantation group). In the treatment group, Kaplan-Meier estimates of patient survival were 90.6% at 1 year, 85.7% at 3 years, 80.6% at 5 years, and 80.6% at 8 years, as compared with rates of 91.1%, 67.2%, 51.5%, and 30.5%, respectively, for patients in the dialysis-only group and rates of 93.1%, 77.0%, 65.6%, and 49.1%, respectively, for patients in the dialysis-or-transplantation group (PLive-donor transplantation after desensitization provided a significant survival benefit for patients with HLA sensitization, as compared with waiting for a compatible organ. By 8 years, this survival advantage more than doubled. These data provide evidence that desensitization protocols may help overcome incompatibility barriers in live-donor renal transplantation. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Charles T. Bauer Foundation.).

  1. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  3. Teaching Concurrency: Theory in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    Teaching courses that rely on sound mathematical principles is nowadays a challenging task at many universities. On the one hand there is an increased demand for educating students in these areas, on the other hand there are more and more students being accepted with less adequate skills...... in mathematics. We report here on our experiences in teaching concurrency theory over the last twenty years or so to students ranging from mathsphobic bachelor students to sophisticated doctoral students. The contents of the courses, the material on which they are based and the pedagogical philosophy underlying...

  4. How does concurrent sourcing affect performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – “Concurrent sourcing” is a term used by Parmigiani to describe the phenomenon where a firm simultaneously buys and makes the same good or service. The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions that suggest how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Design/methodology/a......Abstract Purpose – “Concurrent sourcing” is a term used by Parmigiani to describe the phenomenon where a firm simultaneously buys and makes the same good or service. The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions that suggest how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Design....../methodology/approach – Based on transaction cost, agency, neoclassical economic, knowledge-based, and resource-based theory, it is proposed to show how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Findings – The paper argues that concurrent sourcing improves performance when firms face a combination of volume uncertainty...... how concurrent sourcing affects performance of the market and the hierarchy....

  5. Concurrency at work with Go

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries are now required to be increasingly multi-thread-safe, if not multi-thread-friendly and multi-threaded. This is usually done using the new constructs and library components offered by the C++11 and C++14 standards. These components are however quite low-level (threads, mutexes, locks, ...) and hard to use and compose, or easy to misuse. However, Go -- a somewhat new language -- provides a set of better building blocks for tackling concurrency: goroutines and channels. This language is now used by the cloud industry at large; docker/moby, rkt, Kubernetes, OpenShift, etc... are obvious flagships for Go. It is also used in other interesting places like SpaceX's telemetry monitoring system and in the New York Times', YouTube's or Disney's content delivery infrastructures. In this talk, we will describe the building blocks of Go and see how they are combined to easily create concurrent programs that grow with grace, are fast to compile and deploy, but also easy to...

  6. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of potato in response to Phytophthora infestans in compatible and incompatible interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, Ashfaq; Alexandersson, Erik; Sandin, Marianne; Resjö, Svante; Lenman, Marit; Hedley, Pete; Levander, Fredrik; Andreasson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In order to get global molecular understanding of one of the most important crop diseases worldwide, we investigated compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora infestans and potato (Solanum tuberosum...

  7. Heterokaryon incompatibility blocks virus transfer among natural isolates of black Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, A D; Debets, A J; Hoekstra, R F

    The extent of heterokaryon (also termed somatic or vegetative) incompatibility among black Aspergillus strains was examined using nitrate non-utilising mutants selected on chlorate medium. Pairings of complementary mutants showed that somatic compatibility between different strains is exceptional in

  8. Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in tobacco leaves during an incompatible interaction with Phytophthora nicotianae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SCHARTE, JUDITH; SCHÖN, HARDY; WEIS, ENGELBERT

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic and cellular changes in source leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv SNN during an incompatible interaction with Phytophthora nicotianae van Breda de Haan were investigated and compared with defence reactions...

  9. [Exploration on eighteen incompatible medicaments of chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Hua, Haoming; Fan, Xinsheng; Wang, Chongjun; Duan, Jinao

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the laws of eighteen incompatible medicaments of the chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining. The database of chest pain prescription was established and then the chest pain prescriptions composed of eighteen incompatible medicaments were screened. The dynasty, couplet medicines, the property and flavor of drugs and preparation form were analyzed with the frequent item sets and corresponding analysis methods. Eight hundred and fifty chest pain prescriptions were collected, and 88 of them contained eighteen incompatible medicaments, taking 10.3% of all; the applications of ancient and modern chest pain prescriptions containing eighteen incompatible medicaments are significant difference (P rules for application of anti-drug compatibility to treat chest pain.

  10. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W; Koevoets, Tosca; Morales, Hernán E; Ferber, Steven; van de Zande, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane's rule hybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute

  11. Surmounting self-incompatibility in pineapple (Ananas comosus L. ) with pollen irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, N.; Iyer, C.P.A.; Singh, R. (Indian Inst. of Horticultural Research, Bangalore)

    Irradiation was investigated as a tool to overcome self-incompatibility in pineapple. Pollen grains were irradiated with 15, 20, 25 kr gamma radiation from cobalt-60 and were used for pollination on the stigma of the same inflorescence. Observations on seed-set were made when the fruits were ripe. It was observed that 20 kr gamma radiation was effective in overcoming self-incompatibility.

  12. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2015-01-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue...

  13. Duplicated pollen-pistil recognition loci control intraspecific unilateral incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshinobu; Murase, Kohji; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Sato, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Honoka; Suwabe, Keita; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Lim, Yong Pyo; Takayama, Seiji; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao

    2017-06-26

    In plants, cell-cell recognition is a crucial step in the selection of optimal pairs of gametes to achieve successful propagation of progeny. Flowering plants have evolved various genetic mechanisms, mediated by cell-cell recognition, to enable their pistils to reject self-pollen, thus preventing inbreeding and the consequent reduced fitness of progeny (self-incompatibility, SI), and to reject foreign pollen from other species, thus maintaining species identity (interspecific incompatibility)(1). In the genus Brassica, the SI system is regulated by an S-haplotype-specific interaction between a stigma-expressed female receptor (S receptor kinase, SRK) and a tapetum cell-expressed male ligand (S locus protein 11, SP11), encoded by their respective polymorphic genes at the S locus(2-6). However, the molecular mechanism for recognition of foreign pollen, leading to reproductive incompatibility, has not yet been identified. Here, we show that recognition between a novel pair of proteins, a pistil receptor SUI1 (STIGMATIC UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY 1) and a pollen ligand PUI1 (POLLEN UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY 1), triggers unilateral reproductive incompatibility between plants of two geographically distant self-incompatible Brassica rapa lines, even though crosses would be predicted to be compatible based on the S haplotypes of pollen and stigma. Interestingly, SUI1 and PUI1 are similar to the SI genes, SRK and SP11, respectively, and are maintained as cryptic incompatibility genes in these two populations. The duplication of the SRK and SP11 followed by reciprocal loss in different populations would provide a molecular mechanism of the emergence of a reproductive barrier in allopatry.

  14. Lazy Evaluation for Concurrent OLTP and Bulk Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Existing concurrency control systems cannot execute transactions with overlapping updates concurrently. This is especially problematic for bulk updates, which usually overlap with all concurrent transactions. To solve this, we have developed a concurrency control mechanism based on lazy evaluation,

  15. Rapid evolution of asymmetric reproductive incompatibilities in stalk-eyed flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Emily G; Brand, Cara L; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2014-02-01

    The steps by which isolated populations acquire reproductive incompatibilities remain poorly understood. One potentially important process is postcopulatory sexual selection because it can generate divergence between populations in traits that influence fertilization success after copulation. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of this form of reproductive isolation by conducting reciprocal crosses between variably diverged populations of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni). First, we measure seven types of reproductive incompatibility between copulation and fertilization. We then compare fertilization success to hatching success to quantify hybrid inviability. Finally, we determine if sperm competition acts to reinforce or counteract any incompatibilities. We find evidence for multiple incompatibilities in most crosses, including failure to store sperm after mating, failure of sperm to reach the site of fertilization, failure of sperm to fertilize eggs, and failure of embryos to develop. Local sperm have precedence over foreign sperm, but this effect is due mainly to differences in sperm transfer and reduced hatching success. Crosses between recently diverged populations are asymmetrical with regard to the degree and type of incompatibility. Because sexual conflict in these flies is low, postcopulatory sexual selection, rather than antagonistic coevolution, likely causes incompatibilities due to mismatches between male and female reproductive traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Experimental insights on the function of ancillary pollen and stigma polymorphisms in plants with heteromorphic incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2017-01-01

    Most heterostylous plants possess a reciprocal arrangement of stigmas and anthers (reciprocal herkogamy), heteromorphic self-incompatibility, and ancillary polymorphisms of pollen and stigmas. The topographical complementarity hypothesis proposes that ancillary polymorphisms function in the rejection of incompatible pollen thus promoting disassortative pollination. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating patterns of pollen transfer and capture in populations of dimorphic Armeria maritima and A. pubigera and distylous Limonium vulgare (Plumbaginaceae), and by studying pollen adherence and germination patterns in A. maritima following controlled hand-pollinations. Armeria lacks reciprocal herkogamy allowing the evaluation of the extent to which ancillary polymorphisms affect the composition of pollen loads. We compared the amounts of compatible and incompatible pollen on stigmas in natural populations and calculated the proficiencies of pollen transfer for each mating type. We detected disassortative pollination in each species, and mating types did not differ in compatible pollen capture, although cob stigmas captured more incompatible pollen. Controlled hand-pollinations revealed the failure of incompatible pollen to adhere and germinate on stigmas. Our results provided evidence that, while structural in nature, pollen-stigma dimorphisms are tightly associated with heteromorphic incompatibility and likely function to promote disassortative pollination, especially in the absence of reciprocal herkogamy. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Molecular adaptations to concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, E O; Tricoli, V; Roschel, H; Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V N; Ferreira, J C B; Aoki, M S; Neves-Jr, M; Aihara, A Y; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, A; Ugrinowitsch, C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the chronic effects of concurrent training (CT) on morphological and molecular adaptations. 37 men (age=23.7±5.5 year) were divided into 4 groups: interval (IT), strength (ST) and concurrent (CT) training and a control group (C) and underwent 8 weeks of training. Maximum strength (1RM) and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were evaluated before and after training. Muscle samples were obtained before the training program and 48 h after the last training session. VO2max improved in 5±0.95% and 15±1.3% (pre- to post-test) in groups CT and IT, respectively, when compared to C. Time to exhaustion (TE) improved from pre- to post-test when compared to C (CT=6.1±0.58%; IT=8.3±0.88%; ST=3.2±0.66%). 1RM increased from pre-to post-test only in ST and CT groups (ST=18.5±3.16%; CT=17.6±3.01%). Similarly, ST and CT groups increased quadriceps CSA from pre-to post-test (6.2±1.4%; 7.8±1.66%). The p70S6K1 total protein content increased after CT. The ST group showed increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (45.0±3.3%) whereas AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 increased only in IT group, (100±17.6%). In summary, our data suggest that despite the differences in molecular adaptations between training regimens, CT did not blunt muscle strength and hypertrophy increments when compared with ST. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Nutritional strategies to support concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Moore, Daniel R; Baar, Keith; Philp, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training (the combination of endurance exercise to resistance training) is a common practice for athletes looking to maximise strength and endurance. Over 20 years ago, it was first observed that performing endurance exercise after resistance exercise could have detrimental effects on strength gains. At the cellular level, specific protein candidates have been suggested to mediate this training interference; however, at present, the physiological reason(s) behind the concurrent training effect remain largely unknown. Even less is known regarding the optimal nutritional strategies to support concurrent training and whether unique nutritional approaches are needed to support endurance and resistance exercise during concurrent training approaches. In this review, we will discuss the importance of protein supplementation for both endurance and resistance training adaptation and highlight additional nutritional strategies that may support concurrent training. Finally, we will attempt to synergise current understanding of the interaction between physiological responses and nutritional approaches into practical recommendations for concurrent training.

  19. Foreign Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    3 4.19 Broadband Electromagnetic Interference ...... ........ 3 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons...accordance with TOP 2-2-61333. 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons. Characterize the angular-displacement type control handle used in tank...Main Weapon Firing Tests. Determine the ability of the test vehicle’s main armament and fire/ gun control system to hit its target. a. Artillery

  20. Design and Implementation of Concurrent C0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Willsey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe Concurrent C0, a type-safe C-like language with contracts and session-typed communication over channels. Concurrent C0 supports an operation called forwarding which allows channels to be combined in a well-defined way. The language's type system enables elegant expression of session types and message-passing concurrent programs. We provide a Go-based implementation with language based optimizations that outperforms traditional message passing techniques.

  1. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules....

  2. Rain VM: Portable Concurrency through Managing Code

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    A long-running recent trend in computer programming is the growth in popularity of virtual machines. However, few have included good support for concurrency - a natural mechanism in the Rain programming language. This paper details the design and implementation of a secure virtual machine with support for concurrency, which enables portability of concurrent programs. Possible implementation ideas of many-to-many threading models for the virtual machine kernel are discussed, and initial benchm...

  3. Possible values: exploring a concept for concurrency

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Cliff B.; Hayes, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in concurrency is interference. This issue manifests itself in both shared-variable and communication-based concurrency --- this paper focusses on the former case where interference is caused by the environment of a process changing the values of shared variables. Rely/guarantee approaches have been shown to be useful in specifying and reasoning compositionally about concurrent programs. This paper explores the use of a "possible values" notation for reasoning about variabl...

  4. Flow Java : declarative concurrency for Java

    OpenAIRE

    Drejhammar, Frej

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of Flow Java, a programming language for the implementation of concurrent programs. Flow Java adds powerful programming abstractions for automatic synchronization of concurrent programs to Java. The abstractions added are single assignment variables (logic variables) and futures (read-only views of logic variables). The added abstractions conservatively extend Java with respect to types, parameter passing, and concurrency. Future...

  5. Automated Concurrent Blackboard System Generation in C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J. A.; McManus, J. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    In his 1992 Ph.D. thesis, "Design and Analysis Techniques for Concurrent Blackboard Systems", John McManus defined several performance metrics for concurrent blackboard systems and developed a suite of tools for creating and analyzing such systems. These tools allow a user to analyze a concurrent blackboard system design and predict the performance of the system before any code is written. The design can be modified until simulated performance is satisfactory. Then, the code generator can be invoked to generate automatically all of the code required for the concurrent blackboard system except for the code implementing the functionality of each knowledge source. We have completed the port of the source code generator and a simulator for a concurrent blackboard system. The source code generator generates the necessary C++ source code to implement the concurrent blackboard system using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) running on a heterogeneous network of UNIX(trademark) workstations. The concurrent blackboard simulator uses the blackboard specification file to predict the performance of the concurrent blackboard design. The only part of the source code for the concurrent blackboard system that the user must supply is the code implementing the functionality of the knowledge sources.

  6. Concurrent rendezvous control of underactuated spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijay; Reza Emami, M.

    2017-09-01

    The concurrent control of spacecraft equipped with one-axis unilateral thruster and three-axis attitude actuator is considered in this paper. The proposed control law utilizes attitude control channels along with the single thrust force concurrently, for three-dimensional trajectory tracking and rendezvous with a target object. The concurrent controller also achieves orbital transfer to low Earth orbits with long range separation. To demonstrate the orbit transfer capabilities of the concurrent controller, a smooth elliptical orbit transfer trajectory for co-planar circular orbits is designed. The velocity change and energy consumption of the designed orbit transfer trajectory is observed to be equivalent to that of Hohmann transfer.

  7. Whole genome association mapping by incompatibilities and local perfect phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besenbacher Søren

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current technology, vast amounts of data can be cheaply and efficiently produced in association studies, and to prevent data analysis to become the bottleneck of studies, fast and efficient analysis methods that scale to such data set sizes must be developed. Results We present a fast method for accurate localisation of disease causing variants in high density case-control association mapping experiments with large numbers of cases and controls. The method searches for significant clustering of case chromosomes in the "perfect" phylogenetic tree defined by the largest region around each marker that is compatible with a single phylogenetic tree. This perfect phylogenetic tree is treated as a decision tree for determining disease status, and scored by its accuracy as a decision tree. The rationale for this is that the perfect phylogeny near a disease affecting mutation should provide more information about the affected/unaffected classification than random trees. If regions of compatibility contain few markers, due to e.g. large marker spacing, the algorithm can allow the inclusion of incompatibility markers in order to enlarge the regions prior to estimating their phylogeny. Haplotype data and phased genotype data can be analysed. The power and efficiency of the method is investigated on 1 simulated genotype data under different models of disease determination 2 artificial data sets created from the HapMap ressource, and 3 data sets used for testing of other methods in order to compare with these. Our method has the same accuracy as single marker association (SMA in the simplest case of a single disease causing mutation and a constant recombination rate. However, when it comes to more complex scenarios of mutation heterogeneity and more complex haplotype structure such as found in the HapMap data our method outperforms SMA as well as other fast, data mining approaches such as HapMiner and Haplotype Pattern Mining (HPM

  8. Variation in expression of trimorphic incompatibility in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S C; Anderson, J M

    1985-07-01

    Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), a perennial diploid, possesses the rare genetic polymorphism tristyly. A controlled pollination programme was conducted over a three year period, under glasshouse conditions, on 36 clones of P. cordata var. cordata to examine the nature of the self-incompatibility system. The three major findings of the pollination study were: (1) the three floral morphs display different levels of self-incompatibility, (2) pollen from the two anther levels within a flower exhibits different compatibility behaviour in self-pollinations, (3) considerable individual genetic variation in the expression of self-incompatibility is evident among clones within floral morphs. Similar results were also obtained from a smaller study on 15 clones of P. cordata var. lancifolia conducted over a 6 month period. In common with other Pontederia species the mid-styled morph (M) of P. cordata produces large amounts of seed when self-pollinated with pollen from long-level anthers. A developmental model is proposed to explain the high level of self-compatibility of the M morph in Pontederia species. Self-pollination of segregating progenies from M and S morphs of known incompatibility status demonstrated that the expression of incompatibility is closely associated with style length. It is suggested that overall differences in incompatibility behaviour among the floral morphs may be due to the pleiotropic effects of major genes controlling sub-characters of the tristylous syndrome, rather than linked modifier genes. However, the variable expression of trimorphic incompatibility within floral morphs suggests that this variation may be polygenic in origin.

  9. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  10. Extreme incompatibility of helium during mantle melting: Evidence from undegassed mid-ocean ridge basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David W.; Michael, Peter J.; Shea, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We report total helium concentrations (vesicles + glass) for a suite of thirteen ultradepleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (UD-MORBs) that were previously studied for volatile contents (CO2, H2O) plus major and trace elements. The selected basalts are undersaturated in CO2 + H2O at their depths of eruption and represent rare cases of undegassed MORBs. Sample localities from the Atlantic (2), Indian (1) and Pacific (7) Oceans collectively show excellent linear correlations (r2 = 0.75- 0.92) between the concentrations of helium and the highly incompatible elements C, K, Rb, Ba, Nb, Th and U. Three basalts from Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic were also studied but show anomalous behavior marked by excess lithophile trace element abundances. In the Atlantic-Pacific-Indian suite, incompatible element concentrations vary by factors of 3-4.3, while helium concentration varies by a factor of 13. The strong correlations between the concentrations of helium and incompatible elements are explained by helium behavior as the most incompatible element during mantle melting. Partial melting of an ultradepleted mantle source, formed as a residue of earlier melt extraction, accounts for the observed concentrations. The earlier melting event involved removal of a small degree melt (∼1%) at low but non-zero porosity (0.01-0.5%), leading to a small amount of melt retention that strongly leveraged the incompatible element budget of the ultradepleted mantle source. Equilibrium melting models that produce the range of trace element and helium concentrations from this source require a bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium that is lower than that for other incompatible elements by about a factor of ten. Alternatively, the bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium could be similar to or even larger than that for other incompatible elements, but the much larger diffusivity of helium in peridotite leads to its more effective incompatibility and efficient extraction from a

  11. Investigation of Child Restraint System (CRS) Compatibility in the Vehicle Seat Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Julie A; Bolte, John H; Agnew, Amanda M

    2015-01-01

    Child restraint system (CRS) misuse is common and can have serious consequences to child safety. Physical incompatibilities between CRS and vehicles can complicate the installation process and may worsen CRS misuse rates. This study aims to identify the most common sources of incompatibility between representative groups of CRS and vehicles. Detailed dimensional data were collected from 59 currently marketed CRS and 61 late model vehicles. Key dimensions were compared across all 3,599 theoretical CRS/vehicle combinations and the most common predicted incompatibilities were determined. A subset of 34 physical installations was analyzed to validate the results. Only 58.2% of rear-facing (RF) CRS/vehicle combinations were predicted to have proper agreement between the vehicle's seat pan angle and the CRS manufacturers' required base angle. The width of the base of the CRS was predicted to fit snugly between the vehicle's seat pan bolsters in 63.3% of RF CRS/vehicle combinations and 62.2% of forward-facing (FF) CRS/vehicle combinations. FF CRS were predicted to be free of interaction with the vehicle's head restraint in 66.4% of combinations. Roughly 90.0% of RF CRS/vehicle combinations were predicted to have enough horizontal clearance space to set the front seat in the middle its fore/aft slider track. Compatibility rates were above 98% regarding the length of the CRS base compared to the length of the vehicle seat pan and the ability of the top tether to reach the tether anchor. Validation studies revealed that the predictions of RF CRS base angle range vs. seat pan angle compatibility were accurate within 6%, and head restraint interference and front row clearance incompatibilities may be more common than the dimensional analysis approach has predicted. The results of this study indicate that RF CRS base angles and front row clearance space, as well as FF CRS head restraint interference, are frequent compatibility concerns. These results enable manufacturers

  12. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  13. 25 CFR 168.17 - Concurrence procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.17 Concurrence procedures. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, terms shall... permits are issued to persons residing on Hopi partitioned lands, which limit the grazing on range lands... a formal hearing to be held not sooner than 15 days from the date of the non-concurrence declaration...

  14. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  15. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  16. 37 CFR 2.42 - Concurrent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concurrent use. 2.42 Section 2.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.42 Concurrent use. An application...

  17. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  18. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  19. The Concurrent Programming of Saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Eugene; McCloy, Rachel; Williams, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Sequences of saccades have been shown to be prepared concurrently however it remains unclear exactly what aspects of those saccades are programmed in parallel. To examine this participants were asked to make one or two target-driven saccades: a reflexive saccade; a voluntary saccade; a reflexive then a voluntary saccade; or vice versa. During the first response the position of a second target was manipulated. The new location of the second saccade target was found to impact on second saccade latencies and second saccade accuracy showing that some aspects of the second saccade program are prepared in parallel with the first. However, differences were found in the specific pattern of effects for each sequence type. These differences fit well within a general framework for saccade control in which a common priority map for saccade control is computed and the influence of saccade programs on one another depends not so much on the types of saccade being produced but rather on the rate at which their programs develop.

  20. Relationship between perception of parental communication styles incompatibility amongst high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbari Booreng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Family is an influential setting in physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Accordingly, studying the atmosphere and current relationships in the family in terms of their effect on children and adolescents is highly necessary. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the relationship between students' perception of parental communication styles and their own incompatibility. In this descriptive study, population consisted of female students of high school, of whom, 300 were selected and studied in a random cluster method. Data were collected using the standardized students' compatibility and family communication pattern questionnaire. The results showed a significant relationship only between emotional incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. A statistically significant relationship was also observed between general incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. The results also showed that parental communication styles have a role in children's incompatibility. Analysis of each dependent parameter alone showed a difference in parental communication styles only in emotional incompatibility component. Pluralistic family communication style is associated with emotional compatibility of children of the family. The present study results relating to role of communication styles in students' compatibility suggest that it is necessary to teach parents appropriate communication styles.

  1. Strong inbreeding depression in two Scandinavian populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Mousset, Mathilde; Hagenblad, Jenny; Hansson, Bengt; Agren, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression (δ) over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Mechanical and tactile incompatibilities cause reproductive isolation between two young damselfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Alexandra A; Fincke, Ola M; McPeek, Mark A; Masly, John P

    2017-10-01

    External male reproductive structures have received considerable attention as a cause of reproductive isolation (RI), because the morphology of these structures often evolves rapidly between populations. This rapid evolution presents the potential for mechanical incompatibilities with heterospecific female structures during mating and could thus prevent interbreeding between nascent species. Although such mechanical incompatibilities have received little empirical support as a common cause of RI, the potential for mismatch of reproductive structures to cause RI due to incompatible species-specific tactile cues has not been tested. We tested the importance of mechanical and tactile incompatibilities in RI between Enallagma anna and E. carunculatum, two damselfly species that diverged within the past ∼250,000 years and currently hybridize in a sympatric region. We quantified 19 prezygotic and postzygotic RI barriers using both naturally occurring and laboratory-reared damselflies. We found incomplete mechanical isolation between the two pure species and between hybrid males and pure species females. Interestingly, in mating pairs for which mechanical isolation was incomplete, females showed greater resistance and refusal to mate with hybrid or heterospecific males compared to conspecific males. This observation suggests that tactile incompatibilities involving male reproductive structures can influence female mating decisions and form a strong barrier to gene flow in early stages of speciation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Transcriptome changes between compatible and incompatible graft combination of Litchi chinensis by digital gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Fuchu; Qin, Yonghua; Wang, Xianghe; Hu, Guibing

    2017-06-21

    Plant grafting has been practiced widely in horticulture and proved as a useful tool in science. However, the mechanisms of graft healing or graft incompatibility remain poorly understood. In this study, Litchi chinensis cv. 'Jingganghongnuo' homograft ('J/J') and 'Jingganghongnuo'/'zhuangyuanhong' heterograft ('J/Z') as compatible and incompatible combination, respectively, was used to study transcriptional changes between incompatible and compatible graft during graft union formation. Anatomical observation indicated that three stages (2 h, 14 d and 21 d after grafting) were critical for graft union formation and selected for high-throughput sequencing. Results indicated 6060 DEGs were differentially expressed in the compatible combination and 5267 DEGs exhibiting in the incompatible one. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were involved in metabolism, wound response, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction. The expression of 9 DEGs annotated in auxin pathway was up-regulated in compatible combination than that in incompatible combination. The IAA concentration confirmed that the IAA might promote the graft compatibility. In addition, 13 DEGs related to lignin biosynthesis were differentially expressed during graft healing process. Overall, our results provide abundant sequence resources for studying mechanisms underlying graft compatibility and establish a platform for further studies of litchi and other evergreen fruit trees.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of Culex pipiens mosquitoes by Wolbachia influences cytoplasmic incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B Pinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI induced by the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes complex patterns of crossing sterility between populations of the Culex pipiens group of mosquitoes. The molecular basis of the phenotype is yet to be defined. In order to investigate what host changes may underlie CI at the molecular level, we examined the transcription of a homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene grauzone that encodes a zinc finger protein and acts as a regulator of female meiosis, in which mutations can cause sterility. Upregulation was observed in Wolbachia-infected C. pipiens group individuals relative to Wolbachia-cured lines and the level of upregulation differed between lines that were reproductively incompatible. Knockdown analysis of this gene using RNAi showed an effect on hatch rates in a Wolbachia infected Culex molestus line. Furthermore, in later stages of development an effect on developmental progression in CI embryos occurs in bidirectionally incompatible crosses. The genome of a wPip Wolbachia strain variant from Culex molestus was sequenced and compared with the genome of a wPip variant with which it was incompatible. Three genes in inserted or deleted regions were newly identified in the C. molestus wPip genome, one of which is a transcriptional regulator labelled wtrM. When this gene was transfected into adult Culex mosquitoes, upregulation of the grauzone homolog was observed. These data suggest that Wolbachia-mediated regulation of host gene expression is a component of the mechanism of cytoplasmic incompatibility.

  5. Confocal observations of late-acting self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Caroline S; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2012-09-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) has an idiosyncratic form of late-acting self-incompatibility that operates through the non-fusion of incompatible gametes. Here, we used high-resolution confocal microscopy to define fine level changes to the embryo sac of the strongly self-incompatible cocoa genotype SCA 24 in the absence of pollination, and following compatible and incompatible pollination. All sperm nuclei had fused with the female nuclei by 48 h following compatible pollinations. However, following incompatible pollinations, we observed divergence in the behaviour of sperm nuclei following release into the embryo sac. Incomplete sperm nucleus migration occurred in approximately half of the embryo sacs, where the sperm nuclei had so far failed to reach the female gamete nuclei. Sperm nuclei reached but did not fuse with the female gamete nuclei in the residual cases. We argue that the cellular mechanisms governing sperm nucleus migration to the egg nucleus and those controlling subsequent nuclear fusion are likely to differ and should be considered independently. Accordingly, we recommend that future efforts to characterise the genetic basis of LSI in cocoa should take care to differentiate between these two events, both of which contribute to failed karyogamy. Implications of these results for continuing efforts to gain better understanding of the genetic control of LSI in cocoa are discussed.

  6. Development of a new formulation combining calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in an ointment vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Høy, Gert; Didriksen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    was to develop a formulation which combines calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in a single vehicle hereby achieving optimal delivery of both substances into the skin. As the two substances are incompatible in aqueous and alcoholic medias, different non-aqueous formulations were prepared. Skin permeation...

  7. Leptin, cortisol and distinct concurrent training sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G; Dantas, E; Biehl, C; de Castro e Silva, H; Montano, M A E; de Mello, D B

    2012-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training sequences on serum leptin and cortisol levels, 10 subjects (27.1±4.8 years, body mass index 25.38±0.09) were submitted to a control session, concurrent training 1 and concurrent training 2. Samples of leptin and cortisol were collected. Concurrent training 1 consisted of indoor cycling followed by strength training and concurrent training 2 of strength training followed by indoor cycling. No exercises were performed at the control session. Blood was collected once again to verify the same variables. Shapiro-Wilk, 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. There was a reduction in leptin levels after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 16.04; p=0.05) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 8.54; p=0.02). Cortisol decreased after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 26.32; p=0.02) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 33.57; p=0.05). There was a high and significant correlation between blood variables only in CS (lep PRE X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.80 and r= - 0.81; lep POST X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.62 and r= - 0.62). Concurrent training promoted a reduction in leptin and cortisol levels irrespective of sequence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A Two-Stage Approach to Civil Conflict: Contested Incompatibilities and Armed Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartusevicius, Henrikas; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2017-01-01

    conflict origination but have no clear effect on militarization, whereas other features emphasized as shaping the risk of civil war, such as refugee flows and soft state power, strongly influence militarization but not incompatibilities. We posit that a two-stage approach to conflict analysis can help......We present a two-stage approach to civil conflict analysis. Unlike conventional approaches that focus only on armed conflict and treat all other cases as “at peace”, we first distinguish cases with and without contested incompatibilities (Stage 1) and then whether or not contested incompatibilities...... prior studies of violent civil conflict, reformulated as a two-stage process, considering a number of different estimation procedures and potential selection problems. We find that the group-based horizontal political inequalities highlighted in research on violent civil conflict clearly influence...

  9. Chromosome-Wide Impacts on the Expression of Incompatibilities in Hybrids of Tigriopus californicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Willett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome rearrangements such as inversions have been recognized previously as contributing to reproductive isolation by maintaining alleles together that jointly contribute to deleterious genetic interactions and postzygotic reproductive isolation. In this study, an impact of potential incompatibilities merely residing on the same chromosome was found in crosses of populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. When genetically divergent populations of this copepod are crossed, hybrids show reduced fitness, and deviations from expected genotypic ratios can be used to determine regions of the genome involved in deleterious interactions. In this study, a set of markers was genotyped for a cross of two populations of T. californicus, and these markers show widespread deviations from Mendelian expectations, with entire chromosomes showing marked skew. Despite the importance of mtDNA/nuclear interactions in incompatibilities in this system in previous studies, in these crosses the expected patterns stemming from these interactions are not widely apparent. Females lack recombination in this species, and a striking difference is observed between male and female backcrosses. This suggests that the maintenance of multiple loci on individual chromosomes can enable some incompatibilities, perhaps playing a similar role in the initial rounds of hybridization to chromosomal rearrangements in preserving sets of alleles together that contribute to incompatibilities. Finally, it was observed that candidate pairs of incompatibility regions are not consistently interacting across replicates or subsets of these crosses, despite the repeatability of the deviations at many of the single loci themselves, suggesting that more complicated models of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities may need to be considered.

  10. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. State assignment for asynchronous FSMs with the use of the incompatibility and complement graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisz, Józef

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an application of a novel concept of graph - the Incompatibility and Complement Graph - to state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. A specific feature of the graph is that it contains two kinds of edges: connecting mutually incompatible nodes, and connecting mutually complementing nodes. The graph can be useful in certain class of optimization problems, in which compatibility of bit patterns both in the true, and in the complemented form has to be analyzed. An example of such a problem is covering analysis in state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. The paper presents a simple example explaining the method. Appropriate algorithms for the graph building and coloring are also presented.

  12. Effect of lipopolysaccharide mutations on recipient ability of Salmonella typhimurium for incompatibility group H plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherburne, C; Taylor, D E

    1997-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incompatibility group F, P, and I plasmid systems revealed the important role of the outer membrane components in the conjugal transfer of these plasmids. We have observed variability in transfer frequency of three incompatibility group H plasmids (IncHI1 plasmid R27, IncHI2 plasmid R478, and a Tn7 derivative of R27, pDT2454) upon transfer into various Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants derived from a common parental strain, SL1027. Recipien...

  13. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  14. Concurrent Constraint Machine Improvisation: Models and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Machine improvisation creates music either by explicit coding of rules or by applying machine learning methods. We deal with the latter case. An improvisation system capable of real-time must execute two process concurrently: one to apply machine learning methods to musical sequences in order to capture prominent musical features, and one to produce musical sequences stylistically consistent with the learned material. As an example, the Concurrent Constraint Factor Oracle Model for Music Impr...

  15. Differential interspecific incompatibility among Populus hybrids in sections Aigeiros Duby and Tacamahaca Spach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiti A. Mahama; Richard B. Hall; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2011-01-01

    In our previous Populus breeding, compatible crosses between P. maximowiczii A. Henry and P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh corroborated the potential of interspecific hybrids, despite low seed set. Our current objective was to test the range of incompatibility among intraspecific and interspecific crosses using...

  16. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Esposito

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate. We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626 examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.

  17. Incompatibility of requirements for optimizing short channel behaviour and long term stability in MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Jain, S. C.; Korec, J.; Lauer, V.; Offenberg, M.; Balk, P.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach is presented which predicts that the requirements for minimizing short channel effects and long term degradation due to hot carrier trapping lead to incompatible requirements on the design of short channel MOSFETs. Model predictions are compared with experimental data and with the results of 2-D simulations. An asymmetrical MOSFET structure is proposed to circumvent this design problem.

  18. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation with ABO-Incompatible Grafts: A German Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin D. Goralczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs across the ABO blood group barrier have been reported in Asia, North Americas, and Europe, but not yet in Germany. Several strategies have been established to overcome the detrimental effects that are attached with such a disparity between donor and host, but no gold standard has yet emerged. Here, we present the first experiences with three ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantations in Germany applying different immunosuppressive strategies. Four patient-donor couples were considered for ABO-incompatible ALDLT. In these patients, resident ABO blood group antibodies (isoagglutinins were depleted by plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and replenishment was inhibited by splenectomy and/or B-cell-targeted immunosuppression. Despite different treatments ALDLT could safely be performed in three patients and all patients had good initial graft function without signs for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR. Two patients had long-term graft survival with stable graft function. We thus propose the feasibility of ABO-incompatible ALDLT with these protocols and advocate further expansion of ABO incompatible ALDLT in multicenter trials to improve efficacy and safety.

  19. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...

  20. First successful perinatal management of pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hisanobu; Obara, Hideaki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Shimojima, Naoki; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Yamada, Yohei; Itano, Osamu; Hoshino, Ken; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Many papers have reported on pregnancy and delivery after liver transplantation, but there have been no reports on pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. This paper reports the first successful pregnancy and delivery of a newborn after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. The patient was a 39-year-old female. She had an ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, donated from her husband, due to subacute fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology. She was taking tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mizoribine orally for the maintenance of immunosuppression at the time of discharge. She was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 38 without any rejection episodes. At 1 year and 6 mo after transplantation, she indicated a wish to become pregnant. Therefore, treatment with mycophenolate mofetil was interrupted at that time. After two miscarriages, she finally became pregnant and delivered transvaginally 3 years after the transplantation. All of the pregnancies were conceived naturally. The newborn was female with a birth weight of 3146 g; the Apgar scores were 9 and 10. Delivery was performed smoothly, and the newborn exhibited no malformations. The mother and the newborn were discharged uneventfully. We suggest that pregnancy is possible for recipients after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. PMID:28210092

  1. Quantitative analysis of gametic incompatibility between closely related species of neotropical sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Michael A; Lessios, H A

    2002-04-01

    Species of the sea urchin genus Echinometra found on the two coasts of Panamá are recently diverged and only partially isolated by incomplete barriers to interspecific fertilization. This study confirms previous work that revealed incompatibility between the eggs of the Atlantic E. lucunter and the sperm of the other two neotropical species, whereas eggs of its sympatric congener E. viridis and allopatric E. vanbrunti are largely compatible with heterospecific sperm. Here we quantify fertilization using a range of sperm dilutions. We demonstrate a much stronger block to cross-species fertilization of E. lucunter eggs than was previously shown at fixed sperm concentrations, and mild incompatibility of the other two species' eggs where previous crosses between species were not distinguishable from within-species controls. Additionally, we present evidence for intraspecific variation in egg receptivity towards heterospecific sperm. Our findings here again discount the "reinforcement model" as a viable explanation for the pattern of prezygotic isolation. Gamete incompatibility in these Echinometra has appeared recently-within the last 1.5 million years-but is weaker in sympatry than in allopatry. Accidents of history may help explain why incompatibility of eggs emerged in one species and not in others. Compensatory sexual selection on sperm in this species could follow, and promote divergence of proteins mediating sperm-egg recognition.

  2. Male and female roles in crosses of Aspergillus nidulans as revealed by vegetatively incompatible parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, I.M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Swart, K.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    To resolve the role of male and female nuclei and mitochondria in cleistothecium formation in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, we analysed the genetic constituents of cleistothecia, from crosses between vegetatively compatible and incompatible parents. We used markers that enabled us to

  3. Incompatibility between Zircaloy-2 and Inconel X-750 during Temperature Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, M. R.; Rørbo, Kaj; Adolph, Eivind

    1975-01-01

    The incompatibility of Zircaloy-2 and Inconel X-750 has been investigated between 1000°C and 1200°C (1200°C being the currently allowable maximum temperature in the acceptance criteria for ECCS for water reactors). It has been found for the temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C that oxide thicknesses...

  4. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo W Beukeboom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane’s rulehybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex or genotype (heterogamety. Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane’s Rule in diploid systems.

  5. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae), a species with a plastic self-incompatibility response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena-Ali, J.I.; Keser, L.H.; Stephenson, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated with particular S-alleles. The importance of this variation in self-fertility on the

  6. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.

  7. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. However, self-incompatibility (SI) often restricts progress, as crosses between certain cacao germplasm accessions and breeding lines are only partially successful. Various events are involved in t...

  9. Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome (PLS): A Single-center Retrospective Analysis of Minor ABO-incompatible Liver Transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S. de; Philipse, E.; Couttenye, M.M.; Bracke, B.; Ysebaert, D.; Michielsen, P.; Francque, S.; Vanwolleghem, T.; Verlinden, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Due to the shortage of donor livers, minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantations are commonly performed. Together with the allograft, immunocompetent B-lymphocytes, called passenger lymphocytes, are transplanted. In case of minor ABO-incompatibility, these passenger

  10. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells. Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT.

  11. Genetic and cellular analysis of cross-incompatibility in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxian; Kermicle, Jerry L; Evans, Matthew M S

    2014-03-01

    Three genetic systems conferring cross-incompatibility have been described in Zea mays: Teosinte crossing barrier1-strong (Tcb1-s) found in teosinte, and Gametophyte factor1-strong (Ga1-s) and Ga2-s found in maize and teosinte. The reproductive barrier between maize and some weedy teosintes is controlled by the Tcb1-s locus. Multi-generation inheritance experiments on two independent Tcb1-s lineages show that the Tcb1-s barrier is unstable in some maize lines. Reciprocal crosses between Tcb1-s tester plants and three recombinants in the Tcb1-s mapping region demonstrate that the Tcb1-s haplotype contains separable male and female components. In vivo assays of the dynamics of pollen tube growth and pollen tube morphology during rejection of incompatible pollen in silks carrying the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, or Ga2-s barriers showed that, in all three, pollen tube growth is slower than in compatible crosses at early stages and had ceased by 24 h after pollination. In all three crossing barrier systems, incompatible pollen tubes have clustered callose plugs in contrast to pollen tubes of compatible crosses. Incompatible pollen tubes growing in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s silks have different morphologies: straight, curved, and kinked, respectively. The distinct morphologies suggest that these crossing barriers block incompatible pollen through different mechanisms. This study lays the foundation for cloning the Tcb1 genes and provides clues about the cellular mechanisms involved in pollen rejection in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s crossing barriers.

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  13. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  14. Models for concurrency: towards a classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    Models for concurrency can be classified with respect to three relevant parameters: behaviour/ system, interleaving/noninterleaving, linear/branching time. When modelling a process, a choice concerning such parameters corresponds to choosing the level of abstraction of the resulting semantics....... In this paper, we move a step towards a classification of models for concurrency based on the parameters above. Formally, we choose a representative of any of the eight classes of models obtained by varying the three parameters, and we study the formal relationships between them using the language of category...

  15. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete.

  16. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... of these factors are explained and discussed in the paper. The paper ends by offering a number of theoretical and managerial implications....

  17. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  18. (Dis)similarity in Impulsivity and Marital Satisfaction: A Comparison of Volatility, Compatibility, and Incompatibility Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Jaye L; Houston, Rebecca J; Quigley, Brian M; Testa, Maria; Kubiak, Audrey; Levitt, Ash; Homish, Gregory G; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, but whether relationship functioning is harmed or helped when both partners are high in impulsivity is unclear. The influence of impulsivity might be exacerbated (the Volatility Hypothesis) or reversed (the Compatibility Hypothesis). Alternatively, discrepancies in impulsivity might be particularly problematic (the Incompatibility Hypothesis). Behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity were collected from a community sample of couples. Mixed effect polynomial regressions with response surface analysis provide evidence in favor of both the Compatibility Hypothesis and the Incompatibility Hypothesis, but not the Volatility Hypothesis. Mediation analyses suggest results for satisfaction are driven by perceptions of the partner's negative behavior and responsiveness. Implications for the study of both impulsivity and relationship functioning are discussed.

  19. SELF INCOMPATIBILITY MECHANISMS IN THE CROCUS SATIVUS AGGREGATE (IRIDACEAE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ZANIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two molecular mechanisms responsible for SI (Self-Incompatibility in dicotyledons were tested in the C. sativus L. aggregate. RNase and peroxidase activity assays were carried out on crude extract from un-, self- and cross-pollinated styles of C. sativus (male-sterile, C. thomasii Ten. (outfertile and C. cartwrightianus Herb (out-fertile. Results on RNase activity indicate that in the Crocus species studied the rejection mechanism of SI is not based on stylar RNase. Data on peroxidase activity indicate a relationship between pollen tube presence in the style and stylar peroxidase activity. Stylar peroxidase activity increase is related to pollen tube presence but does not stop tube growth. Compatible and incompatible pollen tubes grow along the style and their discrimination occurs in another region of the gynoecium.

  20. Incompatibility of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes causes hybrid sterility between two yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Jui-Yu; Cheong, Liplee; Chang, Nai-Hsin; Yang, Shi-Yow; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2008-12-12

    Hybrids between species are usually unviable or sterile. One possible mechanism causing reproductive isolation is incompatibility between genes from different species. These "speciation" genes are interacting components that cannot function properly when mixed with alleles from other species. To test whether such genes exist in two closely related yeast species, we constructed hybrid lines in which one or two chromosomes were derived from Saccharomyces bayanus, and the rest were from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the hybrid line with Chromosome 13 substitution was completely sterile and identified Aep2, a mitochondrial protein encoded on Chromosome 13, to cause the sporulation defect as S. bayanus AEP2 is incompatible with S. cerevisiae mitochondria. This is caused by the inability of S. bayanus Aep2 protein to regulate the translation of the S. cerevisiae OLI1 mRNA. We speculate that AEP2 and OLI1 have evolved during the adaptation of S. bayanus to nonfermentable carbon sources, thereby driving speciation.

  1. OVERCOMING OF UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF SWEET PEPPER CV. BELOSNEZHKA AND KARLIK BY COLD STRESS OF POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a technique for overcoming the unilateral cross- incompatibility of of sweet pepper cultivars Belosnezhka and Karlik (Capsicum annuumL. by pre- coating the stigma of the parental plants by own frozen pollen (fertile, but lost fertilizing capacity in order to initiate the necessary changes in the tissues of the pistil that ensures germination of pollen tubes of foreign pollen , successful fertilization and hybrid seeds formation.

  2. Relationship between perception of parental communication styles incompatibility amongst high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akbari Booreng

    2017-01-01

    Family is an influential setting in physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Accordingly, studying the atmosphere and current relationships in the family in terms of their effect on children and adolescents is highly necessary. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the relationship between students' perception of parental communication styles and their own incompatibility. In this descriptive study, population consisted of female students of high school, of whom,...

  3. Self-incompatibility in Cosmos atrosanauineus: a rare Mexican endemic species of Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Lewendon, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This work centres on Cosmos atrosanguineus, a rare Mexican endemic self-incompatible species of Asteraceae that is now believed to be extinct in the wild. The two known wild C. atrosanguineus collections, made in made in the 19th century, localise the species to the pine-oak mountain forest ecological region in two areas of central Mexico. Its disappearance from the natural environment is attributed to habitat destruction by the copper mining industry and subsequent urbanisation, so that C. a...

  4. Development of Bilayer Tablets with Modified Release of Selected Incompatible Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Neha; Awasthi, Rajendra; Jindal, Shammy; Khatri, Smriti; Dua, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The oral route is considered to be the most convenient and commonly-employed route for drug delivery. When two incompatible drugs need to be administered at the same time and in a single formulation, bilayer tablets are the most appropriate dosage form to administer such incompatible drugs in a single dose. The aim of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of two incompatible drugs; telmisartan and simvastatin. The bilayer tablets were prepared containing telmisartan in a conventional release layer using croscarmellose sodium as a super disintegrant and simvastatin in a slow-release layer using HPMC K15M, Carbopol 934P and PVP K 30 as matrix forming polymers. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties, drug-excipient interactions using FTIR spectroscopy and in vitro drug release using 0.1M HCl (pH 1.2) for the first hour and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for the remaining period of time. The release kinetics of simvastatin from the slow release layer were evaluated using the zero order, first order, Higuchi equation and Peppas equation. All the physical parameters (such as hardness, thickness, disintegration, friability and layer separation tests) were found to be satisfactory. The FTIR studies indicated the absence of interactions between the components within the individual layers, suggesting drug-excipient compatibility in all the formulations. No drug release from the slow-release layer was observed during the first hour of the dissolution study in 0.1M HCl. The release-controlling polymers had a significant effect on the release of simvastatin from the slow-release layer. Thus, the formulated bilayer tablets avoided incompatibility issues and proved the conventional release of telmisartan (85% in 45 min) and slow release of simvastatin (80% in 8 h). Stable and compatible bilayer tablets containing telmisartan and simvastatin were developed with better patient compliance as an alternative to existing conventional dosage forms.

  5. Comparative Genetics of Hybrid Incompatibility: Sterility in Two Solanum Species Crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, Leonie C.; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen ...

  6. Morphological Characteristics and Somatic Incompatibility of Ganoderma from Infected Oil Palm from Three Inland Estates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffah, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics of Ganoderma basidiomata from infected oil palms from three inland estates showed some variations, but all fall within the description of G. boninense, based on Steyaert s classification system (1967, 1975. Pairings of G. boninense isolates from the same estate showed that there was somatic incompatibility among the isolates which indicated that the isolates were distinct individuals and not clones of single genotypes.

  7. Phase separation of weakly incompatible polymer blends confined in isolated droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Buschbaum, P; Cubitt, R

    2002-01-01

    Phase separation of the weakly incompatible blend system polystyrene and polyparamethylstyrene confined in isolated droplets is investigated. The droplet geometry imposes a two-dimensional spatial restriction. With specular, diffuse and grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering the surface topography as well as the chemical morphology inside the droplets is determined. Due to the differences in surface tension, a core-shell-like structure characterized by one most prominent length scale inside the droplets is installed. (orig.)

  8. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available PR-domain 9 (Prdm9 is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  9. Adding Perches for Cross-Pollination Ensures the Reproduction of a Self-Incompatible Orchid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Jian Liu; Li-Jun Chen; Ke-Wei Liu; Li-Qiang Li; Wen-Hui Rao; Yu-Ting Zhang; Guang-Da Tang; Lai-Qiang Huang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida) have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. ...

  10. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of potato in response to Phytophthora infestans in compatible and incompatible interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashfaq; Alexandersson, Erik; Sandin, Marianne; Resjö, Svante; Lenman, Marit; Hedley, Pete; Levander, Fredrik; Andreasson, Erik

    2014-06-19

    In order to get global molecular understanding of one of the most important crop diseases worldwide, we investigated compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora infestans and potato (Solanum tuberosum). We used the two most field-resistant potato clones under Swedish growing conditions, which have the greatest known local diversity of P. infestans populations, and a reference compatible cultivar. Quantitative label-free proteomics of 51 apoplastic secretome samples (PXD000435) in combination with genome-wide transcript analysis by 42 microarrays (E-MTAB-1515) were used to capture changes in protein abundance and gene expression at 6, 24 and 72 hours after inoculation with P. infestans. To aid mass spectrometry analysis we generated cultivar-specific RNA-seq data (E-MTAB-1712), which increased peptide identifications by 17%. Components induced only during incompatible interactions, which are candidates for hypersensitive response initiation, include a Kunitz-like protease inhibitor, transcription factors and an RCR3-like protein. More secreted proteins had lower abundance in the compatible interaction compared to the incompatible interactions. Based on this observation and because the well-characterized effector-target C14 protease follows this pattern, we suggest 40 putative effector targets. In summary, over 17000 transcripts and 1000 secreted proteins changed in abundance in at least one time point, illustrating the dynamics of plant responses to a hemibiotroph. Half of the differentially abundant proteins showed a corresponding change at the transcript level. Many putative hypersensitive and effector-target proteins were single representatives of large gene families.

  11. Tropical Drosophila pandora carry Wolbachia infections causing cytoplasmic incompatibility or male killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly M; Schiffer, Michele; Griffin, Philippa C; Lee, Siu F; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2016-08-01

    Wolbachia infections have been described in several Drosophila species, but relatively few have been assessed for phenotypic effects. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotypic effect that has been detected, while some infections cause male killing or feminization, and many Wolbachia infections have few host effects. Here, we describe two new infections in a recently described species, Drosophila pandora, one of which causes near-complete CI and near-perfect maternal transmission (the "CI" strain). The other infection is a male killer (the "MK" strain), which we confirm by observing reinitiation of male production following tetracycline treatment. No incompatibility was detected in crosses between CI strain males and MK strain females, and rare MK males do not cause CI. Molecular analyses indicate that the CI and MK infections are distantly related and the CI infection is closely related to the wRi infection of Drosophila simulans. Two population surveys indicate that all individuals are infected with Wolbachia, but the MK infection is uncommon. Given patterns of incompatibility among the strains, the infection dynamics is expected to be governed by the relative fitness of the females, suggesting that the CI infection should have a higher fitness. This was evidenced by changes in infection frequencies and sex ratios in population cages initiated at different starting frequencies of the infections. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Curing of plasmid pXO1 from Bacillus anthracis using plasmid incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankai Liu

    Full Text Available The large plasmid pXO1 encoding the anthrax toxin is important for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. It is essential to cure pXO1 from B. anthracis to evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of anthrax infection. Because conventional methods for curing plasmids (e.g., curing agents or growth at elevated temperatures can induce mutations in the host chromosomal DNA, we developed a specific and reliable method to eliminate pXO1 from B. anthracis using plasmid incompatibility. Three putative replication origins of pXO1 were inserted into a temperature-sensitive plasmid to generate three incompatible plasmids. One of the three plasmids successfully eliminated the large plasmid pXO1 from B. anthracis vaccine strain A16R and wild type strain A16. These findings provided additional information about the replication/partitioning of pXO1 and demonstrated that introducing a small incompatible plasmid can generate plasmid-cured strains of B. anthracis without inducing spontaneous mutations in the host chromosome.

  13. The Essence of Conscious Conflict: Subjective Effects of Sustaining Incompatible Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Gray, Jeremy R.; Krieger, Stephen C.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Conflict constitutes one of the fundamental ‘tuggings and pullings’ of the human experience. Yet, the link between the various kinds of conflict in the nervous system and subjective experience remains unexplained. We tested a hypothesis that predicts why both the ‘hot’ conflicts involving self-control and motivation, and the ‘cooler’ response conflicts of the laboratory, lead to changes in subjective experience. From this standpoint, these changes arise automatically from the activation of incompatible skeletomotor intentions, because the primary function of consciousness is to integrate such intentions for adaptive skeletal muscle output. Accordingly, we demonstrated for the first time that merely sustaining incompatible intentions (to move right and left) in a motionless state produces stronger subjective effects than sustaining compatible intentions. The results held equally strongly for two different effector systems involving skeletal muscle: arm movements and finger movements. In contrast, no such effects were found with conflict in a smooth muscle effector system. Together, these findings illuminate aspects of the nature of subjective experience and the role of incompatible intentions in affect and failures of self-control. PMID:19803593

  14. Strain tensor selection and the elastic theory of incompatible thin sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2017-05-01

    The existing theory of incompatible elastic sheets uses the deviation of the surface metric from a reference metric to define the strain tensor [Efrati et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 57, 762 (2009), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.12.004]. For a class of simple axisymmetric problems we examine an alternative formulation, defining the strain based on deviations of distances (rather than distances squared) from their rest values. While the two formulations converge in the limit of small slopes and in the limit of an incompressible sheet, for other cases they are found not to be equivalent. The alternative formulation offers several features which are absent in the existing theory. (a) In the case of planar deformations of flat incompatible sheets, it yields linear, exactly solvable, equations of equilibrium. (b) When reduced to uniaxial (one-dimensional) deformations, it coincides with the theory of extensible elastica; in particular, for a uniaxially bent sheet it yields an unstrained cylindrical configuration. (c) It gives a simple criterion determining whether an isometric immersion of an incompatible sheet is at mechanical equilibrium with respect to normal forces. For a reference metric of constant positive Gaussian curvature, a spherical cap is found to satisfy this criterion except in an arbitrarily narrow boundary layer.

  15. Aplasia pura de serie roja post-trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyeticas ABO incompatible Pure red cell aplasia after ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bulliorsky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH con incompatibilidad ABO entre el donante y el receptor puede en ocasiones asociarse a trastornos en la progenie eritroide desarrollada a partir de la médula ósea trasplantada, caracterizado por un funcionamiento tardío, inadecuado e incompleto de la misma. En este contexto, la aplasia pura de serie roja es la complicación más severa. Se han intentado tratamientos para la aplasia pura de serie roja post-TCPH con eritropoyetina o plasmaféresis, con relativo éxito. Algunos autores han informado también la utilización de globulina antilinfocitaria, asumiendo que dicha aplasia selectiva de la serie roja en la médula ósea trasplantada es mediada por un mecanismo inmune. En este trabajo se describe un paciente portador de una leucemia aguda en quien se realizó un TCPH alogeneico (ABO incompatible con su donante. Teniendo niveles bajos de aglutininas contra el grupo sanguíneo de la donante, desarrolló una aplasia pura de serie roja post - TCPH. La misma no mejoró con tratamiento con eritropoyetina o con un refuerzo de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica de la misma donante (boost, resolviéndose totalmente luego de un tratamiento exitoso con globulina antilinfocitaria de origen equino.ABO incompatibility in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be associated with incomplete or delayed erythroid engraftment, being pure red cell aplasia (PRCA the most severe complication in this setting. Attempts for the treatment of PRCA have been made with erythropoietin or with plasmapheresis with relative success, and some authors have reported the reversibility of PRCA with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG or ATG, based on the assumption that PRCA might be immunologically mediated. We report herewith a patient with acute leukemia who developed post - BMT pure red cell aplasia. His sibling donor (sister was HLA identical and ABO incompatible, having low agglutinin

  16. ABO incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests will usually show: The bilirubin level is high The complete blood count (CBC) shows damage to red blood cells or anemia The recipient's and donor's blood are not compatible Urine tests show the presence of hemoglobin due to breakdown of red blood cells.

  17. Rh Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive blood if you had bleeding or abdominal trauma (for example, from a car accident) during the pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy, a miscarriage, or an induced abortion. (An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that starts outside of the uterus, or womb.) A mismatched blood transfusion or blood ...

  18. Rh Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia Other Resources Non-NHLBI ...

  19. On run-time exploitation of concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzenspies, P.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    The `free' speed-up stemming from ever increasing processor speed is over. Performance increase in computer systems can now only be achieved through parallelism. One of the biggest challenges in computer science is how to map applications onto parallel computers. Concurrency, seen as the set of

  20. Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R F; Cadore, E L; Kothe, G; Guedes, M; Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Pinto, R S; Trindade, G; Kruel, L F M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of using different intensities and types of aerobic exercise (i. e., cycle ergometer or running) during concurrent training on neuromuscular adaptations. A total of 44 young women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: concurrent strength and continuous running training (SCR, n=10), concurrent strength and interval running training (SIR, n=11), concurrent strength and continuous cycle ergometer training (SCE, n=11), or strength training only (STO, n=12). Each group trained twice a week during 11 weeks. The following strength measurements were made on all subjects before and after training period: maximal strength (1RM) in knee extension, bench press and leg press exercises; local muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 70% of 1 RM) in knee extension and bench press exercises; and isometric and isokinetic peak torque of knee extension. There were significant increases in the upper and lower-body 1 RM, isometric and isokinetic peak torque in all training groups (pconcurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar neuromuscular adaptations to strength training alone, regardless of the type and the intensity in which the aerobic training is performed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effect of Concurrent Trypanosoma brucei Infection on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction in the packed cell volume, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, persistent monocytosis and leucopenia characterised by lymphopenia and neutropenia were associated with the concurrent infection while Haemonchus infection alone resulted in persistent eosinophilia. The results of the study show that a ...

  2. Proceedings 8th Interaction and Concurrency Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of ICE 2015, the 8th Interaction and Concurrency Experience, which was held in Grenoble, France on the 4th and 5th of June 2015 as a satellite event of DisCoTec 2015. The ICE procedure for paper selection allows PC members to interact, anonymously, with author...

  3. Concurrency meets probability: theory and practice (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    Treating random phenomena in concurrency theory has a long tradition. Petri nets [18, 10] and process algebras [14] have been extended with probabilities. The same applies to behavioural semantics such as strong and weak (bi)simulation [1], and testing pre-orders [5]. Beautiful connections between

  4. Concurrent Engineering in seafood product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry can...... techniques. it is anticipated that other food industries also can benefit from the more simultaneous approach...

  5. Partial self-incompatibility in the polyploid endemic species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos: remnants of a self-incompatibility system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.; PHILIPP, MARIANNE

    2003-01-01

    -pollinated capitula these were mostly without embryos. Among self-pollinated individuals a large variation was found in the production of embryos. Some individuals failed completely to set filled achenes while others produced few or many. Additionally, we found a clear difference in female phenology of florets......Different pollination treatments of capitula were used to examine the breeding system of individuals of the tetraploid endemic species Scalesia affinis from the Galápagos Islands. All types of crossings resulted in approximately 35 achenes per capitulum, but in actively and passively self...... in self-pollinated capitula compared with florets in cross-pollinated capitula. Female florets in self-pollinated capitula remained receptive for longer time. These results suggest that Scalesia affinis is partly self-incompatible. Outcrossing is assured by the endemic carpenter bee, Xylocopa darwini...

  6. Consequences of ABO incompatibility in multiple myeloma patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marenchino, Dario; Maddalena, Laura; Balbo, Riccardo; Avonto, Ilaria; Menardi, Giuseppe; Prucca, Maristella; Perotti, Laura; Mordini, Nicola; Peano, Gianmichele

    2011-01-01

    Although the ABO blood group is one of two major antigen systems of relevance for transplantation in humans, there are still conflicting data concerning the influence of ABO-incompatibility on transplant outcome...

  7. Consequences of ABO incompatibility in multiple myeloma patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenchino, Dario; Maddalena, Laura; Balbo, Riccardo; Avonto, Ilaria; Menardi, Giuseppe; Prucca, Maristella; Perotti, Laura; Mordini, Nicola; Peano, Gianmichele

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the ABO blood group is one of two major antigen systems of relevance for transplantation in humans, there are still conflicting data concerning the influence of ABO-incompatibility on transplant outcome. This study investigated the effect of ABO incompatibility in recipients of haematopoietic progenitor cell transplants from related donors after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analysed data from 19 multiple myeloma patients included in a prospective RIC allogeneic haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation protocol, focusing on engraftment, transfusion requirement, Graft-versus-Host Disease, transplant-related mortality and survival. Results Five out of the 19 patients (26%) received an ABO-incompatible transplant, with minor ABO-mismatch in two patients (10%), major ABO-mismatch in one case (5%), and bidirectional incompatibility in two cases. Neutrophil recovery was not significantly different between the ABO-compatible and ABO-incompatible groups (p=0.85). At 30 days after transplantation, 12 of 19 patients tested (63%) had engraftment with all cells of donor origin (100% chimeric), and continued to be fully chimeric on day 100+ evaluations. Patients with major/bidirectional ABO incompatibility required more red blood cell and platelet units after transplantation and were transfused for longer periods of time, as compared with patients with minor or no ABO incompatibility. Transient, mild haemolysis was noted in one patient between days 10 and 30. Graft-versus-Host Disease, disease progression and transplant-related mortality were not affected by ABO matching. Discussion Although delayed red blood cell engraftment and increased transfusion requirements were documented, in this study ABO incompatibility after the RIC protocol used did not impair the clinical outcome. PMID:21084015

  8. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis of Compatible and Incompatible Pollen-Stigma Interactions in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species exhibit both compatible and incompatible pollen-stigma interactions, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, RNA-seq technology was applied in a comprehensive time-course experiment (2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min to explore gene expression during compatible/incompatible pollen-stigma interactions in stigma. Moderate changes of gene expression were observed both in compatible pollination (PC and incompatible pollination (PI within 10 min, whereas drastic changes showed up by 30 min, especially in PI. Stage specific DEGs [Differentially Expressed Gene(s] were identified, and signaling pathways such as stress response, defense response, cell wall modification and others were found to be over-represented. In addition, enriched genes in all samples were analyzed as well, 293 most highly expressed genes were identified and annotated. Gene Ontology and metabolic pathway analysis revealed 10 most highly expressed genes and 37 activated metabolic pathways. According to the data, downstream components were activated in signaling pathways of both compatible and incompatible responses, and incompatible response had more complicated signal transduction networks. This study provides more detailed molecular information at different time points after compatible and incompatible pollination, deepening our knowledge about pollen-stigma interactions.

  9. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  10. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  11. Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how...... of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design...... as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures...

  12. First order proofs for concurrent programs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sanz, Víctor de

    2016-01-01

    We study the uniform verification problem for infinite state processes. The problem consists on proving the parallel composition of an arbitrary number of processes running the same program satisfies a temporal property. As the general problem is too big for a bachelor thesis, we restrict our attention to concurrent implementations of sets using single linked list theory. We reduce the verification to the validity of formulas in this theory. By validity we mean that certain pro...

  13. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  14. The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    concurrent logic programming can be found in [162]. Procs pipes: linear press networks The following program is a parallel implementation of the Sieve of... Eratosthenes [163]. It consists of a process generating all integers in the desired range, and a set of filter proceses, one per prime number found...computation terminates or deadlocks. To improve upon this the guard sake~o(L) can be added to the other clauses of the meta-interpreter. This ensures that

  15. Verified compilation of Concurrent Managed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE CHIEF ENGINEER: / S / / S / STEVEN L. DRAGER JOHN D. MATYJAS Work Unit Manager Technical Advisor, Computing...sequential optimizations, and hence al- lows such arguments to be effectively applied to potentially racy, lock -free, concurrent code. This particular...fine-grained implementations. We illustrate our approach by considering the following low-level code snippet that attempts to acquire a lock (akin to a

  16. Concurrent Data Structures Linked in Time

    OpenAIRE

    Delbianco, G. A.; Sergey, I.; Nanevski, A.; Banerjee, A.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments about correctness of a concurrent data structure are typically carried out by using the notion of linearizability and specifying the linearization points of the data structure's procedures. Such arguments are often cumbersome as the linearization points' position in time can be dynamic (depend on the interference, run-time values and events from the past, or even future), non-local (appear in procedures other than the one considered), and whose position in the execution trace may on...

  17. Continuous Activity Monitoring During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Bodner, William R.; Mehta, Keyur J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Shankar, Viswanathan [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Halmos, Balazs; Haigentz, Missak [Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rapkin, Bruce [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective trial testing the feasibility and utility of acquiring activity data as a measure of health status during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ambulatory patients who were planned for treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for cancers of the head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal tract were provided with activity monitors before treatment initiation. Patients were asked to wear the devices continuously throughout the radiation therapy course. Step count data were downloaded weekly during radiation therapy and 2 and 4 weeks after radiation therapy completion. The primary objective was to demonstrate feasibility, defined as collection of step counts for 80% of the days during study subjects' radiation therapy courses. Secondary objectives included establishing step count as a dynamic predictor of unplanned hospitalization risk. Results: Thirty-eight enrolled patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Primary diagnoses included head and neck cancer (n=11), lung cancer (n=13), and a variety of gastrointestinal cancers (n=14). Step data were collected for 1524 of 1613 days (94%) during patients' radiation therapy courses. Fourteen patients were hospitalized during radiation therapy or within 4 weeks of radiation therapy completion. Cox regression modeling demonstrated a significant association between recent step counts (3-day average) and hospitalization risk, with a 38% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for every 1000 steps taken each day (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83, P=.002). Inferior quality of life scores and impaired performance status were not associated with increased hospitalization risk. Conclusion: Continuous activity monitoring during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is feasible and well-tolerated. Step counts may serve as powerful, objective, and dynamic indicators of hospitalization risk.

  18. Forestry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  19. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, A; Molano, F; Lloret, M; Falcón-Vizcaino, O; García-Hernández, J A

    2003-01-01

    To compare the results obtained following treatment, from a group of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (Stage IB or higher) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy in relation to a group of patients treated exclusively with radiotherapy. All patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the Gynaecologic Oncology Unit of the University Hospital Materno Infantil of the Canaries between 1999 and 2000, both inclusive, were included. The first group to be considered was formed by patients who received combined treatment. The second group of patients received radiotherapy exclusively, having been treated in previous years (1997-1998 period). The results were compared in relation to survival in the two following years from treatment (2000-2001) in the group of combined treatment and years 1999-2000 in the group that received only radiotherapy. To compare the survival of both groups the chi-square test and Odds Ratio were utilised. The groups compared are homogeneous when looking at the stage of the disease when diagnosed, the histological type of tumour and its degree of cellular differentiation, the CAT results and tumoral markers. Survival of more than two years was observed in the group treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy in relation to the group treated exclusively with radiotherapy; chi-square 9.92, p < 0.01, OR: 0.1 (0.01-0.6).

  20. Managing Asynchronous Data in ATLAS's Concurrent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00100895; The ATLAS collaboration; Baines, John; Bold, Tomasz; Calafiura, Paolo; Cranshaw, Jack; Dotti, Andrea; Farrell, Steven; Malon, David; Stewart, Graeme; Snyder, Scott; van Gemmeren, Peter; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Wynne, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In order to be able to make effective use of emerging hardware, where the amount of memory available to any CPU is rapidly decreasing as the core count continues to rise, ATLAS has begun a migration to a concurrent, multi-threaded software framework, known as AthenaMT. Significant progress has been made in implementing AthenaMT - we can currently run realistic Geant4 simulations on massively concurrent machines. the migration of realistic prototypes of reconstruction workflows is more difficult, given the large amounts of legacy code and the complexity and challenges of reconstruction software. These types of workflows, however, are the types that will most benefit from the memory reduction features of a multi-threaded framework. One of the challenges that we will report on in this paper is the re-design and implementation of several key asynchronous technologies whose behaviour is radically different in a concurrent environment than in a serial one, namely the management of Conditions data and the Detector D...

  1. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  2. The impact of self-incompatibility systems on the prevention of biparental inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara N. Furstenau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding in hermaphroditic plants can occur through two different mechanisms: biparental inbreeding, when a plant mates with a related individual, or self-fertilization, when a plant mates with itself. To avoid inbreeding, many hermaphroditic plants have evolved self-incompatibility (SI systems which prevent or limit self-fertilization. One particular SI system—homomorphic SI—can also reduce biparental inbreeding. Homomorphic SI is found in many angiosperm species, and it is often assumed that the additional benefit of reduced biparental inbreeding may be a factor in the success of this SI system. To test this assumption, we developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation of plant populations that displayed three different types of homomorphic SI. We measured the total level of inbreeding avoidance by comparing each population to a self-compatible population (NSI, and we measured biparental inbreeding avoidance by comparing to a population of self-incompatible plants that were free to mate with any other individual (PSI. Because biparental inbreeding is more common when offspring dispersal is limited, we examined the levels of biparental inbreeding over a range of dispersal distances. We also tested whether the introduction of inbreeding depression affected the level of biparental inbreeding avoidance. We found that there was a statistically significant decrease in autozygosity in each of the homomorphic SI populations compared to the PSI population and, as expected, this was more pronounced when seed and pollen dispersal was limited. However, levels of homozygosity and inbreeding depression were not reduced. At low dispersal, homomorphic SI populations also suffered reduced female fecundity and had smaller census population sizes. Overall, our simulations showed that the homomorphic SI systems had little impact on the amount of biparental inbreeding in the population especially when compared to the overall reduction in

  3. Pollination and late-acting self-incompatibility in Cyrtanthus breviflorus (Amaryllidaceae): implications for seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughton, Glenda; Ramsey, Mike; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-10-01

    Animal pollination is typically an uncertain process that interacts with self-incompatibility status to determine reproductive success. Seed set is often pollen-limited, but species with late-acting self-incompatibility (SI) may be particularly vulnerable, if self-pollen deposition results in ovule discounting. Pollination is examined and the occurrence of late-acting SI and ovule discounting assessed in Cyrtanthus breviflorus. The pollination system was characterized by observing floral visitors and assessing nectar production and spectral reflectance of flowers. To assess late-acting SI and ovule discounting, growth of self- and cross-pollen tubes, and seed set following open pollination or hand pollination with varying proportions of self- and cross-pollen, were examined. Native honeybees Apis mellifera scutellata pollinated flowers as they actively collected pollen. Most flowers (≥70 %) did not contain nectar, while the rest produced minute volumes of dilute nectar. The flowers which are yellow to humans are visually conspicuous to bees with a strong contrast between UV-reflecting tepals and UV-absorbing anthers and pollen. Plants were self-incompatible, but self-rejection was late-acting and both self- and cross-pollen tubes penetrated ovules. Seed set of open-pollinated flowers was pollen-limited, despite pollen deposition exceeding ovule number by 6-fold. Open-pollinated seed set was similar to that of the cross + self-pollen treatment, but was less than that of the cross-pollen-only treatment. Flowers of C. breviflorus are pollinated primarily by pollen-collecting bees and possess a late-acting SI system, previously unknown in this clade of the Amaryllidaceae. Pollinators of C. breviflorus deposit mixtures of cross- and self-pollen and, because SI is late-acting, self-pollen disables ovules, reducing female fertility. This study thus contributes to growing evidence that seed production in plants with late-acting SI systems is frequently limited by pollen

  4. Contrasted patterns of molecular evolution in dominant and recessive self-incompatibility haplotypes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubet, Pauline M; Bergès, Hélène; Bellec, Arnaud; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Mangenot, Sophie; Gallina, Sophie; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Vekemans, Xavier; Castric, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) in two closely related Arabidopsis species, obtained from individual BAC libraries. We use this extensive dataset to highlight sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution of each of the two genes controlling self-incompatibility themselves, as well as of the genomic region surrounding them. We find strong collinearity of the flanking regions among haplotypes on each side of the S-locus together with high levels of sequence similarity. In contrast, the S-locus region itself shows spectacularly deep gene genealogies, high variability in size and gene organization, as well as complete absence of sequence similarity in intergenic sequences and striking accumulation of transposable elements. Of particular interest, we demonstrate that dominant and recessive S-haplotypes experience sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution. Indeed, dominant haplotypes exhibit larger size and a much higher density of transposable elements, being matched only by that in the centromere. Overall, these properties highlight that the S-locus presents many striking similarities with other regions involved in the determination of mating-types, such as sex chromosomes in animals or in plants, or the mating-type locus in fungi and green algae.

  5. Contrasted patterns of molecular evolution in dominant and recessive self-incompatibility haplotypes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M Goubet

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus in two closely related Arabidopsis species, obtained from individual BAC libraries. We use this extensive dataset to highlight sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution of each of the two genes controlling self-incompatibility themselves, as well as of the genomic region surrounding them. We find strong collinearity of the flanking regions among haplotypes on each side of the S-locus together with high levels of sequence similarity. In contrast, the S-locus region itself shows spectacularly deep gene genealogies, high variability in size and gene organization, as well as complete absence of sequence similarity in intergenic sequences and striking accumulation of transposable elements. Of particular interest, we demonstrate that dominant and recessive S-haplotypes experience sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution. Indeed, dominant haplotypes exhibit larger size and a much higher density of transposable elements, being matched only by that in the centromere. Overall, these properties highlight that the S-locus presents many striking similarities with other regions involved in the determination of mating-types, such as sex chromosomes in animals or in plants, or the mating-type locus in fungi and green algae.

  6. The impact of self-incompatibility systems on the prevention of biparental inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenau, Tara N; Cartwright, Reed A

    2017-01-01

    Inbreeding in hermaphroditic plants can occur through two different mechanisms: biparental inbreeding, when a plant mates with a related individual, or self-fertilization, when a plant mates with itself. To avoid inbreeding, many hermaphroditic plants have evolved self-incompatibility (SI) systems which prevent or limit self-fertilization. One particular SI system-homomorphic SI-can also reduce biparental inbreeding. Homomorphic SI is found in many angiosperm species, and it is often assumed that the additional benefit of reduced biparental inbreeding may be a factor in the success of this SI system. To test this assumption, we developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation of plant populations that displayed three different types of homomorphic SI. We measured the total level of inbreeding avoidance by comparing each population to a self-compatible population (NSI), and we measured biparental inbreeding avoidance by comparing to a population of self-incompatible plants that were free to mate with any other individual (PSI). Because biparental inbreeding is more common when offspring dispersal is limited, we examined the levels of biparental inbreeding over a range of dispersal distances. We also tested whether the introduction of inbreeding depression affected the level of biparental inbreeding avoidance. We found that there was a statistically significant decrease in autozygosity in each of the homomorphic SI populations compared to the PSI population and, as expected, this was more pronounced when seed and pollen dispersal was limited. However, levels of homozygosity and inbreeding depression were not reduced. At low dispersal, homomorphic SI populations also suffered reduced female fecundity and had smaller census population sizes. Overall, our simulations showed that the homomorphic SI systems had little impact on the amount of biparental inbreeding in the population especially when compared to the overall reduction in inbreeding compared to the

  7. Adding perches for cross-pollination ensures the reproduction of a self-incompatible orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Jian Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. The function of these sheaths remains unknown, and has long been a puzzle to researchers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the function of these sheaths in relation to the lip and the pollinators, as well as their role in the modes of pollination and reproduction of Coelogyne rigida in 30 flowering populations of orchids in the limestone area of Southeast Yunnan, China. We found that self-incompatible C. rigida developed specialized bird perches around the basal axis of inflorescence to attract sunbirds and to complement their behavioral tendency to change foraging locations frequently. This self-incompatibility mechanism operates separately from the floral component adaptation mechanism. This mechanism thus prevents bees from repeatedly visiting the floral lip of the same plant which, in turn, results in autogamy. In this way, instead of preventing autogamy, C. rigida responds to these negative effects through a highly efficient cross-pollination method that successfully transfers pollen to different plants. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination. The adaptation provides a novel and striking example of structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms.

  8. Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara; Sundmark, Daniel; Eldh, Sigrid; Hansson, Hans

    2017-01-01

    ...., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful...

  9. Construction disputes in Denmark: the case of concurrent delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of decisions on concurrent delay, the article discusses the defining features of Danish construction arbitration.......Through a case study of decisions on concurrent delay, the article discusses the defining features of Danish construction arbitration....

  10. Toward Concurrent Lock-Free Queues on GPUs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHANG, Xiangyu; DENG, Yangdong; MU, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    .... In this work, we proposed an efficient concurrent queue data structure for GPU computing. The GPU based provably correct, lock-free FIFO queue allows a massive number of concurrent producers and consumers...

  11. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of virulence factors in Leptosphaeria maculans during compatible and incompatible interactions with canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira Sonah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes blackleg of canola (Brassica napus, one of the most devastating diseases of this crop. In the present study, transcriptome profiling of L. maculans was performed in an effort to understand and define the pathogenicity genes that govern both the biotrophic and the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, as well as those that separate a compatible from an incompatible interaction. For this purpose, comparative RNA-seq analyses were performed on L. maculans isolate D5 at four different time points following inoculation on susceptible cultivar Topas-wild or resistant near isogenic line Topas-Rlm2. Analysis of 1.6 billion Illumina reads readily identified differentially expressed genes that were over represented by candidate secretory effector proteins, CAZymes, and other pathogenicity genes. Comparisons between the compatible and incompatible interactions led to the identification of 28 effector proteins whose chronology and level of expression suggested a role in the establishment and maintenance of biotrophy with the plant. These included all known Avr genes of isolate D5 along with eight newly characterized effectors. In addition, another 15 effector proteins were found to be exclusively expressed during the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, which supports the concept that L. maculans has a separate and distinct arsenal contributing to each phase. As for CAZymes, they were often highly expressed at 3 dpi but with no difference in expression between the compatible and incompatible interactions, indicating that other factors were necessary to determine the outcome of the interaction. However, their significantly higher expression at 11 dpi in the compatible interaction confirmed that they contributed to the necrotrophic phase of the fungus. A notable exception was LysM genes whose high expression was singularly observed on the susceptible host at 7 dpi. In the case of TFs, their higher

  12. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part I. Glamour and high categories: cosmic incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In this article the author relates glamour with the categories of the beautiful, the sublime and the tragic. The article demonstrates the incompatibility of glamour with high aesthetic categories.

  13. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  14. Interallelic and intergenic incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1 gene in mouse hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available The Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities explains reproductive isolation between species by incorrect epistatic interactions. Although the mechanisms of speciation are of great interest, no incompatibility has been characterized at the gene level in mammals. The Hybrid sterility 1 gene (Hst1 participates in the arrest of meiosis in F(1 males of certain strains from two Mus musculus subspecies, e.g., PWD from M. m. musculus and C57BL/6J (henceforth B6 from M. m. domesticus. Hst1 has been identified as a meiotic PR-domain gene (Prdm9 encoding histone 3 methyltransferase in the male offspring of PWD females and B6 males, (PWD×B6F(1. To characterize the incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility, we phenotyped reproductive and meiotic markers in males with altered copy numbers of Prdm9. A partial rescue of fertility was observed upon removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9 from the azoospermic (PWD×B6F(1 hybrids, whereas removing one of the two Prdm9 copies in PWD or B6 background had no effect on male reproduction. Incompatibility(ies not involving Prdm9(B6 also acts in the (PWD×B6F(1 hybrids, since the correction of hybrid sterility by Prdm9(B6 deletion was not complete. Additions and subtractions of Prdm9 copies, as well as allelic replacements, improved meiotic progression and fecundity also in the progeny-producing reciprocal (B6×PWDF(1 males. Moreover, an increased dosage of Prdm9 and reciprocal cross enhanced fertility of other sperm-carrying male hybrids, (PWD×B6-C3H.Prdm9F(1, harboring another Prdm9 allele of M. m. domesticus origin. The levels of Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were similar in the prepubertal testes of all types of F(1 hybrids of PWD with B6 and B6-C3H.Prdm9 despite their different prospective fertility, but decreased to 53% after removal of Prdm9(B6. Therefore, the Prdm9(B6 allele probably takes part in posttranscriptional dominant-negative hybrid interaction(s absent in the parental strains.

  15. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: "the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute." Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals.

  16. Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalis and Concurrency: An Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Deven T. Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from...

  17. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2010-03-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria.

  18. Analysis of a plant complex resistance gene locus underlying immune-related hybrid incompatibility and its occurrence in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alcázar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying speciation in plants include detrimental (incompatible genetic interactions between parental alleles that incur a fitness cost in hybrids. We reported on recessive hybrid incompatibility between an Arabidopsis thaliana strain from Poland, Landsberg erecta (Ler, and many Central Asian A. thaliana strains. The incompatible interaction is determined by a polymorphic cluster of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (TNL RPP1 (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica1-like genes in Ler and alleles of the receptor-like kinase Strubbelig Receptor Family 3 (SRF3 in Central Asian strains Kas-2 or Kond, causing temperature-dependent autoimmunity and loss of growth and reproductive fitness. Here, we genetically dissected the RPP1-like Ler locus to determine contributions of individual RPP1-like Ler (R1-R8 genes to the incompatibility. In a neutral background, expression of most RPP1-like Ler genes, except R3, has no effect on growth or pathogen resistance. Incompatibility involves increased R3 expression and engineered R3 overexpression in a neutral background induces dwarfism and sterility. However, no individual RPP1-like Ler gene is sufficient for incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 or Kond, suggesting that co-action of at least two RPP1-like members underlies this epistatic interaction. We find that the RPP1-like Ler haplotype is frequent and occurs with other Ler RPP1-like alleles in a local population in Gorzów Wielkopolski (Poland. Only Gorzów individuals carrying the RPP1-like Ler haplotype are incompatible with Kas-2 and Kond, whereas other RPP1-like alleles in the population are compatible. Therefore, the RPP1-like Ler haplotype has been maintained in genetically different individuals at a single site, allowing exploration of forces shaping the evolution of RPP1-like genes at local and regional population scales.

  19. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In multivariate analysis, only the point prevalence of concurrency remained associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion. There is evidence of a high prevalence of point concurrency in sexual partnerships in SA's most HIV-affected language groups. Together with evidence that relatively small decreases in concurrency can ...

  20. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  1. Adaptive Evolution Leads to Cross-Species Incompatibility in the piRNA Transposon Silencing Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhad, Swapnil S; Tu, Shikui; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E

    2017-10-09

    Reproductive isolation defines species divergence and is linked to adaptive evolution of hybrid incompatibility genes. Hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans are sterile, and phenocopy mutations in the PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, which silences transposons and shows pervasive adaptive evolution, and Drosophila rhino and deadlock encode rapidly evolving components of a complex that binds to piRNA clusters. We show that Rhino and Deadlock interact and co-localize in simulans and melanogaster, but simulans Rhino does not bind melanogaster Deadlock, due to substitutions in the rapidly evolving Shadow domain. Significantly, a chimera expressing the simulans Shadow domain in a melanogaster Rhino backbone fails to support piRNA production, disrupts binding to piRNA clusters, and leads to ectopic localization to bulk heterochromatin. Fusing melanogaster Deadlock to simulans Rhino, by contrast, restores localization to clusters. Deadlock binding thus directs Rhino to piRNA clusters, and Rhino-Deadlock co-evolution has produced cross-species incompatibilities, which may contribute to reproductive isolation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Development of medicated foams that combine incompatible hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs for psoriasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtič, Janja; Papathanasiou, Foteini; Temova Rakuša, Žane; GosencaMatjaž, Mirjam; Roškar, Robert; Kristl, Julijana

    2017-05-30

    The focus was on the development of medicated foam for incorporation of two incompatible active agents for psoriasis treatment; i.e., lipophilic cholecalciferol, and hydrophilic salicylic acid. Emphasis was given to formulation of a propellant-free foam, with sufficient foaming properties, physical and chemical stability, and low irritancy potential to maintain relevance for later translation into clinical practice. Various excipients and concentrations were examined to achieve suitable foam stability parameters, viscoelasticity, and bubble-size, which relate to foamability and spreadability. The major positive impact on these properties was through a combination of surfactants, and by inclusion of a viscosity-modifying polymer. Incorporation of the incompatible drugs was then examined, noting the instability of cholecalciferol in an acidic environment, with the design aim to separate the drug distributions among the different foam phases. Cholecalciferol was stabilized in the emulsion-based foam, with at least a 30-fold lower degradation rate constant compared to its aqueous solution. The composition of the emulsion-based foam itself protected cholecalciferol from degradation, as well as the addition of the radical-scavenging antioxidant tocopheryl acetate to the oil phase. With the patient in mind, the irritancy potential was also examined, which was below the set limit that defines a non-irritant dermal product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tortosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia bacteria have invaded many arthropod species by inducing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI. These symbionts represent fascinating objects of study for evolutionary biologists, but also powerful potential biocontrol agents. Here, we assess the density dynamics of Wolbachia infections in males and females of the mosquito Aedes albopitcus, an important vector of human pathogens, and interpret the results within an evolutionary framework. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wolbachia densities were measured in natural populations and in age controlled mosquitoes using quantitative PCR. We show that the density dynamics of the wAlbA Wolbachia strain infecting Aedes albopictus drastically differ between males and females, with a very rapid decay of infection in males only. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Theory predicts that Wolbachia and its hosts should cooperate to improve the transmission of infection to offspring, because only infected eggs are protected from the effects of CI. However, incompatible matings effectively lower the fertility of infected males, so that selection acting on the host genome should tend to reduce the expression of CI in males, for example, by reducing infection density in males before sexual maturation. The rapid decay of one Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus males, but not in females, is consistent with this prediction. We suggest that the commonly observed reduction in CI intensity with male age reflects a similar evolutionary process. Our results also highlight the importance of monitoring infection density dynamics in both males and females to assess the efficiency of Wolbachia-based control strategies.

  4. The Limits to Parapatric Speciation: Dobzhansky–Muller Incompatibilities in a Continent–Island Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Claudia; Bürger, Reinhard; Hermisson, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    How much gene flow is needed to inhibit speciation by the accumulation of Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities (DMIs) in a structured population? Here, we derive these limits in a classical migration–selection model with two haploid or diploid loci and unidirectional gene flow from a continent to an island. We discuss the dependence of the maximum gene-flow rate on ecological factors (exogeneous selection), genetic factors (epistasis, recombination), and the evolutionary history. Extensive analytical and numerical results show the following: (1) The maximum rate of gene flow is limited by exogeneous selection. In particular, maintenance of neutral DMIs is impossible with gene flow. (2) There are two distinct mechanisms that drive DMI evolution in parapatry, selection against immigrants in a heterogeneous environment and selection against hybrids due to the incompatibility. (3) Depending on the mechanism, opposite predictions result concerning the genetic architecture that maximizes the rate of gene flow a DMI can sustain. Selection against immigrants favors evolution of tightly linked DMIs of arbitrary strength, whereas selection against hybrids promotes the evolution of strong unlinked DMIs. In diploids, the fitness of the double heterozygotes is the decisive factor to predict the pattern of DMI stability. PMID:22542972

  5. The limits to parapatric speciation: Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities in a continent-island model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Claudia; Bürger, Reinhard; Hermisson, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    How much gene flow is needed to inhibit speciation by the accumulation of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMIs) in a structured population? Here, we derive these limits in a classical migration-selection model with two haploid or diploid loci and unidirectional gene flow from a continent to an island. We discuss the dependence of the maximum gene-flow rate on ecological factors (exogeneous selection), genetic factors (epistasis, recombination), and the evolutionary history. Extensive analytical and numerical results show the following: (1) The maximum rate of gene flow is limited by exogeneous selection. In particular, maintenance of neutral DMIs is impossible with gene flow. (2) There are two distinct mechanisms that drive DMI evolution in parapatry, selection against immigrants in a heterogeneous environment and selection against hybrids due to the incompatibility. (3) Depending on the mechanism, opposite predictions result concerning the genetic architecture that maximizes the rate of gene flow a DMI can sustain. Selection against immigrants favors evolution of tightly linked DMIs of arbitrary strength, whereas selection against hybrids promotes the evolution of strong unlinked DMIs. In diploids, the fitness of the double heterozygotes is the decisive factor to predict the pattern of DMI stability.

  6. Flow cytometric measurement of ABO antibodies in ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Gisella Puga; Valli, Piero V; Starke, Astrid; Mueller, Regula J; Fehr, Thomas; Cesar-Ozpamir, Marija; Schanz, Urs; Weber, Markus; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Seebach, Jörg D; Stussi, Georg

    2007-12-27

    Due to different detection methods, a comparison of anti-A/B antibody (Ab) levels among transplantation centers after living donor ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is problematic. In the present study, anti-A/B Ab levels were determined prior to, and after, blood group A-to-O kidney transplantation using a recently established semiquantitative flow cytometry-based method, ABO fluorescence-activated cell sorting (ABO-FACS), and compared with standard agglutination titers and indirect antiglobulin testing. Pretransplant agglutination titers were reduced from 1:64 to 1:4, by a total of 14 Glycosorb A column immunoadsorptions (IADSs). Compared with the agglutination titers, antidonor immunoglobulin (Ig) M ABO-FACS mean fluorescence intensity ratios (MFIRs) decreased faster and remained low. No difference was observed using donor type or third-party A red blood cells (RBCs) for the ABO-FACS. Glycosorb A columns were not specific, also reducing anti-B and antiporcine IgM levels, which was confirmed by detecting anti-A/B and antiporcine Abs in the column eluates. In conclusion, analysis of pre- and posttransplant Abs from ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients by ABO-FACS allows a better understanding of Ab kinetics, which may improve the design of future IADS protocols.

  7. Uneven segregation of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechsgaard, J; Bataillon, T; Schierup, M H

    2004-05-01

    Self-incompatibility in Arabidopsis lyrata is sporophytically controlled by the multi-allelic S-locus. Self-incompatibility alleles (S-alleles) are under strong negative frequency dependent selection because pollen carrying common S-alleles have fewer mating opportunities. Population genetics theory predicts that deleterious alleles can accumulate if linked to the S-locus. This was tested by studying segregation of S-alleles in 11 large full sib families in A. lyrata. Significant segregation distortion leading to an up to fourfold difference in transmission rates was found in six families. Differences in transmission rates were not significantly different in reciprocal crosses and the distortions observed were compatible with selection acting at the gametic stage alone. The S-allele with the largest segregation advantage is also the most recessive, and is very common in natural populations concordant with its apparent segregation advantage. These results imply that frequencies of S-alleles in populations of A. lyrata cannot be predicted based on simple models of frequency-dependent selection alone.

  8. Functional incompatibility between the fertilization systems of two allopatric populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D V; Eady, P E

    2001-11-11

    Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice.

  9. Incompatible blood transfusion: Challenging yet lifesaving in the management of acute severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, Rafiq Uz; Safi, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed against red cell antigens. Most patients of AIHA arrive in the emergency or out-patient department (OPD) with severe anemia requiring urgent blood transfusion. Here we share our experience of managing these patients with incompatible blood transfusions and suggest the minimal test required to assure patient safety. A total of 14 patients admitted with severe anemia, diagnosed with AIHA and requiring blood transfusion urgently were included in the study. A series of immunohematological investigations were performed to confirm the diagnosis and issue best match packed red blood cells (PRBC) to these patients. A total of 167 PRBC units were crossmatched for 14 patients of which 46 units (28%) were found to be best match ones and 26 (56.5%) of these units were transfused. A mean turn around time of 222 min was observed in issuing the "best match" blood. Severe hemolysis was observed in all patients with a median hemoglobin increment of 0.88 g/dl after each unit PRBC transfusion. Decision to transfuse in AIHA should be based on the clinical condition of the patient. No critical patient should be denied blood transfusion due to serological incompatibility. Minimum investigations such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antibody screening and autocontrol should be performed to ensure transfusion safety in patients. All transfusion services should be capable of issuing "best match" PRBCs in AIHA.

  10. Severe hemolytic disease of the premature newborn due to RH1 incompatibility: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafid; Labrini, Fayçal; El Khazraji, Abdelhak; Yahyaoui, Anass; Hadef, Rachid; Messaoudi, Nezha

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dramatic outcome of severe hemolytic disease in a newborn due to RH1 incompatibility. A newborn with A RH1 blood group was admitted in the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital for the problem of hydrops fetalis associated with RH1 incompatibility. The blood group of his mother, aged 31, was AB RH1-negative and that of his 37 year old father was A RH1. The mother had a history of 4 term deliveries, 3 abortions, and 1 living child. There was no prevention by anti-D immunoglobulin postpartum. The mother's irregular agglutinin test was positive and the pregnancy was poorly monitored. The laboratory tests of the newborn showed a high total serum bilirubin level (30 mg/L) and macrocytic regenerative anemia (Hemoglobin=4 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume = 183 fL, reticulocytes count =176600/m 3 ). The blood smear showed 1256 erythroblasts per 100 leukocytes, Howell-Jolly bodies and many macrocytes. The direct antiglobulin test was positive. He was transfused with red blood cell concentrates and treated with conventional phototherapy. The evolution was unfavourable; he died three days after the death of his mother. The monitoring of these high-risk pregnancies requires specialized centers and a close collaboration between the gynaecologist and the blood transfusion specialist to strengthen the prevention, as well as clinico-biological monitoring in patients with a history of RH1 fetomaternal alloimunization.

  11. Incompatible with Care: Examining Trisomy 18 Medical Discourse and Families' Counter-discourse for Recuperative Ethos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvilson, Megan J; Copeland, Adam J

    2017-02-10

    Parents whose child is diagnosed with a serious disease such as trisomy 18 first rely on the medical community for an accurate description and prognosis. In the case of trisomy 18, however, many families are told the disease is "incompatible with life" even though some children with the condition live for several years. This paper considers parents' response to current medical discourse concerning trisomy 18 by examining blogs written by the parents of those diagnosed. Using interpretive humanistic reading and foregrounding Cathryn Molloy's recuperative ethos theory (2015), we find that parents demonstrate recuperative ethos in response to physicians' descriptions of trisomy 18, particularly in rhetoric addressing survival, medicalized language, and religious and/or spiritual rhetoric. We argue that, by using language such as "incompatible with life," physicians distance themselves from families, creating not care, but the very gulf that requires recuperation. We conclude that medical professionals would do well to engage with the trisomy 18 community-including learning from blogs and online forums- employ palliative care practices, and seek more accurate, descriptive language that is compatible with care.

  12. Exploring anti-community structure in networks with application to incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajing; Liu, Yongguo; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Yonghua; Wang, Shidong; Wu, Xindong

    2017-11-01

    Community structure is one of the most important properties in networks, in which a node shares its most connections with the others in the same community. On the contrary, the anti-community structure means the nodes in the same group have few or no connections with each other. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the incompatibility problem of herbs is a challenge to the clinical medication safety. In this paper, we propose a new anti-community detection algorithm, Random non-nEighboring nOde expansioN (REON), to find anti-communities in networks, in which a new evaluation criterion, anti-modularity, is designed to measure the quality of the obtained anti-community structure. In order to establish anti-communities in REON, we expand the node set by non-neighboring node expansion and regard the node set with the highest anti-modularity as an anti-community. Inspired by the phenomenon that the node with higher degree has greater contribution to the anti-modularity, an improved algorithm called REONI is developed by expanding node set by the non-neighboring node with the maximum degree, which greatly enhances the efficiency of REON. Experiments on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over the existing methods. In addition, by applying REONI to the herb network, we find that it can discover incompatible herb combinations.

  13. Genotypic differences in cyanogenic glycosides levels of compatible Prunus persica P. persica and incompatible P. persica P. mume combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is a phenomenon associated with complex physiological, biochemical, and genetic interactions between scion and rootstock. The main objective of this work was to assess the role of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs, amygdalin and prunasin, in the graft incompatibility of Prunus and possible biochemical effects in compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Graft compatibility, amygdalin and prunasin content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity, were studied in different graft combinations (Chimarrita/Capdeboscq; Chimarrita/Tsukuba 1; Chimarrita/Umezeiro; Maciel/Capdeboscq; Maciel/’Tsukuba 1; Maciel/Umezeiro and ungrafted genotypes. The results indicate that there was graft incompatibility of Chimarrita and Maciel cultivars grafted into Umezeiro rootstock. Combinations identified as incompatible showed higher prunasin concentration and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in rootstock and greater concentration of total phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity in scion and rootstock. The results indicate that large differences in CGs concentration, especially prunasin, can be the graft incompatibility cause between Prunus persic. and P. mume. The prunasin concentration may be considered a promising marker to predict graft compatibility between P. persica and P. mume.

  14. Concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks: COCONETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kleessen

    Full Text Available The accumulation of high-throughput data from different experiments has facilitated the extraction of condition-specific networks over the same set of biological entities. Comparing and contrasting of such multiple biological networks is in the center of differential network biology, aiming at determining general and condition-specific responses captured in the network structure (i.e., included associations between the network components. We provide a novel way for comparison of multiple networks based on determining network clustering (i.e., partition into communities which is optimal across the set of networks with respect to a given cluster quality measure. To this end, we formulate the optimization-based problem of concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks, termed COCONETS, based on the modularity. The solution to this problem is a clustering which depends on all considered networks and pinpoints their preserved substructures. We present theoretical results for special classes of networks to demonstrate the implications of conditionality captured by the COCONETS formulation. As the problem can be shown to be intractable, we extend an existing efficient greedy heuristic and applied it to determine concurrent conditional clusters on coexpression networks extracted from publically available time-resolved transcriptomics data of Escherichia coli under five stresses as well as on metabolite correlation networks from metabolomics data set from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to eight environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the investigation of the differences between the clustering based on all networks with that obtained from a subset of networks can be used to quantify the specificity of biological responses. While a comparison of the Escherichia coli coexpression networks based on seminal properties does not pinpoint biologically relevant differences, the common network substructures extracted by COCONETS are supported by

  15. Coinductive Big-Step Semantics for Concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Uustalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a paper presented at SOS 2010, we developed a framework for big-step semantics for interactive input-output in combination with divergence, based on coinductive and mixed inductive-coinductive notions of resumptions, evaluation and termination-sensitive weak bisimilarity. In contrast to standard inductively defined big-step semantics, this framework handles divergence properly; in particular, runs that produce some observable effects and then diverge, are not "lost". Here we scale this approach for shared-variable concurrency on a simple example language. We develop the metatheory of our semantics in a constructive logic.

  16. Concurrency control in distributed database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, W; Gelenbe, E

    1989-01-01

    Distributed Database Systems (DDBS) may be defined as integrated database systems composed of autonomous local databases, geographically distributed and interconnected by a computer network.The purpose of this monograph is to present DDBS concurrency control algorithms and their related performance issues. The most recent results have been taken into consideration. A detailed analysis and selection of these results has been made so as to include those which will promote applications and progress in the field. The application of the methods and algorithms presented is not limited to DDBSs but a

  17. Torsion vehicle model test for automotive vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    Torsion vehicle model test of Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) model for automotive vehicle sedan is proposed in this paper to demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path within the vehicle structures. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that a satisfactory load paths can five a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global torsion stiffness reduces significantly when only one panel is removed from the complete SSS model. The results also five a food agreement with respect to the theoretical hypothesis as the structure is less stiff in torsion in an open section condition. The SSS model and the corresponding torsion test is obviously useful to give an overview of vehicle structural integrity. It can be potentially integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  18. [Frequencies of blood groups, ABO and Rh D incompatibility in post-delivery women and their liveborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiochi, Eduardo; Camano, Luiz; Sass, Nelson; Colas, Osmar Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency of different blood phenotypes and to predict the risk of Rh D alloimmunization and maternal-fetal incompatibility in a Brazilian population living in the West zone of the city of São Paulo-Brazil. This descriptive study evaluated 2,372 post-delivery women and their liveborn during one year. Blood types were analyzed by means of tube agglutination tests. The blood type frequencies were: 50.67 O, 32.17 A, 13.45 B, 3.75 AB, 90.34 Rh D(+) and 9.66 Rh D(-). ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility was detected in 18.4% and Rh D incompatibility in 7%. The fraction of Rh D(-) population at high risk for Rh D alloimmunization was 82%, emphasizing the importance of Rh D alloimmunization profilaxis.

  19. Wolbachia distribution and cytoplasmic incompatibility based on a survey of 42 spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, T; Noda, H; Hong, X-Y

    2003-09-01

    Wolbachia are a group of maternally inherited bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Wolbachia infections are known to result in the expression of various abnormal reproductive phenotypes, the best known being cytoplasmic incompatibility. The first systematic survey of 42 spider mite species in Japan revealed that seven species (16.7%) were infected with Wolbachia. Wolbachia in the spider mites were grouped into three subgroups in supergroup B by phylogenetic analyses of the wsp gene. Most spider mites did not show cytoplasmic incompatibility when infected males were crossed with uninfected females. However, all infected populations of Panonychus mori and Oligonychus gotohi (five and four populations, respectively) possessed modification-positive strains of Wolbachia, and the cytoplasmic incompatibility decreased egg hatchability and female ratio of the spider mites. Thus, some Wolbachia strains cause sex ratio distortion in their hosts.

  20. Concurrent sound segregation is enhanced in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Alain, Claude

    2009-08-01

    The ability to segregate simultaneously occurring sounds is fundamental to auditory perception. Many studies have shown that musicians have enhanced auditory perceptual abilities; however, the impact of musical expertise on segregating concurrently occurring sounds is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether long-term musical training can improve listeners' ability to segregate sounds that occur simultaneously. Participants were presented with complex sounds that had either all harmonics in tune or the second harmonic mistuned by 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, or 16% of its original value. The likelihood of hearing two sounds simultaneously increased with mistuning, and this effect was greater in musicians than nonmusicians. The segregation of the mistuned harmonic from the harmonic series was paralleled by an object-related negativity that was larger and peaked earlier in musicians. It also coincided with a late positive wave referred to as the P400 whose amplitude was larger in musicians than in nonmusicians. The behavioral and electrophysiological effects of musical expertise were specific to processing the mistuned harmonic as the N1, the N1c, and the P2 waves elicited by the tuned stimuli were comparable in both musicians and nonmusicians. These results demonstrate that listeners' ability to segregate concurrent sounds based on harmonicity is modulated by experience and provides a basis for further studies assessing the potential rehabilitative effects of musical training on solving complex scene analysis problems illustrated by the cocktail party example.

  1. Concurrent work with parents of adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years we have seen an increasing acceptance of the general idea of working with parents of child patients. What remains, however, as an area of controversy, conflict, and resistance, is the question of whether and how much therapists should or can work with the parents of adolescent patients. Questions cluster around how to maintain confidentiality and lead to the even larger issue of conceptualizing the developmental goals of the phase of adolescence. We see the major developmental tasks for both parents and adolescents as involving transformation of the self and the relationship, in the context of separateness rather than separation. If adolescent therapists work from the assumption that the goal of adolescence is transformation, concurrent work with parents and adolescents will move them all into a new level of relationship. Without concomitant change in parents, it is doubly hard for adolescents to progress into adulthood. In this paper we offer clinical material from five older adolescents and their parents to illustrate the techniques that follow from our model of dynamic concurrent parent work throughout the phases of treatment. Using the tasks of the therapeutic alliance as a conceptual framework, we describe working toward the dual goals of restoration to the path of progressive development and restoration of the parent-child relationship. We pay particular attention to the unfolding of conflicts between closed-system omnipotent functioning and open-system reality mastery, and the role offathers in late-adolescent development.

  2. Evaluation of interaction dynamics of concurrent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobecki, Piotr; Białasiewicz, Jan T.; Gross, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the wavelet tools that enable the detection of temporal interactions of concurrent processes. In particular, the determination of interaction coherence of time-varying signals is achieved using a complex continuous wavelet transform. This paper has used electrocardiogram (ECG) and seismocardiogram (SCG) data set to show multiple continuous wavelet analysis techniques based on Morlet wavelet transform. MATLAB Graphical User Interface (GUI), developed in the reported research to assist in quick and simple data analysis, is presented. These software tools can discover the interaction dynamics of time-varying signals, hence they can reveal their correlation in phase and amplitude, as well as their non-linear interconnections. The user-friendly MATLAB GUI enables effective use of the developed software what enables to load two processes under investigation, make choice of the required processing parameters, and then perform the analysis. The software developed is a useful tool for researchers who have a need for investigation of interaction dynamics of concurrent processes.

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  4. The transcriptome of compatible and incompatible interactions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans revealed by DeepSAGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike; Basekow, Rico; Ballvora, Agim; Imhoff, Maren; Kersten, Birgit; Nielsen, Kåre-Lehman; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction) and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction). The transcriptomes of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30,859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes for plant host pathogen interactions, examples of which are discussed with respect to possible function.

  5. Effect of ABO incompatibility on T-cell flow cytometry cross-match results prior to living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M; Lenz, V; Nyadu, B; Heinemann, F M; Heinold, A; Guberina, H; Eisenberger, U; Lachmann, N; Schönemann, C; Kribben, A; Paul, A; Horn, P A; Witzke, O

    2016-11-18

    Due to its high sensitivity, the flow cytometry cross-match (FCXM) has been described as valuable tool for identifying an optimal donor. We here focused on the impact of ABO incompatibility on FCXM results. We analyzed 29 ABO incompatible and 89 ABO compatible donor-recipient pairs (73 and 175 datasets, respectively) prior to living donor kidney transplantation. In all patients, lymphocytotoxic cross-matches for B and T cells were negative. Recipients with blood group O (A to O and B to O) displayed significantly (P < 0.05) higher T-FCXM results than those with blood group A and B (A to B, B to A and AB to A), respectively. Donor-specific T-FCXM responses (ΔMFI values) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in ABO incompatible vs. compatible pairs (ABO incompatible recipients with blood group O: 32 ± 6; with blood group A: 19 ± 7; with blood group B: 7 ± 4; recipients with ABO compatibility: 3 ± 2, respectively, data represent mean ± SEM). Consistent with the T-FCXM results donor-specific isohemagglutinins (IgG titers) were significantly higher in recipients with blood group O vs. A, both prior to rituximab treatment and plasmapheresis/immune adsorption (P = 0.004) and immediately prior to transplantation, i.e., after rituximab and antibody-depleting therapies (P = 0.04). ABO incompatibility was associated with higher T-FCXM responses, especially in recipients with blood group O. This finding has major impact on the interpretation of flow cross-match results. Current cut-off values need to be reassessed in the ABO incompatible setting. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  7. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-incompatibility (SI) is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z). Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software...... available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system...

  8. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  9. Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Sun, Lu; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin

    2007-03-01

    Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

  10. Direct quantum process tomography via measuring sequential weak values of incompatible observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yosep; Kim, Yong-Su; Lee, Sang-Yun; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Cho, Young-Wook

    2018-01-15

    The weak value concept has enabled fundamental studies of quantum measurement and, recently, found potential applications in quantum and classical metrology. However, most weak value experiments reported to date do not require quantum mechanical descriptions, as they only exploit the classical wave nature of the physical systems. In this work, we demonstrate measurement of the sequential weak value of two incompatible observables by making use of two-photon quantum interference so that the results can only be explained quantum physically. We then demonstrate that the sequential weak value measurement can be used to perform direct quantum process tomography of a qubit channel. Our work not only demonstrates the quantum nature of weak values but also presents potential new applications of weak values in analyzing quantum channels and operations.

  11. Incompatibility of croscarmellose sodium with alkaline excipients in a tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Dilbir S; Stein, Daniel; Pandey, Preetanshu; Barbour, Nancy

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the current work was to study an observed incompatibility between croscarmellose sodium and basic excipients in a tablet formulation. Significant dissolution slowdown was observed for alkaline tablet compositions of an acid-labile drug containing croscarmellose sodium (CCS) as a disintegrant. The severity of the dissolution slowdown was directly proportional to both the degree of alkalinity and the level of CCS in the tablet formulation. It is postulated that the ester cross-links in CCS were partially or fully hydrolyzed under basic conditions (pH values >9) forming by-products of increased water solubility. This increase in the level of water-soluble polymer can lead to the formation of a viscous barrier in the tablet upon moisture uptake, thus slowing down its dissolution. The dissolution slowdown was not observed for a similar alkaline tablet preparation containing crospovidone as a disintegrant.

  12. Evolutionary Implications of Mechanistic Models of TE-Mediated Hybrid Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dean M.; Moyle, Leonie C.

    2012-01-01

    New models of TE repression in plants (specifically Arabidopsis) have suggested specific mechanisms by which TE misregulation in hybrids might result in the expression of hybrid inviability. If true, these models suggest as yet undescribed consequences for (1) mechanistic connections between hybrid problems expressed at different postzygotic stages (e.g., inviability versus sterility), (2) the predicted strength, stage, and direction of isolation between diverging lineages that differ in TE activity, and (3) the association between species attributes that influence TE dynamics (e.g., mode of reproduction, geographical structure) and the rate at which they could accumulate incompatibilities. In this paper, we explore these implications and outline future empirical directions for generating data necessary to evaluate them. PMID:22518335

  13. The number of self-incompatibility alleles in a finite, subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H

    1998-01-01

    The actual and effective number of gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles maintained at mutation-drift-selection equilibrium in a finite population subdivided as in the island model is investigated by stochastic simulations. The existing theory founded by Wright predicts that for a given...... population size the number of alleles maintained increases monotonically with decreasing migration as is the case for neutral alleles. The simulation results here show that this is not true. At migration rates above Nm = 0.01-0.1, the actual and effective number of alleles is lower than for an undivided...... population with the same number of individuals, and, contrary to Wright's theoretical expectation, the number of alleles is not much higher than for an undivided population unless Nm

  14. [Compatibilities and incompatibilities between gamma rays and ethylene oxide as consecutive sterilization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2010-12-01

    The doubt regarding the re-sterilization of articles made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sterilized with gamma radiation (GR) and subsequently with ethylene oxide (EO) persists to date. Through a systematic literature review, this article analyzed studies that demonstrated compatibilities and incompatibilities between the sterilization processes with GR and EO, when used as consecutive sterilization methods. Seven studies were analyzed. It was verified that there is a multifactor influence regarding the safety of the procedure and that the chromatography analytical method employed by most studies yielded controversial results. This fact indicates the need for further studies on the issue, using more sensitive analytical methods than gas chromatography, such as the biological reactivity test in cell cultures, in an attempt to clarify the chronic doubt regarding the adequacy or inadequacy of sterilizing previously gamma-irradiated materials with EtO.

  15. Female employment and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K O; Palan, V T

    1981-11-01

    Multivariate analysis of the 1974 Malaysian Fertility and Family Survey tests the hypothesis that an inverse relationship between women's work and fertility occurs only when there are serious conflicts between working and caring for children. The results are only partly consistent with the hypothesis and suggest that normative conflicts between working and mothering affect the employment-fertility relationship in Malaysia more than spacio-temporal conflicts do. The lack of consistent evidence for the hypothesis, as well as some conceptual problems, lead us to propose an alternative framework for understanding variation in the employment-fertility relationship, both in Malaysia and elsewhere. This framework incorporates ideas from the role incompatibility hypothesis but views the employment-fertility relationship as dependent not just on role conflicts but more generally on the structure of the household's socioeconomic opportunities.

  16. LEFT LOBE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION FROM AB0-INCOMPATIBLE LIVING DONOR WITH SITUS INVERSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality that affects approximately 0.005% of all live births. Traditionally, this condition is considered as a contraindication for liver donation, primarily due to the peculiarities of the vascular anatomy and the diffi culties in graft placement in the abdominal cavity. Review of the world literature testifi es to fi ve cases of use of the whole liver from deceased donor with situs inversus in adult recipients, and to just one case of inverted right lobe transplantation from living donor to 53-year-old man. Thus, transplantation of an inverted left liver lobe from a living related donor in pediatric patients was performed for the fi rst time. The article presents a successful experience of liver transplantation in child with tyrosinemia type 1 from AB0-incompatible living donor with situs inversus.

  17. Characteristics of the ion beam exposure for overcoming the cross incompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masayoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In wild species, there are valuable genes controlling resistance to disease, insect and environmental stress. The introduction of such genes from wild species to cultivar is extremely useful in plant breeding. However, it is very difficult or impossible to obtain an interspecific hybrid in a wide cross, because of the strong cross-incompatibility. We have been searching for an effective procedure of interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. Because N. gossei Domin (wild species) has been reported to be resistant to more disease and insects than other Nicotiana species, many attempts to hybridize it with N. tabacum L. (cultivar) have been made. In N. gossei x N. tabacum, it is easy to get hybrid seeds with conventional cross, but hybrid plants can not survive, On the other hand, in N. tabacum x N. gossei, few seeds with viability can be obtained. In this species combination, we had obtained the viable hybrid plant by means of the cross with the gamma-rays-irradiated pollen at the rate of 3.7 x 10{sup -5}. Ion beams have higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer), in comparison with that of gamma-rays, and can be controlled the range in the target material. Accordingly, a lot of energy can be deposited on the focused point of material exposed to ion beams. The cross (N. gossei x N. tabacum) with pollen exposed to ion beams, e. g., he, C and Ne ions, produced the viable hybrid plants at the rate 1 x 10{sup -2}, which was much higher than that of gamma-rays. Morphological characters in some of hybrid plants were intermediate between parents and uniform, suggesting that they had no mutation induced by the ion beam exposure. Conclusively, it is said that ion beams are more effective for overcoming the cross incompatibility than radiations with low LET. (author)

  18. Integration of irradiation with cytoplasmic incompatibility to facilitate a lymphatic filariasis vector elimination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson Stephen L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass drug administration (MDA is the emphasis of an ongoing global lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination program by the World Health Organization, in which the entire 'at risk' human population is treated annually with anti-filarial drugs. However, there is evidence that the MDA strategy may not be equally appropriate in all areas of LF transmission, leading to calls for the augmentation of MDA with anti-vector interventions. One potential augmentative intervention is the elimination of vectors via repeated inundative releases of male mosquitoes made cytoplasmically incompatible via an infection with Wolbachia bacteria. However, with a reduction in the vector population size, there is the risk that an accidental female release would permit the establishment of the incompatible Wolbachia infection type, resulting in population replacement instead of population elimination. To avoid the release of fertile females, we propose the exposure of release individuals to low doses of radiation to sterilize any accidentally released females, reducing the risk of population replacement. Results Aedes polynesiensis pupae of differing ages were irradiated to determine a radiation dose that results in sterility but that does not affect the survival and competitiveness of males. Laboratory assays demonstrate that males irradiated at a female sterilizing dosage of 40 Gy are equally competitive with un-irradiated males. No effect of irradiation on the ability of Wolbachia to affect egg hatch was observed. Conclusion An irradiation dose of 40 Gy is sufficient to cause female sterility, but has no observed negative effect on male fitness. The results support further development of this approach as a preventative measure against accidental population replacement.

  19. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  20. Efficacy of everolimus in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsujimura K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuma Tsujimura,1 Morihito Ota,1 Kiyoshi Chinen,1 Kiyomitsu Nagayama,2 Masato Oroku,2 Morikuni Nishihira,2 Yoshiki Shiohira,2 Kunitoshi Iseki,3 Hideki Ishida,4 Kazunari Tanabe4 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Nephrology, 3Clinical Research Support Center, Tomishiro Central Hospital, Okinawa, Japan; 4Department of Urology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Background: There are limited reports on the use of everolimus for maintaining immunosuppression in ABO-incompatible (ABOi kidney transplantation (KT. As everolimus (EVR is effective for preventing calcineurin inhibitor (CNI nephrotoxicity without increasing the risk of chronic rejection and viral infection, we aimed to assess the efficacy of EVR in ABOi KT.Patients and methods: We retrospectively studied 22 patients who underwent KT and received EVR. Patients in the ABOi KT group (n=7 were compared with those in the ABO-compatible kidney transplantation group (ABOc KT; n=15. We recorded the frequency of CNI nephrotoxicity, chronic rejection, and viral infection in the 2 groups.Results: CNI nephrotoxicity, chronic rejection, and viral infection occurred in the ABOi KT and ANOc KT groups at rates of 28.3% (2/7 patients and 13.3% (2/15 patients (P=0.388, 28.3% (2/7 patients and 26.7% (4/15 patients (P=0.926, and 14.3% (1/7 patients and 26.7% (4/15 patients (P=0.517, respectively.Conclusion: Administration of EVR is effective in preventing CNI nephrotoxicity after KT. The rate of CNI nephrotoxicity was lower in the ABOc KT group than in the ABOi KT group. The rate of chronic rejection and viral infection was comparable between the groups. This study was conducted in a small cohort of patients. Hence, further evaluation with large sample sizes is necessary in the future to confirm the outcomes. Keywords: blood group incompatibility, immunosuppression, kidney transplantation

  1. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  2. Effect of lipopolysaccharide mutations on recipient ability of Salmonella typhimurium for incompatibility group H plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherburne, C; Taylor, D E

    1997-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incompatibility group F, P, and I plasmid systems revealed the important role of the outer membrane components in the conjugal transfer of these plasmids. We have observed variability in transfer frequency of three incompatibility group H plasmids (IncHI1 plasmid R27, IncHI2 plasmid R478, and a Tn7 derivative of R27, pDT2454) upon transfer into various Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants derived from a common parental strain, SL1027. Recipients with truncated outer core via the rfaF LPS mutation increased the transfer frequency of the IncH plasmids by up to a factor of 10(3). Mutations which resulted in the truncation of the residues following 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid, such as the rfaE and rfaD mutations, decreased the transfer frequency to undetectable levels. Addition of phosphorylethanolamine, a component of wild-type LPS, to the media decreased the frequency of transfer of R27 into wild-type and rfaF LPS mutant recipients tested. Reversing the direction of transfer, by mating LPS mutant donors with wild-type recipients, did not affect the frequency of transfer compared to the standard matings of wild-type donor with LPS mutant recipient. These findings demonstrate that conjugation interactions affected by LPS mutation are not specific for the recipient cell. Our results suggest that LPS mutation does not affect conjugation via altered pilus binding but affects some later steps in the conjugative process, and alteration of transfer frequency by O-phosphorylethanolamine and LPS truncation is due to charge-related interactions between the donor and recipient cell. PMID:9006054

  3. Concurrent radiochemotherapy in advanced hypopharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukarski Dusko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent platinum-based radiochemotherapy has been recommended as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, there is a lack of level one evidence on best treatment approach for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. This report aims to summarize the results of our study on concurrent radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis of 41 patients with stage III-IV hypopharyngeal cancer was performed. All patients were treated with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and received 70 Gy in 35 fractions (2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week. In dependence of the period when radiotherapy was realized, two different treatment techniques were used. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 30 mg/m2 given on a weekly basis. Results The median age was 52 years (range 29-70. Stage IV disease was recognized in 73.2% of the patients. Complete response rates at the primary site and at the metastatic neck lymph nodes were 68.3% and 36.6%, respectively. A complete composite response was present in 27 patients (65.9%. Median follow-up was 13 months (range 7-36. Distant metastases as initial failure occurred in 7 patients (46.7%. The 2-year local relapse-free survival and regional relapse-free survival rates were 55.2% and 75.8%, respectively. The 2-year locoregional relapse-free survival rate was 51.3%. The 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 29.3% and 32.8%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was developed in 46.3% of patients. Leucopenia grade 1 was the most frequent hematological toxicity. The median weight loss at the end of treatment was 12% (range 5-21. The worst grade of late toxicity was most commonly pronounced in the skin and in the subcutaneous tissue. Conclusions Based on unsatisfactory results in our study we suggest that the use of sequential radiochemotherapy or chemotherapy

  4. Kidney transplantation of 32 patients from HLA-incompatible live donors: Efficacy and outcome after desensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino Fernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Desensitization is a procedure undergone by the recipient of a kidney transplant from a donor who is cross-match positive. The aim of this study was to present the outcomes from our hospital of kidney transplant recipients from HLA-incompatible live donors after desensitization.We studied 32 patients aged 46 ± 14 years with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI versus class I HLA of 7979 ± 4089 and 6825 ± 4182 MFI versus class II and relative intensity scale (RIS of 8.9 ± 7.6. The complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC cross-matching test was positive in 18 patients, flow cytometry was positive in 7 patients and donor-specific antibodies (DEA were detected in 7. The protocol used was rituximab, plasmapheresis/immunoadsorption, immunoglobulins, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid derivatives and prednisone.After 8 ± 3 sessions of plasmapheresis/immunoadsorption, 23 patients were transplanted (71.9% and desensitization was ineffective in 9. There were baseline differences in MFI class I (p < 0.001, RIS (p = 0.008, and CDC cross-matching, DSA and flow cytometry (p = 0.05. MFI class I and RIS were predictors of inefficiency in ROC curves. After follow-up of 43 ± 30 months, 13 patients (56% presented postoperative bleeding, 3 (13% delayed graft function, 4 (17.4% acute rejection, 6 (26% CMV viremia and 1 (4% BK viremia. Five-year patient survival was 90%, with 86% allograft survival. Five-year creatinine was 1.5 ± 0.4 and proteinuria was 0.5 ± 0.7. Conclusions: Kidney transplantation from HLA-incompatible live donors after desensitization was possible in 71.9% of patients. MFI class I and RIS predict the inefficiency of desensitization. Five-year allograft survival (86% was acceptable with a low incidence of acute rejection (17.4%, although with a greater trend toward postoperative bleeding. Resumen: La desensibilización es un método empleado en trasplante renal para tratar de trasplantar a pacientes que presentan una prueba

  5. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  6. High bandwidth concurrent processing on commodity platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boosten, M; Van der Stok, P D V

    1999-01-01

    The I/O bandwidth and real-time processing power required for high- energy physics experiments is increasing rapidly over time. The current requirements can only be met by using large-scale concurrent processing. We are investigating the use of a large PC cluster interconnected by Fast and Gigabit Ethernet to meet the performance requirements of the ATLAS second level trigger. This architecture is attractive because of its performance and competitive pricing. A major problem is obtaining frequent high-bandwidth I/O without sacrificing the CPU's processing power. We present a tight integration of a user-level scheduler and a zero-copy communication layer. This system closely approaches the performance of the underlying hardware in terms of both CPU power and I/O capacity. (0 refs).

  7. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  8. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency......Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  9. Concurrent remote entanglement with continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalys-Geller, E.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Silveri, M.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mundhada, S. O.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.

    A necessary ingredient for large scale quantum information processing is the ability to entangle distant qubits on demand. In the field of superconducting quantum information, this process can be achieved by entangling stationary superconducting qubits with flying coherent states of microwave light, which are then co-amplified by a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). The JPC also serves as a which-path information eraser, causing the probabilistic continuous measurement process to concurrently entangle the qubits. We discuss the sensitivity of the experiment to the loss of quantum information during the flight of the coherent states, as well as strategies to improve which-path information erasure and reduce information loss to the degree required for entanglement generation. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR, NSF, and YINQE.

  10. Does Concurrent Training Intensity Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Sanz, Adrián; Tuimil, José L; Abreu, Laurinda; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Varela-Sanz, A, Tuimil, JL, Abreu, L, and Boullosa, DA. Does concurrent training intensity distribution matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 181-195, 2017-Previous research has demonstrated the influence of intensity distribution on endurance training adaptations. However, no study has addressed the influence of intensity distribution on the effectiveness of concurrent training (CT). The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of 2 CT programs with different training intensity distribution and externally equated loads on physical fitness. Thirty-one sport science students volunteered and were evaluated for resting heart rate variability (HRV), countermovement jump, bench press, half squat, and maximum aerobic speed (MAS). All were randomly distributed into either a traditional-based training group (TT; n = 11; 65-75% of MAS, combined with 10-12 repetition maximum [RM]), polarized training group (PT; n = 10; 35-40% and 120% of MAS, combined with 5RM and 15RM), or control group (CG; n = 10). After 8 weeks of training (3 daysweek), TT and PT exhibited similar improvements in MAS, bench press, and half squat performances. No differences were observed between TT and PT groups for perceived loads. There were no changes in HRV for any group, although TT exhibited a reduction in resting heart rate. Compared with other groups, the PT group maintained jump capacity with an increment in body mass and body mass index without changes in body fatness. In conclusion, PT induced similar improvements in physical fitness of physically active individuals when compared with TT. However, PT produced a lower interference for jumping capacity despite an increment in body mass, whereas TT induced greater bradycardia. Extended studies with different intensity distributions should be conducted to better determine the dose-response of CT in various populations.

  11. Modeling disease spread in populations with birth, death, and concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Millera, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sexual partnerships that overlap in time (concurrent relationships) is believed by some to be a significant contributing factor to the spread of HIV, although this is controversial. We derive an analytic model which allows us to investigate and compare disease spread in populations with and without concurrency. We can identify regions of parameter space in which its impact is negligible, and other regions in which it plays a major role. We also see that the impact of concurrency on the initial growth phase can be much larger than its impact on the equilibrium size. We see that the effect of concurrency saturates, which leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that interventions targeting concurrency may be most effective in populations with low to moderate levels of concurrency.

  12. A Uniform Approach to the Semantics of Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    tulmath.math.tulane.edu Grant of Contract Title: A Uniform Approach to the Semantics of Concurrency Grant or Contract Number: N00014-88-K-0499 Reporting... the Semantics of Concurrency. The format of the report is the same as is used for annual reports to ONR to report progress on continuing contracts and...tulmath.math.tulane.edu Grant of Contract Title: A Uniform Approach to the Semantics of Concurrency Grant or Contract Number: N00014-88-K-0499

  13. Monogamy relations of concurrence for any dimensional quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    We study monogamy relations for arbitrary dimensional multipartite systems. Monogamy relations based on concurrence and concurrence of assistance for any dimensional m_1⊗ m_2⊗ \\cdots ⊗ mN quantum states are derived, which give rise to the restrictions on the entanglement distributions among the subsystems. Besides, we give the lower bound of concurrence for four-partite mixed states. The approach can be readily generalized to arbitrary multipartite systems.

  14. C formal verification with unix communication and concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Doug N.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a NASA SBIR project are presented in which CSP-Ariel, a verification system for C programs which use Unix system calls for concurrent programming, interprocess communication, and file input and output, was developed. This project builds on ORA's Ariel C verification system by using the system of Hoare's book, Communicating Sequential Processes, to model concurrency and communication. The system runs in ORA's Clio theorem proving environment. The use of CSP to model Unix concurrency and sketch the CSP semantics of a simple concurrent program is outlined. Plans for further development of CSP-Ariel are discussed. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. An efficient locking model for concurrency control in OODBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Arumugam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When several transactions execute concurrently in a database, the isolation property may no longer be preserved. It is necessary for the system to control the interaction among the concurrent transactions. This paper presents a new locking model for concurrency control in object oriented database systems. This model is motivated by a desire to provide high concurrency and low locking overheads in accessing objects. The proposed model consists of a rich set of lock modes, hash table, lock-based signatures and B+ trees. The performance study result shows that the proposed model performs well for all possible operations on objects.

  16. A Highly Concurrent Replicated Data Structure EAI Endorsed Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Well defined concurrent replicated data structure is very important to design collaborative editing system, particularly, certain properties like out-of-order execution of concurrent operations and data convergence. In this paper, we introduce novel linear data structure based on unique identifier scheme required for indexed communication. These identifiers are real numbers holding specific pattern of precision. Based on the uniqueness and the total order of these identifiers, here, we present two concurrency control techniques to achieve high degree of concurrency according to strong and lazy happened-before relations. Our data structure preserves data convergence, yields better performance and avoids overheads as compared to existing approaches.

  17. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  18. Spatially heterogeneous environmental selection strengthens evolution of reproductively isolated populations in a Dobzhansky-Muller system of hybrid incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2016-01-01

    Within-species hybrid incompatibility can arise when combinations of alleles at more than one locus have low fitness but where possession of one of those alleles has little or no fitness consequence for the carriers. Limited dispersal with small numbers of mate potentials alone can lead to the evolution of clusters of reproductively isolated genotypes despite...

  19. JEMs and incompatible occupational coding systems: Effect of manual and automatic recoding of job codes on exposure assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, T.; Offermans, N.S.M.; Christopher-De Vries, Y.; Slottje, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In epidemiological studies, occupational exposure estimates are often assigned through linkage of job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs). However, available JEMs may have a coding system incompatible with the coding system used to code the job histories, necessitating a

  20. Relationships among North American and Japanese Laetiporus isolates inferred from molecular phylogenetics and single-spore incompatibility reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Banik; Daniel L. Lindner; Yuko Ota; Tsutomu. Hattori

    2010-01-01

    Relationships were investigated among North American and Japanese isolates of Laetiporus using phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences and single-spore isolate incompatibility. Single-spore isolate pairings revealed no significant compatibility between North American and Japanese isolates. ITS analysis revealed 12 clades within the core ...

  1. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia : Negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, T.; Niehuis, O.; van de Zande, L.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the

  2. Phenolic compounds involved in grafting incompatibility of Vitis spp: development and validation of an analytical method for their quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Sara; Assunção, Maria; Brazão, João; Zanol, Geni; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Graft incompatibility of Vitis spp is an unresolved worldwide problem with important economic consequences. Grafting comprises a complex set of morphological and physiological alterations, in which the phenolic compounds seem to be strongly involved. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural phenolic compounds diversity in the two partners of a Vitis graft is of great importance to evaluate their role as markers of graft establishment. To optimise a sample extraction method, and to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonols in the graft union so as to understand their behaviour in the metabolism of the scion-rootstock system, using compatible and incompatible combinations of a Syrah cultivar and two rootstocks (R110 and SO4). Sixty extracts of Vitis grafting tissues were prepared and analysed by HPLC for the qualitative and quantitative determination of their phenolic profile. Among the phenolic compounds identified in the samples, one benzoic acid (gallic acid), three cinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) and two flavonols (catechin and epicatechin) are potentially suitable as markers of graft incompatibility. The method developed presents good performance and lends itself readily for application in routine analysis of the phenolic composition of Vitis grafting tissues to distinguish compatible and incompatible combinations in the graft callusing stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Silicone implant incompatibility syndrome (SIIS) in a 57-year-old woman with unilateral silicone breast implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Juliane; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Grindsted Nielsen, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    implants can lead to different interstitial lung manifestations predominantly with granuloma evolvement, leading to the so-called silicone implant incompatibility syndrome (SIIS). This case describes a 57-year-old woman with multiple lung infiltrations and a left-sided breast implant. The implant had been...

  4. Genome Sequence of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Strains with Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with the Major Tomato Resistance Source Hawaii 7996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Greecy M R; Souza, Elineide B; Silva, Adriano M F; Lopes, Carlos A; Boiteux, Leonardo S; Fonseca, Maria Esther de N

    2017-09-07

    We report here the complete genome sequences of two Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum strains, isolated from the warm northeast region of Brazil. They display divergent (compatible versus incompatible) interactions with the resistant tomato line Hawaii 7996. Polymorphisms were detected in a subset of effector genes that might be associated with these contrasting phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Albuquerque et al.

  5. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Song, Hong Suk [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the results of local control, survival rate, prognostic factors, and failure pattern in locally advanced esophageal cancer. We retrospectively studied 50 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from June of 1999 to August of 2008. Seven patients with inappropriate data were excluded, and 43 patients were analyzed. There were 39 males and four female patients ranging in age from 43 to 78 years (median, 63 years). There were seven patients with stage IIA and 36 with stage III. Irradiation from 46 Gy to 63 Gy (median, 54 Gy) was carried out 5 days per week, 1.8 Gy once a day. There were eight patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and we mostly used 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin with 3 cycles for concurrent chemotherapy. The range of follow up periods was from 2 to 82 months (median, 15.5). There were nine patients that exhibited a complete response, 23 that exhibited a partial response, 9 that exhibited no response, and 2 that exhibited disease progression. The median survival time was 15 months. Two-year and 5-year survival rates were 36.5% and 17.3%, respectively. Two-year and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 32.4% and 16%, respectively. Treatment failure occurred in 22 patients (51.2%). Patterns of failure were categorized as local failure in 18 patients and distant metastasis in four patients. In a univariate analysis for prognostic factors related to overall survival and disease-free survival, the hemoglobin levels during chemoradiotherapy ({>=}12 vs. <12, p=0.02/p=0.1) and the response to the treatments (CR/PR vs. NR/PD, p=0.002/p <0.0001) were statistically significant. In a multivariate analysis, only response to the treatments was revealed to be statistically significant. There was no statistical significance associated with patient age, gender, disease stage, T-stage, smoking history, tumor location, or neo

  6. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  7. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  8. LATCH usability in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project investigated the usability of Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren (LATCH) hardware by measuring LATCH implementations in 98 2011 or 2010 model-year vehicles. ISO and SAE LATCH usability rating systems were used to assess all vehicles ...

  9. X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  10. X-43A Hypersonic vehicle technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2006-07-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the next generation launch technology (NGLT) program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President's redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new hypersonic technology program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  11. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  12. ROV, Remote Operated Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Patiris, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show the basic principles of a Remote Operated Vehicle. The aim is also to document in detail how a small scale remote operated vehicle is constructed from the start. This thesis provides theoretical information about remote operated vehicles, as well as ex-plains the construction of hobbyist Remote Operated Vehicle as I carried it out. In the theoretical part information about the history, classification and the cables used in modern Re-mote Operated Vehi...

  13. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurka, Michał; Janeczko, Anna; Juhász, Csilla; Gullner, Gábor; Oklestková, Jana; Novák, Ondrej; Saja, Diana; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Tóbiás, István; Barna, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Phytohormone levels and the expression of genes encoding key enzymes participating in hormone biosynthetic pathways were investigated in pepper leaves inoculated with two different tobamoviruses. Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) inoculation led to the development of hypersensitive reaction (incompatible interaction), while Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) inoculation resulted in a systemic, compatible interaction. ObPV-inoculation markedly increased not only the levels of salicylic acid (SA) (73-fold) and jasmonic acid (8-fold) but also those of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin-9-riboside and trans-zeatin-9-riboside in the inoculated pepper leaves 3 days post inoculation. PMMoV infection increased only the contents of gibberellic acid and SA. Hormone contents did not change significantly after ObPV or PMMoV infection in non-infected upper leaves 20 days post inoculation. Concentrations of some brassinosteroids (BRs) and progesterone increased both in ObPV- and PMMoV inoculated leaves. ObPV inoculation markedly induced the expression of three phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) genes, while that of an isochorismate synthase (ICS) gene was not modified. PMMoV inoculation did not alter the expression of PAL and ICS genes but induced the transcript abundance of ACO although later than ObPV. Pre-treatment of pepper leaves with exogenous 24-epi-brassinolide (24-epi-BR) prior to ObPV-inoculation strongly mitigated the visible symptoms caused by ObPV. In addition, 24-epi-BR pre-treatment markedly altered the level of several hormones in pepper leaves following ObPV-inoculation. These data indicate that ObPV- and PMMoV-inoculations lead to intricate but well harmonized hormonal responses that are largely determined by the incompatible or compatible nature of plant-virus interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  15. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  16. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set,

  17. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  18. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  19. Metric pomset semantics for a concurrent language with recursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco); J.H.A. Warmerdam

    1990-01-01

    textabstractWe study the semantics of a simple language with concurrency and recursion. Our semantic domain consists of (sets of) finite and infinite partially ordered multisets (pomsets) in order to model true concurrency (i.e. noninterleaved parallel execution). It will be shown that the set of

  20. 38 CFR 21.7673 - Measurement of concurrent enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of concurrent... Reserve Course Assessment § 21.7673 Measurement of concurrent enrollments. (a) Conversion of units of... reservist's training time. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 16136(b); 38 U.S.C. 3688) (b) Conversion of clock hours to...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7172 - Measurement of concurrent enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of concurrent... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Course Assessment § 21.7172 Measurement of concurrent enrollments. (a..., VA will convert the credit hours to clock hours to determine the veteran's training time. (Authority...

  2. A Model-Driven Approach to Teaching Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Manuel; Herranz, Angel; Marino, Julio

    2013-01-01

    We present an undergraduate course on concurrent programming where formal models are used in different stages of the learning process. The main practical difference with other approaches lies in the fact that the ability to develop correct concurrent software relies on a systematic transformation of formal models of inter-process interaction (so…

  3. Context-Based Synchronization of Concurrent Process Using Aspect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Abstract. Resource access synchronization within concurrent processes or threads is implemented using various constructs such as semaphores, monitor locks, Mutex, etc. The algorithm supporting most of these structures works by keeping at bay all other concurrent processes or threads till the current ...

  4. Dynamic Frames Based Verification Method for Concurrent Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a verification method for concurrent Java programs based on the concept of dynamic frames. We build on our earlier work that proposes a new, symbolic permission system for concurrent reasoning and we provide the following new contributions. First, we describe our approach

  5. Concurrent Enrollment: Math. Issue Brief, No. 2017-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    The question of course rigor is often raised in connection with Concurrent Enrollment courses when compared to their on-campus equivalents. Over one-third of all Utah high school juniors and seniors enroll in at least one concurrent enrollment course, courses in which students earn both high school credit for graduation and college credit…

  6. Concurrent implementation of quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Monica Elisabeth; Garvare, Rickard; Westerlund, Anna; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Competing activities and projects can interfere with implementing new knowledge and approaches. The purpose, therefore, was to investigate processes and impact related to implementing two concurrent quality initiatives in a Swedish hospital. These were a regionally initiated, system-wide organizational learning programme called the Dynamic and Viable Organization (DVO) and a national initiative on stopping healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections (SHAI). Both undertakings aspired to increase staff competence in systematic improvement approaches. Multiple methods were applied including surveys, observations, interviews, process diaries, documents and organizational measurements. Respondents were unit managers, change facilitators and improvement team members. Even though both initiatives shared the same improvement approach, there was no strong indication that they were strategically combined to benefit each other. The initiatives existed side by side with some coordination and some conflict. Despite absent management strategies to utilize the national SHAI initiative, positive developments in QI culture and communication were reported. The current study illustrates the inherent difficulties coordinating change initiatives, even in favourable circumstances. This article addresses the lesser studied but common situation of coinciding and competing projects in organizations.

  7. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  8. Concurrent oxytocin in women needing second dinoprostone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Zaiba; Ashraf, Mussaret; Irum, Nabila; Bashir, Shaheen; Khaliq, Nagina; Yaqub, Saima

    2015-05-01

    To reduce average induction delivery internal in patients with poor Bishop score without compromising fetomaternal outcome (in terms of birth weight, NICU admission, maternal complications and mode of delivery). A descriptive study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) General Hospital, Islamabad, from February to December 2009. All patients needing 2nd dinoprostone pessary for induction of labour were included in the study. Patients with gestation below 37 weeks, those with intra-uterine growth restriction, bad obstetric history, previous uterine scar and patients in whom Bishop score improved for amniotomy after 1st dinoprostone pessary, were excluded. Data was collected on a special proforma where all variables were defined. Out of 90 patients, 44 (48.8%) had spontaneous vertex deliveries and 12 (13.3%) had instrumental deliveries so a total vaginal deliveries occurred in 56 (62.2%) patients. Thirty four patients (37.8%) had emergency caesarean sections. Main indication for cesarean was failure to progress in 1st stage of labour followed by fetal distress. There were 3 failed inductions. Only 2 patients had hyperstimulation. NICU admission were 8 and all babies were discharged healthy from nursery with no case of early neonatal death. Concurrent oxytocin with 2nd dinoprostone in patients with poor Bishop scores (initial scores 2 and 3) resulted in more vaginal birth and comparatively shorter induction delivery time with almost negligible fetomaternal complications.

  9. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    ...., and Armor Holdings, Inc., for armored vehicles. This report addresses armored vehicles, specifically the Buffalo Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle, the Cougar, the Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV...

  10. Correcting incompatible DN values and geometric errors in nighttime lights time series images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Naizhuo [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Samson, Eric L. [Mayan Esteem Project, Farmington, CT (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime lights imagery has proven to be a powerful remote sensing tool to monitor urbanization and assess socioeconomic activities at large scales. However, the existence of incompatible digital number (DN) values and geometric errors severely limit application of nighttime light image data on multi-year quantitative research. In this study we extend and improve previous studies on inter-calibrating nighttime lights image data to obtain more compatible and reliable nighttime lights time series (NLT) image data for China and the United States (US) through four steps: inter-calibration, geometric correction, steady increase adjustment, and population data correction. We then use gross domestic product (GDP) data to test the processed NLT image data indirectly and find that sum light (summed DN value of pixels in a nighttime light image) maintains apparent increase trends with relatively large GDP growth rates but does not increase or decrease with relatively small GDP growth rates. As nighttime light is a sensitive indicator for economic activity, the temporally consistent trends between sum light and GDP growth rate imply that brightness of nighttime lights on the ground is correctly represented by the processed NLT image data. Finally, through analyzing the corrected NLT image data from 1992 to 2008, we find that China experienced apparent nighttime lights development in 1992-1997 and 2001-2008 respectively and the US suffered from nighttime lights decay in large areas after 2001.

  11. Reproductive isolation is mediated by pollen incompatibility in sympatric populations of two Arnebia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Chan; Tian, Bin; Sun, Xu-Dong; Guo, Wen; Zhang, Ting-Feng; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-12-01

    To explore uncertain aspects of the processes that maintain species boundaries, we evaluated contributions of pre- and postpollination reproductive isolation mechanisms in sympatric populations of Arnebia guttata and A. szechenyi. For this, we investigated their phylogenetic relationships, traits, microenvironments, pollinator visits, action of natural selection on floral traits, and the outcome of hand pollination between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that A. szechenyi is a derived species that could be closely related to A. guttata, and both could be diploid species. Arnebia guttata flowers have larger parts than A. szechenyi flowers, but smaller nectar guides. Soil supporting A. szechenyi had higher water contents than soil supporting neighboring populations of A. guttata (in accordance with their geographical distributions). The pollinators shared by the two species preferred A. szechenyi flowers, but interspecific visitations were frequent. We found evidence of conflicting selection pressures on floral tube length, flower diameter and nectar guide size mediated via male fitness, and on flower diameter and floral tube diameter via female fitness. Hand-pollination experiments indicate complete pollen incompatibility between the two species. Our results suggest that postpollination prezygotic mechanisms are largely responsible for reproductive isolation of sympatric populations of the two Arnebia species.

  12. Ending tolerance as a solution to incompatibility: The Danish ‘crisis of multiculturalism’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Successful integration must include the long-term enactment of ‘the will to feel Danish’. As Jews in Denmark have done in the course of many generations, so immigrant Muslims must immerse themselves to the extent that feeling Danish is naturalized. Such is the perspective proposed in a recent focus...... group discussion in Denmark on the integration of Muslims into Danish society. This idea of incompatibility between native Danes and Muslim ‘newcomers’ has become a salient feature of what is termed ‘value-based journalism’ and ‘value-based politics’ in the last decade. This article traces the origin...... of the ‘end of tolerance’ strategy, which follows from this development and examines the emergence of neo-racism in Denmark with its ideas of xenophobia as a natural reaction to other ‘cultures’ which do not belong ’naturally’. It shows that migrants of non-European origin are talked about in an increasingly...

  13. Comparative transcriptional survey between self-incompatibility and self-compatibility in Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuewen; Li, Qiulei; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2017-04-20

    Seedlessness is an excellent economical trait, and self-incompatibility (SI) is one of important factors resulting in seedless fruit in Citrus. However, SI molecular mechanism in Citrus is still unclear. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes related to SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco). A total of 35.67GB raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 50,364 unigenes with an average length of 897bp and N50 value of 1549. Twenty-three candidate unigenes related to SI were analyzed using qPCR at different tissues and stages after self- and cross-pollination. Seven pollen S genes (Unigene0050323, Unigene0001060, Unigene0004230, Unigene0004222, Unigene0012037, Unigene0048889 and Unigene0004272), three pistil S genes (Unigene0019191, Unigene0040115, Unigene0036542) and three genes (Unigene0038751, Unigene0031435 and Unigene0029897) associated with the pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis were identified. Unigene0031435, Unigene0038751 and Unigene0029897 are probably involved in SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' based on expression analyses. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of SI in Citrus at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmission advantage favors selfing allele in experimental populations of self-incompatible Witheringia solanacea (solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy L; VanWyk, Emily J; Hale, Jennifer R

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of self-fertilization is one of the most commonly traversed transitions in flowering plants, with profound implications for population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. We investigated factors influencing this transition using Witheringia solanacea, a predominantly self-incompatible (SI) species within which self-compatible (SC) genotypes have been identified. We showed that self-compatibility in this species segregates with variation at the S-locus as inherited by plants in F1 and F2 generations. To examine reproductive assurance and the transmission advantage of selfing, we placed SC and SI genotypes in genetically replicated gardens and monitored male and female reproductive success, as well as selfing rates of SC plants. Self-compatibility did not lead to increased fruit or seed set, even under conditions of pollinator scarcity, and the realized selfing rate of SC plants was less than 10%. SC plants had higher fruit abortion rates, consistent with previous evidence showing strong inbreeding depression at the embryonic stage. Although the selfing allele did not provide reproductive assurance under observed conditions, it also did not cause pollen discounting, so the transmission advantage of selfing should promote its spread. Given observed numbers of S-alleles and selfing rates, self-compatibility should spread even under conditions of exceedingly high initial inbreeding depression. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  16. Vegetative and generative maintenance of self-incompatibility in six accessions of German chamomile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Wagner, Sarah; Franz, Chlodwig

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population. F1 exhibited 78% SI and P2 62% SI, indicating a higher environmental than genetic influence on SI. But heritability, calculated from the results of SI × SI crossings, showed high values (h(2) = 0.71). Within generative propagation, the influence of generation/crossing version was highly significant (p = 0.001) and the cultivar 'Degumille' explored the highest value of SI (86%) after SI × NSI crossings. Therefore, the intra-cultivar combination of 'Degumille' SI mother plants crossed with NSI father plants can be recommended as the most promising version to maintain SI in chamomile.

  17. Trouble with the Lorentz law of force: incompatibility with special relativity and momentum conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-05-11

    The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics.

  18. Stem Cell Emergence and Hemopoietic Activity Are Incompatible in Mouse Intraembryonic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Garcia-Porrero, Juan Antonio; Dieterlen-Lièvre, Françoise; Cumano, Ana

    1999-01-01

    In the mouse embryo, the generation of candidate progenitors for long-lasting hemopoiesis has been reported in the paraaortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp)/aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Here, we address the following question: can the P-Sp/AGM environment support hemopoietic differentiation as well as generate stem cells, and, conversely, are other sites where hemopoietic differentiation occurs capable of generating stem cells? Although P-Sp/AGM generates de novo hemopoietic stem cells between 9.5 and 12.5 days post coitus (dpc), we show here that it does not support hemopoietic differentiation. Among mesoderm-derived sites, spleen and omentum were shown to be colonized by exogenous cells in the same fashion as the fetal liver. Cells colonizing the spleen were multipotent and pursued their evolution to committed progenitors in this organ. In contrast, the omentum, which was colonized by lymphoid-committed progenitors that did not expand, cannot be considered as a hemopoietic organ. From these data, stem cell generation appears incompatible with hemopoietic activity. At the peak of hemopoietic progenitor production in the P-Sp/AGM, between 10.5 and 11.5 dpc, multipotent cells were found at the exceptional frequency of 1 out of 12 total cells and 1 out of 4 AA4.1+ cells. Thus, progenitors within this region constitute a pool of undifferentiated hemopoietic cells readily accessible for characterization. PMID:10429669

  19. Genetic architecture of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of gametophytic self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Camille; Awad, Diala Abu; Roze, Denis; Castric, Vincent; Billiard, Sylvain

    2014-11-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is a widespread genetic system, which enables hermaphroditic plants to avoid self-fertilization and mating with close relatives. Inbreeding depression is thought to be the major force maintaining SI; however, inbreeding depression is a dynamical variable that depends in particular on the mating system. In this article we use multilocus, individual-based simulations to examine the coevolution of SI and inbreeding depression within finite populations. We focus on the conditions for the maintenance of SI when self-compatible (SC) mutants are introduced in the population by recurrent mutation, and compare simulation results with predictions from an analytical model treating inbreeding depression as a fixed parameter (thereby neglecting effects of purging within the SC subpopulation). In agreement with previous models, we observe that the maintenance of SI is associated with high inbreeding depression and is facilitated by high rates of self-pollination. Purging of deleterious mutations by SC mutants has little effect on the spread of those mutants as long as most deleterious alleles have weak fitness effects: in this case, the genetic architecture of inbreeding depression has little effect on the maintenance of SI. By contrast, purging may greatly enhance the spread of SC mutants when deleterious alleles have strong fitness effects. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Molecular modelling of S-RNases involved in almond self-incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI is a mechanism in flowering plants, to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrossing. GSI is under the control of a specific locus, known as the S-locus, which contains at least two genes, the RNase and the SFB. Active S-RNases in the style are essential for rejection of haploid pollen, when the pollen S-allele matches one of two S-alleles of the diploid pistil. However, the nature of their mutual interactions at genetic and biochemical levels remain unclear. Thus, detailed understanding of the protein structure involved in GSI may help in discovering how the proteins involved in GSI may function and how they fulfil their biological roles. To this end, 3D models of the SC (Sf and two SI (S8 and S23 S-RNases of almond were constructed, using comparative modelling tools. The modelled structures consisted of mixed α and β folds, with six helices and six beta-strands. However, the self-compatible (Sf RNase contained an additional extended loop between the conserved domains RC4 and C5, which may be involved in the manifestation of self-compatibility in almond.

  1. Vegetative and generative maintenance of self-incompatibility in six accessions of German chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Wagner, Sarah; Franz, Chlodwig

    2016-01-01

    Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population. F1 exhibited 78% SI and P2 62% SI, indicating a higher environmental than genetic influence on SI. But heritability, calculated from the results of SI × SI crossings, showed high values (h2 = 0.71). Within generative propagation, the influence of generation/crossing version was highly significant (p = 0.001) and the cultivar ‘Degumille’ explored the highest value of SI (86%) after SI × NSI crossings. Therefore, the intra-cultivar combination of ‘Degumille’ SI mother plants crossed with NSI father plants can be recommended as the most promising version to maintain SI in chamomile. PMID:27436956

  2. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  3. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  4. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker......-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction) and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction). The transcriptomes......, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (,10 tag counts/million). 20.470 unitags matched to approximately twelve thousand potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible...

  5. Successful hybridisation of normally incompatible hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) and eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesebach, Heike; Naujoks, Gisela; Ewald, Dietrich

    2011-09-01

    Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) belong to the section Populus. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides) is a member of the section Aigeiros within the genus Populus. These poplar sections are generally considered to be incompatible. Here, we describe successful hybridisation between these parents, producing an offspring family with 27 individuals. The hybrid character of individuals was proven by genotypes at 16 nuclear microsatellite loci. One individual was suspected to have more than the diploid chromosome number of 2n = 38 due to the observation of more than two alleles at several loci. This individual is a triploid, ascertained by flow cytometry. Two distinct growth classes of tall and dwarf plants were observed in the progeny, reflecting different degrees of postzygotic incompatibility. Two loci linked to the tested microsatellites have an effect on height growth. Some fast-growing individuals were micropropagated to test them for biomass performance together with other clones in field trials.

  6. Deterioration of dolostone by magnesium sulphate salt: An example of incompatible building materials at Bonaval Monastery, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López-Arce, Paula; García-Guinea, Javier; Benavente, David; Tormo, Laura; Doehne, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Since its abandonment 185 years ago, the XII century Santa Maria de Bonaval Monastery located in Guadalajara (Spain) has suffered significant deterioration: first the roof was lost, followed by partial collapse of the walls, moisture infiltration and extensive loss of stone surfaces due to salt weathering. This case study is a clear example of the incompatibility of some building materials: in this case, the combination of sulphate-bearing mortars and magnesium-rich stone and mortars leading ...

  7. Mismatched transfusion of 8 AB0-incompatible units of packed red blood cells in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkard Rudlof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with acute intermittent porphyria, who received 8 AB0 incompatible units of packed red blood cells in an emergency situation. She never showed any signs of severe intravascular haemolysis. The patient died after four weeks because of a multi-organ failure caused from the malpractice of the porphyria. The problems of bedside testing, mixing field reaction, fresh frozen plasma and molecular-genetic determination of bloodgroup were discussed.

  8. Wolbachia in the Drosophila yakuba complex: Pervasive frequency variation and weak cytoplasmic incompatibility, but no apparent effect on reproductive isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, BS; Ginsberg, PS; Turelli, M.; Matute, DR

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America. Three hybridizing species—the clade [(Drosophila yakuba, D. santomea), D. teissieri]—comprise the yakuba complex in the D. melanogaster subgroup. Their ranges overlap on Bioko and São Tomé, islands off west Africa. All three species are infected with Wolbachia—maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria, best known for manipulating host reproduction to favor infected females. Previous analyses reported no cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in these sp...

  9. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation treated successfully with antigen-specific immunoadsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Marcussen, Niels; Sprogøe, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    -mediated rejection (Banff grade II with IgG deposits) caused by ABO antibodies (anti-B). Anti-rejection treatment with anti-B-specific immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone efficiently cleared deposited IgG from the kidney allograft and re-established normal kidney function. We suggest...... that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation complicated by acute antibody-mediated rejection, caused by ABO antibodies, may successfully be treated with this regime....

  10. Immunohistochemical and genetic exploration of incompatible A blood group antigen expression in invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Orfi, Z; Kojok, K; Benayad, S; Zaid, Y; Marnissi, F; Habti, N

    Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma and represents the most inherently aggressive form. Expression of incompatible blood group A antigen in cancer of type O patients has been reported in several types of cancer, however, the biosynthetic mechanism and the genetic basis remain unclear until today. The aim of the present case report study was to evaluate the expression of incompatible blood group A antigen and to identify the genetic basis of this expression in IMPC of the breast. One patient blood group O with Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma was screened at Pathology Department of University Hospital CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca. ABH antigens expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ABO genotyping was performed by allele specific primers PCR-ASP and Exon 6 of ABO gene was sequenced with Sanger method. H antigen was expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells of normal tissue. However, H antigen expression was lost in both invasive micropapillary carcinomas. A antigen was expressed in IMPC with approximately 80% of positive cells. Tumor DNA was genotyped as heterozygous A/O. In normal DNA, we identified a single frameshift deletion c.320delA p.(Glu107Glyfs*12), which is removed from tumor DNA. Our findings suggest that incompatible A antigen expression in IMPC is due to glycosyltransferase A encoded by an A allele which is derived from O allele with a deletion at the position 320. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible pediatric living donor liver transplantation for propionic acidemia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Sakamoto, Rieko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Irie, Tomoaki; Uchida, Koushi; Shimata, Keita; Kawabata, Seiichi; Isono, Kaori; Hayashida, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Endo, Fumio; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2016-09-01

    We herein present the case of a four-yr-old boy with PA who developed AMR after ABO-incompatible LDLT despite undergoing B cell desensitization using rituximab. Although the CD19+ lymphocyte count decreased to 0.1% nine days after the administration of rituximab, he developed a high fever which was accompanied by arthralgia due to a streptococcal infection 13 days after rituximab prophylaxis. After the clearance of the infection, he underwent ABO-incompatible LDLT 36 days after the administration of rituximab. The CD19+ lymphocyte count just prior to LDLT was 1.2%. He developed AMR five days after LDLT, and the antidonor-type IgM and IgG antibody titers increased to 1:1024 and 1:1024, respectively. He was treated by plasma exchange, IVIG, steroid pulse therapy, and rituximab re-administration; however, his liver dysfunction continued. Despite intensive treatment, he died due to complicated abdominal hernia, acute renal failure, and ARDS. This case suggests that a streptococcal infection may induce the activation of innate immune responses; thus, additional desensitization therapy should be considered prior to ABO-incompatible LDLT if B cell reactivation is suspected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  13. Spatially heterogeneous environmental selection strengthens evolution of reproductively isolated populations in a Dobzhansky-Muller system of hybrid incompatability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within-species hybrid incompatibility can arise when combinations of alleles at more than one locus have low fitness but where possession of one of those alleles has little or no fitness consequence for the carriers. Limited dispersal with small numbers of mate potentials alone can lead to the evolution of clusters of reproductively isolated genotypes despite the absence of any geographical barriers or heterogeneous selection. In this paper, we explore how adding heterogeneous natural selection on the genotypes (e.g., gene environment associations that are involved in reproductive incompatibility affects the frequency, size and duration of evolution of reproductively isolated clusters. We conducted a simulation experiment that varied landscape heterogeneity, dispersal ability and strength of selection in a continuously distributed population. In our simulations involving spatially heterogeneous selection, strong patterns of adjacency of mutually incompatible genotypes emerged such that these clusters were truly reproductively isolated from each other, with no reproductively compatible bridge individuals in the intervening landscape to allow gene flow between the clusters. This pattern was strong across levels of gene flow and strength of selection, suggesting that even relatively weak selection acting in the context of strong gene flow may produce reproductively isolated clusters that are large and persistent, enabling incipient speciation in a continuous population without geographic isolation.

  14. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  15. Objects and mappings: incompatible principles of display design - a critique of Marino and Mahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin B

    2005-01-01

    Representation aiding (and similar approaches that share the general orientation) has a great deal of utility, predictive ability, and explanatory power. Marino and Mahan (2005) discuss principles that are critical to the RA approach (configurality, emergent features, and mappings) in a reasonable fashion. However, the application of these principles is far from reasonable. The authors explicitly realize the potential for interactions between nutrients: "The nutritional quality of a food product is a multidimensional concept, and higher order interactions between nutrients may exist" (p. 126). However, they made no effort to discover the nature of these interactions: "No attempt was made to identify contingent interactions between nutrients" (p. 126). Despite not knowing the nature of the interactions between nutrients, they purposely chose a highly configural display that produced numerous emergent features dependent upon these interactions: "A radial spoke display was selected because of the strong configural properties of such display formats (Bennett & Flach, 1992)" (p. 124). Finally, the authors show apparent disdain for the specific mappings among domain, agent, and display that are fundamental to the RA approach: "[O]ther configural display formats could have been used" (p. 124). It is impossible to reconcile these statements and the RA approach to display design. However, these statements make perfect sense if a perceptual object is a guiding principle in one's approach to display design. Marino and Mahan (2005) draw heavily upon the principle of a perceptual object in their design justifications, experimental predictions, and interpretations of results. As we have indicated here and elsewhere (Bennett & Flach, 1992), we believe that these two sets of organizing principles for display design (i.e., objects and mappings) are incompatible. Display design will never be an exact science; there will always be elements of art and creativity. However, the guiding

  16. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospital readmissions following HLA-incompatible live donor kidney transplantation: A multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, Babak J; Luo, Xun; King, Elizabeth A; Garonzik-Wang, Jacqueline M; Bae, Sunjae; Montgomery, Robert A; Stegall, Mark D; Jordan, Stanley C; Oberholzer, Jose; Dunn, Ty B; Ratner, Lloyd E; Kapur, Sandip; Pelletier, Ronald P; Roberts, John P; Melcher, Marc L; Singh, Pooja; Sudan, Debra L; Posner, Marc P; El-Amm, Jose M; Shapiro, Ron; Cooper, Matthew; Lipkowitz, George S; Rees, Michael A; Marsh, Christopher L; Sankari, Bashir R; Gerber, David A; Nelson, Paul W; Wellen, Jason; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Osama Gaber, A; Segev, Dorry L

    2017-08-21

    Thirty percent of kidney transplant recipients are readmitted in the first month posttransplantation. Those with donor-specific antibody requiring desensitization and incompatible live donor kidney transplantation (ILDKT) constitute a unique subpopulation that might be at higher readmission risk. Drawing on a 22-center cohort, 379 ILDKTs with Medicare primary insurance were matched to compatible transplant-matched controls and to waitlist-only matched controls on panel reactive antibody, age, blood group, renal replacement time, prior kidney transplantation, race, gender, diabetes, and transplant date/waitlisting date. Readmission risk was determined using multilevel, mixed-effects Poisson regression. In the first month, ILDKTs had a 1.28-fold higher readmission risk than compatible controls (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.46; P < .001). Risk peaked at 6-12 months (relative risk [RR] 1.67, 95% CI 1.49-1.87; P < .001), attenuating by 24-36 months (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.40; P < .001). ILDKTs had a 5.86-fold higher readmission risk (95% CI 4.96-6.92; P < .001) in the first month compared to waitlist-only controls. At 12-24 (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95; P = .002) and 24-36 months (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.84; P < .001), ILDKTs had a lower risk than waitlist-only controls. These findings of ILDKTs having a higher readmission risk than compatible controls, but a lower readmission risk after the first year than waitlist-only controls should be considered in regulatory/payment schemas and planning clinical care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Pollination and reproduction of a self-incompatible forest herb in hedgerow corridors and forest patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Reto; de Blois, Sylvie

    2009-07-01

    Habitat-corridors are assumed to counteract the negative impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation, but their efficiency in doing so depends on the maintenance of ecological processes in corridor conditions. For plants dispersing in linear habitats, one of these critical processes is the maintenance of adequate pollen transfer to insure seed production within the corridor. This study focuses on a common, self-incompatible forest herb, Trillium grandiflorum, to assess plant-pollinator interactions and the influence of spatial processes on plant reproduction in hedgerow corridors compared to forests. First, using pollen supplementation experiments over 2 years, we quantified the extent of pollen limitation in both habitats, testing the prediction of greater limitation in small hedgerow populations than in forests. While pollen limitation of fruit and seed set was common, its magnitude did not differ between habitats. Variations among sites, however, suggested an influence of landscape context on pollination services. Second, we examined the effect of isolation on plant reproduction by monitoring fruit and seed production, as well as pollinator activity and assemblage, in small flower arrays transplanted in hedgerows at increasing distances from forest and from each other. We detected no difference in the proportion of flowers setting fruit or in pollinator activity with isolation, but we observed some differences in pollinator assemblages. Seed set, on the other hand, declined significantly with increasing isolation in the second year of the study, but not in the first year, suggesting altered pollen transfer with distance. Overall, plants in hedgerow corridors and forests benefited from similar pollination services. In this system, plant-pollinator interactions and reproduction seem to be influenced more by variations in resource distribution over years and landscapes than by local habitat conditions.

  19. Explanatory pluralism and the (disunity of science. The argument from incompatible counterfactual consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eGijsbers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in, or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified.

  20. Secondary evolution of a self-incompatibility locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sier-Ching Chantha

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is the flowering plant reproductive system in which self pollen tube growth is inhibited, thereby preventing self-fertilization. SI has evolved independently in several different flowering plant lineages. In all Brassicaceae species in which the molecular basis of SI has been investigated in detail, the product of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK gene functions as receptor in the initial step of the self pollen-rejection pathway, while that of the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR gene functions as ligand. Here we examine the hypothesis that the S locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia is paralogous with the S locus previously characterized in other members of the family. We also test the hypothesis that self-compatibility in this group is based on disruption of the pollen ligand-producing gene. Sequence analysis of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, phylogeny of S alleles, gene expression patterns, and comparative genomics analyses provide support for both hypotheses. Of special interest are two genes located in a non-S locus genomic region of Arabidopsis lyrata that exhibit domain structures, sequences, and phylogenetic histories similar to those of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, and that also share synteny with these genes. These A. lyrata genes resemble those comprising the A. lyrata S locus, but they do not function in self-recognition. Moreover, they appear to belong to a lineage that diverged from the ancestral Brassicaceae S-locus genes before allelic diversification at the S locus. We hypothesize that there has been neo-functionalization of these S-locus-like genes in the Leavenworthia lineage, resulting in evolution of a separate ligand-receptor system of SI. Our results also provide support for theoretical models that predict that the least constrained pathway to the evolution of self-compatibility is one involving loss of pollen gene function.

  1. The spread of incompatibility-inducing parasites in sub-divided host populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally transmitted symbionts have evolved a variety of ways to promote their spread through host populations. One strategy is to hamper the reproduction of uninfected females by a mechanism called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI occurs in crosses between infected males and uninfected females and leads to partial to near-complete infertility. CI-infections are under positive frequency-dependent selection and require genetic drift to overcome the range of low frequencies where they are counter-selected. Given the importance of drift, population sub-division would be expected to facilitate the spread of CI. Nevertheless, a previous model concluded that variance in infection between competing groups of breeding individuals impedes the spread of CI. Results In this paper we derive a model on the spread of CI-infections in populations composed of demes linked by restricted migration. Our model shows that population sub-division facilitates the invasion of CI. While host philopatry (low migration favours the spread of infection, deme size has a non-monotonous effect, with CI-invasion being most likely at intermediate deme size. Individual-based simulations confirm these predictions and show that high levels of local drift speed up invasion but prevent high levels of prevalence across the entire population. Additional simulations with sex-specific migration rates further show that low migration rates of both sexes are required to facilitate the spread of CI. Conclusion Our analyses show that population structure facilitates the invasion of CI-infections. Since some level of sub-division is likely to occur in most natural populations, our results help to explain the high incidence of CI-infections across species of arthropods. Furthermore, our work has important implications for the use of CI-systems in order to genetically modify natural populations of disease vectors.

  2. Physiological and genetic analysis of CO2-induced breakdown of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xintian; Suwabe, Keita; Niikura, Satoshi; Kakita, Mitsuru; Iwano, Megumi; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) of the Brassicaceae family can be overcome by CO2 gas treatment. This method has been used for decades as an effective means to obtain a large amount of inbred seeds which can then be used for F1 hybrid seed production; however, the molecular mechanism by which CO2 alters the SI pathway has not been elucidated. In this study, to obtain new insights into the mechanism of CO2-induced SI breakdown, the focus was on two inbred lines of Brassica rapa (syn. campestris) with different CO2 sensitivity. Physiological examination using X-ray microanalysis suggested that SI breakdown in the CO2-sensitive line was accompanied by a significant accumulation of calcium at the pollen-stigma interface. Pre-treatment of pollen or pistil with CO2 gas before pollination showed no effect on the SI reaction, suggesting that some physiological process after pollination is necessary for SI to be overcome. Genetic analyses using F1 progeny of a CO2-sensitive × CO2-insensitive cross suggested that CO2 sensitivity is a semi-dominant trait in these lines. Analysis of F2 progeny suggested that CO2 sensitivity could be a quantitative trait, which is controlled by more than one gene. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified two major loci, BrSIO1 and BrSIO2, which work additively in overcoming SI during CO2 treatment. No QTL was detected at the loci previously shown to affect SI stability, suggesting that CO2 sensitivity is determined by novel genes. The QTL data presented here should be useful for determining the responsible genes, and for the marker-assisted selection of desirable parental lines with stable but CO2-sensitive SI in F1 hybrid breeding.

  3. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  4. Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of S-RNase involved in the self-incompatibility of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei; Yang, Wei; Su, Shiying; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin; Chen, Chuanwu; Deng, Xiuxin; Chai, Lijun

    2017-04-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility is found in Solanaceae, Rosaceae, and Scrophulariaceae, and is the most widespread mechanism that prevents self-fertilization in plants. Although 'Shatian' pummelo (Citrus grandis), a traditional cultivated variety, possesses the self-incompatible trait, the role of S-RNases in the self-incompatibility of 'Shatian' pummelo is poorly understood. To identify genes associated with self-incompatibility in citrus, we identified 16 genes encoding homologs of ribonucleases in the genomes of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and clementine mandarin (Citrus clementine). We preliminarily distinguished S-RNases from S-like RNases with a phylogenetic analysis that classified these homologs into three groups, which is consistent with the previous reports. Expression analysis provided evidence that CsRNS1 and CsRNS6 are S-like RNase genes. The expression level of CsRNS1 was increased during fruit development. The expression of CsRNS6 was increased during the formation of embryogenic callus. In contrast, we found that CsRNS3 possessed several common characteristics of the pistil determinant of self-incompatibility: it has an alkaline isoelectric point (pI), harbors only one intron, and is specifically expressed in style. We obtained a cDNA encoding CgRNS3 from 'Shatian' pummelo and found that it is homolog to CsRNS3 and that CgRNS3 exhibited the same expression pattern as CsRNS3. In an in vitro culture system, the CgRNS3 protein significantly inhibited the growth of self-pollen tubes from 'Shatian' pummelo, but after a heat treatment, this protein did not significantly inhibit the elongation of self- or non-self-pollen tubes. In conclusion, an S-RNase gene, CgRNS3, was obtained by searching the genomes of sweet orange and clementine for genes exhibiting sequence similarity to ribonucleases followed by expression analyses. Using this approach, we identified a protein that significantly inhibited the growth of self-pollen tubes, which is the defining

  5. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2016-01-01

    Computing hungry multimedia web applications need to efficiently utilize all the resources of a device. HTML5 web workers is a non-sharing concurrency platform that enables multimedia web application to utilize the available multicore hardware. HTML5 web workers are implemented by major browser...... vendors to facilitate concurrent execution in web clients and enhance the quality of ambitious web applications. The concurrent execution in web workers allows parallel processing using available cores at the expense of communication overhead and extra computation. The benefits of concurrent execution can...... be maximized by balancing load across workers/CPU cores. This work presents load-balancing algorithms between web workers using parameters such as scheduler throughput, computation priority and game entities locality. An award-winning web-based multimedia game (raptjs.com) is used to evaluate the performance...

  6. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman Mahmood; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    Computing hungry multimedia web applications need to efficiently utilize the device resources. HTML5 web workers is a non-sharing concurrency platform that enables multimedia web application to utilize the available multi-core hardware. HTML5 web workers are implemented by major browser vendors...... to facilitate concurrent execution in web clients and enhance the quality of ambitious web applications. The concurrent execution in web workers allows parallel processing using available cores at the expense of communication overhead and extra computation. The benefits of concurrent execution can be maximized...... by balancing load across workers/CPU cores. This work presents load-balancing algorithms between web workers using parameters such as scheduler throughput, computation priority and game entity locality. An award-winning web-based multimedia game (raptjs.com) is used to test the performance of the load balance...

  7. Love, lust and the emotional context of multiple and concurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love, lust and the emotional context of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships among young Swazi adults. Allison Ruark, Lunga Dlamini, Nonhlanhla Mazibuko, Edward C Green, Caitlin Kennedy, Amy Nunn, Timothy Flanigan, Pamela J Surkan ...

  8. Service-Oriented Synthesis of Distributed and Concurrent Protocol Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Al Dallal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed for synthesizing computer communication protocol specifications from service specifications. Some protocol synthesis methods based on the finite state machine (FSM model assume that primitives in the service specifications cannot be executed simultaneously. Others either handle only controlled primitive concurrency or have tight restrictions on the applicable FSM topologies. As a result, these synthesis methods are not applicable to an interesting variety of inherently concurrent applications, such as the Internet and mobile communication systems. This paper proposes a concurrent-based protocol synthesis method that eliminates the restrictions imposed by the earlier methods. The proposed method uses a synthesis method to obtain a sequential protocol specification (P-SPEC from a given service specification (S-SPEC. The resulting P-SPEC is then remodeled to consider the concurrency behavior specified in the S-SPEC, while guaranteeing that P-SPEC provides the specified service.

  9. Partial Orders and Fully Abstract Models for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on different closures of sets of labelled partial orders, simple algebraic languages...

  10. A case of coats disease and concurrent anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G. Lambert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions and importance: This case demonstrates the importance of detecting and correcting for concurrent amblyopia in pediatric retina conditions that may, on fundus examination alone, appear to have a retinal cause for reduced visual acuity.

  11. Prototyping of concurrent control systems implemented in FPGA devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on prototyping aspects of concurrent control systems and their further implementation and partial reconfiguration in programmable devices. Further, it lays out a full prototyping flow for concurrent control systems. Based on a given primary specification, a system is described with an interpreted Petri net, which naturally reflects the concurrent and sequential relationships of the design. The book shows that, apart from the traditional option of static configuration of the entire system, the latest programmable devices (especially FPGAs) offer far more sophistication. Partial reconfiguration allows selected parts of the system to be replaced without having to reprogram the entire structure of the device. Approaches to dynamic and static partial reconfiguration of concurrent control systems are presented and described in detail.< The theoretical work is illustrated by examples drawn from various applications, with a milling machine and a traffic-light controller highlighted as representat...

  12. Classes of oppositional-defiant behavior: Concurrent and predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. Althoff (Robert); A.V. Kuny-Slock (Ana); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.J. Hudziak (James); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional

  13. Visualizing Concurrency Control Algorithms for Real-Time Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to visualizing concurrency control (CC algorithms for real-time database systems (RTDBs. This approach is based on the principle of software visualization, which has been applied in related fields. The Model-View-controller (MVC architecture is used to alleviate the black box syndrome associated with the study of algorithm behaviour for RTDBs Concurrency Controls. We propose a Visualization "exploratory" tool that assists the RTDBS designer in understanding the actual behaviour of the concurrency control algorithms of choice and also in evaluating the performance quality of the algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using an optimistic concurrency control model as our case study. The developed tool substantiates the earlier simulation-based performance studies by exposing spikes at some points when visualized dynamically that are not observed using usual static graphs. Eventually this tool helps solve the problem of contradictory assumptions of CC in RTDBs.

  14. Development of a debugger for a concurrent language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baiardi, F.; DeFrancesco, N.; Vaglini, G.

    1986-04-01

    This work deals with some issues concerned in the debugging of concurrent programs. A set of desirable characteristics for a debugger for concurrent languages is deduced from a review of the differences between the debugging of concurrent programs and that of sequential ones. A debugger for a concurrent language, based upon CSP, is then described. The debugger makes it possible to compare a description of the expected program behavior to the actual behavior. The description of the behavior is given in terms of expressions composed by events and/or assertions on the process state. The developed formalism is able to describe behaviors at various levels of abstraction. Lastly, some guidelines for the implementation of the debugger are given and a detailed example of program debugging is analyzed.

  15. A Comparative Study of Single Helminths and Concurrent Helminths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvae isolated from those concurrently infected were mainly Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubrioformis, Oesophagostamum columbianum, Cooperia sp and Strongyloides pappilosus while those singly infected harboured mainly Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubrioformis and Strongyloides ...

  16. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  17. Concurrency-Induced Transitions in Epidemic Dynamics on Temporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Gleeson, James P.; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. We show that network dynamics can suppress epidemics (i.e., yield a higher epidemic threshold) when the node's concurrency is low, but can also enhance epidemics when the concurrency is high. We analytically determine different phases of this concurrency-induced transition, and confirm our results with numerical simulations.

  18. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  19. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  20. A lower bound of concurrence for multipartite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2018-02-01

    We present a lower bound of concurrence for four-partite systems in terms of the concurrence for M (2≤ M≤ 3) part quantum systems and give an analytical lower bound for 2⊗ 2⊗ 2⊗ 2 mixed quantum sates. It is shown that these lower bounds are able to improve the existing bounds and detect entanglement better. Furthermore, our approach can be generalized to multipartite quantum systems.

  1. Concurrent Risperidone Administration Attenuates the Development of Locomotor Sensitization Following Sub-Chronic Phencyclidine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, C E; Reynolds, G P; Jenkins, T A

    2016-03-01

    In schizophrenia early treatment may prevent disorder onset, or at least minimize its impact, suggesting possible neuroprotective properties of antipsychotics. The present study investigates the effects of chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, on locomotor sensitization in the subchronic phencyclidine-treated rat. Rats were treated with phencyclidine sub-chronically (2 mg/kg bi-daily for one week followed by a one-week wash-out period) or vehicle. Half of the phencyclidine group was concurrently treated with risperidone (0.5 mg/kg IP) twice daily for 15 days, beginning 3 days before the start of phencyclidine administration. 6 weeks after treatment all rats were injected with a phencyclidine-challenge (3.2 mg/kg) and immediately after their locomotor activity measured for 20 min. Co-administration of risperidone at the time of phencyclidine administration significantly reduced the phencyclidine-challenge locomotor effect administered 6 weeks later. These results demonstrate that concurrent risperidone is neuroprotective, and clearly suggests its functionality can be translated to a clinical setting for treating the so-called prodrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Glucocorticoid enhancement of dorsolateral striatum-dependent habit memory requires concurrent noradrenergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Leong, K-C; Packard, M G

    2015-12-17

    Previous findings indicate that post-training administration of glucocorticoid stress hormones can interact with the noradrenergic system to enhance consolidation of hippocampus- or amygdala-dependent cognitive/emotional memory. The present experiments were designed to extend these findings by examining the potential interaction of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in enhancement of dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent habit memory. In experiment 1, different groups of adult male Long-Evans rats received training in two DLS-dependent memory tasks. In a cued water maze task, rats were released from various start points and were reinforced to approach a visibly cued escape platform. In a response-learning version of the water plus-maze task, animals were released from opposite starting positions and were reinforced to make a consistent egocentric body-turn to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately post-training, rats received peripheral injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (1 or 3 mg/kg) or vehicle solution. In both tasks, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) enhanced DLS-dependent habit memory. In experiment 2, a separate group of animals received training in the response learning version of the water plus-maze task and were given peripheral post-training injections of corticosterone (3 mg/kg), the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol (3 mg/kg), corticosterone and propranolol concurrently, or control vehicle solution. Corticosterone injections again enhanced DLS-dependent memory, and this effect was blocked by concurrent administration of propranolol. Propranolol administration by itself (3 mg/kg) did not influence DLS-dependent memory. Taken together, the findings indicate an interaction between glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in DLS-dependent habit memory. Propranolol administration may be useful in treating stress-related human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional DLS-dependent habit memory system. Copyright © 2015

  3. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment...

  4. Neural Representation of Concurrent Vowels in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Micheyl, Christophe; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception in real-world environments requires that the auditory system segregate competing voices that overlap in frequency and time into separate streams. Vowels are major constituents of speech and are comprised of frequencies (harmonics) that are integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency (F0). The pitch and identity of a vowel are determined by its F0 and spectral envelope (formant structure), respectively. When two spectrally overlapping vowels differing in F0 are presented concurrently, they can be readily perceived as two separate "auditory objects" with pitches at their respective F0s. A difference in pitch between two simultaneous vowels provides a powerful cue for their segregation, which in turn, facilitates their individual identification. The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent vowels based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examine neural population responses in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) to single and double concurrent vowels (/a/ and /i/) that differ in F0 such that they are heard as two separate auditory objects with distinct pitches. We find that neural population responses in A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, lower harmonics of both single and double concurrent vowels. Furthermore, we show that the formant structures, and hence the identities, of single vowels can be reliably recovered from the neural representation of double concurrent vowels. We conclude that A1 contains sufficient spectral information to enable concurrent vowel segregation and identification by downstream cortical areas.

  5. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  6. The mechanism of toxicity in HET-S/HET-s prion incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seuring

    Full Text Available The HET-s protein from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a prion involved in a cell death reaction termed heterokaryon incompatibility. This reaction is observed at the point of contact between two genetically distinct strains when one harbors a HET-s prion (in the form of amyloid aggregates and the other expresses a soluble HET-S protein (96% identical to HET-s. How the HET-s prion interaction with HET-S brings about cell death remains unknown; however, it was recently shown that this interaction leads to a relocalization of HET-S from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery and that this change is associated with cell death. Here, we present detailed insights into this mechanism in which a non-toxic HET-s prion converts a soluble HET-S protein into an integral membrane protein that destabilizes membranes. We observed liposomal membrane defects of approximately 10 up to 60 nm in size in transmission electron microscopy images of freeze-fractured proteoliposomes that were formed in mixtures of HET-S and HET-s amyloids. In liposome leakage assays, HET-S has an innate ability to associate with and disrupt lipid membranes and that this activity is greatly enhanced when HET-S is exposed to HET-s amyloids. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses revealed that HET-s induces the prion-forming domain of HET-S to adopt the β-solenoid fold (previously observed in HET-s and this change disrupts the globular HeLo domain. These data indicate that upon interaction with a HET-s prion, the HET-S HeLo domain partially unfolds, thereby exposing a previously buried ∼34-residue N-terminal transmembrane segment. The liberation of this segment targets HET-S to the membrane where it further oligomerizes, leading to a loss of membrane integrity. HET-S thus appears to display features that are reminiscent of pore-forming toxins.

  7. Reducing the incompatibility between two-step adhesives and resin composite luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugenio Jose; Reis, Alessandra; Arana-Correa, Beatriz Elena; Sepúlveda-Navarro, Wilmer Fabian; Higashi, Cristian; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2010-10-01

    incompatibility between a two-step etch-and rinse adhesive and chemically cured resin cements and light-cured systems in the delayed polymerization mode.

  8. Recipient outcomes after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ABO-incompatible live transplantation (ILT is not occasionally performed due to a relative high risk of graft failure. Knowledge of both graft and patient survival rate after ILT is essential for donor selection and therapeutic strategy. We systematically reviewed studies containing outcomes after ILT compared to that after ABO-compatible liver transplantation (CLT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a comprehensive search strategy on MEDLINE (1966-July 2010, EMBASE (1980-July 2010, Biosis Preview (1969-July 2010, Science Citation Index (1981-July 2010, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Library, issue 7, 2010 and the National Institute of Health (July 2010. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of each study and abstracted outcome data. Fourteen eligible studies were included which came from various medical centers all over the world. Meta-analysis results showed that no significantly statistical difference was found in pediatric graft survival rate, pediatric and adult patient survival rate between ILT and CLT group. In adult subgroup, the graft survival rate after ILT was significantly lower than that after CLT. The value of totally pooled OR was 0.64 (0.55, 0.74, 0.92 (0.62, 1.38 for graft survival rate and patient survival rate respectively. The whole complication incidence (including acute rejection and biliary complication after ILT was higher than that after CLT, as the value of totally pooled OR was 3.02 (1.33, 6.85. Similarly, in acute rejection subgroup, the value of OR was 2.02 (1.01, 4.02. However, it was 4.08 (0.90, 18.51 in biliary complication subgroup. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In our view, pediatric ILT has not been a contraindication anymore due to a similar graft and patient survival rate between ILT and CLT group. Though adult graft survival rate is not so satisfactory, ILT is undoubtedly life-saving under exigent condition. Most studies included in our analysis are

  9. Solvent dependent assembly of lanthanide metallacrowns using building blocks with incompatible symmetry preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankolovits, Joseph; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2014-07-21

    Solvent dependence in the assembly of coordination driven macrocycles is a poorly understood phenomenon. This work presents the solvent dependent assembly of 8 lanthanide metallacrowns (LnMCs) in solution using picoline hydroxamic acid (picHA), Zn(II), and Ln(III) ions. ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveal the selective assembly of LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), LnZn8(picHA)8(3+), LnZn12(picHA)12(3+), LnZn16(picHA)16(3+), Ln2Zn3(picHA)4(4+), Ln2Zn7-9(picHA)8-10, and Ln4Zn4-5(picHA)8-9 complexes in five different solvents. The coordination preferences of the hard Ln(III) ion and relatively soft Zn(II) ion dictate the solvent selectivity in this system. The LnMCs assemble with open or closed Zn(II) and/or Ln(III) coordination sites based on the behavior of the solvent as an ancillary ligand. This structural promiscuity is attributed to the symmetry incompatible building blocks, which generate assemblies with substantial geometric strain such that no clear thermodynamic minimum exists between the different LnMCs. These LnMCs assemble from a Zn5(picHA)4(2+) intermediate, which is monitored using (1)H NMR and ESI-MS to assess the stability of the complexes and possible assembly pathways based on kinetic considerations. LnMC assemblies that can be generated through central metal substitution reactions such as the LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), and LnZn8(picHA)8(3+) effectively reach equilibrium after 24 h at room temperature. In contrast, LnMCs that must disrupt the Zn5L4(2+) structure to assemble, such as the LnZn16L16(3+), reach equilibrium after heating for 24 h at 65 °C. A pathway for LnMC assembly is presented where the Zn5L4(2+) is the key intermediate based on these reaction data and shared structural motifs in the complexes. These results correlate solvent dependent assembly to the building block geometry, highlighting synthetic approaches for generating novel complexes.

  10. État de la concurrence et régime de concurrence de l'Éthiopie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Éthiopie réalise des progrès en ce qui concerne la gestion de l'économie de marché. Toutefois, la concurrence demeure faible, malgré la révision de la loi sur la concurrence. La plupart des entreprises de petite et de grande taille sont habituées à recevoir un soutien de la part de l'État. Elles éprouvent donc maintenant ...

  11. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green vehicles Your mileage may vary $ 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 GHG metric tons Check out the estimated savings of U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the ...

  12. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  13. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  14. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  15. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develo...

  16. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    a ground crawling vehicle to negotiate one pass over fine-grained soil (clays and silts). Experimental VCI is not determined for clean sands. Soil...1. Vegetation Data a. Stem diameter at breast height (DBH) (inches) b. Vegetation type c. Mode of tree failure 2. Vehicle

  17. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  18. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  19. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  20. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  1. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  2. Concurrent heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wan, Dai; Zhang, Linglin; Lai, Wenhong

    2012-03-01

    The study examined concurrent illicit heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China and its association with clients' demographic characteristics, treatment experience, and personal social network. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 178 clients randomly recruited from six methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Sichuan, China. Concurrent heroin use was measured based on self-report of heroin use during the past 30 days and a confirmatory urine morphine test. The participants' demographic characteristics and treatment factors were measured and examined. The drug use status of their family members and friends was also assessed. A total of 80 participants (44.9%) who either reported illicit heroin use in the past 30 days or had a positive urine test were defined as using heroin concurrently. Having drug-using friends was significantly associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Longer length of treatment (2 years or longer) was associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Among those who had both drug-using family members and friends, more women (71.4%) than men (50.0%) used heroin. For those who had no drug-using family members or friends, more men (34.8%) than women (20.8%) used heroin. Study findings indicate an urgent need to address concurrent illicit heroin use among MMT clients. Further examination of the influence of social networks on concurrent drug abuse behavior is encouraged. Results also highlight the importance of understanding gender differences in treatment seeking and behavioral changes, which is crucial to the development of gender-specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Ramzan, Amin A; Gualtieri, Marc R; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Machida, Hiroko; Moeini, Aida; Dancz, Christina E; Ueda, Yutaka; Roman, Lynda D

    2015-11-01

    Although a fraction of endometrial hyperplasia cases have concurrent endometrial carcinoma, patient characteristics associated with concurrent malignancy are not well described. The aim of our study was to identify predictive clinico-pathologic factors for concurrent endometrial carcinoma among patients with endometrial hyperplasia. A case-control study was conducted to compare endometrial hyperplasia in both preoperative endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimens (n=168) and endometrial carcinoma in hysterectomy specimen but endometrial hyperplasia in preoperative endometrial biopsy (n=43). Clinico-pathologic factors were examined to identify independent risk factors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common histologic subtype in preoperative endometrial biopsy was complex hyperplasia with atypia [CAH] (n=129) followed by complex hyperplasia without atypia (n=58) and simple hyperplasia with or without atypia (n=24). The majority of endometrial carcinomas were grade 1 (86.0%) and stage I (83.7%). In multivariate analysis, age 40-59 (odds ratio [OR] 3.07, p=0.021), age≥60 (OR 6.65, p=0.005), BMI≥35kg/m(2) (OR 2.32, p=0.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.51, p=0.019), and CAH (OR 9.01, p=0.042) were independent predictors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma. The risk of concurrent endometrial carcinoma rose dramatically with increasing number of risk factors identified in multivariate model (none 0%, 1 risk factor 7.0%, 2 risk factors 17.6%, 3 risk factors 35.8%, and 4 risk factors 45.5%, pendometrial cancer in those with ≥3 risk factors. Older age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and CAH are predictive of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in endometrial hyperplasia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Classes of Oppositional-Defiant behaviour: Concurrent and predictive validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Robert R.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hudziak, James J.; van der Ende, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional defiant behavior. Methods Latent Class Analysis was performed on the Oppositional Defiant Problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples, one in the U.S. (the Achenbach Normative Sample, N=2029) and one in The Netherlands (the Zuid-Holland Study, N=2076). A third sample of American children (The Vermont Family Study, N=399) was examined to determine concurrent validity with DSM diagnoses. Predictive validity over 14 years was assessed using the Zuid-Holland Study. Results 4 classes of oppositional defiant problems were consistent in the two latent class analyses: No Symptoms, All Symptoms, Irritable, and Defiant. Individuals in the No Symptoms Class were rarely diagnosed concurrently with ODD or any future disorder. Individuals in the All Symptoms Class had an increased frequency of concurrent childhood diagnosis of ODD and of violence in adulthood. Subjects in the Irritable Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but increased odds of adult mood disorders. Individuals in the Defiant Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but had increased odds of violence as adults. Conclusions Only children in the All Symptoms class were likely to have a concurrent diagnosis of ODD. Although not diagnosed with ODD, children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have adult mood disorders and children in the Defiant Class were more likely to engage in violent behavior. PMID:24673629

  5. Connected vehicles and your privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and our roads, : sharing important safety and mobility information and generating new data about : how, when, and where vehicles travel. The unprecedented level of data generated : will be...

  6. Does mate limitation in self-incompatible species promote the evolution of selfing? The case of Leavenworthia alabamica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jeremiah W; Joly, Simon; Schoen, Daniel J

    2010-06-01

    Genetic diversity at the S-locus controlling self-incompatibility (SI) is often high because of negative frequency-dependent selection. In species with highly patchy spatial distributions, genetic drift can overwhelm balancing selection and cause stochastic loss of S-alleles. Natural selection may favor the breakdown of SI in populations with few S-alleles because low S-allele diversity constrains the seed production of self-incompatible plants. We estimated S-allele diversity, effective population sizes, and migration rates in Leavenworthia alabamica, a self-incompatible mustard species restricted to discrete habitat patches in rocky glades. Patterns of polymorphism were investigated at the S-locus and 15 neutral microsatellites in three large and three small populations with 100-fold variation in glade size. Populations on larger glades maintained more S-alleles, but all populations were estimated to harbor at least 20 S-alleles, and mate availabilities typically exceeded 0.80, which is consistent with little mate limitation in nature. Estimates of the effective size (N(e)) in each population ranged from 600 to 1600, and estimated rates of migration (m) ranged from 3 x 10(-4) to nearly 1 x 10(-3). According to theoretical models, there is limited opportunity for genetic drift to reduce S-allele diversity in populations with these attributes. Although pollinators or resources limit seed production in small glades, limited S-allele diversity does not appear to be a factor promoting the incipient breakdown of SI in populations of this species that were studied.

  7. Deciphering the Theobroma cacao self-incompatibility system: from genomics to diagnostic markers for self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaud, Claire; Fouet, Olivier; Legavre, Thierry; Lopes, Uilson; Sounigo, Olivier; Eyango, Marie Claire; Mermaz, Benoit; Da Silva, Marcos Ramos; Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Argout, Xavier; Gyapay, Gabor; Ebaiarrey, Herman Ebai; Colonges, Kelly; Sanier, Christine; Rivallan, Ronan; Mastin, Géraldine; Cryer, Nicholas; Boccara, Michel; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Efombagn Mousseni, Ives Bruno; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Clément, Didier; Wilson, Zoe

    2017-10-13

    Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus. Using fine-mapping and genome-wide association studies, we focused analyses on restricted regions and identified candidate genes. Some of them showed a differential expression between incompatible and compatible reactions. Immunolocalization experiments provided evidence of CH1 candidate genes expressed in ovule and style tissues. Highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) diagnostic markers were designed in the CH4 region that had been identified by fine-mapping. They are characterized by a strong linkage disequilibrium with incompatibility alleles, thus allowing the development of efficient diagnostic markers predicting self-compatibility and fruit setting according to the presence of specific alleles or genotypes. SSR alleles specific to self-compatible Amelonado and Criollo varieties were also identified, thus allowing screening for self-compatible plants in cocoa populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Our first experiences in applying an original method for removal of ABO-isoagglutinins in ABO-incompatible kidney recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Due to improved methods for removal of ABO isoagglutinins and novel immunosuppressive protocols, short and long term outcome in blood group incompatible is similar to blood group compatible kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of our original method for removal of ABO isoagglutinins from the blood in ABO-incompatible kidney allograft recipients. Method. Between 2006 and 2008 twelve patients were transplanted from ABO incompatible living donors. Titers of ABO isoagglutinins were 4-128 (IgG. Immunosuppressive therapy started 14 days before kidney transplantation with rituximab, followed by a triple therapy (prednisone + tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil and the first plasma exchange (PE procedure, in which one plasma volume was substituted with albumin and saline on day 7 before transplantation. For selective extracorporeal immunoadsorption, the removed plasma was mixed with donor blood type filtered red blood cells, centrifuged and the supernatant separated and preserved. In the next PE procedure, the removed plasma was replaced with immunoadsorbed plasma, and so on. Titers of ABO agglutinins, renal allograft function and survival were followed-up. Results. The pre-transplant treatment consisting of 1-5 PE procedures and immunosuppressive therapy resulted in target ABO agglutinins titers below 4. During a 10-24 month follow-up three patients had an early acute rejection, one patient acute rejection and hemolytic anemia, two patients surgical complications and one of them lost his graft. In the post-transplant period, the titers of ABO antibodies remained below 4. All the patients had stable kidney allograft function with mean serum creatinine ±SD of 129 ± 45 μmol/l at the end of the study. Conclusion. Our method for removal of ABO antibodies was effective in a limited series of patients and short-term follow-up.

  9. Vehicle frame measurement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarauer, A.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a vehicle frame and body measurement apparatus for use in realigning the structure of a damaged unibody vehicle the device having a longitudinal axis utilized in a horizontal plane the apparatus comprising means for measuring the vehicle body and frame comprising, (a) means for supporting a damaged motor vehicle in a fixed position, (b) an elongated rail on each side of the supporting means spaced apart a distance greater than the width of the supporting means and the width of the vehicle, (c) a vertical upright of a length exceeding the height of the motor vehicle slidably supported by each of the rails and having a vertical axis substantially perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the vehicle, (d) a vertically adjustable horizontal bar attached to each of the uprights, substantially perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the rails and the vertical axis of the uprights, (e) means for affixing the horizontal bar to the uprights so that the bar is vertically adjustable, the affixing means being provided with releasable means to permit adjustable horizontal extension of the horizontal bar and (f) at least one extendable measuring means attached to each vertical upright at its junction with its associated horizontal rail and adjustably extending along the horizontal rail, the free end of the measuring means having to releasably affix it to the rail.

  10. Síndrome de costillas cortas y polidactilia: displasia esquelética fetal incompatible con la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmo Huertas; Jaime Íngar; Guiselle Gutiérrez; Eva María Quiñones

    2010-01-01

    El síndrome costillas cortas polidactilia es una categoría descriptiva para un grupo de displasias esqueléticas incompatibles con la vida, caracterizadas por tórax estrecho, costillas extremadamente pequeñas, micromelia, polidactilia y anomalías viscerales. Las 4 variantes establecidas son SRPS I (tipo Saldino-Noonan), SRPS II (tipo Majewski), SRPS III (tipo Verma-Naumoff) y SRPS IV (tipo Beemer-Langer). Se piensa que todas las variantes son heredadas en forma autosómica recesiva. Debido a la...

  11. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Calvitti

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20. Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%-50% depending on the site and period. ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus.

  12. [Clinical study on aconite prescriptions with incompatible herbs in different areas based on association rules and analysis on compatibility features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ting; Fan, Xin-sheng; Tian, Shuo; Jiang, Chen-xue; Chen, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To explore the current application and features of Aconite prescriptions with incompatible herbs in grade A class three hospitals in east China and central China through a clinical study and comparative analysis. Clinical prescriptions containing Aconite with incompatible herbs were collected. Association rules were utilized to analyze the compatible features of these herbs. This analysis found that the frequently used incompatible herba; pairs are Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata-Pinelliae Rhizoma, with the support rate of 44.45%, occupying nearly half of the surveyed prescriptions; Pinelliae Rhizoma is the most frequently used herb in the two areas, with support rate up to 76.24%. Among the top 10 herbal pairs in the support rate, except for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Pinelliae Rhizoma, the top 10 herbs in Central China were mostly for warming the middle jiao and tonifying qi, such as Zingiberis Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Codonopsis Radix; Whereas those in east China were mostly for activating and nourishing blood, such as Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Among the top 10 herbal pairs in the support rate, except for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata-Pinelliae Rhizoma, the core herbal pairs applied in central China were mainly for resolving phlegm and warming the middle jiao, such as Pinelliae Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma-Zingiberis Rhizoma; Whereas those in east China were principally for activating blood and tonifying qi, like Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Pinelliae Rhizoma. Among the core herbal groups in the two areas, the most frequently used herbal groups in the two areas are Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma with the support rate of 59.73%, accounting for the highest proportion among all of herbal groups. There are the combined

  13. Vibration Transfer Path Analysis and Path Ranking for NVH Optimization of a Vehicle Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sakhaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By new advancements in vehicle manufacturing, evaluation of vehicle quality assurance has got a more critical issue. Today noise and vibration generated inside and outside the vehicles are more important factors for customers than before. So far several researchers have focused on interior noise transfer path analysis and the results have been published in related papers but each method has its own limitations. In present work, the vibration transfer path analysis and vibration path ranking of a car interior have been performed. As interior vibration is a source of structural borne noise problem, thus, the results of this research can be used to present the structural borne noise state in a vehicle. The proposed method in this paper does not need to disassemble the powertrain from the chassis. The procedure shows a good ability of vibration path ranking in a vehicle and is an effective tool to diagnose the vibration problem inside the vehicle. The simulated vibration spectrums in different speeds of the engine have a good compliance with the tested results; however, some incompatibilities exist and have been discussed in detail. The simulated results show the strength of the method in engine mount optimization.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Selivanov; V. Filenko; А. Bazhynov; E. Budianskaya

    2009-01-01

    The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered...

  15. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  16. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L) Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laura B; Sharakhova, Maria V; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Fleming, Karen L; Caspary, Alex; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C

    2016-04-01

    used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere) inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3.

  17. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Dickson

    2016-04-01

    staining was used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3.

  18. A Joint Vehicle-Vehicle/Vehicle-Roadside Communication Protocol for Highway Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Hu; Hamid Gharavi

    2011-01-01

    A joint vehicle-vehicle/vehicle-roadside communication protocol is proposed for cooperative collision avoiding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). In this protocol, emergency warning messages are simultaneously transmitted via Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Roadside (V2R) communications in order to achieve multipath diversity routing. In addition, to further improve communication reliability and achieve low latency, a Multi-Channel (MC) technique based on two nonove...

  19. Lower bound of multipartite concurrence based on sub-partite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun

    2017-12-01

    We study the concurrence of arbitrary dimensional multipartite quantum systems. An explicit analytical lower bound of concurrence for four-partite mixed states is obtained in terms of the concurrences of tripartite mixed states. Detailed examples are given to show that our lower bounds improve the existing lower bounds of concurrence. The approach is generalized to five-partite quantum systems.

  20. Mathematical techniques for analyzing concurrent and probabilistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, J J M M; Panangaden, Prakash; Panangaden, Prakash; Breugel, Franck van

    2004-01-01

    The book consists of two sets of lecture notes devoted to slightly different methods of analysis of concurrent and probabilistic computational systems. The first set of lectures develops a calculus of streams (a generalization of the set of natural numbers) based on the coinduction principle coming from the theory of coalgebras. It is now well understood that the interplay between algebra (for describing structure) and coalgebra (for describing dynamics) is crucial for understanding concurrent systems. There is a striking analogy between streams and formula calculus reminiscent to those appearing in quantum calculus. These lecture notes will appeal to anyone working in concurrency theory but also to algebraists and logicians. The other set of lecture notes focuses on methods for automatically verifying probabilistic systems using techniques of model checking. The unique aspect of these lectures is the coverage of both theory and practice. The authors have been responsible for one of the most successful experi...

  1. Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W; Kinney, Ann M; D'Silva, Joanne; Carusi, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smokers are being encouraged to use smokeless tobacco (SLT) in locations where smoking is banned. We examined state-wide data from Minnesota to measure changes over time in the use of SLT and concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted four times between 1999 and 2010 and has provided state-wide estimates of cigarette smoking, SLT use and concurrent use of SLT by smokers. The prevalence of SLT was essentially unchanged through 2007, then increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (3.1% versus 4.3%, P cigarette smokers who reported using SLT was stable then increased between 2007 and 2010 (4.4% versus 9.6%, P alternative products as they adjust to recent public policies restricting smoking in public places. The findings are suggestive that some Minnesota smokers are switching to concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. Future surveillance reports will be necessary to confirm the results.

  2. Revascularization Operation for Moyamoya Disease with Concurrent von Willebrand Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Arimura, Koichi; Nishimura, Ataru; Yoshimoto, Koji; Sayama, Tetsuro; Iihara, Koji

    2017-12-01

    Although extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is an effective treatment strategy for symptomatic moyamoya disease, surgeons need to be cautious regarding the possibility of postoperative hemorrhagic complications in patients with a concurrent coagulation disorder. Here, we describe a case of EC-IC bypass for moyamoya disease concurrent with von Willebrand disease type 1. Following perioperative replacement of the von Willebrand factor, the patient showed an uneventful and uncomplicated clinical course. This is the first reported case of EC-IC bypass being performed for moyamoya disease in a patient with concurrent von Willebrand disease. We emphasize the importance of appropriate management with replacement of the von Willebrand factor during the perioperative period to avoid hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  4. Ground Vehicle Fleet Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chappell, Isaac; Holzer, Jenny; Koehn, Phillip; Macheret, Jenya; Sparrow, Dave

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) Sample Data Collection (SDC) and the Army's reported mission capable rates to determine if there was evidence of deterioration in the Army's combat or tactical vehicle fleets...

  5. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  6. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  9. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental : applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) : research program applications and road weather ap...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  12. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  13. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  14. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  15. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  16. How connected vehicles work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel through the creation : of a safe, interoperable wireless communications networka system that includes cars, buses, : trucks, trains, traffic signals, cell phones, and othe...

  17. A useful strong lower bound on two-qubit concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Sabour, Abbass

    2012-12-01

    A new strong lower bound on concurrence for two-qubit states is derived. Its equality with the concurrence itself for the pure- and X-states is proved analytically; while extensive numerical computations show that equality for a general mixed state may also exist. Being a very simple function and easy to calculate, it is more convenient and practical than the exact value in some cases, including entanglement investigations in spin chains. We study thermal localizable entanglement in spin chains as an example, to demonstrate the convenience of this bound.

  18. Separative Power of an Optimised Concurrent Gas Centrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Bogovalov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of separation of isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically for an arbitrary binary mixture of isotopes. The separative power of the optimised concurrent gas centrifuges for the uranium isotopes equals to δU = 12.7 (V/700 m/s2(300 K/T(L/1 m kg·SWU/yr, where L and V are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge and T is the temperature. This equation agrees well with the empirically determined separative power of optimised counter-current gas centrifuges.

  19. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  20. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  1. Adaptive Vehicle Traction Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeongcheol; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    This report presents two different control algorithms for adaptive vehicle traction control, which includes wheel slip control, optimal time control, anti-spin acceleration and anti-skid control, and longitudinal platoon control. The two control algorithms are respectively based on adaptive fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control with on-line road condition estimation. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model as well as a simple linear ...

  2. Women’s rights: from bad to worse? Assessing the evolution of incompatible reservations to the CEDAW Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke de Pauw

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is the most important international human rights instrument for the protection of women's rights worldwide. It is, however, also one of the main UN human rights treaties to which the largest number of reservations has been made. As far-reaching reservations to human rights treaties are detrimental to the effective protection of human rights, this gave rise to the debate on the need to apply a reservations system to such treaties that allows for the efficient protection of their integrity. More specifically, it resulted in the severability approach and treaty bodies claiming their competence to assess reservations' compatibility. This article aims to contribute to the academic research on reservations to the CEDAW Convention, by studying the evolution of reservation-making to this human rights treaty from a comparative perspective from its entry into force until the present. Through this analysis, the article aims to identify trends and shifts in this practice over time, allowing for a more detailed assessment of the increasing number of incompatible reservations, the Committee's progress towards a more active approach on reservations, and State's increasing willingness to object to reservations they find incompatible.

  3. Dimorphisms and self-incompatibility in the distylous species Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae): possible implications for its reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Soriano, Pascual J; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Distyly has been interpreted as a mechanism that favors cross-fertilization. In this research we describe floral attributes and ancillary floral polymorphisms typically associated to heterostylous plants in Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae), a distylous shrub of the Venezuelan Andes cloud forests. A hand-pollination experiment was done to evaluate self- and intramorph incompatibility and female reproductive output in both floral morphs. The studied population was morphologically distylous but morph differences in most ancillary floral polymorphisms and reciprocity of the sexual organ heights were found. The floral morphs were self-incompatible and did not differ in fruit set under controlled cross-pollination conditions, but at the population level they exhibited imperfect reciprocal herkogamy. Fruits and seeds of short-styled plants were larger than those of long-styled plants and fruit set was higher in short-styled plants under natural conditions, suggesting a higher reproductive potential among short-styled plants. Given the 1:1 morph ratio within the studied population, further evidence is needed to determine the influence of floral visitors and seed dispersers in the expression of heterostyly in P. demissa under natural conditions.

  4. Comparison of antibody titers using conventional tube technique versus column agglutination technique in ABO blood group incompatible renal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangale, Amit; Pathak, Amardeep; Pawar, Smita; Jeloka, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of alloantibody titer to a red cell antigen (ABO titers) is an integral part of management of ABO incompatible kidney transplants (ABOiKT). There are different methods of titer estimation. Alloantibody detection by tube titration and Gel agglutination columns are accepted methodologies. It is essential to find the difference in titers between the two methods so as to set the 'cut-off' titer accordingly, depending upon the method used. We did a prospective observational study to compare and correlate the ABO titers using these two different techniques - conventional tube technique (CTT) and the newer column agglutination technique (CAT). A total of 67 samples were processed in parallel for anti-A/B antibodies by both tube dilution and column agglutination methods. The mean titer by conventional tube method was 38.5 + 96.6 and by the column agglutination test was 96.4 + 225. The samples correlated well with Spearman rho correlation coefficient of 0.94 (P = 0.01). The column agglutination method for anti A/B titer estimation in an ABO incompatible kidney transplant is more sensitive, with the column agglutination results being approximately two and half fold higher (one more dilution) than that of tube method.

  5. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-incompatibility (SI is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z. Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z self-incompatibility system. The program predicts pollen genotypes and frequencies based on defined meiotic parameters for allo- or autotetraploid species with a gametophytic S-Z SI system. These predictions can be used to obtain expected values for for diploid and for (allo- or autotetraploidy SI grasses. Conclusion The information provided by this calculator can be used to predict compatibility of pair-crosses in plant breeding applications, to analyze segregation distortion for S and Z genes, as well as linked markers in mapping populations, hypothesis testing of the number of S and Z alleles in a pair cross, and the underlying genetic model.

  6. Supervisor-Employee Power Distance Incompatibility, Gender Similarity, and Relationship Conflict: A Test of Interpersonal Interaction Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katrina A; Dust, Scott B; Ziegert, Jonathan C

    2017-11-20

    According to interpersonal interaction theory, relational harmony surfaces when two individuals have compatible interaction styles. Building from this theory, we propose that supervisor-employee power distance orientation incompatibility will be related to employees' experience of higher levels of relationship conflict with their supervisors. Additionally, we propose an asymmetrical incongruence effect such that relationship conflict will be highest when supervisors are high in power distance and employees are low in power distance. Furthermore, we address calls in interpersonal interaction research for more direct attention to the social context of the dyadic interaction and explore the moderating effects of supervisor-employee gender (dis)similarity on the relationship between this incompatibility and conflict. We propose that supervisor-employee gender dissimilarity (e.g., male-female or female-male pairs) acts as a conditional moderator, neutralizing the power distance incongruence effect and the asymmetrical incongruence effect. Using 259 supervisor-employee dyads in the physical therapy industry, the hypotheses were generally supported. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the unique benefits of power distance compatibility and gender diversity in supervisor-employee dyads are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Swain, Stephen M; Young, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. However, many plants with sporophytic self-incompatibility systems exhibit dominance interactions at the S-locus that allow biparental inbreeding, thereby facilitating mating between individuals that share alleles at the S-locus. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depression in wild radish from five different populations across Australia. We found dominance interactions among S-alleles increased mate availability relative to estimates based on individuals that did not share S-alleles. Twelve of the sixteen fitness variables were significantly reduced by inbreeding. For all the three life-history phases evaluated, self-fertilized offspring suffered a greater than 50% reduction in fitness, while full-sib and half-sib offspring suffered a less than 50% reduction in fitness. Theory indicates that fitness costs greater than 50% can result in an evolutionary trajectory toward a stable state of self-incompatibility (SI). This study suggests that dominance interactions at the S-locus provide a possible third stable state between SI and SC where biparental inbreeding increases mate availability with relatively minor fitness costs. This strategy allows weeds to establish in new environments while maintaining a functional SI system. PMID:24455137

  8. Semiosis stems from logical incompatibility in organic nature: Why biophysics does not see meaning, while biosemiotics does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Kalevi

    2015-12-01

    We suggest here a model of the origin of the phenomenal world via the naturalization of logical conflict or incompatibility (which is broader than, but includes logical contradiction). Physics rules out the reality of meaning because of the method of formalization, which requires that logical conflicts cannot be part of the model. We argue that (a) meaning-making requires a logical conflict; (b) logical conflict assumes a phenomenal present; (c) phenomenological specious present occurs in living systems as widely as meaning-making; (d) it is possible to provide a physiological description of a system in which the phenomenal present appears and choices are made; (e) logical conflict, or incompatibility itself, is the mechanism of intentionality; (f) meaning-making is assured by scaffolding, which is a product of earlier choices, or decision-making, or interpretation. This model can be seen as a model of semiosis. It also allows putting physiology and phenomenology (or physics and semiotics) into a natural connection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparison of antibody titers using conventional tube technique versus column agglutination technique in ABO blood group incompatible renal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhangale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of alloantibody titer to a red cell antigen (ABO titers is an integral part of management of ABO incompatible kidney transplants (ABOiKT. Material and Methods: There are different methods of titer estimation. Alloantibody detection by tube titration and Gel agglutination columns are accepted methodologies. It is essential to find the difference in titers between the two methods so as to set the 'cut-off' titer accordingly, depending upon the method used. Results: We did a prospective observational study to compare and correlate the ABO titers using these two different techniques – conventional tube technique (CTT and the newer column agglutination technique (CAT. A total of 67 samples were processed in parallel for anti-A/B antibodies by both tube dilution and column agglutination methods. The mean titer by conventional tube method was 38.5 + 96.6 and by the column agglutination test was 96.4 + 225. The samples correlated well with Spearman rho correlation coefficient of 0.94 (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The column agglutination method for anti A/B titer estimation in an ABO incompatible kidney transplant is more sensitive, with the column agglutination results being approximately two and half fold higher (one more dilution than that of tube method.

  10. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J A; Reyner, L A

    1995-03-04

    To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries.

  11. Incompatible type A plasma transfusion in patients requiring massive transfusion protocol: Outcomes of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, W Tait; Morse, Bryan C; Bernard, Andrew; Davenport, Daniel L; Sams, Valerie G; Goodman, Michael D; Dumire, Russell; Carrick, Matthew M; McCarthy, Patrick; Stubbs, James R; Pritts, Timothy A; Dente, Christopher J; Luo-Owen, Xian; Gregory, Jason A; Turay, David; Gomaa, Dina; Quispe, Juan C; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Haddad, Nadeem N; Choudhry, Asad; Quesada, Jose F; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-07-01

    With a relative shortage of type AB plasma, many centers have converted to type A plasma for resuscitation of patients whose blood type is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine outcomes for trauma patients who received incompatible plasma transfusions as part of a massive transfusion protocol (MTP). As part of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional trial, registry and blood bank data were collected from eight trauma centers for trauma patients (age, ≥ 15 years) receiving emergency release plasma transfusions as part of MTPs from January 2012 to August 2016. Incompatible type A plasma was defined as transfusion to patient blood type B or type AB. Of the 1,536 patients identified, 92% received compatible plasma transfusions and 8% received incompatible type A plasma. Patient characteristics were similar except for greater penetrating injuries (48% vs 36%; p = 0.01) in the incompatible group. In the incompatible group, patients were transfused more plasma units at 4 hours (median, 9 vs. 5; p plasma to patients with blood groups B and AB as part of a MTP does not appear to be associated with significant increases in morbidity or mortality. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  12. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  13. Dynamic Vehicle Detection via the Use of Magnetic Field Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Markevicius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle detection process plays the key role in determining the success of intelligent transport management system solutions. The measurement of distortions of the Earth’s magnetic field using magnetic field sensors served as the basis for designing a solution aimed at vehicle detection. In accordance with the results obtained from research into process modeling and experimentally testing all the relevant hypotheses an algorithm for vehicle detection using the state criteria was proposed. Aiming to evaluate all of the possibilities, as well as pros and cons of the use of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR sensors in the transport flow control process, we have performed a series of experiments with various vehicles (or different series from several car manufacturers. A comparison of 12 selected methods, based on either the process of determining the peak signal values and their concurrence in time whilst calculating the delay, or by measuring the cross-correlation of these signals, was carried out. It was established that the relative error can be minimized via the Z component cross-correlation and Kz criterion cross-correlation methods. The average relative error of vehicle speed determination in the best case did not exceed 1.5% when the distance between sensors was set to 2 m.

  14. Accident externality and vehicle size

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Lina; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers choose vehicle mass based on the social optimum instead of a private optimum that ignores the negative effects that a large vehicle...

  15. Successful integration of industry and education with concurrent engineering projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. H.E.V. Veenstra; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the Fontys University of Professional Education in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, offers a course which is being developed around the principles of Concurrent Engineering. From research we found that in general students are not completely aware

  16. Sexual networks and social capital: multiple and concurrent sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MCP) are prevalent in southern Africa and have been identified as a primary cause of high HIV prevalence in this region. Sexual liaisons with multiple partners serve to increase the size and diversity of an individual's sexual — and social — network and therefore to increase their ...

  17. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  18. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The sixth volume of ToPNoC includes revised versions of selected papers from workshops and tutorials held at the 32nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency. It also contains a special section on Networks, Protocols, and Services, as well as a contributed...

  19. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Acquisition and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Cara L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large body of research demonstrating that generalization to novel stimuli can be produced by training sufficient exemplars, the methods by which exemplars can be trained remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate 2 methods, serial and concurrent presentation of stimuli, to train sufficient exemplars. Five preschool…

  20. A Patient Presenting with Concurrent Testis Torsion and Epididymal Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arpali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the second most common tumors of epididymis. Patients with leiomyomas are sometimes misdiagnosed with testicular tumors. A Case of a patient with a scrotal mass presenting with testicular torsion is reported. Concurrent occurrence of testicular torsion and epididymal leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition.

  1. Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for College Degreed Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Joseph A.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1976-01-01

    The study was designed to explore two areas: (1) the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed college degreed women using two different operational definitions (Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search) of vocational orientation; and (2) the relationships among same named scales across the VPI and the SDS. (Author)

  2. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA). Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA's language groups has not been investigated quantitatively.

  3. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to examine the concurrent relationship between global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in developing countries. To achieve this, the paper commenced with the conceptualization of global warming and economic development, the natural and human causes ...

  4. Page 1 Scalable concurrent computing 197 [M] [N] . . . [M] " memory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Each instruction stream operates on multiple units of data such as a vector or array instead of on a single operand. A single control unit coordinates the operation of the multiple processors. Synchronous computers using global clocks are quite special purpose and rather restrictive in their model of concurrent computation.

  5. Investigating the Alignment of Concurrent Design Strategies with Business Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Mirfakhredini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managing the interface between design and other activities has received considerable attention. Effective coordination among these areas is therefore vital for effectiveness of the organization. The ideal situation would be continuous interdepartmental contact with well-developed channels of communication. In this study, the best strategy for product design department has been chosen using the strategic formulation framework with fuzzy approach. Subsequently, alignment of each functional design strategy with SAPCO business strategies has been explained. Findings indicate that developing partnerships with global automotive and engineering design companies and building strategic alliances with rival firms to achieve competitive advantages have maximum alignment with business strategies. In addition, findings provide a basis for firms in evaluating the concurrent design strategies and a reference for them to strengthen their concurrent capabilities. There are few reports on sustained use of concurrent design as an on-going strategic process in an organization. This study aims at contributing to the concurrent design solutions.

  6. Responses of rabbits to concurrent administration of Furosemide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intramuscular (IM) administrations of 5 mg/kg xylazine, followed 30 min later by IM of 35 mg/kg ketamine alone (XK) or concurrently with IM of 1 mg/kg furosemide (XKF), were assessed in six healthy rabbits (4 bucks and 2 does) using selected anaesthetic indices (time to onset of anaesthesia, time to onset of analgesia, ...

  7. Comparative Efficacy of Cisplatin vs. Gemcitabine as Concurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To conclude, Cisplatin appears to be better than Gemcitabine when used as a radio sensitizer for untreated locally advanced cervical cancer in terms of response and toxicity. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, radiotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy. Internet Journal of Medical Update Vol. 2 (1) 2007: pp.

  8. Concurrent Movement Impairs Incidental but Not Intentional Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concurrent movement on incidental versus intentional statistical learning was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants learned the statistical regularities embedded within familiarization stimuli implicitly, whereas in Experiment 2 they were made aware of the embedded regularities and were instructed explicitly to…

  9. Physiologic Evidences Of Good Tolerance Of Concurrent Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve adult West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of mean age and body weight of 18 ± 1.19 months and 14.69 ± 256 kg body weight respectively were used to study the compatibility of concurrent rumen fisulation and duodenal cannulation with normal life. The compatibility with norma life was assessed by differences in body ...

  10. Concurrent psu dic(21)(q22.3)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Velásquez A. I. 2014 Concurrent psu dic(21)(q22.3) and t(13;17)(q14.1;p12) in a mosaic Down's syndrome patient: review of thirty-one similar dicentrics. J. Genet. 93, 189–192]. Introduction. Pseudodicentric 'mirror-image' chromosomes 21 with break-.

  11. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    submission track of ToPNoC. The 12 papers cover a diverse range of topics including model checking and system verification, synthesis, foundational work on specific classes of Petri nets, and innovative applications of Petri nets and other models of concurrency. Thus, this volume gives a good view of ongoing...

  12. 37 CFR 2.73 - Amendment to recite concurrent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment to recite concurrent use. 2.73 Section 2.73 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Amendment of Application § 2.73...

  13. Context-Based Synchronization of Concurrent Process Using Aspect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The algorithm supporting most of these structures works by keeping at bay all other concurrent processes or threads till the current process accessing the resource ... In this paper, we propose contextual synchronization model to avoid where applicable, the unnecessary build-up of threads waiting for access to the resource.

  14. Threaded Cognition: An Integrated Theory of Concurrent Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking--that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed across other available resources (e.g., perceptual…

  15. The Stay/Switch Model of Concurrent Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonall, James S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment compared descriptions of concurrent choice by the stay/switch model, which says choice is a function of the reinforcers obtained for staying at and for switching from each alternative, and the generalized matching law, which says choice is a function of the total reinforcers obtained at each alternative. For the stay/switch model…

  16. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The fifth volume of ToPNoC contains revised versions of selected papers from workshops and tutorials held in conjunction with the 31st International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency, as well as a contributed paper selected through the regular subm...

  17. Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) often use African Traditional Medicines (ATM) either alone or in combination with Western medicines including Antiretrovirals (ARV). Objective: To explore the prevalence of concurrent Antiretrovirals (ARV) and African Traditional medicines (ATM) use and determine the ...

  18. On the road again: concurrency and condom use among Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-distance truck drivers have been shown to be a critical population in the spread of HIV in Africa. In 2009, surveys with 385 Ugandan long-distance truck drivers measured concurrency point prevalence with two methods; it ranged from 37.4% (calendar-method) to 50.1% (direct question). The majority (84%) of ...

  19. Concurrent Speech Segregation Problems in Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Talebi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was a basic investigation of the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Concurrent segregation is one of the fundamental components of auditory scene analysis and plays an important role in speech perception. In the present study, we compared auditory late responses or ALRs between hearing impaired and normal children. Materials & Methods: Auditory late potentials in response to 12 double vowels were recorded in 10 children with moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss and 10 normal children. Double vowels (pairs of synthetic vowels were presented concurrently and binaurally. Fundamental frequency (F0 of these vowels and the size of the difference in F0 between vowels was 100 Hz and 0.5 semitones respectively. Results: Comparing N1-P2 amplitude showed statistically significant difference in some stimuli between hearing impaired and normal children (P<0.05. This complex indexing the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation was decreased in hearing impaired children. Conclusion: This study showed problems in concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children evidenced by ALRs. This information indicated deficiencies in bottom-up processing of speech characteristics based on F0 and its differences in these children.

  20. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1...