Sample records for vehicle engineering simulation

  1. Analysis of experimental hydrogen engine data and hydrogen vehicle performance and emissions simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    This paper reports the engine and vehicle simulation and analysis done at Lawrence Livermore (LLNL) as a part of a joint optimized hydrogen engine development effort. Project participants are: Sandia National Laboratory; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Miami. Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios. NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The results indicate that hydrogen lean-burn spark-ignite engines can provide Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle (EZEV) levels in either a series hybrid or a conventional automobile.

  2. Analysis of experimental hydrogen engine data and hydrogen vehicle performance and emissions simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.


    This paper reports the engine and vehicle simulation and analysis done at Lawrence Livermore (LLNL) as a part of a joint optimized hydrogen engine development effort. Project participants are: Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNLC), responsible for experimental evaluation; Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), responsible for detailed fluid mechanics engine evaluations, and the University of Miami, responsible for engine friction reduction. Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency.

  3. Internal Combustion Engine Principles with Vehicle Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    The book is an introductory text on the subject of internal combustion engines, intended for use in engineering courses at the senior or introductory graduate student level. The focus in on describing the basic principles of engine operation on a broad basis, to provide a foundation for further...... exchange processes, combustion in different engine types, exhaust emissions, engine control including mean value engine models, pressure charging, fuels and fuel systems, balancing, friction, and heat transfer. In addition, methods to establish the connection between engine characteristics and vehicle...... study, research and development. The goal is to describe the main variables involved in engine operation of different engine types, and how their interaction determines engine performance. Topics included are: general engine parameters, thermodynamic cycles including simple engine simulation, air...

  4. Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide is a catalog of medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles with alternative fuel and advanced powertrain options. This edition covers model year 2003 engines and vehicles.

  5. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.


    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  6. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the...

  7. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation to replace robotic vehicles in field studies. It will model the dynamics, terrain interaction,...

  8. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri


    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  9. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.


    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  10. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  11. Otto engine simulation in Dymola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.


    A component library for otto engines has been developed in Dymola and three otto engines have been built using these components. This work has been part of a bigger project of which the goal is to develop the structure of a vehicle simulation program package and, in the process, evaluate different commercially available simulation tools. In order to develop the vehicle simulation package models of the various subsystems and components must be available to define the interface between them. The Otto engine models developed for this purpose are based on steady state measurements of performance and emissions. The steady state input is however corrected with respect to the actual transient conditions. In order to achieve this a lot of attention has been paid to the factors influencing the lambda excursions. Three main factors have been identified. They are: 1. Bad synchronization between the air and the fuel flow entering the engine., 2. Fuel wetting of the inlet port walls., 3. The delay time in the lambda control feed back loop

  12. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  13. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella


    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  14. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti


    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  15. 7th Conference Simulation and Testing for Vehicle Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus


    The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.

  16. NONROAD Model (Nonroad Engines, Equipment, and Vehicles) (United States)

    NONROAD2008 has been incorporated into the new MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES2014 and MOVES2014a). EPA recommends using MOVES2014a if you are having problems installing or using NONROAD2008 on newer operating systems.

  17. 40 CFR 86.085-37 - Production vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... engines or vehicles of such engine family-evaporative emission family-engine displacement-exhaust emission... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production vehicles and engines. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General...

  18. Engineering Delivery Vehicles for Genome Editing. (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher E; Gersbach, Charles A


    The field of genome engineering has created new possibilities for gene therapy, including improved animal models of disease, engineered cell therapies, and in vivo gene repair. The most significant challenge for the clinical translation of genome engineering is the development of safe and effective delivery vehicles. A large body of work has applied genome engineering to genetic modification in vitro, and clinical trials have begun using cells modified by genome editing. Now, promising preclinical work is beginning to apply these tools in vivo. This article summarizes the development of genome engineering platforms, including meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, and their flexibility for precise genetic modifications. The prospects for the development of safe and effective viral and nonviral delivery vehicles for genome editing are reviewed, and promising advances in particular therapeutic applications are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions (United States)


    ... manufacturer accountable for acceptable emissions performance once the converted vehicle or engine is in... vehicle/engine emissions monitoring to check fleet performance, as it does with OEM vehicles/engines. II....\\17\\ For current diesel heavy-duty engines (also referred to as ``compression-ignition'' or ``diesel...

  20. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.


    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1724-99 - Test vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.1724-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General... Trucks § 86.1724-99 Test vehicles and engines. The provisions of § 86.096-24 and subsequent model year...

  2. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen


    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  3. Advances in Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management and Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available With the increasing demands for vehicle dynamic performance, economy, safety and comfort, and with ever stricter laws concerning energy conservation and emissions, vehicle power systems are becoming much more complex. To pursue high efficiency and light weight in automobile design, the power system and its vehicle integrated thermal management (VITM system have attracted widespread attention as the major components of modern vehicle technology. Regarding the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV, its integrated thermal management (ITM mainly contains internal combustion engine (ICE cooling, turbo-charged cooling, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR cooling, lubrication cooling and air conditioning (AC or heat pump (HP. As for electric vehicles (EVs, the ITM mainly includes battery cooling/preheating, electric machines (EM cooling and AC or HP. With the rational effective and comprehensive control over the mentioned dynamic devices and thermal components, the modern VITM can realize collaborative optimization of multiple thermodynamic processes from the aspect of system integration. Furthermore, the computer-aided calculation and numerical simulation have been the significant design methods, especially for complex VITM. The 1D programming can correlate multi-thermal components and the 3D simulating can develop structuralized and modularized design. Additionally, co-simulations can virtualize simulation of various thermo-hydraulic behaviors under the vehicle transient operational conditions. This article reviews relevant researching work and current advances in the ever broadening field of modern vehicle thermal management (VTM. Based on the systematic summaries of the design methods and applications of ITM, future tasks and proposals are presented. This article aims to promote innovation of ITM, strengthen the precise control and the performance predictable ability, furthermore, to enhance the level of research and development (R&D.

  4. RLV vehicle health management system modeling and simulation (United States)

    Wangu, Srimal


    Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the development and integration of the Vehicle Health Management (VHM) system for Lockheed Martin's VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is to provide an automated health status and decision-making system for the vehicle. A detailed simulation of the VHM system on RLV is currently being developed using the Foresight Design and Modeling Tool. The simulation will consists of models of key components of the RLV VHM system. An effective detailed system simulation will allow for system and design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions form older technologies to newer ones. This methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

  5. Statistical models of petrol engines vehicles dynamics (United States)

    Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Alexa, O.; Vilău, R.; Grosu, D.


    This paper focuses on studying statistical models of vehicles dynamics. It was design and perform a one year testing program. There were used many same type cars with gasoline engines and different mileage. Experimental data were collected of onboard sensors and those on the engine test stand. A database containing data of 64th tests was created. Several mathematical modelling were developed using database and the system identification method. Each modelling is a SISO or a MISO linear predictive ARMAX (AutoRegressive–Moving-Average with eXogenous inputs) model. It represents a differential equation with constant coefficients. It were made 64th equations for each dependency like engine torque as output and engine’s load and intake manifold pressure, as inputs. There were obtained strings with 64 values for each type of model. The final models were obtained using average values of the coefficients. The accuracy of models was assessed.

  6. Certification and Compliance for Nonroad Vehicles and Engines (United States)

    Certification and compliance information for aircraft, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and dirt bikes, locomotives, marine compression-ignition (CI) engines, nonroad CI engines, nonroad spark (SI) engines, portable fuel containers, snowmobiles.

  7. A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (United States)

    Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan


    Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

  8. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.


    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  9. Simulation modeling of wheeled vehicle dynamics on the stand "Roller"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Kotiev


    Full Text Available The tests are an integral part of the wheeled vehicle design, manufacturing, and operation. The need for their conducting arises from the research and experimental activities to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the vehicles in general, as well as the individual components and assemblies. It is obvious that a variety of design features of wheeled vehicles request a development of methods both for experimental studies and for creating the original bench equipment for these purposes.The main positive feature of bench tests of automotive engineering is a broad capability to control the combinations of traction loads, speed rates, and external input conditions. Here, the steady state conditions can be used for a long time, allowing all the necessary measurements to be made, including those with video and photo recording experiment.It is known that the benefits of test "M" type (using a roller dynamometer include a wide range of test modes, which do not depend on the climatic conditions, as well as a capability to use a computer-aided testing programs. At the same time, it is known that the main drawback of bench tests of full-size vehicle is that the tire rolling conditions on the drum mismatch to the real road pavements, which are difficult to simulate on the drum surface. This problem can be solved owing to wheeled vehicle tests at the benches "Roller" to be, in efficiency, the most preferable research method. The article gives a detailed presentation of developed at BMSTU approach to its solving.Problem of simulation mathematical modeling has been solved for the vehicle with the wheel formula 8 × 8, and individual wheel-drive.The simulation results have led to the conclusion that the proposed principle to simulate a vehicle rolling on a smooth non-deformable support base using a bench " Roller " by simulation modeling is efficient.

  10. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  11. 40 CFR 86.098-24 - Test vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.098-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  12. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  13. Modeling and simulation of dust behaviors behind a moving vehicle (United States)

    Wang, Jingfang

    Simulation of physically realistic complex dust behaviors is a difficult and attractive problem in computer graphics. A fast, interactive and visually convincing model of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles is very useful in computer simulation, training, education, art, advertising, and entertainment. In my dissertation, an experimental interactive system has been implemented for the simulation of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles. The system includes physically-based models, particle systems, rendering engines and graphical user interface (GUI). I have employed several vehicle models including tanks, cars, and jeeps to test and simulate in different scenarios and conditions. Calm weather, winding condition, vehicle turning left or right, and vehicle simulation controlled by users from the GUI are all included. I have also tested the factors which play against the physical behaviors and graphics appearances of the dust particles through GUI or off-line scripts. The simulations are done on a Silicon Graphics Octane station. The animation of dust behaviors is achieved by physically-based modeling and simulation. The flow around a moving vehicle is modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. I implement a primitive variable and pressure-correction approach to solve the three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations in a volume covering the moving vehicle. An alternating- direction implicit (ADI) method is used for the solution of the momentum equations, with a successive-over- relaxation (SOR) method for the solution of the Poisson pressure equation. Boundary conditions are defined and simplified according to their dynamic properties. The dust particle dynamics is modeled using particle systems, statistics, and procedure modeling techniques. Graphics and real-time simulation techniques, such as dynamics synchronization, motion blur, blending, and clipping have been employed in the rendering to achieve realistic appearing dust

  14. Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) Simulator Planning Guide (United States)

    McFarlane, Michael


    The simulation process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the SES. The Simulator Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their engineering personnel in simulation planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the simulation process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, facility interfaces, and inputs necessary to define scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  15. Vehicle dynamics modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Dieter; Bardini, Roberto


    The authors examine in detail the fundamentals and mathematical descriptions of the dynamics of automobiles. In this context different levels of complexity will be presented, starting with basic single-track models up to complex three-dimensional multi-body models. A particular focus is on the process of establishing mathematical models on the basis of real cars and the validation of simulation results. The methods presented are explained in detail by means of selected application scenarios.

  16. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.


    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  17. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu


    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  18. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-24 Test vehicles and engines. (a... configuration. (E) The intake and exhaust valve sizes. (F) The fuel system. (G) The camshaft timing and ignition... (non-catalyst, oxidation catalyst only, three-way catalyst equipped). (9) Engine families identical in...

  19. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions (United States)


    ... allow a statement of compliance in lieu of test data for operation on the original fuel if the... vehicle or engine.\\25\\ OEM standards would continue to apply for the required test cycles, including... and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...

  20. Engineering students win autonomous vehicle competition for third year


    Crumbley, Liz


    For the third year in a row, the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Autonomous Vehicle Team swept the international Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC), winning best and second-best overall and placing first in the three top event categories. The team of mechanical engineering (ME) students also was awarded $15,000 in prize money.

  1. Real-Time Simulation of Ares I Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Wilson, Heath; Alday, Nathan; Walker, David; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael


    The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory (SIL) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The primary purpose of the Ares SIL is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time software backbone to stimulate all required Ares components through high-fidelity simulation. ARTEMIS has been designed to take full advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support HWIL testing. A modular real-time design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been achieved. Two fundamental requirements drove ARTEMIS to pursue the use of high-fidelity simulation models in a real-time environment. First, ARTEMIS must be used to test a man-rated integrated avionics hardware and software system, thus requiring a wide variety of nominal and off-nominal simulation capabilities to certify system robustness. The second driving requirement - derived from a nationwide review of current state-of-the-art HWIL facilities - was that preserving digital model fidelity significantly reduced overall vehicle lifecycle cost by reducing testing time for certification runs and increasing flight tempo through an expanded operational envelope. These two driving requirements necessitated the use of high-fidelity models throughout the ARTEMIS simulation. The nature of the Ares mission profile imposed a variety of additional requirements on the ARTEMIS simulation. The Ares I vehicle is composed of multiple elements, including the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), the Upper Stage powered by the J- 2X engine, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) which houses the crew, the Launch Abort System (LAS), and various secondary elements that separate from the vehicle. At launch, the

  2. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  3. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John


    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  4. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital


    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  5. Accident simulation with two commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, F.A.


    Simulations of real accidents help to provide deeper insight into the dynamics of traffic accidents. Whereas collisions between passenger cars and ones between passenger cars and motorcycles have been simulated and analyzed often, hardly any such experiments involving commerical vehicles have been carried out until now. Under the sponsorship of the Deutscher Verband Fluessiggas e.V., the Accident Reasearch Department of the German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association e.V. (DEKRA) performed an experiment crashing a rubbish truck against the right side of a parked liquified-gas tanker at a speed of about 40 km/h. Analysis of the experiment provided both new knowledge for the experts on liquified gas and more general findings on the dynamics of collisions between commercial vehicles relevant to the reconstruction of traffic accidents. This article is a report on how the experiment was carried out and described results of the analysis with reference to accident reconstruction concentrating on kinematic sequences-especially those during the impulse-exchange phase. The author concludes with initial findings on the accuracy of accident reconstruction when conventional simple models are used. In this case, it was possible to calculate the rubbish truck's collision speed with an acceptable degree of deviation from its actual collision speed assuming that the impact was at 90, on the level and that it hit an absorbent object centrally. (orig.).

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Heavy Fuel Engine Test (United States)


    engines and gaz turbine engines. Unfortunately, the best production diesel engines in the 50 HP class weigh 250 lbs or more, although these engines...Heavy Fuel Engine Test 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Brucato Joseph Lawton Anthony Magglo 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ...BASELINE ENGINE PERFORMANCE ................. 20 EXHAUST SYSTEM TUNING ........................ 20-21 TURBOCHARGER TESTING

  7. Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program (United States)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.


    The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

  8. Experiential Learning in Vehicle Dynamics Education via Motion Simulation and Interactive Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hulme


    Full Text Available Creating active, student-centered learning situations in postsecondary education is an ongoing challenge for engineering educators. Contemporary students familiar with visually engaging and fast-paced games can find traditional classroom methods of lecture and guided laboratory experiments limiting. This paper presents a methodology that incorporates driving simulation, motion simulation, and educational practices into an engaging, gaming-inspired simulation framework for a vehicle dynamics curriculum. The approach is designed to promote active student participation in authentic engineering experiences that enhance learning about road vehicle dynamics. The paper presents the student use of physical simulation and large-scale visualization to discover the impact that design decisions have on vehicle design using a gaming interface. The approach is evaluated using two experiments incorporated into a sequence of two upper level mechanical engineering courses.

  9. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL


    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  10. Complex systems models: engineering simulations


    Polack, Fiona A. C.; Hoverd, Tim; Sampson, Adam T.; Stepney, Susan; Timmis, Jon,


    As part of research towards the CoSMoS unified infrastructure for modelling and simulating complex systems, we review uses of definitional and descriptive models in natural science and computing, and existing integrated platforms. From these, we identify requirements for engineering models of complex systems, and consider how some of the requirements could be met, using state-of-the-art model management and a mobile, process-oriented computing paradigm.

  11. Integrated development of light armored vehicles based on wargaming simulators (United States)

    Palmarini, Marc; Rapanotti, John


    Vehicles are evolving into vehicle networks through improved sensors, computers and communications. Unless carefully planned, these complex systems can result in excessive crew workload and difficulty in optimizing the use of the vehicle. To overcome these problems, a war-gaming simulator is being developed as a common platform to integrate contributions from three different groups. The simulator, OneSAF, is used to integrate simplified models of technology and natural phenomena from scientists and engineers with tactics and doctrine from the military and analyzed in detail by operations analysts. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. Vehicle survivability can be improved as well with better sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid or destroy threats. To improve threat detection and reliability, Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) designs are based on three complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics and radar. Both active armour and softkill countermeasures are considered. In a typical scenario, a search radar, providing continuous hemispherical coverage, detects and classifies the threat and cues a tracking radar. Data from the tracking radar is processed and an explosive grenade is launched to destroy or deflect the threat. The angle of attack and velocity from the search radar can be used by the soft-kill system to carry out an infrared search and track or an illuminated range-gated scan for the threat platform. Upon detection, obscuration, countermanoeuvres and counterfire can be used against the threat. The sensor suite is completed by acoustic detection of muzzle blast and shock waves. Automation and networking at the platoon level contribute to improved vehicle survivability. Sensor data fusion is essential in avoiding catastrophic failure of the DAS. The modular DAS components can be used with Light Armoured

  12. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart


    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US

  13. Theory and Design of Flight-Vehicle Engines (United States)

    Zhdanov, V. T. (Editor); Kurziner, R. I. (Editor)


    Papers are presented on such topics as the testing of aircraft engines, errors in the experimental determination of the parameters of scramjet engines, the effect of the nonuniformity of supersonic flow with shocks on friction and heat transfer in the channel of a hypersonic ramjet engine, and the selection of the basic parameters of cooled GTE turbines. Consideration is also given to the choice of optimal total wedge angle for the acceleration of aerospace vehicles, the theory of an electromagnetic-resonator engine, the dynamic characteristics of the pumps and turbines of liquid propellant rocket engines in transition regimes, and a hierarchy of mathematical models for spacecraft control engines.

  14. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  15. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad; Melanz, Daniel; Lamb, David; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Letherwood, Michael; Jain, Abhinandan; Quadrelli, Marco


    This paper is concerned with the physics-based simulation of light tracked vehicles operating on rough deformable terrain. The focus is on small autonomous vehicles, which weigh less than 100 lb and move on deformable and rough terrain that is feature rich and no longer representable using a continuum approach. A scenario of interest is, for instance, the simulation of a reconnaissance mission for a high mobility lightweight robot where objects such as a boulder or a ditch that could otherwise be considered small for a truck or tank, become major obstacles that can impede the mobility of the light autonomous vehicle and negatively impact the success of its mission. Analyzing and gauging the mobility and performance of these light vehicles is accomplished through a modeling and simulation capability called Chrono::Engine. Chrono::Engine relies on parallel execution on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards.

  16. Transatmospheric vehicle propelled by air-turborocket engines (United States)

    Cimino, P.; Drake, J.; Jones, J.; Strayer, D.; Venetoklis, P.


    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design for a reusable single-stage-to-orbit transatmospheric vehicle capable of transporting 20,000 lbs to low earth orbit. The vehicle employs advanced airbreathing propulsion systems in conjunction with a subscale SSME rocket engine to achieve this goal. The proposed lifting body vehicle has a highly swept delta wing and is designed for vertical takeoff. Gross liftoff weight is approximately 400,000 pounds. From takeoff to Mach 3, the vehicle uses 4 air-turborocket engines for thrust. From Mach 3 to Mach 6, the rocket turbines are shut down and the engines operate in a ramjet mode. From Mach 6 to 24, the vehicle employs a separate scramjet engine. At Mach 24, the vehicle performs a zoom climb maneuver to attain orbital altitude; then the scaled SSME accelerates the TAV to orbit insertion velocity. The study guidelines required that this vehicle designed with state-of-the-art technology.

  17. Near term electric test vehicle ETV-2 (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engineering drawings are provided for ETV-2, a unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. Reference DOE/CS/51213-01. (WHK)

  18. 40 CFR 85.1503 - General requirements for importation of nonconforming vehicles and engines. (United States)


    ... of nonconforming vehicles and engines. 85.1503 Section 85.1503 Protection of Environment... importation of nonconforming vehicles and engines. (a) A nonconforming vehicle or engine offered for... nonconforming vehicles or engines into the United States under the provisions of § 85.1505 and § 85.1509, except...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.1 - Does this part apply for my vehicles or engines? (United States)


    ... regulations in this part 1051 apply to new engines under 50 cc used in motorcycles that are motor vehicles... vehicles (ATVs.) (4) Offroad utility vehicles with engines with displacement less than or equal to 1000 cc...

  20. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  1. Engine Optimization for a Solar Thermal Powered Orbit Transfer Vehicle (United States)


    Recent technological advancements in solar thermal rocket propulsion and solar orbit transfer vehicles make it critical to perform additional engine performance analyses. Several system level flight demonstrations are imminent. Space flight hardware component testing is being conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California. The focus of current research is engine and nozzle configurations for a solar orbit transfer vehicle. The optimal design must produce 1-10 pounds thrust, perform at high lsp and be compatible in a hybrid of spiral, perigee, and apogee (multi-burn) configurations. The nozzle material must not ablate when subjected to extreme thermal loading, yet be durable enough to withstand widely varying temperature differentials during frequent thermal cycling. This paper addresses propulsive needs in the orbit transfer arena and defines governing upper stage vehicle engine equations. These equations are modified versions of rocket engine equations used for chemical systems. The correction factors and modifications are for Solar Thermal Propulsion specific hardware.

  2. Simulations of heat transfer through the cabin walls of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster M.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with industrial application of numerical methods to the prediction of thermal situation in the rail vehicle interior. Basic principles of heat transfer are summarised to explain both theoretical background of simulations and engineering approach to solving temperature conditions in the vehicle interior. The main part of the contribution describes the solution of the locomotive driver’s cabin heating and controlling the temperature levels. This contribution is a brief overview of both possibilities of engineering modelling of heat transfer modes and results in the simulation of the real locomotive cabin heating/ventilation system design.

  3. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian


    .Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  4. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion (United States)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay


    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  5. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  6. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... (United States)


    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle... relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition...

  7. Performance simulation and emission of propulsion systems for vehicles; Simulacao de desempenho e emissao de sistemas de propulsao para veiculos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Bueno, Marcelo da Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica


    This paper evaluates the performance of two same platform vehicles but using different propulsion systems and fuels. At the two simulated vehicles (Fiat Palio Weekend Electrical and Fiat Palio Weekend 1.4), it will be evaluated the fuel consumption, energy efficiency and the CO{sub 2} emission. For the performance analysis of both vehicles the PAMVEC (Parametric Analytical Model of Vehicle Energy Consumption) will be used, which presents the capacity of generate energy indexes (energy consumption, fuel consumption, power and vehicle yield) from the characteristics of traction cycle and properties of vehicle components (internal combustion engine, battery, breaking, transmission and energy sources)

  8. Drive-train simulator for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle (United States)

    Brown, Darren; Alexander, Marcus; Brunner, Doug; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The model formulation, development process, and experimental validation of a new vehicle powertrain simulator called LFM (Light, Fast, and Modifiable) are presented. The existing powertrain simulators were reviewed and it was concluded that there is a need for a new, easily modifiable simulation platform that will be flexible and sufficiently robust to address a variety of hybrid vehicle platforms. First, the structure and operating principle of the LFM simulator are presented, followed by a discussion of the subsystems and input/output parameters. Finally, a validation exercise is presented in which the simulator's inputs were specified to represent the University of Delaware's fuel cell hybrid transit vehicle and "driven" using an actual drive cycle acquired from it. Good agreement between the output of the simulator and the physical data acquired by the vehicle's on-board sensors indicates that the simulator constitutes a powerful and reliable design tool.

  9. A Thermoelectric Generator Replacing Radiator for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kim


    Full Text Available We have proposed and developed a low temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG using engine water coolant of light-duty vehicles. Experimental results from test vehicle, of which engine size is about 2.0 liters, show that fabricated prototype Thermoelectric Generator generates more than 75W for driving condition of 80 km/hour, and output power is about 28W during idle condition. The proposed TEG can replace conventional radiator without additional water pumps or mechanical devices except for basic components of legacy water cooling system of radiator.

  10. The Simulation of the Functioning of a Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinel Popa


    Full Text Available In the paper we present a functional model and its mathematic modeling of the movement of the mechanism that simulates the functioning of a hybrid vehicle. The mechanism used for the coupling of three electric engines of continuous current with permanent magnet stator is a planetary mechanism with a double satellite. The functional model operation is ensured by an electronic module which allows the supply voltage variation of electric motors and an electronic device. In order to study the movement of the mechanism from a mathematical point of view we have designed a mathematic model with two degrees of freedom. We obtain the solution in transition phase and in permanent phase after obtaining the differential equations of motion using Lagrange's equations.

  11. Powertrain modeling and simulation for off-road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Standard forward facing automotive powertrain modeling and simulation methodology did not perform equally for all vehicles in all applications in the 2010 winter Olympics, 2009 world alpine ski championships, summit station in Greenland, the McGill Formula Hybrid, Unicell QuickSider, and lunar mobility. This presentation provided a standard automotive powertrain modeling and simulation flow chart as well as an example. It also provided a flow chart for location based powertrain modeling and simulation and discussed location based powertrain modeling and simulation implementation. It was found that in certain applications, vehicle-environment interactions cannot be neglected in order to have good model fidelity. Powertrain modeling and simulation of off-road vehicles demands a new approach to powertrain modeling and simulation. It was concluded that the proposed location based methodology could improve the results for off-road vehicles. tabs., figs.

  12. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent


    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  13. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin


    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  14. Research and Simulation of the Electrical Vehicle Based Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available This study developed a dynamic model of electric vehicle system by using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The vehicle model comprises two system components: an electrical system and a suspension system. This study also designed various road conditions for simulating the motion of vehicle traveling along a road. The results show that the electrical and suspension system parameters can be adjusted immediately to enhance passenger comfort. The findings of this research have practical teaching applications. Students can modify the vehicle model parameters byes using the MATLAB graphical user interface, allowing them to observe the motion of vehicle under various road conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ELDOĞAN


    Full Text Available Wheel model is very important in vehicle modelling, it is because the contact between vehicle and road is achieved by wheel. Vehicle models can be dynamic models which are used in vehicle design, they can also be models used in accident simulations. Because of the importance of subject, many studies including theoretical, experimental and mixed type have been carried out. In this study, information is given about development of wheel modelling and research studies and also use of these modellings in traffic accident simulations.

  16. Combustion Engines Development Mixture Formation, Combustion, Emissions and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Christian; Teichmann, Rüdiger


    In the development of engines and vehicles it is nowadays standard practice to use commercially available computing programmes for simulation, not only of the transient reaction of vehicles or of the complete driveshaft, but also of the highly unsteady processes in the combustion chamber of an engine. Normally the source code is not available for these computing programmes and it takes too much time to study the respective specifications, so the users often do not have sufficient knowledge about the physical and chemical contents of the approaches that the programmes are based on. We have often been faced with this fact in talks to employees or in discussions during the presentation of results of simulation. Therefore it is our aim to point out different physical and chemical approaches and to show the possibilities and limits of the models used.

  17. Agricultural Vehicles and Rural Road Traffic Safety: an Engineering Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.


    Road collisions are a problem world-wide. Related to the kilometers traveled on public roads agricultural vehicles (AVs) are over-represented in reported numbers of traffic victims. We aim to investigate how agricultural engineering can reduce accidents with AVs involved on public roads. We

  18. Engine-start Control Strategy of P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Xiangyang, Xu; Siqi, Zhao; Peng, Dong


    A smooth and fast engine-start process is important to parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an electric motor mounted in front of the transmission. However, there are some challenges during the engine-start control. Firstly, the electric motor must simultaneously provide a stable driving torque to ensure the drivability and a compensative torque to drag the engine before ignition. Secondly, engine-start time is a trade-off control objective because both fast start and smooth start have to be considered. To solve these problems, this paper first analyzed the resistance of the engine start process, and established a physic model in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a model-based coordinated control strategy among engine, motor and clutch was developed. Two basic control strategy during fast start and smooth start process were studied. Simulation results showed that the control objectives were realized by applying given control strategies, which can meet different requirement from the driver.

  19. Engineering dynamics from the Lagrangian to simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F


    This engineering dynamics textbook is aimed at beginning graduate students in mechanical engineering and other related engineering disciplines who need training in dynamics as applied to engineering mechanisms. It introduces the formal mathematical development of Lagrangian mechanics (and its corollaries), while solving numerous engineering applications. The author’s goal is to instill an understanding of the basic physics required for engineering dynamics, while providing a recipe (algorithm) for the simulation of engineering mechanisms such as robots. The book is reasonably self-contained so that the practicing engineer interested in this area can also make use of it. This book is made accessible to the widest possible audience by numerous, solved examples and diagrams that apply the principles to real engineering applications. • Provides an applied textbook for intermediate/advanced engineering dynamics courses; • Discusses Lagrangian mechanics in the context of numerous engineering applications...

  20. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.


    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  1. Finite element model prediction of pulmonary contusion in vehicle-to-vehicle simulations of real-world crashes. (United States)

    Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D


    Pulmonary contusion (PC) is a common chest injury following motor vehicle crash (MVC). Because this injury has an inflammatory component, studying PC in living subjects is essential. Medical and vehicle data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database were utilized to examine pulmonary contusion in case occupants with known crash parameters. The selected CIREN cases were simulated with vehicle finite element models (FEMs) with the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 4 as the occupant. To match the CIREN crash parameters, vehicle simulations were iteratively improved to optimize maximum crush location and depth. Fifteen cases were successfully modeled with the simulated maximum crush matching the CIREN crush to within 10%. Following the simulations, stress and strain metrics for the elements within the lungs were calculated. These injury metrics were compared to patient imaging data to determine the best finite element predictor of pulmonary contusion. When the thresholds were evaluated using volumetric criteria, first principal strain was the metric with the least variation in the FEM prediction of PC. A preliminary threshold for maximum crush was calculated to predict a clinically significant volume of pulmonary contusion.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Linear Two - DOF Vehicle Handling Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Pei-Cheng


    Full Text Available Based on the theory of vehicle steering dynamics, a model of linear two-DOF vehicle handling stability was established in MATLAB / Simulink environment. Simulation analysis of state variable response such as vehicle yaw velocity and side slip angle was made under different vehicle speed conditions for step-input of front-wheel turning angle. The response curves of the state variables in the time domain are obtained under three vehicle speeds. The results show that the response curve of simulation is in good agreement with the actual situation, which not only verifies correctness of the established vehicle handling stability model, but also provides theoretical basis for subsequent design of handling stability control system.

  3. A hypersonic research vehicle to develop scramjet engines (United States)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Reuss, R. L.


    Four student design teams produced conceptual designs for a research vehicle to develop the supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines necessary for efficient hypersonic flight. This research aircraft would provide flight test data for prototype scramjets that is not available in groundbased test facilities. The design specifications call for a research aircraft to be launched from a carrier aircraft at 40,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. The aircraft must accelerate to Mach 6 while climbing to a 100,000 foot altitude and then ignite the experimental scramjet engines for acceleration to Mach 10. The research vehicle must then be recovered for another flight. The students responded with four different designs, two piloted waverider configurations, and two unmanned vehicles, one with a blended body-wing configuration, the other with a delta wing shape. All aircraft made use of an engine database provided by the General Electric Aircraft Engine Group; both turbofan ramjet and scramjet engine performance using liquid hydrogen fuel was available. Explained here are the students' conceptual designs and the aerodynamic and propulsion concepts that made their designs feasible.

  4. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  5. Blast event simulation for a vehicle subjected to an explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Vlahopoulos, N.; Goetz, R.; Velde, R. van de


    One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from an explosion, the response of

  6. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement? (United States)


    ... displacement? This section describes how to quantify your vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement for... available engine torque with engine speed. (b) An engine configuration's displacement is the intended swept... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my vehicle's maximum engine...

  7. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  8. Aerodynamic Characteristics, Database Development and Flight Simulation of the X-34 Vehicle (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Fuhrmann, Henri D.


    An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics, development of the preflight aerodynamic database and flight simulation of the NASA/Orbital X-34 vehicle is presented in this paper. To develop the aerodynamic database, wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. Where wind tunnel test data was not available, engineering level analysis is used to fill the gaps in the database. Using this aerodynamic data, simulations have been performed for typical design reference missions of the X-34 vehicle.

  9. A Phenomenological Heat Transfer Model of SI Engines – Application to the Simulation of a Full-Hybrid Vehicle Un modèle phénoménologique de transfert thermique au sein de moteurs à allumage commandé — Application à la simulation d’un véhicule full-hybride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubouil R.


    Full Text Available A hybrid thermal-electric vehicle allows some significant fuel economy due to its peculiar use of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE that runs with better efficiency. However, this propulsion system impacts its thermal behaviour, especially during its warm-up after a cold start. The ICE can indeed be shut down when the vehicle is stopped (Stop&Start system and during full-electric propulsion mode (allowed at light speed and load if the battery state of charge is high enough resulting in a lack of heat source and a slow down of the warm-up. Moreover, the use of the ICE at higher loads while charging the batteries provides an increase of the heating power generated by the combustion. Control strategies in a hybrid vehicle (energy repartition between the two propulsions: thermal and electric have a significant effect on its final consumption. Therefore, the simulation of hybrid vehicles is then useful to evaluate the efficiency of these strategies. However, the consideration of the warm-up of the ICE in such a propulsion system was done in only few published studies. A simulation tool using the Amesim software has been developed in order to simulate the warm-up of an ICE used in a hybrid parallel propulsion system. The corresponding model is developed in order to take into account the thermal phenomena occurring between the different ICE components. Thus, a thermodynamic model is coupled with a thermal model of the metallic parts and the different fluid loops (water and oil. Their mean temperature dependence with different parameters like speed, the load, the cylinder geometry and the spark advance, is studied with the aim at reducing fuel consumption. The thermal model of the engine is finally integrated in a simulation of the whole vehicle. The thermal behaviour of a parallel electric full-hybrid vehicle using a spark ignition engine is then presented using this simulation tool. The simulation results show the impact of the peculiar use of the

  10. 40 CFR 85.1805 - Notification to vehicle or engine owners. (United States)


    ... owners. 85.1805 Section 85.1805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... to vehicle or engine owners. (a) The notification of vehicle or engine owners shall contain the... required of a vehicle or engine owner to demonstrate compliance with such condition. Eligibility may not be...

  11. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal... (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.220 Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical...

  12. Variable Bus Voltage Modeling for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation


    Merkle, Matthew Alan


    A growing dependence on foreign oil, along with a heightened concern over the environmental impact of personal transportation, had led the U. S. government to investigate and sponsor research into advanced transportation concepts. One of these future technologies is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), typically featuring both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, with the goal of producing fewer emissions while obtaining superior fuel economy. While vehicles such as the Virg...

  13. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine


    Lino Guzzella; Christopher Onder; Tobias Ott


    In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the po...

  14. Vehicle engine sound design based on an active noise control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M. [Siemens VDO Automotive, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)


    A study has been carried out to identify the types of vehicle engine sounds that drivers prefer while driving at different locations and under different driving conditions. An active noise control system controlled the sound at the air intake orifice of a vehicle engine's first sixteen orders and half orders. The active noise control system was used to change the engine sound to quiet, harmonic, high harmonic, spectral shaped and growl. Videos were made of the roads traversed, binaural recording of vehicle interior sounds, and vibrations of the vehicle floor pan. Jury tapes were made up for day driving, nighttime driving and driving in the rain during the day for each of the sites. Jurors used paired comparisons to evaluate the vehicle interior sounds while sitting in a vehicle simulator developed by Siemens VDO that replicated videos of the road traversed, binaural recording of the vehicle interior sounds and vibrations of the floor pan and seat. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Studie wurden Typen von Motorgeraeuschen identifiziert, die von Fahrern unter verschiedenen Fahrbedingungen als angenehm empfunden werden. Ein System zur aktiven Geraeuschbeeinflussung am Ansauglufteinlass im Bereich des Luftfilters modifizierte den Klang des Motors bis zur 16,5ten Motorordnung, und zwar durch Bedaempfung, Verstaerkung und Filterung der Signalfrequenzen. Waehrend der Fahrt wurden Videoaufnahmen der befahrenen Strassen, Stereoaufnahmen der Fahrzeuginnengeraeusche und Aufnahmen der Vibrationsamplituden des Fahrzeugbodens erstellt; dies bei Tag- und Nachtfahrten und bei Tagfahrten im Regen. Zur Beurteilung der aufgezeichneten Geraeusche durch Versuchspersonen wurde ein Fahrzeug-Laborsimulator mit Fahrersitz, Bildschirm, Lautsprecher und mechanischer Erregung der Bodenplatte aufgebaut, um die aufgenommenen Signale moeglichst wirklichkeitsgetreu wiederzugeben. (orig.)

  15. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilo, D. D., E-mail:; Lukamana, N. I., E-mail:; Budiana, E. P., E-mail:; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P., E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta (Indonesia)


    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  16. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact (United States)

    Susilo, D. D.; Lukamana, N. I.; Budiana, E. P.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.


    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  17. Studies on SI engine simulation and air/fuel ratio control systems design


    Bai, Yang


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. More stringent Euro 6 and LEV III emission standards will immediately begin execution on 2014 and 2015 respectively. Accurate air/fuel ratio control can effectively reduce vehicle emission. The simulation of engine dynamic system is a very powerful method for developing and analysing engine and engine controller. Currently, most engine air/fuel ratio control used look-up table combined with p...

  18. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Husnawan, M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala, Jl. S. Abd. Rauf No. 7, Darussalam - Banda Aceh (Indonesia)


    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  19. Conceptual Design and Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Waverider Vehicle (United States)

    Cao, D. Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Lee, C. H.

    A modularized airframe/propulsion integrated model is established by oblique shock wave theory, engineering method and method of characteristics(MOC). Based on this method, a new design methodology for hypersonic waverider vehicle which integrated scramjets with waverider airframe derived from cone-wedge flow field is presented. Integrated aero-propulsion performance of the waverider vehicle under on-design and off-design conditions is predicted using Euler equations discretized by Harten-Yee non-MUSCL TVD scheme and the combustor flow field is approximated by a quasi-ID cycle analysis, skin friction of vehicle is calculated by reference temperature method.

  20. Design tradeoffs on engine-integrated hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Kae L.; Lewis, Mark J.


    Two classes of airbreathing hypersonic vehicle concepts, one for primarily cruise missions and the other for accelerator type missions, are presented. Both are designed with waverider airframes and hydrogen-fueled scramjet engine modules. Cruise configurations are optimized for the product of I(sp) and L/D while matching lift to weight and thrust to drag at some equivalence ratio. Accelerator configurations are optimized for effective specific impulse while matching lift to weight at an equivalence ratio of one. The method and computer code developed to optimize the configurations are discussed. The features and design tradeoffs for each class of vehicles are described. Recently available weight estimates for all-body waveriders have had a significant impact on the integrated configurations. Mach 8 vehicles at 40 km altitude optimized with the cruise objective function have L/Ds of 2.55 to 2.92 and I(sp)s of 2850 to 2940 sec. A Mach 14 vehicle at 40-km altitude optimized with the accelerator objective function has an I(sp) sub eff of 189 sec, and a Mach 10 vehicle an I(sp) sub eff of 880 sec.

  1. Remotely detected vehicle mass from engine torque-induced frame twisting (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Sweeney, Glenn D.


    Determining the mass of a vehicle from ground-based passive sensor data is important for many traffic safety requirements. This work presents a method for calculating the mass of a vehicle using ground-based video and acoustic measurements. By assuming that no energy is lost in the conversion, the mass of a vehicle can be calculated from the rotational energy generated by the vehicle's engine and the linear acceleration of the vehicle over a period of time. The amount of rotational energy being output by the vehicle's engine can be calculated from its torque and angular velocity. This model relates remotely observed, engine torque-induced frame twist to engine torque output using the vehicle's suspension parameters and engine geometry. The angular velocity of the engine is extracted from the acoustic emission of the engine, and the linear acceleration of the vehicle is calculated by remotely observing the position of the vehicle over time. This method combines these three dynamic signals; engine induced-frame twist, engine angular velocity, and the vehicle's linear acceleration, and three vehicle specific scalar parameters, into an expression that describes the mass of the vehicle. This method was tested on a semitrailer truck, and the results demonstrate a correlation of 97.7% between calculated and true vehicle mass.

  2. Simulation and Spacecraft Design: Engineering Mars Landings. (United States)

    Conway, Erik M


    A key issue in history of technology that has received little attention is the use of simulation in engineering design. This article explores the use of both mechanical and numerical simulation in the design of the Mars atmospheric entry phases of the Viking and Mars Pathfinder missions to argue that engineers used both kinds of simulation to develop knowledge of their designs' likely behavior in the poorly known environment of Mars. Each kind of simulation could be used as a warrant of the other's fidelity, in an iterative process of knowledge construction.

  3. Computer Simulation in Information and Communication Engineering

    CERN Multimedia

    Anton Topurov


    CSICE'05 Sofia, Bulgaria 20th - 22nd October, 2005 On behalf of the International Scientific Committee, we would like to invite you all to Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria, to the International Conference in Computer Simulation in Information and Communication Engineering CSICE'05. The Conference is aimed at facilitating the exchange of experience in the field of computer simulation gained not only in traditional fields (Communications, Electronics, Physics...) but also in the areas of biomedical engineering, environment, industrial design, etc. The objective of the Conference is to bring together lectures, researchers and practitioners from different countries, working in the fields of computer simulation in information engineering, in order to exchange information and bring new contribution to this important field of engineering design and education. The Conference will bring you the latest ideas and development of the tools for computer simulation directly from their inventors. Contribution describ...

  4. Modelling and simulation of vehicle electric power system (United States)

    Lee, Wootaik; Choi, Daeho; Sunwoo, Myoungho

    In recent years, the demand for an increased number of vehicle functions by legislation and customer expectations has introduced many electronic control systems and electrical driven units in vehicles and has resulted in steadily increasing electrical loads. Moreover, due to heavy urban traffic conditions, the idling time fraction has increased and reduced the power generation of the alternator. In the vehicle design phase, in order to avoid an over- or under-design problem of the electric power system, it is necessary to understand both the characteristics of each component of the vehicle electric power system and the interactions between the components. For this purpose, model and simulation algorithms of the vehicle power system are required. In this study, the vehicle electric power system, which is mainly composed of a generator and battery, is modelled and evaluated. Among the various proposed battery models, two types are compared in terms of accuracy and ease-of-use. These two models are distinguished by the consideration of inrush current at the beginning of charging and discharging. In addition, a variable terminal voltage alternator model (VTVA model) is proposed, and is compared with a constant terminal voltage alternator model (CTVA model). Based on the major component model, a simulation algorithm is developed and used to perform a case study. Compared with real data from the vehicle, the simulation results of energy generation and consumption are comparable.

  5. 40 CFR 1051.501 - What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines? (United States)


    ... engine testing. For motorcycles with engine displacement at or below 169 cc and all ATVs, use the driving... vehicles or engines? 1051.501 Section 1051.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Test...

  6. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines. (United States)


    ... internal combustion engines. 176.905 Section 176.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... engines. (a) A motor vehicle or any mechanized equipment powered by an internal combustion engine is... met: (1) The motor vehicle or mechanical equipment has an internal combustion engine using liquid fuel...

  7. Motion simulation of air cushion vehicle in beach-landing (United States)

    Ji, Nan


    First of all, this paper establishes air cushion vehicle bottom waveform obtained by the superimposition of wave-making water surface deformation in calm water and wave waveforms in external environment. While taking advantage of the continuity equation of flow to establish air flow system, this paper establishes a more comprehensive mathematical model of 6-DOF motion control for air cushion vehicles. On this basis, we also build the beach model from the water to the land slope as well as the models of ditch and obstacle. At the same time, we have predicted the craft's dynamic trim in the process of air cushion vehicles' climbing the beach. Forecast results can better reflect the basic motion characteristics of air cushion vehicle, and simulation results can be used to further study the manoeuvrability of air cushion vehicle, debug and optimize the manoeuvrability-control system.

  8. Vehicle Modeling for Future Generation Transportation Simulation (United States)


    Recent development of inter-vehicular wireless communication technologies have motivated many innovative applications aiming at significantly increasing traffic throughput and improving highway safety. Powerful traffic simulation is an indispensable ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Thöndel


    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  10. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.T. Mohd


    Full Text Available As electric vehicles become promising alternatives for sustainable and cleaner energy emissions in transportation, the modeling and simulation of electric vehicles has attracted increasing attention from researchers. This paper presents a simulation model of a full electric vehicle on the Matlab-Simulink platform to examine power flow during motoring and regeneration. The drive train components consist of a motor, a battery, a motor controller and a battery controller; modeled according to their mathematical equations. All simulation results are plotted and discussed. The torque and speed conditions during motoring and regeneration were used to determine the energy flow, and performance of the drive. This study forms the foundation for further research and development.

  11. Simulation of an electric vehicle model on the new WLTC test cycle using AVL CRUISE software (United States)

    Cristian Cioroianu, Constantin; Marinescu, Dănuţ Gabriel; Iorga, Adrian; Răzvan Sibiceanu, Adrian


    Nowadays, environmental pollution has become a general issue and the automotive industry is probably the most affected. The principal air-quality pollutant emissions from petrol, diesel and LPG engines are carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, un-burnt hydrocarbons. Modern cars produce only quite small quantities of the air quality pollutants, but the emissions from large numbers of cars add to a significant air quality problem. Electric vehicles are an answer to this problem because they have absolutely no emissions. These vehicles have some major disadvantages regarding cost and range. In this paper, an electric vehicle model will be created in the AVL Cruise software. The constructed model is based on the existing Dacia Sandero. Also unlike the real car, the model presented has different characteristics since it is a full electric vehicle. It has an electric motor instead of the petrol engine and a battery pack placed in the trunk. The model will be simulated in order to obtain data regarding vehicle performance, energy consumption and range on the new WLTC test cycle. The obtained know-how will help on later improvements of the electric model regarding methods to increase the vehicle range on the new WLTC test cycle.

  12. Analysis and simulation of Wiseman hypocycloid engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyesh Ray


    Full Text Available This research studies an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion engines, which was proposed by the Wiseman Technologies Inc. Their design involved replacing the crankshaft with a hypocycloid gear assembly. The unique hypocycloid gear arrangement allowed the piston and connecting rod to move in a straight line creating a perfect sinusoidal motion, without any side loads. In this work, the Wiseman hypocycloid engine was modeled in a commercial engine simulation software and compared to slider-crank engine of the same size. The engine’s performance was studied, while operating on diesel, ethanol, and gasoline fuel. Furthermore, a scaling analysis on the Wiseman engine prototypes was carried out to understand how the performance of the engine is affected by increasing the output power and cylinder displacement. It was found that the existing 30cc Wiseman engine produced about 7% less power at peak speeds than the slider-crank engine of the same size. These results were concurrent with the dynamometer tests performed in the past. It also produced lower torque and was about 6% less fuel efficient than the slider-crank engine. The four-stroke diesel variant of the same Wiseman engine performed better than the two-stroke gasoline version. The Wiseman engine with a contra piston (that allowed to vary the compression ratio showed poor fuel efficiency but produced higher torque when operating on E85 fuel. It also produced about 1.4% more power than while running on gasoline. While analyzing effects of the engine size on the Wiseman hypocycloid engine prototypes, it was found that the engines performed better in terms of power, torque, fuel efficiency, and cylinder brake mean effective pressure as the displacement increased. The 30 horsepower (HP conceptual Wiseman prototype, while operating on E85, produced the most optimum results in all aspects, and the diesel test for the same engine proved to be the most fuel efficient.

  13. Vehicle SI Engine with MPI of Liquid State LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beroun Stanislav


    Full Text Available The first part of the article reviews the possible methods for LPG and air mixture forming (injection of gaseous or liquid state LPG and their influence on the operating properties of an SI engine. The next chapter explains the processes that take place when liquid state LPG is injected into the air flow of an internal combustion engine intake manifold. A simplified calculation is used to show that the injection of liquid state LPG is associated with extreme low temperature of the LPG injected into intake manifold and with ice formation on the outlet nozzle. The article sets out the design of an end part injector (EPI for liquid state LPG that reduces the risk of icing of the outlet nozzle. The results of experimental research indicate very good operational properties for a vehicle SI engine with the combustion mixture formed by the injection of liquid state LPG into the engine intake manifold. The calculation results are confirmed by recording plots of LPG pressure inside the end part of injector (EPI and the temperature on the outlet nozzle (ON of the LPG injector. Visual inspection of injection of liquid state LPG into the intake manifold clearly supports the performed measurements. The conclusions summarize the knowledge gained from the laboratory investigation of liquid state LPG injection into an engine intake manifold.

  14. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability (United States)


    by funding provided by the Na- tional Science Foundation under NSF Project CMMI - 0840442 and through TARDEC grant W911NF-11- D-0001-0048. M...Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1989. [13] HEYN, T. Simulation of Tracked Vehicles on Granular Terrain Leveraging GPU Comput- ing. M.S. thesis ...Dy- namics on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Cards. M.S. thesis , Department of Me- chanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin– Madison, http

  15. On the required complexity of vehicle dynamic models for use in simulation-based highway design. (United States)

    Brown, Alexander; Brennan, Sean


    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive project whose goal is to identify roadway design practices that maximize the margin of safety between the friction supply and friction demand. This study is motivated by the concern for increased accident rates on curves with steep downgrades, geometries that contain features that interact in all three dimensions - planar curves, grade, and superelevation. This complexity makes the prediction of vehicle skidding quite difficult, particularly for simple simulation models that have historically been used for road geometry design guidance. To obtain estimates of friction margin, this study considers a range of vehicle models, including: a point-mass model used by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design policy, a steady-state "bicycle model" formulation that considers only per-axle forces, a transient formulation of the bicycle model commonly used in vehicle stability control systems, and finally, a full multi-body simulation (CarSim and TruckSim) regularly used in the automotive industry for high-fidelity vehicle behavior prediction. The presence of skidding--the friction demand exceeding supply--was calculated for each model considering a wide range of vehicles and road situations. The results indicate that the most complicated vehicle models are generally unnecessary for predicting skidding events. However, there are specific maneuvers, namely braking events within lane changes and curves, which consistently predict the worst-case friction margins across all models. This suggests that any vehicle model used for roadway safety analysis should include the effects of combined cornering and braking. The point-mass model typically used by highway design professionals may not be appropriate to predict vehicle behavior on high-speed curves during braking in low-friction situations. However, engineers can use the results of this study to help select the appropriate vehicle dynamic

  16. Simulation on Vehicle Vibration Offset of NX70 Flatcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yanhui


    Full Text Available The current rolling stock gauge for standard gauge railway is a static gauge to check the vehicle frame. The contradiction of large construction gauge and small rolling stock gauge has always existed. It is important to set down the clearance requirements in respect of physical size for the safe passage of rail vehicles. Reasonably determining the maximum vibration offset can improve the efficiency of clearance. As an example, analyze the complex vibration of NX70 flat car by simulation test on the running track. Comprehensive considering the track model, loading plan, line conditions and running speed, then SIMPACK is used to present the vehicle system dynamics simulation model. After researching simulation result, respectively determine the maximum vehicle vibration offset for railroads of Class I, Class II and Class III on the height of the center of gravity 2000 mm and 2400 mm. According to the clearance between the structure gauge and the position of maximum vibration offset, analyze the safety of vehicle operation since the center of gravity is higher than before.

  17. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.


    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of Search Engine (United States)

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.


    The best tool currently used to access information is a search engine. Meanwhile, the information space has its own behaviour. Systematically, an information space needs to be familiarized with mathematics so easily we identify the characteristics associated with it. This paper reveal some characteristics of search engine based on a model of document collection, which are then estimated the impact on the feasibility of information. We reveal some of characteristics of search engine on the lemma and theorem about singleton and doubleton, then computes statistically characteristic as simulating the possibility of using search engine. In this case, Google and Yahoo. There are differences in the behaviour of both search engines, although in theory based on the concept of documents collection.

  19. ADVANCE, a modular vehicle simulation environment in MATLAB/SIMULINK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Vink, W.; Tillaart, E. van den


    This paper presents the development of a hybrid electric powertrain test platform. In the development process use has been made of ADVANCE, a modular vehicle simulation environment in MATLAB/Simulink. The background, philosophy, and the concept of the ADVANCE tool are discussed and a brief

  20. Application of the Environmental Sensation Learning Vehicle Simulation Platform in Virtual Reality (United States)

    Hsu, Kuei-Shu; Jiang, Jinn-Feng; Wei, Hung-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Han


    The use of simulation technologies in learning has received considerable attention in recent years, but few studies to date have focused on vehicle driving simulation systems. In this study, a vehicle driving simulation system was developed to support novice drivers in practicing their skills. Specifically, the vehicle driving simulation system…

  1. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев


    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  2. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.


    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  3. Optimization of hydrogen vehicle refueling via dynamic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Mérida, W.; Rokni, Masoud


    A dynamic model has been developed to analyze and optimize the thermodynamics and design of hydrogen refueling stations. The model is based on Dymola software and incorporates discrete components. Two refueling station designs were simulated and compared. The modeling results indicate that pressure...... loss in the vehicle's storage system is one of the main factors determining the mass flow and peak cooling requirements of the refueling process. The design of the refueling station does not influence the refueling of the vehicle when the requirements of the technical information report J2601 from...... refueling is reduced by 5%, and the total amount of stored hydrogen at high pressure is reduced by 20%....

  4. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Vehicle engine id one of the main sources of noise which its level is influenced by various parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motor oils quality before and after oil change on the variability of vehicle engine induced noise level. In this study it is tried to follow-up the efficacy of motor oil quality on engines sound level. Material and Method: First, engine noise of 94 vehicles were recorded for 30 seconds before and after oil change and all the vehicles technical information including mileage, type of motor oil, and type of vehicle were registered. Following, the recorded noises were calibrated in semi-anechoic chamber and the sound pressure levels were measured with A and C-weighting network and main octav bands, using a sound level meters. The obtained results analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: The effects of motor oil quality on different noise levels of engines were determined and a significant reduction in noise level of vehicles engine was observed. Investigation of the relationship between mileage and motor oil quality on various engines sound level manifested that vehicles with mileage ranged 100000-150000 miles had significant reduction in their sound pressure levels in comparison with other vehicles. Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  5. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft (United States)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis


    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  6. “Characterizing Factors Influencing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption for Vehicle Simulation in ALPHA,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0533, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0533, Dekraker, P., Stuhldreher, M., Kim, Y. (SwRI). (United States)

    This paper examines a) typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA city and highway drive cycles, b) EPA’s vehicle and engine testing to characterize that transient fuel usage, and c) changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine

  7. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II... (United States)


    ... applicable part: Construction equipment or vehicle means any internal combustion engine-powered machine... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...) of the Clean Air Act (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7543(e), is granting California its request for authorization...

  8. Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update (United States)

    Scheil, Christine M.; Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Petrosky, Lyman J.


    The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump. Key code outputs include reactor operating charactertistics and weights and well as engine system parameters such as performance, weights, dimensions, pressures, temperatures, mass flows and turbopump operating characteristics for both design and off-design operating conditions. Representative NTP engine system designs are also shown. An overview of NESS methodology and capabilities is presented in this paper, with special emphasis being placed on recent code developments.

  9. Dynamics simulations for engineering macromolecular interactions (United States)

    Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Shinar, Tamar; Silver, Pamela A.; Way, Jeffrey


    The predictable engineering of well-behaved transcriptional circuits is a central goal of synthetic biology. The artificial attachment of promoters to transcription factor genes usually results in noisy or chaotic behaviors, and such systems are unlikely to be useful in practical applications. Natural transcriptional regulation relies extensively on protein-protein interactions to insure tightly controlled behavior, but such tight control has been elusive in engineered systems. To help engineer protein-protein interactions, we have developed a molecular dynamics simulation framework that simplifies features of proteins moving by constrained Brownian motion, with the goal of performing long simulations. The behavior of a simulated protein system is determined by summation of forces that include a Brownian force, a drag force, excluded volume constraints, relative position constraints, and binding constraints that relate to experimentally determined on-rates and off-rates for chosen protein elements in a system. Proteins are abstracted as spheres. Binding surfaces are defined radially within a protein. Peptide linkers are abstracted as small protein-like spheres with rigid connections. To address whether our framework could generate useful predictions, we simulated the behavior of an engineered fusion protein consisting of two 20 000 Da proteins attached by flexible glycine/serine-type linkers. The two protein elements remained closely associated, as if constrained by a random walk in three dimensions of the peptide linker, as opposed to showing a distribution of distances expected if movement were dominated by Brownian motion of the protein domains only. We also simulated the behavior of fluorescent proteins tethered by a linker of varying length, compared the predicted Förster resonance energy transfer with previous experimental observations, and obtained a good correspondence. Finally, we simulated the binding behavior of a fusion of two ligands that could

  10. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  11. Emission Gas Reducer on Motor Vehicle, Automobile, Light Engine of Boat and Stationary Combustion Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Wijaya Kusuma


    Full Text Available The use of motor vehicle should be followed by protection against damages on the environment, since the exhaust gas from combustion engine has significantly affect on air and environmental pollution. One method to solve the problems in air pollution has been done by using a re-heater designed in Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Udayana. In accordance to the test on the re-heater, it can be seen very clear that the re-heater has significantly reduce the CO emission of about 54%. It also reduces the CO2 dan HC emission, and in the other side increases the number of O2. The re-heater has no significant effect to engine performance during the operation and also reduces the noise of motor.

  12. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.


    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  13. Alya: Towards Exascale for Engineering Simulation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, Mariano; Koric, Seid; Artigues, Antoni; Aguado-Sierra, Jazmin; Aris, Ruth; Mira, Daniel; Calmet, Hadrien; Cucchietti, Fernando; Owen, Herbert; Taha, Ahmed; Cela, Jose Maria


    Alya is the BSC in-house HPC-based multi-physics simulation code. It is designed from scratch to run efficiently in parallel supercomputers, solving coupled problems. The target domain is engineering, with all its particular features: complex geome- tries and unstructured meshes, coupled multi-physics with exotic coupling schemes and Physical models, ill-posed problems, flexibility needs for rapidly including new models, etc. Since its conception in 2004, Alya has shown scaling behaviour in an increasing number of cores. In this paper, we present its performance up to 100.000 cores in Blue Waters, the NCSA supercomputer. The selected tests are representative of the engineering world, all the problematic features included: incompressible flow in a hu- man respiratory system, low Mach combustion problem in a kiln furnace and coupled electro-mechanical problem in a heart. We show scalability plots for all cases, discussing all the aspects of such kind of simulations, including solvers convergence.

  14. An Emotional Engine for Behavior Simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García Carbajal


    Full Text Available Interpreting, modeling and representing emotions is a key feature of new generation games. This paper describes the first version of the Emotional Engine we have developed as a component of more complex behavior simulators. The purpose of this module is to manage the state and behavior of the characters present in a scene while they interact with a human user. We use preexistent language recognition libraries like Windows™ Speech API, and Kinect™ devices to communicate real humans with artificial characters participating in a virtual scene. The Emotional Engine works upon numeric variables extracted from such devices and calculated after some natural language interpretation process. It then produces numerical results that lead the behavior, modify both the verbal and body language of the characters, and influence the general evolution of the scene that takes place inside the simulator. This paper presents the system architecture and discusses some key components, such as the Language Interpretation and the Body Language Interpreter modules.

  15. Energy Optimization and Fuel Economy Investigation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated with Diesel/RCCI Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Solouk


    Full Text Available Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NO x and particulate matter (PM emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV architecture, which allows the engine to run completely in the narrow RCCI mode for common driving cycles. Three different types of energy management control (EMC strategies are designed and implemented to achieve the best fuel economy. The EMC strategies encompass rule-based control (RBC, offline, and online optimal controllers, including dynamic programing (DP and model predictive control (MPC, respectively. The simulation results show a 13.1% to 14.2% fuel economy saving by using an RCCI engine over a modern spark ignition (SI engine in SHEV for different driving cycles. This fuel economy saving is reduced to 3% in comparison with a modern compression ignition (CI engine, while NO x emissions are significantly lower. Simulation results show that the RCCI engine offers more fuel economy improvement in more aggressive driving cycles (e.g., US06, compared to less aggressive driving cycles (e.g., UDDS. In addition, the MPC results show that sub-optimal fuel economy is achieved by predicting the vehicle speed profile for a time horizon of 70 s.

  16. Energy management and design in solar powered vehicles using computer aided engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Davila, T.R.; Torres, M.; Serrano, D. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico). Engineering Research Center


    Concerns with the environment have posed demands on high efficient and low contaminating vehicles. Solar powered vehicles are among the most promising alternatives. In order to develop the vehicle`s efficiency to its maximum, an energy management plant should be made. The objective of this work is the development of an interactive program which simulates the performance of solar powered vehicles under different mechanical, electrical and aerodynamic conditions. Global position, time, road and meteorological conditions such as temperature and ideal solar insolation have been taken in consideration for the simulation. From this data, the vehicle`s speed at which the net energy will be maximized subject to minimum total race time is determined. Different programs were developed in Quick Basic and Visual Basic to analyze hypothetical and real models. The user may vary parameters to graphically visualize their effects on the vehicle`s performance and improve design or efficiency.

  17. Numerical simulation of active track tensioning system for autonomous hybrid vehicle (United States)

    Mȩżyk, Arkadiusz; Czapla, Tomasz; Klein, Wojciech; Mura, Gabriel


    One of the most important components of a high speed tracked vehicle is an efficient suspension system. The vehicle should be able to operate both in rough terrain for performance of engineering tasks as well as on the road with high speed. This is especially important for an autonomous platform that operates either with or without human supervision, so that the vibration level can rise compared to a manned vehicle. In this case critical electronic and electric parts must be protected to ensure the reliability of the vehicle. The paper presents a dynamic parameters determination methodology of suspension system for an autonomous high speed tracked platform with total weight of about 5 tonnes and hybrid propulsion system. Common among tracked vehicles suspension solutions and cost-efficient, the torsion-bar system was chosen. One of the most important issues was determining optimal track tensioning - in this case an active hydraulic system was applied. The selection of system parameters was performed with using numerical model based on multi-body dynamic approach. The results of numerical analysis were used to define parameters of active tensioning control system setup. LMS Virtual.Lab Motion was used for multi-body dynamics numerical calculation and Matlab/SIMULINK for control system simulation.

  18. Simulation teaching method in Engineering Optics (United States)

    Lu, Qieni; Wang, Yi; Li, Hongbin


    We here introduce a pedagogical method of theoretical simulation as one major means of the teaching process of "Engineering Optics" in course quality improvement action plan (Qc) in our school. Students, in groups of three to five, complete simulations of interference, diffraction, electromagnetism and polarization of light; each student is evaluated and scored in light of his performance in the interviews between the teacher and the student, and each student can opt to be interviewed many times until he is satisfied with his score and learning. After three years of Qc practice, the remarkable teaching and learning effect is obatined. Such theoretical simulation experiment is a very valuable teaching method worthwhile for physical optics which is highly theoretical and abstruse. This teaching methodology works well in training students as to how to ask questions and how to solve problems, which can also stimulate their interest in research learning and their initiative to develop their self-confidence and sense of innovation.

  19. A simulation for predicting potential cooling effect on LPG-fuelled vehicles (United States)

    Setiyo, M.; Soeparman, S.; Wahyudi, S.; Hamidi, N.


    Liquefied Petroleum Gas vehicles (LPG Vehicles) provide a potential cooling effect about 430 kJ/kg LPG consumption. This cooling effect is obtained from the LPG phase change from liquid to vapor in the vaporizer. In the existing system, energy to evaporate LPG is obtained from the coolant which is circulated around the vaporizer. One advantage is that the LPG (70/30 propane / butane) when expanded from 8 bar to at 1.2 bar, the temperature is less than -25 °C. These conditions provide opportunities to evaporate LPG with ambient air flow, then produce a cooling effect for cooling car's cabin. In this study, some LPG mix was investigated to determine the optimum condition. A simulation was carried out to estimate potential cooling effects of 2000 cc engine from 1000 rpm to 6000 rpm. In this case, the mass flow rate of LPG is a function of fuel consumption. The simulation result shows that the LPG (70/30 propane/butane) provide the greatest cooling effect compared with other mixtures. In conclusion, the 2000 cc engine fueled LPG at 3000 rpm provides potential cooling effect more than 1.3 kW, despite in the low engine speed (1000 rpm) only provides about 0.5 kW.

  20. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming


    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  1. Simulation Assisted Risk Assessment Applied to Launch Vehicle Conceptual Design (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie; Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott


    A simulation-based risk assessment approach is presented and is applied to the analysis of abort during the ascent phase of a space exploration mission. The approach utilizes groupings of launch vehicle failures, referred to as failure bins, which are mapped to corresponding failure environments. Physical models are used to characterize the failure environments in terms of the risk due to blast overpressure, resulting debris field, and the thermal radiation due to a fireball. The resulting risk to the crew is dynamically modeled by combining the likelihood of each failure, the severity of the failure environments as a function of initiator and time of the failure, the robustness of the crew module, and the warning time available due to early detection. The approach is shown to support the launch vehicle design process by characterizing the risk drivers and identifying regions where failure detection would significantly reduce the risk to the crew.

  2. Pilot/Vehicle display development from simulation to flight (United States)

    Dare, Alan R.; Burley, James R., II


    The Pilot Vehicle Interface Group, Cockpit Technology Branch, Flight Management Division, at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing display concepts for air combat in the next generation of highly maneuverable aircraft. The High-Alpha Technology Program, under which the research is being done, is involved in flight tests of many new control and display concepts on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle, a highly modified F-18 aircraft. In order to support display concept development through flight testing, a software/hardware system is being developed which will support each phase of the project with little or no software modifications, thus saving thousands of manhours in software development time. Simulation experiments are in progress now and flight tests are slated to begin in FY1994.

  3. Wind Flow Simulation Around NASA KSC Vehicle Assembly Building (United States)

    Vu, B. T.; Verdier, M. J.


    A model of the wind flow conditions around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VA B) is presented. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver was used to compute the flow field around fixed Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) buildings and structures. The 3-D flow field. including velocity magnitude and velocity vectors, was established to simulate the localized wind speeds and directions at specified locations in and around LC-39 buildings and structures. The results of this study not only help explain the physical phenomena of the flow patterns around LC-39 buildings but also are useful to the Shuttle personnel. Current Operations and Maintenance Requirements and Specifications (OMRS) for vehicle transfer operations are based on empirically derived historical data, and no detailed mathematical analysis of wind conditions around LC-39 structures has ever been accomplished.

  4. Simulation based engineering in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S


    This book begins with a brief historical perspective of the advent of rotating machinery in 20th century Solid Mechanics and the development of the discipline of the Strength of Materials. High Performance Computing (HPC) and Simulation Based Engineering Science (SBES) have gradually replaced the conventional approach in Design bringing science directly into engineering without approximations. A recap of the required mathematical principles is given. The science of deformation, strain and stress at a point under the application of external traction loads is next presented. Only one-dimensional structures classified as Bars (axial loads), Rods (twisting loads) and Beams (bending loads) are considered in this book. The principal stresses and strains and von Mises stress and strain that used in design of structures are next presented. Lagrangian solution was used to derive the governing differential equations consistent with assumed deformation field and solution for deformations, strains and stresses were obtai...

  5. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education. (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.


    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  6. Performance Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine-ORC Combined System Based on a Screw Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang


    Full Text Available To achieve energy saving and emission reduction for vehicle diesel engines, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC was employed to recover waste heat from vehicle diesel engines, R245fa was used as ORC working fluid, and the resulting vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was presented. The variation law of engine exhaust energy rate under various operating conditions was obtained, and the running performances of the screw expander were introduced. Based on thermodynamic models and theoretical calculations, the running performance of the vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was analyzed under various engine operating condition scenarios. Four evaluation indexes were defined: engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC of the combined system, and improvement ratio of BSFC (IRBSFC. Results showed that when the diesel engine speed is 2200 r/min and diesel engine torque is 1200 N·m, the power output of the combined system reaches its maximum of approximately 308.6 kW, which is 28.6 kW higher than that of the diesel engine. ETEIR, WHRE, and IRBSFC all reach their maxima at 10.25%, 9.90%, and 9.30%, respectively. Compared with that of the diesel engine, the BSFC of the combined system is obviously improved under various engine operating conditions.

  7. Efficient guidance and control simulation of solar-electric orbital transfer vehicles (United States)

    Jenkin, A. B.; McLain, M. G.; Zondervan, K. P.


    An efficient guidance and control simulation is developed to assist mission analysis and trade studies of solar-electric orbital transfer vehicles. This generates the vehicle trajectory and computes vehicle attitude profile, propellant requirement and control torque commands. A numerical example that demonstrates the utilization of the simulation to evaluate the implementation of a simple, analytic, suboptimal guidance law is presented.

  8. Flight simulation program for high altitude long endurance unmanned vehicle; Kokodo mujinki no hiko simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Hashidate, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    An altitude of about 20 km has the atmospheric density too dilute for common aircraft, and the air resistance too great for satellites. Attention has been drawn in recent years on a high-altitude long-endurance unmanned vehicle that flies at this altitude for a long period of time to serve as a wave relaying base and perform traffic control. Therefore, a development was made on a flight simulation program to evaluate and discuss the guidance and control laws for the high-altitude unmanned vehicle. Equations of motion were derived for three-dimensional six freedom and three-dimensional three freedom. Aerodynamic characteristics of an unmanned vehicle having a Rectenna wing were estimated, and formulation was made according to the past research results on data of winds that the unmanned vehicle is anticipated to encounter at an altitude of 20 km. Noticing the inside of a horizontal plane, a proposal was given on a guidance law that follows a given path. A flight simulation was carried out to have attained a prospect that the unmanned vehicle may be enclosed in a limited space even if the vehicle is encountered with a relatively strong wind. 18 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Advancements in real-time engine simulation technology (United States)

    Szuch, J. R.


    The approaches used to develop real-time engine simulations are reviewed. Both digital and hybrid (analog and digital) techniques are discussed and specific examples of each are cited. These approaches are assessed from the standpoint of their usefulness for digital engine control development. A number of NASA-sponsored simulation research activities, aimed at exploring real-time simulation techniques, are described. These include the development of a microcomputer-based, parallel processor system for real-time engine simulation.

  10. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  11. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars (United States)


    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  12. Development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and vehicle simulator for energy management assessment (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew Lee

    This dissertation offers a description of the development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle focusing on the propulsion architecture selection, propulsion system control, and high-level energy management. Two energy management techniques have been developed and implemented for real-time control of the vehicle. The first method is a heuristic method that relies on a short-term moving average of the vehicle power requirements. The second method utilizes an affine function of the short-term and long-term moving average vehicle power requirements. The development process of these methods has required the creation of a vehicle simulator capable of estimating the effect of changes to the energy management control techniques on the overall vehicle energy efficiency. Furthermore, the simulator has allowed for the refinement of the energy management methods and for the stability of the method to be analyzed prior to on-road testing. This simulator has been verified through on-road testing of a constructed prototype vehicle under both highway and city driving schedules for each energy management method. The results of the finalized vehicle control strategies are compared with the simulator predictions and an assessment of the effectiveness of both strategies is discussed. The methods have been evaluated for energy consumption in the form of both hydrogen fuel and stored electricity from grid charging.

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for Heavy Vehicles: Combining the Simulation and Engine-In-the-Loop Techniques to Maximize the Fuel Economy and Emission Benefits Propulsion hybride hydraulique des poids lourds : une approche alliant les techniques de simulation et d’« Engine-In-the-loop » (EIL afin de maximiser les économies de carburant et les avantages en termes d’émissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Z.


    Full Text Available The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for a rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator. This places particular emphasis on development of the supervisory controller. The conventional wisdom is to operate the engine at the “sweet spot”, but the aggressive pursuit of engine efficiency as the sole objective can lead to frequent and rapid diesel engine transients, thus causing an adverse affect on the soot emissions and driver feel. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive methodology for considering a combined hybrid system fuel-economy and emissions objective. The fuel economy is addressed with the simulation-based approach, while investigating the impact of engine transients on particulate emission relies on the Engine-In-the-loop (EIL capability. The EIL study confirms advantages of a modulated state-of-charge control over the thermostatic approach, and demonstrates the ability of the Series Hydraulic Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the medium truck by 72%, while reducing the particulate emission by 74% compared to the conventional baseline over the city driving schedule. La situation énergétique mondiale, la dépendance du secteur des transports vis-à-vis des combustibles d’origine fossile et la nécessité d’une réponse rapide face au défi présenté par le r

  14. An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments


    Olstam, Johan; Espié, Stéphane; Mårdh, Selina; Jansson, Jonas; Lundgren, Jan


    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's ...

  15. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) (United States)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.


    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  16. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors (United States)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)


    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 86 - Vehicle and Engine Components (United States)


    ... pump. (4) Manifold reactors. (5) Catalytic converters. (6) Exhaust recirculation. (7) Water injection... Appendix VI to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Appendix VI to Part 86—Vehicle and Engine Components (a) Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks...

  18. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations (United States)


    According to Wei, engineers placed multiple converging lenses around a vehicle, and used an optical fiber delay line to connect the lenses together (2007...probability that a hostile weapon detects the ground vehicle, using C4ISR and situational awareness to avoid contact with the enemy forces, using...corresponding wires and connection points also means that it can be more difficult for engineers to integrate distributed architecture systems onto

  19. The suitability of internal combustion engine sounds as artificial warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bolkovac


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of adding artificial warning sounds to hybrid and fully electric vehicles, in order to increase traffic safety by making these vehicles audible at low speeds. The goal of this modification is to enable the pedestrians to perceive possible danger coming from such a vehicle in time to respond accordingly. Following the results of previous research which state that the sounds of internal combustion engines are valid candidates for artificial warning sounds to be added to hybrid or fully electric vehicles, a preliminary examination of the suitability and acceptability of different engine sounds in various modes of operation has been conducted. The chosen modes of operation are running in idle, at 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm with the vehicle stopped. Both gasoline and diesel engines were investigated. To expand the range of engine sounds, the type of vehicles was not limited to personal cars. The results show significant differences in suitability of engine sounds for the stated purpose, with vehicle type being the main differentiating factor.

  20. Road simulation for four-wheel vehicle whole input power spectral density (United States)

    Wang, Jiangbo; Qiang, Baomin


    As the vibration of running vehicle mainly comes from road and influence vehicle ride performance. So the road roughness power spectral density simulation has great significance to analyze automobile suspension vibration system parameters and evaluate ride comfort. Firstly, this paper based on the mathematical model of road roughness power spectral density, established the integral white noise road random method. Then in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, according to the research method of automobile suspension frame from simple two degree of freedom single-wheel vehicle model to complex multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model, this paper built the simple single incentive input simulation model. Finally the spectrum matrix was used to build whole vehicle incentive input simulation model. This simulation method based on reliable and accurate mathematical theory and can be applied to the random road simulation of any specified spectral which provides pavement incentive model and foundation to vehicle ride performance research and vibration simulation.

  1. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu


    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  2. Coordinated vehicle traction control based on engine torque and brake pressure under complicated road conditions (United States)

    Kang, Mingxin; Li, Liang; Li, Hongzhi; Song, Jian; Han, Zongqi


    Vehicle traction control system has been developed to enhance the traction capability and the direction stability of the driving wheels through the tyre slip ratio regulation. Under normal situations, if the tyre slip ratio exceeds a certain threshold, the slip ratio of the driving wheel is regulated by the coupled interaction of the engine torque and the active brake pressure. In order to obtain the best driving performance on a road under complicated friction conditions, the driving torque and the active brake pressure, need to be decoupled and adjusted to avoid penalisation of each other. In this paper, a coordinated cascade control method with two sliding-mode variable structure controllers is presented. In this control method, the driving wheel slip ratio is regulated by adjusting the engine torque and the wheel brake pressure. Through the sliding-mode controller, the engine torque is tuned to achieve the maximum driving acceleration and then the active brake pressure is applied to the slipped wheel for further modification of the wheel slip ratio. The advantage of this control method is that through proper regulation, the conflict between the two control inputs could be avoided. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Propellant Densification for Launch Vehicles: Simulation and Testing 1999 (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy E.; Tomisk, Thomas M.; Greene, William D.


    One of the many key technologies required to make single-stage to orbit an actuality, the technology of sub-cooling cryogenic propellants below their normal saturation temperatures and thereby making them more dense, is unquestionably on its way towards full and practical realization. The technology of Propellant Densification has been the subject of an extensive research and development program overseen by Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center over the past several years. This paper presents a status report of this research and development. Specifically examined within this paper is the status of the current and continuing efforts on the mathematical simulation of the in-tank propellant densification process currently baselined for the Lockheed Martin VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Keys to this modeling effort are an understanding and quantification of the effects of thermal stratification and the ability to capture the complex and unique multiple section tank geometries being proposed for future launch vehicles. A simulation that properly captures these phenomena has been developed by Lockheed Martin. Also discussed is the significant test program that has been undertaken in coordination with NASA Glenn Research Center. In this testing, the liquid hydrogen recirculation and densification process was simulated and the thermal stratification of the densified propellant was recorded throughout the tank. This testing marks the first time that such a process has been carried out within a multiple-lobe, flight-similar tank. The results from this testing have gone a long way towards grounding the mathematical models and towards demonstrating the readiness of the technology for near-term use. A further and even more ambitious test program examining the production and utilization of densified propellants is being planned for late-autumn 1999. An overview of these plans is presented.

  4. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.


    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  5. Simulation Development and Analysis of Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort (United States)

    Wong, Chi S.


    NASA's Commercial Crew Program is an integral step in its journey to Mars as it would expedite development of space technologies and open up partnership with U.S. commercial companies. NASA reviews and independent assessment of Commercial Crew Program is fundamental to its success, and being able to model a commercial crew vehicle in a simulation rather than conduct a live test would be a safer, faster, and less expensive way to assess and certify the capabilities of the vehicle. To this end, my project was to determine the feasibility of using a simulation tool named SOMBAT version 2.0 to model a multiple parachute system for Commercial Crew Program simulation. The main tasks assigned to me were to debug and test the main parachute system model, (capable of simulating one to four main parachute bodies), and to utilize a graphical program to animate the simulation results. To begin tackling the first task, I learned how to use SOMBAT by familiarizing myself with its mechanics and by understanding the methods used to tweak its various parameters and outputs. I then used this new knowledge to set up, run, and analyze many different situations within SOMBAT in order to explore the limitations of the parachute model. Some examples of parameters that I varied include the initial velocity and orientation of the falling capsule, the number of main parachutes, and the location where the parachutes were attached to the capsule. Each parameter changed would give a different output, and in some cases, would expose a bug or limitation in the model. A major bug that I discovered was the inability of the model to handle any number of parachutes other than three. I spent quite some time trying to debug the code logically, but was unable to figure it out until my mentor taught me that digital simulation limitations can occur when some approximations are mistakenly assumed for certain in a physical system. This led me to the realization that unlike in all of the programming classes

  6. Numerical simulations of coupled problems in engineering

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents and discusses mathematical models, numerical methods and computational techniques used for solving coupled problems in science and engineering. It takes a step forward in the formulation and solution of real-life problems with a multidisciplinary vision, accounting for all of the complex couplings involved in the physical description. Simulation of multifaceted physics problems is a common task in applied research and industry. Often a suitable solver is built by connecting together several single-aspect solvers into a network. In this book, research in various fields was selected for consideration: adaptive methodology for multi-physics solvers, multi-physics phenomena and coupled-field solutions, leading to computationally intensive structural analysis. The strategies which are used to keep these problems computationally affordable are of special interest, and make this an essential book.

  7. Experiences on dynamic simulation software in chemical engineering education


    Komulainen, Tiina M.; Enemark-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan; Fletcher, John P.; Cameron, David


    Commercial process simulators are increasing interest in the chemical engineer education. In this paper, the use of commercial dynamic simulation software, D-SPICE® and K-Spice®, for three different chemical engineering courses is described and discussed. The courses cover the following topics: basic chemical engineering, operability and safety analysis and process control. User experiences from both teachers and students are presented. The benefits of dynamic simulation as an additional teac...

  8. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays (United States)


    ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L Bravo...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L...Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) L Bravo, CB Ivey, D

  9. Simulation on microscopic deformation behavior of engine gasket


    Cao Ke; Zhao Yixi; Jin Sun


    Engine gasket is the thin steel plate with coatings. Its compressive deformation affects the height of engine assembly, which changes combustion chamber’s volume and then influences engine performance. In this paper, the assembly simulation of head, block and gasket was studied. Then a further simulation takes the thin coatings on steel sheet into consideration. In the second simulation, gasket’s partial micro-model in micron-scale meshes was established and deformation of coatings was analys...

  10. Front panel engineering with CAD simulation tool (United States)

    Delacour, Jacques; Ungar, Serge; Mathieu, Gilles; Hasna, Guenther; Martinez, Pascal; Roche, Jean-Christophe


    THe progress made recently in display technology covers many fields of application. The specification of radiance, colorimetry and lighting efficiency creates some new challenges for designers. Photometric design is limited by the capability of correctly predicting the result of a lighting system, to save on the costs and time taken to build multiple prototypes or bread board benches. The second step of the research carried out by company OPTIS is to propose an optimization method to be applied to the lighting system, developed in the software SPEOS. The main features of the tool requires include the CAD interface, to enable fast and efficient transfer between mechanical and light design software, the source modeling, the light transfer model and an optimization tool. The CAD interface is mainly a prototype of transfer, which is not the subjects here. Photometric simulation is efficiently achieved by using the measured source encoding and a simulation by the Monte Carlo method. Today, the advantages and the limitations of the Monte Carlo method are well known. The noise reduction requires a long calculation time, which increases with the complexity of the display panel. A successful optimization is difficult to achieve, due to the long calculation time required for each optimization pass including a Monte Carlo simulation. The problem was initially defined as an engineering method of study. The experience shows that good understanding and mastering of the phenomenon of light transfer is limited by the complexity of non sequential propagation. The engineer must call for the help of a simulation and optimization tool. The main point needed to be able to perform an efficient optimization is a quick method for simulating light transfer. Much work has been done in this area and some interesting results can be observed. It must be said that the Monte Carlo method wastes time calculating some results and information which are not required for the needs of the simulation

  11. A computer simulator for development of engineering system design methodologies (United States)

    Padula, S. L.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.


    A computer program designed to simulate and improve engineering system design methodology is described. The simulator mimics the qualitative behavior and data couplings occurring among the subsystems of a complex engineering system. It eliminates the engineering analyses in the subsystems by replacing them with judiciously chosen analytical functions. With the cost of analysis eliminated, the simulator is used for experimentation with a large variety of candidate algorithms for multilevel design optimization to choose the best ones for the actual application. Thus, the simulator serves as a development tool for multilevel design optimization strategy. The simulator concept, implementation, and status are described and illustrated with examples.

  12. Simulation of Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control for Mars Ascent Vehicle (United States)

    Gudenkauf, Jared


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently in the initial design phase for a potential Mars Ascent Vehicle; which will be landed on Mars, stay on the surface for period of time, collect samples from the Mars 2020 rover, and then lift these samples into orbit around Mars. The engineers at JPL have down selected to a hybrid wax-based fuel rocket using a liquid oxidizer based on nitrogen tetroxide, or a Mixed Oxide of Nitrogen. To lower the gross lift-off mass of the vehicle the thrust vector control system will use liquid injection of the oxidizer to deflect the thrust of the main nozzle instead of using a gimbaled nozzle. The disadvantage of going with the liquid injection system is the low technology readiness level with a hybrid rocket. Presented in this paper is an effort to simulate the Mars Ascent Vehicle hybrid rocket nozzle and liquid injection thrust vector control system using the computational fluid dynamic flow solver Loci/Chem. This effort also includes determining the sensitivity of the thrust vector control system to a number of different design variables for the injection ports; including axial location, number of adjacent ports, injection angle, and distance between the ports.

  13. Basic Simulation Environment for Highly Customized Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Kinematic Scenarios. (United States)

    Chai, Linguo; Cai, Baigen; ShangGuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Huashen


    To enhance the reality of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) kinematic simulation scenarios and to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the verification, a four-layer CAVs kinematic simulation framework, which is composed with road network layer, vehicle operating layer, uncertainties modelling layer and demonstrating layer, is proposed in this paper. Properties of the intersections are defined to describe the road network. A target position based vehicle position updating method is designed to simulate such vehicle behaviors as lane changing and turning. Vehicle kinematic models are implemented to maintain the status of the vehicles when they are moving towards the target position. Priorities for individual vehicle control are authorized for different layers. Operation mechanisms of CAVs uncertainties, which are defined as position error and communication delay in this paper, are implemented in the simulation to enhance the reality of the simulation. A simulation platform is developed based on the proposed methodology. A comparison of simulated and theoretical vehicle delay has been analyzed to prove the validity and the creditability of the platform. The scenario of rear-end collision avoidance is conducted to verify the uncertainties operating mechanisms, and a slot-based intersections (SIs) control strategy is realized and verified in the simulation platform to show the supports of the platform to CAVs kinematic simulation and verification.

  14. Launch Vehicle Ascent Trajectory Simulation Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.; Marsh, Steven M.; Hoffman, James A.; Litton, Daniel K.; Schmitt, Terri L.


    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) has been continuously developed for over 40 years and has been used in many flight and research projects. Recently, there has been an effort to improve the POST2 architecture by promoting modularity, flexibility, and ability to support multiple simultaneous projects. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the development of trajectory simulation in POST2 by describing methods and examples of various improved models for a launch vehicle liftoff and ascent.

  15. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  16. Electric vehicles in urban areas: test cases using a scenario simulator


    Soares, João; Lobo, Cristina; Morais, H.; Vale, Zita


    Electric vehicles introduction will affect cities environment and urban mobility policies. Network system operators will have to consider the electric vehicles in planning and operation activities due to electric vehicles’ dependency on the electricity grid. The present paper presents test cases using an Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) being developed by the authors. The test cases include two scenarios considering a 33 bus network with up to 2000 electric vehicles in the urba...

  17. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata. (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D


    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulating Utilization of Waste Heat of Motor Vehicles -Based on Thermoelectric Generator


    Piarah, Wahyu H.; Djafar, zuryati


    The main power source of motor vehicle is combustion engines which use fossil fuels (diesel, gasoline, pertamax etc.) as fuel. The total heat supplied to the engine in the form of fuel, 30-40% of fuel is converted into mechanical work, heat remaining is released through the exhaust pipe and the engine cooling system. The unused heat source in motor vehicles could potentially be used to generate electricity as a supplier of electricity needs in a vehicle. The technology used to convert the hea...

  19. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim


    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  20. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Słoma, Jacek; Tucki, Karol; Zaleski, Mateusz


    Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine) in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  1. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  2. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  3. Simulated interactions of pedestrian crossings and motorized vehicles in residential areas (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Peng, Zhongyi; Chen, Qun


    To evaluate whether motorized vehicles can travel through a residential area, this paper develops a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interactions between pedestrian crossings and motorized vehicles in a residential area. In this paper, pedestrians determine their crossing speed according to their judgments of the position and velocity of the upcoming vehicles. The pedestrians may walk slowly or quickly or even run, and the pedestrian crossing time influences the vehicle movement. In addition, the proposed model considers the safety margin time needed for pedestrians to cross, and pedestrian-vehicle conflict is considered using the vehicle collision avoidance rule. Through simulations of interactions of pedestrian crossings with motorized vehicles' movement on a typical road in a residential area, the average wait time for pedestrians to cross and the average vehicle velocity under different pedestrian crossing volumes, different vehicle flows and different maximum vehicle velocities are obtained. To avoid an excessive waiting time for pedestrians to cross, the vehicle flow should be less than 180 veh/h, which allows an average of less than 10 s of waiting time; if the vehicle flow rate is less than 36 veh/h, then the waiting time is approximately 1 s. Field observations are conducted to validate the simulation results.

  4. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S


    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  5. Engineering Design Handbook. Military Vehicle Power Plant Cooling (United States)


    Peper No. 724M necessary power at the wheels/sprockets to since the heat generated is dissipated into the satisfy vehicle performance. The selection...M-R 0 Air Intake TemoeinoloieiF 116 Black Pteare .....PSI 25 atus llesltinlrnl MRf 25 Uwfhienewae Permeteesew Ciarviee P-3IN-B [ I UGINg OUTPUT SHIED

  6. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails:,


    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  7. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program (United States)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh


    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  8. 100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  9. Design and Development of the Engine Unit for a Twin-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Avanzini


    Full Text Available Advanced computer-aided technologies played a crucial role in the design of an unconventional Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV, developed at the Turin Technical University and the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. The engine unit of the vehicle is made of a complex system of three two stroke piston engines coupled with two counter-rotating three-bladed rotors, controlled by rotary PWM servos. The focus of the present paper lies on the enabling technologies exploited in the framework of activities aimed at designing a suitable and reliable engine system, capable of performing the complex tasks required for operating the proposed rotorcraft. The synergic use of advanced computational tools for estimating the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, solid modeling for mechanical components design, and rapid prototyping techniques for control system logic synthesis and implementation will be presented. 

  10. Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines. Federal certification test results for 1993 model year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The regulations that apply to the control of emissions from vehicles and engines, appearing in 40 CFR Part 86, set maximum allowable limits on exhaust and evaporative emission levels. The exhaust limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled and diesel light-duty vehicles (passenger cars), light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty engines, and to gasoline-fueled motorcycles. The evaporative limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedures.

  11. Hybrid neural network bushing model for vehicle dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jeong Hyun [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Kyu [Hyosung Corporation, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Wan Suk [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Although the linear model was widely used for the bushing model in vehicle suspension systems, it could not express the nonlinear characteristics of bushing in terms of the amplitude and the frequency. An artificial neural network model was suggested to consider the hysteretic responses of bushings. This model, however, often diverges due to the uncertainties of the neural network under the unexpected excitation inputs. In this paper, a hybrid neural network bushing model combining linear and neural network is suggested. A linear model was employed to represent linear stiffness and damping effects, and the artificial neural network algorithm was adopted to take into account the hysteretic responses. A rubber test was performed to capture bushing characteristics, where sine excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes is applied. Random test results were used to update the weighting factors of the neural network model. It is proven that the proposed model has more robust characteristics than a simple neural network model under step excitation input. A full car simulation was carried out to verify the proposed bushing models. It was shown that the hybrid model results are almost identical to the linear model under several maneuvers

  12. Fast reconstruction of an unmanned engineering vehicle and its application to carrying rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qian


    Full Text Available Engineering vehicle is widely used as a huge moving platform for transporting heavy goods. However, traditional human operations have a great influence on the steady movement of the vehicle. In this Letter, a fast reconstruction process of an unmanned engineering vehicle is carried out. By adding a higher-level controller and two two-dimensional laser scanners on the moving platform, the vehicle could perceive the surrounding environment and locate its pose according to extended Kalman filter. Then, a closed-loop control system is formed by communicating with the on-board lower-level controller. To verify the performance of automatic control system, the unmanned vehicle is automatically navigated when carrying a rocket towards a launcher in a launch site. The experimental results show that the vehicle could align with the launcher smoothly and safely within a small lateral deviation of 1 cm. This fast reconstruction presents an efficient way of rebuilding low-cost unmanned special vehicles and other automatic moving platforms.

  13. Analysis of a hypersonic waverider research vehicle with a hydrocarbon scramjet engine (United States)

    Molvik, Gregory A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.


    The results of a feasibility study of a hypersonic waverider research vehicle with a hydrocarbon scramjet engine are presented. The integrated waverider/scramjet geometry is first optimized with a vehicle synthesis code to produce a maximum product of the lift-to-drag ratio and the cycle specific impulse, hence cruise range. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then employed to provide a nose-to-tail analysis of the system at the on-design conditions. Some differences are noted between the results of the two analysis techniques. A comparison of experimental, engineering analysis and CFD results on a waverider forebody are also included for validation.

  14. Co-simulation Methodologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Dynamics


    Veintimilla Porlán, Julia


    In recent decades, full electric and hybrid electric vehicles have emerged as an alternative to conventional cars due to a range of factors, including environmental and economic aspects. These vehicles are the result of considerable efforts to seek ways of reducing the use of fossil fuel for vehicle propulsion. Sophisticated technologies such as hybrid and electric powertrains require careful study and optimization. Mathematical models play a key role at this point. Currently, many advanced m...

  15. Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent [Roskilde University, Institute for Nature, Systems and Models, Energy, Environment and Climate group, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)


    A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insight obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles. Then, simulation methods are used to assess the performance of fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrids between the two. The latter are found to provide an optimum performance for a small, efficient passenger car. (author)

  16. Simulation-Based Analysis of Reentry Dynamics for the Sharp Atmospheric Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Tillier, Clemens Emmanuel


    This thesis describes the analysis of the reentry dynamics of a high-performance lifting atmospheric entry vehicle through numerical simulation tools. The vehicle, named SHARP, is currently being developed by the Thermal Protection Materials and Systems branch of NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The goal of this project is to provide insight into trajectory tradeoffs and vehicle dynamics using simulation tools that are powerful, flexible, user-friendly and inexpensive. Implemented Using MATLAB and SIMULINK, these tools are developed with an eye towards further use in the conceptual design of the SHARP vehicle's trajectory and flight control systems. A trajectory simulator is used to quantify the entry capabilities of the vehicle subject to various operational constraints. Using an aerodynamic database computed by NASA and a model of the earth, the simulator generates the vehicle trajectory in three-dimensional space based on aerodynamic angle inputs. Requirements for entry along the SHARP aerothermal performance constraint are evaluated for different control strategies. Effect of vehicle mass on entry parameters is investigated, and the cross range capability of the vehicle is evaluated. Trajectory results are presented and interpreted. A six degree of freedom simulator builds on the trajectory simulator and provides attitude simulation for future entry controls development. A Newtonian aerodynamic model including control surfaces and a mass model are developed. A visualization tool for interpreting simulation results is described. Control surfaces are roughly sized. A simple controller is developed to fly the vehicle along its aerothermal performance constraint using aerodynamic flaps for control. This end-to-end demonstration proves the suitability of the 6-DOF simulator for future flight control system development. Finally, issues surrounding real-time simulation with hardware in the loop are discussed.

  17. Free-piston engine-and-hydraulic pump for railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Golovchuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the free-piston diesel engine-and-hydraulic pump for the continuously variable hydrostatical transmission of mobile power vehicles. Methodology. For a long time engine builders have been interesting in the problem of developing free piston engines, which have much bigger coefficient of efficiency (40…80%. Such engines don’t have the conversion of reciprocating motion for inner combustion engine piston into rotating motion of crankshaft, from which the engine torque is transferred to the power machine transmission. Free-piston engines of inner combustion don’t have the crank mechanism (CM that significantly reduces mechanical losses for friction. Such engines can be used as compressors. Free-piston engine compressor (FPEC – is a free-piston machine in which energy received from engine’s cylinder is being transferred direct to compressor’s pistons connected with operational pistons of engine without crank mechanism. Part of the pressed air is being consumed for engine cylinder drain and the other part is going to the consumer. Findings. The use of free-piston engines-and-hydraulic pumps as power-transmission plants of power vehicles (diesel locomotives, combine harvester, tractors, cars and other mobile and stationary power installations with the continuously variable transmissions allows cost effectiveness improvement and metal consumption reduction of these vehicles, since the cost effectiveness of FPE is higher by 25-30%, and the metal consumption is lower by 40-50%. Originality. One of the important advantages of the free-piston engines is their simplicity and engine balance. As a result of the crank mechanism absence their construction is much simplified and the vibrations, peculiar to the ordinary engines are eliminated. In such installation the engine pistons are directly connected through the rod to compressor pistons and therefore there are no losses in the bearing bushes. Practical value. The free

  18. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian


    engine model. HYFIM performs the aerodynamic analysis of forebodies and inlet characteristics of RBCC powered SSTO launch vehicles. HYFIM is applicable to the analysis of the ramjet/scramjet engine operations modes (Mach 3-12), and provides estimates of parameters such as air capture area, shock-on-lip Mach number, design Mach number, compression ratio, etc., based on a basic geometry routine for modeling axisymmetric cones, 2-D wedge geometries. HYFIM also estimates the variation of shock layer properties normal to the forebody surface. The thermal protection system (TPS) is directly linked to determination of the vehicle moldline and the shaping of the trajectory. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. The need to analyze vehicle forebody and engine inlet is critical to be able to design the RBCC vehicle. To adequately determine insulation masses for an RBCC vehicle, the hypersonic aerodynamic environment and aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle

  19. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  20. Simulation Of The Internal-Combustion Engine (United States)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.


    Program adapts to available information about particular engine. Mathematical model of internal-combustion engine constructed and implemented as computer program suitable for use on large digital computer systems. ZMOTTO program calculates Otto-cycle performance parameters as well as working-fluid compositions and properties throughout cycle for number of consecutive cycles and for variety of input parameters. Written in standard FORTRAN IV.

  1. Scaled blast loading simulations on different vehicle bottom geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Weerheijm, J.


    The development of new bottom concepts for military vehicles against mine blast threats involves the consideration of two main aspects: the bottom geometry and the material used. In order to reduce costs, experimental testing of new vehicle bottom concepts often requires small-scale setups together

  2. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ekwonu


    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  3. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? (United States)


    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor...

  4. Cryo-Tracker® Mass Gauging System Testing in a Launch Vehicle Simulation (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.


    Sierra Lobo successfully tested its patented Cryo-Tracker® probe and mass gauging system in an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA's Launch Service Providers Directorate. The effort involved collaboration between Sierra Lobo, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Martin personnel. Testing simulated filling and expulsion operations of Lockheed Martin's Atlas V liquid oxygen (LOX) tank and characterized the 10.06 m (33-ft) Cryo-Tracker's performance. Sierra Lobo designed a 9.14 m (30-ft) tall liquid nitrogen test tank to simulate the Atlas V LOX tank flow conditions and validate Cryo-Tracker® data via other sensors and visualization. This test package was fabricated at Sierra Lobo's Cryogenics Testbed at NASA KSC. All test objectives were met or exceeded. Key accomplishments include: fabrication of the longest Cryo-Tracker® probe to date; installation technique proven with only two attachment points at top and bottom of tank; probe survived a harsh environment with no loss of signal or structural integrity; probe successfully measured liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and successfully demonstrated its feasibility as an engine cut-off signal.

  5. Comparison of Engine Simulation Software for Development of Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KinYip Chan


    Full Text Available Most commonly used commercial engine simulation packages generate detailed estimation of the combustion and gas flow parameters. These parameters are required for advanced research on fluid flow and heat transfer and development of geometries of engine components. However, engine control involves different operating parameters. Various sensors are installed into the engine, the combustion performance is recorded, and data is sent to engine control unit (ECU. ECU computes the new set of parameters to make fine adjustments to actuators providing better engine performance. Such techniques include variable valve timing, variable ignition timing, variable air to fuel ratio, and variable compression ratio. In the present study, two of the commercial packages, Ricardo Wave and Lotus Engine Simulation, have been tested on the capabilities for engine control purposes. These packages are compared with an in-house developed package and with reference results available from the literature. Different numerical experiments have been carried out from which it can be concluded that all packages predict similar profiles of pressure and temperature in the engine cylinder. Moreover, those are in reasonable agreement with the reference results while in-house developed package is possible to run simulations with changing speed for engine control purpose.

  6. Real-time model for simulating a tracked vehicle on deformable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Meywerk


    Full Text Available Simulation is one possibility to gain insight into the behaviour of tracked vehicles on deformable soils. A lot of publications are known on this topic, but most of the simulations described there cannot be run in real-time. The ability to run a simulation in real-time is necessary for driving simulators. This article describes an approach for real-time simulation of a tracked vehicle on deformable soils. The components of the real-time model are as follows: a conventional wheeled vehicle simulated in the Multi Body System software TRUCKSim, a geometric description of landscape, a track model and an interaction model between track and deformable soils based on Bekker theory and Janosi–Hanamoto, on one hand, and between track and vehicle wheels, on the other hand. Landscape, track model, soil model and the interaction are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The details of the real-time model are described in this article, and a detailed description of the Multi Body System part is omitted. Simulations with the real-time model are compared to measurements and to a detailed Multi Body System–finite element method model of a tracked vehicle. An application of the real-time model in a driving simulator is presented, in which 13 drivers assess the comfort of a passive and an active suspension of a tracked vehicle.

  7. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.


    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  8. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes. (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D


    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  9. Modeling and simulation of electric vehicles - The effect of different Li-ion battery technologies


    Hülsebusch, Dirk; Schwunk, Simon; Caron, Simon; Propfe, Bernd


    Limited range is one of the main drawbacks of battery electric vehicles. Especially at low temperatures the range is reduced due to low battery capacity and power as well as additional energy demand for auxiliaries. In order to compare different battery technologies regarding their in-vehicle performance, a model based approach is chosen. Several battery technologies are modeled and implemented into a simulation environment for vehicle systems. In addition, varying test cases are defined to a...

  10. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.


    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  11. WDM Systems and Networks Modeling, Simulation, Design and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinas, Georgios; Roudas, Ioannis


    WDM Systems and Networks: Modeling, Simulation, Design and Engineering provides readers with the basic skills, concepts, and design techniques used to begin design and engineering of optical communication systems and networks at various layers. The latest semi-analytical system simulation techniques are applied to optical WDM systems and networks, and a review of the various current areas of optical communications is presented. Simulation is mixed with experimental verification and engineering to present the industry as well as state-of-the-art research. This contributed volume is divided into three parts, accommodating different readers interested in various types of networks and applications. The first part of the book presents modeling approaches and simulation tools mainly for the physical layer including transmission effects, devices, subsystems, and systems), whereas the second part features more engineering/design issues for various types of optical systems including ULH, access, and in-building system...

  12. 76 FR 32886 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Guidance on EPA's Certification... (United States)


    ... vehicle/engine manufacturers, urea manufacturers, DEF blenders and distributors, and associated technology... interpretations presented here and plan to incorporate what more we learn in the next version of the guidance to... DEF quality problems). CARB followed up with Cummins and learned that the manufacturer was aware of...

  13. U.S. Marine Corps to use autonomous vehicles built by Virginia Tech engineering students


    Nystrom, Lynn A.


    Four unmanned autonomous vehicles designed and built by a team of engineering students at Virginia Tech using the TORC Robotic Building Blocks product line, are headed to Hawaii to participate in the 2010 Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) war games in July.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun


    and the valve timings on the methane slip was investigated. MAN L28/32DF engine was modeled to simulate the gas exchange process of the four stroke NG-diesel dual fuel engines. The mesh size of the model was decided based on the sensitivity study on the peak pressure of the cylinder and the fuel mass...

  15. Use of simulator motion feedback for different classes of vehicle dynamics in manual control tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Pool, D.M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.


    With the development of moving-based flight simulators in mind, a large number of researchers have considered human manual control behavior in tasks where the motion of the controlled vehicle can be felt by the pilots. While it is known that the dynamics of the controlled vehicle are a key factor

  16. Heavy vehicle simulation and validation for handling and roll-over using integrated development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Vink, W.J.; Besselink, I.J.M.


    A systematic modelling approach to vehicle dynamics simulation, validation and optimization is presented using an effective link between a multibody solver and a mathematical analysis package. In particular, a heavy vehicle tractor/trailer combination which is common on European roads is modelled

  17. Simulations under uncertainty for occupant safety for a vehicle subjected to a blast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Vlahopoulos, N.; Stabryla, T.J.; Goetz, R.; Velde, R. van de


    One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from landmine blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from the landmine

  18. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  19. Finite Element Multidisciplinary Optimization Simulation of Flight Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort is concerned with the development of a novel optimization scheme and computer software for the effective design of advanced aerospace vehicles....

  20. An Abstract Multi-Rate Method for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (United States)


    a single macro multi-rate step from initial to final time. TODO : There are time domain multigrid approaches. This should be mentioned here with...simplified faster than real-time models such as those employed in first order design optimization tools [ TODO : citations]. Increasing in detail [ TODO : citations]. Next are vehicle models of modest detail which support off-line analysis of vehicle handling, virtual kinematics and

  1. Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle Jettison Mechanism Engineering and Test (United States)

    Caldirola, L.; Schmid, B.


    The IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) is a project of the European Space Agency that aims to develop an autonomous atmospheric re-entry system. A flight model has been launched on a Vega rocket on the 11th of February 2015 and after descending from an altitude of 420km splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. In the frame of this project RUAG space has developed the entire cold structure and the mechanisms able to eject the panels closing the parachute and floatation balloons bays. Panels ejection allows respectively parachutes deployment, reducing the IXV re-entry speed from Mach 1.5 to few meters per second just before the splash down, and buoyancy balloons inflation which let the vehicle float on the sea surface until arrival of the recovery ship.Such panels and the relevant mechanisms had to be designed not only to guarantee the correct external aerodynamic shape needed for the flight performance, but also to provide enough stiffness and strength to the IXV structure, being capable of transfer high shear loads.Moreover the floatation doors design enclosed both the hold down and release mechanism, based on a non- explosive separation nut, and the jettison springs, therefore particular attention had to be put to prevent any damage to the panel during the release which could have potentially led to jamming of the panel itself which jeopardise the floatation balloon deployment. The chosen design was therefore based on a spherical joint, so that shear load can be withstand and bending moment on the jettison-able panels limited at the same time.Test activities have been performed at mechanism level for environmental and preliminary functional qualification, subsystem level, including dummy panel jettison and full scale IXV drop test, to complete the functional qualification and system level test to close qualification campaign.The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanism design and the activities performed to qualify at component and sub-system level the

  2. Numerical Algorithms for Steady and Unsteady Multi-Disciplinary Simulation of Flight Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new multidisciplinary software environment ('MUSE') will be developed for the simulation of flight vehicles, drawing on the results of recent research on very fast...

  3. Aggregate strength for bituminous surfacings for low volume roads: a heavy vehicle simulator experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P


    Full Text Available This paper discusses an investigation using the CSIR Transportek Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to determine the impact of using aggregates softer than specified in chip seals and to propose possible relaxations in the currently specified strength...

  4. Impact of the CSIR heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) on the performance of the SA road network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L


    Full Text Available The CSIR plays a leading role in the development, application and transfer of processes and technologies for the design, construction, maintainance and management of transport infrastructure in Southern Africa. The heavy vehicle simulator (HVS...

  5. Internal combustion engine to electric vehicle. Four alternative techniques; Del motor de combustion internal al vehiculo electrico. Cuatro alternativas tecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaez, R.; Barneto, M.; Gil, C.; Longas, J. C.; Lucea, J.; Ullibarri, M.; Bilbao, J.; Camino, V.; Intxaurburu, G.


    Auto makers are now developing alternatives to internal combustion engines. The present paper provides an analysis of four alternative vehicles: electric hybrids, full electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen vehicles. The paper focuses on the adoption dynamics for alternative vehicles. The spatial implications of this process for the organization of the value chain and the auto makers alliances linked to the alternatives development are also considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. Development of simulation interfaces for evaluation task with the use of physiological data and virtual reality applied to a vehicle simulator (United States)

    Miranda, Mateus R.; Costa, Henrik; Oliveira, Luiz; Bernardes, Thiago; Aguiar, Carla; Miosso, Cristiano; Oliveira, Alessandro B. S.; Diniz, Alberto C. G. C.; Domingues, Diana Maria G.


    This paper aims at describing an experimental platform used to evaluate the performance of individuals at training immersive physiological games. The platform proposed is embedded in an immersive environment in a CAVE of Virtual Reality and consists on a base frame with actuators with three degrees of freedom, sensor array interface and physiological sensors. Physiological data of breathing, galvanic skin resistance (GSR) and pressure on the hand of the user and a subjective questionnaire were collected during the experiments. The theoretical background used in a project focused on Software Engineering, Biomedical Engineering in the field of Ergonomics and Creative Technologies in order to presents this case study, related of an evaluation of a vehicular simulator located inside the CAVE. The analysis of the simulator uses physiological data of the drivers obtained in a period of rest and after the experience, with and without movements at the simulator. Also images from the screen are captured through time at the embedded experience and data collected through physiological data visualization (average frequency and RMS graphics). They are empowered by the subjective questionnaire as strong lived experience provided by the technological apparatus. The performed immersion experience inside the CAVE allows to replicate behaviors from physical spaces inside data space enhanced by physiological properties. In this context, the biocybrid condition is expanded beyond art and entertainment, as it is applied to automotive engineering and biomedical engineering. In fact, the kinesthetic sensations amplified by synesthesia replicates the sensation of displacement in the interior of an automobile, as well as the sensations of vibration and vertical movements typical of a vehicle, different speeds, collisions, etc. The contribution of this work is the possibility to tracing a stress analysis protocol for drivers while operating a vehicle getting affective behaviors coming from

  7. Simulation-based driver and vehicle crew training: applications, efficacy and future directions. (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G


    Simulation is widely used as a training tool in many domains, and more recently the use of vehicle simulation as a tool for driver and vehicle crew training has become popular (de Winter et al., 2009; Pradhan et al., 2009). This paper presents an overview of how vehicle simulations are currently used to train driving-related procedural and higher-order cognitive skills, and team-based procedural and non-technical teamwork skills for vehicle crews, and evaluates whether there is evidence these training programs are effective. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of whether training achieves learning objectives and whether the attainment of those objectives enhances real world performance on target tasks. It was concluded that while some higher-order cognitive skills training programs have been shown to be effective, in general the adoption of simulation technology has far outstripped the pace of empirical research in this area. The paper concludes with a discussion of the issues that require consideration when developing and evaluating vehicle simulations for training purposes - based not only on what is known from the vehicle domain, but what can be inferred from other domains in which simulation is an established training approach, such as aviation (e.g. Jentsch et al., 2011) and medicine (e.g. McGaghie et al., 2010). STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Simulation has become a popular tool for driver and vehicle crew training in civilian and military settings. This review considers whether there is evidence that this training method leads to learning and the transfer of skills to real world performance. Evidence from other domains, such as aviation and medicine, is drawn upon to inform the design and evaluation of future vehicle simulation training systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of MBS (ADAMS / CAR software in simulations of vehicle suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY


    Full Text Available The results of the examination of a vehicle suspension system in the plate position are presented in the paper. The model vehicle is a Fiat Seicento with front independent suspension, McPherson type, with the steering system and with the semi-trailing arm in the rear suspension. Identification of the model was made by comparing the simulation results with the results from the test stand. A multibody model of the vehicle will be used in studies of the impact of shock absorber technical conditions on the dynamics of automotive vehicles.

  9. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.


    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  10. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T


    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiences on dynamic simulation software in chemical engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, Tiina M.; Enemark-rasmussen, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan


    : basic chemical engineering, operability and safety analysis and process control. User experiences from both teachers and students are presented. The benefits of dynamic simulation as an additional teaching tool are discussed and summarized. The experiences confirm that commercial dynamic simulators...... provide realistic training and can be successfully integrated into undergraduate and graduate teaching, laboratory courses and research....

  12. Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.


    Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.

  13. Computer simulation in physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauser, Martin Oliver


    This work is a needed reference for widely used techniques and methods of computer simulation in physics and other disciplines, such as materials science. The work conveys both: the theoretical foundations of computer simulation as well as applications and "tricks of the trade", that often are scattered across various papers. Thus it will meet a need and fill a gap for every scientist who needs computer simulations for his/her task at hand. In addition to being a reference, case studies and exercises for use as course reading are included.

  14. Dispersion analysis and linear error analysis capabilities of the space vehicle dynamics simulation program (United States)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.


    Previous error analyses conducted by the Guidance and Dynamics Branch of NASA have used the Guidance Analysis Program (GAP) as the trajectory simulation tool. Plans are made to conduct all future error analyses using the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program. A study was conducted to compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU) error simulations of the two programs. Results of the GAP/SVDS comparison are presented and problem areas encountered while attempting to simulate IMU errors, vehicle performance uncertainties and environmental uncertainties using SVDS are defined. An evaluation of the SVDS linear error analysis capability is also included.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun

    and the valve timings on the methane slip was investigated. MAN L28/32DF engine was modeled to simulate the gas exchange process of the four stroke NG-diesel dual fuel engines. The mesh size of the model was decided based on the sensitivity study on the peak pressure of the cylinder and the fuel mass......The methane slip is the problematic issue for the engines using natural gas(NG). Because methane is more powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, understanding of the methane slip during gas exchange process of the engines is essential. In this study, the influence of the gas pipe geometry...

  16. Dynamic Reliability Evaluation of Road Vehicle Subjected to Turbulent Crosswinds Based on Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang


    Full Text Available As a vehicle moves on roads, a complex vibration system of the running vehicle is formed under the collective excitations of random crosswinds and road surface roughness, together with the artificial handing by the drivers. Several numerical models in deterministic way to assess the safety of running road vehicles under crosswinds were proposed. Actually, the natural wind is a random process in time domain due to turbulence, and the surface roughness of a road is also a random process but in spatial domain. The nature of a running vehicle therefore is an extension of dynamic reliability excited by random processes. This study tries to explore the dynamic reliability of a road vehicle subjected to turbulent crosswinds. Based on a nonlinear vibration system, the dynamic responses of a road vehicle are simulated to obtain the dynamic reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation with Latin Hypercube Sampling is then applied on the possible random variables including the vehicle weight, road friction coefficient, and driver parameter to look at their effects. Finally, a distribution model of the dynamic reliability and a corresponding index for the wind-induced vehicle accident considering these random processes and variables is proposed and employed to evaluate the safety of the running vehicle.

  17. An Object Model for a Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Bhalla, P. N.; Pratap, V.; Reddy, P.


    Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS) is a packet of software which numerically simulates the behavior of a rocket engine. Different parameters of the components of an engine is the input to these programs. Depending on these given parameters the programs output the behaviors of those components. These behavioral values are then used to guide the design of or to diagnose a model of a rocket engine "built" by a composition of these programs simulating different components of the engine system. In order to use this software package effectively one needs to have a flexible model of a rocket engine. These programs simulating different components then should be plugged into this modular representation. Our project is to develop an object based model of such an engine system. We are following an iterative and incremental approach in developing the model, as is the standard practice in the area of object oriented design and analysis of softwares. This process involves three stages: object modeling to represent the components and sub-components of a rocket engine, dynamic modeling to capture the temporal and behavioral aspects of the system, and functional modeling to represent the transformational aspects. This article reports on the first phase of our activity under a grant (RENS) from the NASA Lewis Research center. We have utilized Rambaugh's object modeling technique and the tool UML for this purpose. The classes of a rocket engine propulsion system are developed and some of them are presented in this report. The next step, developing a dynamic model for RENS, is also touched upon here. In this paper we will also discuss the advantages of using object-based modeling for developing this type of an integrated simulator over other tools like an expert systems shell or a procedural language, e.g., FORTRAN. Attempts have been made in the past to use such techniques.

  18. Computational Simulation of the Flow Past an Airfoil for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Velázquez-Araque


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible, steady air flow past a NACA 2415 airfoil and four modifications of this one. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, five different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off called the no blowing condition by means computational fluid dynamics. The RNG k-ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process. The simulations were held at a Reynolds number of 105. Results allowed obtaining lift and drag forces and pitching moment coefficient and also the location of the separation and reattachment point in some cases for different angles of attack, from 0 to 16 degrees with the smallest increment of 4 degrees. Finally, numerical results were compared with results obtained from wind tunnel tests by means of an aerodynamic balance and also oil and smoke visualization techniques and found to be in very good agreement.

  19. 2005 - Comparing light-weight concepts in vehicle and aeronautical engineering. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The proceedings volume of the two days Conference titled:'' 2005 - Comparing light-weight concepts in vehicle and aeronautical engineering'' which has been held on th 22nd and 23rd November 2005 in Munich, Germany, includes the 19 contributions presented. Light-weight construction plays an essential role in modern vehicle and aeronautical engineering and furthermore becomes more and more important. The requirements for light-weight structures are multiple considering adequate construction, resources, economical production and mobility. The fundamental success factor for effective solutions on material engineering consists of forward thinking and project orientated cooperation in partnership with producers, fabricators, component suppliers and manufacturers. The main emphasis of the '' 2005'' was to draw the comparison of property-patterns of different material groups; manufacturing technologies; and fields of application for different materials in modern light-weight construction. The subjects dealt with in detail were as follows: synergies between automotive engineering and aerospace; high- performance materials in the example of the Transrapid; GLARE - Industrialization of an advanced light-weight material; Aluminium/composite in rail transport; optimisation of hybrid-material light-weight structures including manufacturing aspects; applications of light alloys in transport engineering (dars, railways, aeroplanes); light-weight construction in the motor vehicle using new materials; development of a body floor structure in steel lightweight design with improved side impact behaviour; how weighty is our mobility?; the whole is greater than its parts: materials in transport engineering; plastic body panels; high-temperature composite materials for aircraft engines; the potential of natural-fiber-reinforced biopolymers for standard production applications in the railway vehicle sector; mixed

  20. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad


    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  1. Modeling Vehicle Interior Noise Exposure Dose on Freeways Considering Weaving Segment Designs and Engine Operation. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing


    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a lab environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic, road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex for its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters, and improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted to twelve subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. An On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their Out-Of-Bag permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments is quantified to Hazard Quotient, NED and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable, the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness, and subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model performs highly predictive power (R

  2. Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Propulsion Related Module Development and Vehicle Integration (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.


    This report documents the work performed during the period from May 2011 - October 2012 on the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This report will focus on describing the work done in the areas of: (1) Integrating propulsion data (turbines, rockets, and scramjets) in the system, and using the data to perform trajectory analysis; (2) Developing a parametric packaging strategy for a hypersonic air breathing vehicles allowing for tank resizing when multiple fuels and/or oxidizer are part of the configuration; and (3) Vehicle scaling and closure strategies.

  3. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S


    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  4. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei


    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  5. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Kong

    Full Text Available To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control.

  6. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation (United States)

    Kong, Zehui; Liu, Teng


    To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM) of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL) is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM) generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control. PMID:28671967

  7. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation. (United States)

    Kong, Zehui; Zou, Yuan; Liu, Teng


    To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM) of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL) is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM) generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control.

  8. Simulation of a solar powered electric vehicle under the constraints of the world solar challenge (United States)

    Roerig, Steven J.


    Development of an effective method for evaluation of alternative energy sources in the automotive industry has always been a necessity for cost efficient design analysis. One viable alternative energy source is electricity. In the present day environment of shrinking fossil fuel supplies and environmental awareness, electric powered vehicles are becoming a low cost, non-polluting, alternative means of transportation. The analysis of reliable electric propulsion can be expensive without a modeling tool for evaluating design strategies before vehicle construction. This thesis explores electricity as an alternative energy source for the automobile of tomorrow. Under the guidelines of the World Solar challenge, a solar powered electric vehicle, using a permanent-magnet brushless dc motor has be modeled and simulated in Simulink (Dynamic System Simulation Software). The simulations were performed with the goal of determining the optimum configuration to efficiently utilize the power supplied from the solar array, batteries, and motor. The simulated vehicle was 'driven' over various terrain's and at various speeds. The results obtained confirm this simulation as an efficient design tool and present an example of an optimum vehicle speed for one particular vehicle configuration.

  9. Towards an Automated Full-Turbofan Engine Numerical Simulation (United States)

    Reed, John A.; Turner, Mark G.; Norris, Andrew; Veres, Joseph P.


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the high-fidelity numerical simulation of a modern high-bypass turbofan engine. The simulation utilizes the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) thermodynamic cycle modeling system coupled to a high-fidelity full-engine model represented by a set of coupled three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) component models. Boundary conditions from the balanced, steady-state cycle model are used to define component boundary conditions in the full-engine model. Operating characteristics of the three-dimensional component models are integrated into the cycle model via partial performance maps generated automatically from the CFD flow solutions using one-dimensional meanline turbomachinery programs. This paper reports on the progress made towards the full-engine simulation of the GE90-94B engine, highlighting the generation of the high-pressure compressor partial performance map. The ongoing work will provide a system to evaluate the steady and unsteady aerodynamic and mechanical interactions between engine components at design and off-design operating conditions.

  10. Development of an engine system simulation software package - ESIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Olof


    A software package, ESIM is developed for simulating internal combustion engine systems, including models for engine, manifolds, turbocharger, charge-air cooler (inter cooler) and inlet air heater. This study focus on the thermodynamic treatment and methods used in the models. It also includes some examples of system simulations made with these models for validation purposes. The engine model can be classified as a zero-dimensional, single zone model. It includes calculation of the valve flow process, models for heat release and models for in-cylinder, exhaust port and manifold heat transfer. Models are developed for handling turbocharger performance and charge air cooler characteristics. The main purpose of the project related to this work is to use the ESIM software to study heat balance and performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine systems. A short description of the HCCI engine is therefore included, pointing out the difficulties, or challenges regarding the HCCI engine, from a system perspective. However, the relations given here, and the code itself, is quite general, making it possible to use these models to simulate spark ignited, as well as direct injected engines.

  11. Realistic Simulation of IEEE 802.11p Channel in Mobile Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, T.; Hu, Y.; Onur, E.; Boltjes, B.; Jongh, J.F.C.M de


    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is becoming an important paradigm, because of its ability to enhance safety and to mitigate congestion on road traffic scenarios. Realizing the fact that data collection scheme from in-situ test beds for large number of vehicles is always expensive and time

  12. 40 CFR 1045.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle or Large SI programs? (United States)


    ... apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle or Large SI programs? (a) General provisions...: (i) Change any fuel-system or evaporative-system parameters from the certified configuration (this... marine engine cooling system so that temperatures or heat rejection rates are outside the original engine...

  13. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As... (United States)


    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted and subsequently amended emission standards applicable to yard trucks powered by off-road engines and the auxiliary engines...

  14. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.


    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  15. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. A Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Evaluating Air Force Reusable Military Launch Vehicle Post-Landing Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martindale, Michael


    The purpose of this research was to develop a discrete-event computer simulation model of the post-landing vehicle recoveoperations to allow the Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate...

  17. Real-Time Engineering Simulation of Lunar Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Damer, George Tompkins, Sheldon Freid, Dave Rasmussen, Peter Newman, Brad Blair


    DigitalSpace Corporation has been building an open source real-time three-dimensional (3-D) collaborative design engineering and training platform called Digital Spaces (DSS) in support of the Exploration Vision of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Real-time 3-D simulation has reached a level of maturity where it is capable of supporting engineering design and operations using off-the-shelf game chipsets and open source physics and rendering technologies. This paper will illustrate a state-of-the-art real-time engineering simulation utilizing DSS in support of NASA lunar excavation studies. During the project DigitalSpace building driveable 3-D models of lunar excavators and South Polar terrain, and added a soil mechanics physics model as well as a random failure generator to the repertoire of standard mobility platform physics in prior use for real-time engineering and operational analysis at NASA.

  18. Engineering report for simulated riser installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford


    The simulated riser installation field tests demonstrated that new access ports (risers) can be installed safely, quickly, and economically in the concrete domes of existing underground single- shell waste storage tanks by utilizing proven rotary drilling equipment and vacuum excavation techniques. The new riser installation will seal against water intrusion, provide as table riser anchored to the tank dome, and be installed in accordance with ALARA principles. The information contained in the report will apply to actual riser installation activity in the future.

  19. Lightweight Investigation of Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Based on Collision Failure Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqi Long


    Full Text Available The total weight of Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV is too heavy, which affects rear-end collision safety. Using numerical simulation, a lightweight method is designed to reduce E-REV body and key parts weight based on rear-end collision failure analysis. To calculate and optimize the performance of vehicle safety, the simulation model of E-REV rear-end collision safety is built by using finite element analysis. Drive battery pack lightweight design method is analyzed and the bending mode and torsional mode of E-REV before and after lightweight are compared to evaluate E-REV rear-end collision safety performance. The simulation results of optimized E-REV safety structure are verified by both numerical simulation and experimental investigation of the entire vehicle crash test.

  20. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu


    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  1. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach


    Ferreira, Tremaine; Gorlach, Igor


    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE) approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication...

  2. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graves, Ronald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orban, John [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Theiss, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  3. Automated Comparison of Building Energy Simulation Engines (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Horowitz, S.; Booten, B.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.


    This presentation describes the BEopt comparative test suite, which is a tool that facilitates the automated comparison of building energy simulation engines. It also demonstrates how the test suite is improving the accuracy of building energy simulation programs. Building energy simulation programs inform energy efficient design for new homes and energy efficient upgrades for existing homes. Stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from simulation programs. Previous research indicates that software tends to over-predict energy usage for poorly-insulated leaky homes. NREL is identifying, investigating, and resolving software inaccuracy issues. Comparative software testing is one method of many that NREL uses to identify potential software issues.

  4. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Lightweight Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector, Jr., Louis G. [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States); McCarty, Eric D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP), Southfield, MI (United States)


    The goal of the ICME 3GAHSS project was to successfully demonstrate the applicability of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for the development and deployment of third generation advanced high strength steels (3GAHSS) for immediate weight reduction in passenger vehicles. The ICME approach integrated results from well-established computational and experimental methodologies to develop a suite of material constitutive models (deformation and failure), manufacturing process and performance simulation modules, a properties database, as well as the computational environment linking them together for both performance prediction and material optimization. This is the Final Report for the ICME 3GAHSS project, which achieved the fol-lowing objectives: 1) Developed a 3GAHSS ICME model, which includes atomistic, crystal plasticity, state variable and forming models. The 3GAHSS model was implemented in commercially available LS-DYNA and a user guide was developed to facilitate use of the model. 2) Developed and produced two 3GAHSS alloys using two different chemistries and manufacturing processes, for use in calibrating and validating the 3GAHSS ICME Model. 3) Optimized the design of an automotive subassembly by substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS yielding a design that met or exceeded all baseline performance requirements with a 30% mass savings. A technical cost model was also developed to estimate the cost per pound of weight saved when substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS. The project demonstrated the potential for 3GAHSS to achieve up to 30% weight savings in an automotive structure at a cost penalty of up to $0.32 to $1.26 per pound of weight saved. The 3GAHSS ICME Model enables the user to design 3GAHSS to desired mechanical properties in terms of strength and ductility.

  5. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines for Tomorrow's Energy-Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative is accelerating the introduction of affordable, scalable, and sustainable biofuels and high-efficiency, low-emission vehicle engines. The simultaneous fuels and vehicles research and development (R&D) is designed to deliver maximum energy savings, emissions reduction, and on-road vehicle performance. The initiative's integrated approach combines the previously independent areas of biofuels and combustion R&D, bringing together two DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy research offices, nine national laboratories, and numerous industry and academic partners to more rapidly identify commercially viable solutions. This multi-year project will provide industry with the scientific underpinnings required to move new biofuels and advanced engine systems to market faster while identifying and addressing barriers to their commercialization. This project's ambitious, first-of-its-kind approach simultaneously tackles fuel and engine innovation to co-optimize performance of both elements and provide dramatic and rapid cuts in fuel use and emissions.

  6. System controls challenges of hypersonic combined-cycle engine powered vehicles (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Ianculescu, George D.


    Hypersonic aircraft with air-breathing engines have been described as the most complex and challenging air/space vehicle designs ever attempted. This is particularly true for aircraft designed to accelerate to orbital velocities. The propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane will be an active factor in maintaining the aircraft on course. Typically addressed are the difficulties with the aerodynamic vehicle design and development, materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal concern. Far more important than merely a subset of propulsion performance, the propulsion control system resides at the crossroads of trajectory optimization, engine static performance, and vehicle-engine configuration optimization. To date, solutions at these crossroads are multidisciplinary and generally lag behind the broader performance issues. Just how daunting these demands will be is suggested. A somewhat simplified treatment of the behavioral characteristics of hypersonic aircraft and the issues associated with their air-breathing propulsion control system design are presented.

  7. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  8. Numerical simulation of spark ignition engine using OpenFOAM®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Kannan


    Full Text Available The present work is the numerical investigation of Spark Ignition (SI engines using an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tool. Investigations on the usage of OpenFOAM® CFD tool has been carried out for the simulation of SI engines using engineFoam solver. Four-valve pent roof type engine is chosen for the present simulations. The standard k–ɛ turbulence model is used along with the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS equations for simulating the flow field. Energy equation and transport equation for regress variable is solved along with the momentum equations. Xi model is used for the transport and Gulder's correlation is used for laminar flame speed. Unstrained model is used for calculating the laminar flame speed velocity. Two simulations are carried out one with cold flow and the other with combustion. For combustion analysis, Iso-octane fuel is used. Average cylinder pressure is tracked for different Crank Angles (CA from −180 to 60. The temperature contours are plotted on a vertical plane inside the cylinder to indicate the rise in temperature due to combustion. The results indicate that the open source CFD code can be an ideal choice for engine designers.

  9. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Ricardo Cooled EGR Boost 24-bar Standard Car Engine Tier 2 Fuel (United States)

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize the fuel consumption map of a Ricardo modeled engine and vehicle fuel consumption data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  10. NTP system simulation and detailed nuclear engine modeling (United States)

    Anghaie, Samim


    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) & detailed nuclear engine modeling; modeling and engineering simulation of nuclear thermal rocket systems; nuclear thermal rocket simulation system; INSPI-NTVR core axial flow profiles; INSPI-NTRV core axial flow profiles; specific impulse vs. chamber pressure; turbine pressure ratio vs. chamber pressure; NERVA core axial flow profiles; P&W XNR2000 core axial flow profiles; pump pressure rise vs. chamber pressure; streamline of jet-induced flow in cylindrical chamber; flow pattern of a jet-induced flow in a chamber; and radiative heat transfer models.

  11. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education


    Lo Valvo, E; Licari, R; Adornetto, A


    In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simula...

  12. Simulation of product distribution at PT Anugrah Citra Boga by using capacitated vehicle routing problem method (United States)

    Lamdjaya, T.; Jobiliong, E.


    PT Anugrah Citra Boga is a food processing industry that produces meatballs as their main product. The distribution system of the products must be considered, because it needs to be more efficient in order to reduce the shipment cost. The purpose of this research is to optimize the distribution time by simulating the distribution channels with capacitated vehicle routing problem method. Firstly, the distribution route is observed in order to calculate the average speed, time capacity and shipping costs. Then build the model using AIMMS software. A few things that are required to simulate the model are customer locations, distances, and the process time. Finally, compare the total distribution cost obtained by the simulation and the historical data. It concludes that the company can reduce the shipping cost around 4.1% or Rp 529,800 per month. By using this model, the utilization rate can be more optimal. The current value for the first vehicle is 104.6% and after the simulation it becomes 88.6%. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of the second vehicle is increase from 59.8% to 74.1%. The simulation model is able to produce the optimal shipping route with time restriction, vehicle capacity, and amount of vehicle.

  13. Simulating New Drop Test Vehicles and Test Techniques for the Orion CEV Parachute Assembly System (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Ray, Eric; Moore, Jim W.; Olson, Leah M.


    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign to qualify a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Test and simulation techniques have evolved concurrently to keep up with the demands of a challenging and complex system. The primary simulations used for preflight predictions and post-test data reconstructions are Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), Decelerator System Simulation Application (DSSA), and Drop Test Vehicle Simulation (DTV-SIM). The goal of this paper is to provide a roadmap to future programs on the test technique challenges and obstacles involved in executing a large-scale, multi-year parachute test program. A focus on flight simulation modeling and correlation to test techniques executed to obtain parachute performance parameters are presented.

  14. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation


    Ham, Hyeongjin; Han, Kyuhong; Lee, Hyeongcheol


    This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS) model, are connected together like in the target r...

  15. Three-dimensional flow simulation about the AFE vehicle in the transitional regime. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment (United States)

    Celenligil, M. Cevdet; Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.


    The direct-simulation Monte Carlo technique is used to analyze the hypersonic rarefied flow about the three-dimensional NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle. Results are given for typical transitional flows encountered during the vehicle's atmospheric entry from altitudes of 200-100 km with an entry velocity of 9.9 km/s. It is found that dissociation is important at altitudes of 110 km and below, and that transitional effects are significant even at an altitude of 200 km.

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle


    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani


    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  17. Software Design Document Vehicle Simulation CSCI (5). Volume 4, Appendices (United States)


    vehicle-impact in veh-impact.c, (null) network serd-vehiclejimpact-dg in v’eh-impact-dg.c, (null) bigwhee-1 vih iit in veh-init.c, (null) het _calib-c.m...null) im.a-e t-nd location in libimage.c, (null) kii jenics -calc velocity in calc-v.c, (null) kwj:-ematj’:3u-pdatep im update.-p.c, (null) ci,,- prep ...msg-hdr in premsghdr.c, (null) cig-msg-prepend-overall-header in preoverall.c, (null) FILE: not- prep -buf.c FUNCTION: cig-not ok-to-prepare-buffer

  18. A Coupling Vibration Test Bench and the Simulation Research of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma


    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of the coupling vibration between a maglev vehicle and its track beam system and to improve the performance of the levitation system, a new type of vibration test bench was developed. Take a single maglev frame as the study object; simulation of the coupling vibration of the maglev vehicle, levitation system, and track beam were achieved. In addition, all types of real track irregularity excitations can be simulated using hydraulic actuators of the test bench. To expand the research scope, a simulation model was developed that can conduct the simulation research synergistically with the test bench. Based on a dynamics model of the test bench, the dynamics simulation method determined the influence on the levitation control performance of three factors: the track beam support stiffness, the track beam mass, and the track irregularity. The vibration resonance phenomenon of the vehicle/track system was reproduced by the dynamics simulation, and a portion of the simulation results were validated by the test results. By combining the test bench and the dynamics model, experiments can be guided by the simulation results, and the experimental results can validate the dynamics simulation results.

  19. Fire simulation of the canister transfer and installation vehicle; Kapselin siirto- ja asennusajoneuvon palosimulointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltokorpi, L. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    A pyrolysis model of the canister transfer and installation vehicle was developed and vehicle fires in the final disposal tunnel and in the central tunnel were simulated using the fire simulation program FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). For comparison, same vehicle fire was also simulated at conditions in which the fire remained as a fuel controlled during the whole simulation. The purpose of the fire simulations was to simulate the fire behaviour realistically taking into account for example the limitations coming from the lack of oxygen. The material parameters for the rubber were defined and the simulation models for the tyres developed by simulating the fire test of a front wheel loader rubber tyre done by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. In these simulations the most important phenomena were successfully brought out but the timing of the phenomena was difficult. The final values for the rubber material parameters were chosen so that the simulated fire behaviour was at least as intense as the measured one. In the vehicle fire simulations a hydraulic oil or diesel leak causing a pool fire size of 2 MW and 2 m{sup 2} was assumed. The pool fire was assumed to be located under the tyres of the SPMT (Self Propelled Modular Transporters) transporter. In each of the vehicle fire simulations only the tyres of the SPMT transporter were observed to be burning whereas the tyres of the trailer remained untouched. In the fuel controlled fire the maximum power was slightly under 10 MW which was reached in about 18 minutes. In the final disposal tunnel the growth of the fire was limited due to the lack of oxygen and the relatively fast air flows existing in the tunnel. Fast air flows caused the flame spreading to be limited to the certain directions. In the final disposal tunnel fire the maximum power was slightly over 7 MW which was reached about 8 minutes after the ignition. In the central tunnel there was no shortage of oxygen but the spread of the fire was limited

  20. Optimal trajectory designs and systems engineering analyses of reusable launch vehicles (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-I. Bruce

    Realizing a reusable launch vehicle (RLU) that is low cost with highly effective launch capability has become the "Holy Grail" within the aerospace community world-wide. Clear understanding of the vehicle's operational limitations and flight characteristics in all phases of the flight are preponderant components in developing such a launch system. This dissertation focuses on characterizing and designing the RLU optimal trajectories in order to aid in strategic decision making during mission planning in four areas: (1) nominal ascent phase, (2) abort scenarios and trajectories during ascent phase including abort-to-orbit (ATO), transoceanic-abort-landing (TAL) and return-to-launch-site (RTLS), (3) entry phase (including footprint), and (4) systems engineering aspects of such flight trajectory design. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body design that lifts off vertically with two linear aerospike rocket engines and lands horizontally. An in-depth investigation of the optimal endo-atmospheric ascent guidance parameters such as earliest abort time, engine throttle setting, number of flight phases, flight characteristics and structural design limitations will be performed and analyzed to establish a set of benchmarks for making better trade-off decisions. Parametric analysis of the entry guidance will also be investigated to allow the trajectory designer to pinpoint relevant parameters and to generate optimal constrained trajectories. Optimal ascent and entry trajectories will be generated using a direct transcription method to cast the optimal control problem as a nonlinear programming problem. The solution to the sparse nonlinear programming problem is then solved using sequential quadratic programming. Finally, guidance system hierarchy studies such as work breakdown structure, functional analysis, fault-tree analysis, and configuration management will be developed to ensure that the guidance system meets the definition of

  1. The Direction of Virtual Vehicle Simulations for Military Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riggins, David W


    ... training -- so long as these alternatives can offer resource-saving benefits. In fact, virtual simulations are currently capable of supporting many individual and an increasing number of collective tasks required for training our armed forces...

  2. Simulation of a distance estimator for battery electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Kuew Wai


    Full Text Available Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV is a promising candidate in reducing air pollution and fossil fuel dependencies. It is a growing market for the automobile manufacturers. Although there are many advantages of driving a BEV, it is still not widely accepted in the market due to the limited driving range. Other than just improving the technologies that drive the vehicle, an additional range estimation system can calm the ‘range anxiety’ caused by the limited range of BEVs. Merely predicting the range based on the state of charge of the battery, the average driving speed, and the average power consumption is inadequate. This paper proposes a new range estimator, the dynamic range estimator, which also takes into account the driving behavior, in addition to the slopes of the trip for its energy estimation. The driving behavior is obtained based on the response to speed error and the time delay between throttle pedal and brake pedal switching. In this way, the driving behavior is a fixed response for any driving speeds on the same route thus, allowing the energy consumption to be compared for different speeds.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Scale Model Method to Simulate Lunar Vehicle Dynamics (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle; Asnani, Vivake; Polack, Jeff; Plant, Mark


    As compared to driving on Earth, the presence of lower gravity and uneven terrain on planetary bodies makes high speed driving difficult. In order to maintain ground contact and control vehicles need to be designed with special attention to dynamic response. The challenge of maintaining control on the Moon was evident during high speed operations of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on Apollo 16, as at one point all four tires were off the ground; this event has been referred to as the Lunar Grand Prix. Ultimately, computer simulation should be used to examine these phenomena during the vehicle design process; however, experimental techniques are required for the validation and elucidation of key issues. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodology for developing a scale model of a lunar vehicle using similitude relationships and to test how vehicle configuration, six or eight wheel pods, and local tire compliance, soft or stiff, affect the vehicles dynamic performance. A wheel pod consists of a drive and steering transmission and wheel. The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), a human driven vehicle with a pressurized cabin, was selected as an example for which a scale model was built. The scaled vehicle was driven over an obstacle and the dynamic response was observed and then scaled to represent the full-size vehicle in lunar gravity. Loss of ground contact, in terms of vehicle travel distance with tires off the ground, was examined. As expected, local tire compliance allowed ground contact to be maintained over a greater distance. However, switching from a six-tire configuration to an eight-tire configuration with reduced suspension stiffness had a negative effect on ground contact. It is hypothesized that this was due to the increased number or frequency of impacts. The development and testing of this scale model provided practical lessons for future low-gravity vehicle development.

  4. In-vehicle group activity modeling and simulation in sensor-based virtual environment (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Poshtyar, Azin; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen


    Human group activity recognition is a very complex and challenging task, especially for Partially Observable Group Activities (POGA) that occur in confined spaces with limited visual observability and often under severe occultation. In this paper, we present IRIS Virtual Environment Simulation Model (VESM) for the modeling and simulation of dynamic POGA. More specifically, we address sensor-based modeling and simulation of a specific category of POGA, called In-Vehicle Group Activities (IVGA). In VESM, human-alike animated characters, called humanoids, are employed to simulate complex in-vehicle group activities within the confined space of a modeled vehicle. Each articulated humanoid is kinematically modeled with comparable physical attributes and appearances that are linkable to its human counterpart. Each humanoid exhibits harmonious full-body motion - simulating human-like gestures and postures, facial impressions, and hands motions for coordinated dexterity. VESM facilitates the creation of interactive scenarios consisting of multiple humanoids with different personalities and intentions, which are capable of performing complicated human activities within the confined space inside a typical vehicle. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of VESM in terms of its capabilities to seamlessly generate time-synchronized, multi-source, and correlated imagery datasets of IVGA, which are useful for the training and testing of multi-source full-motion video processing and annotation. Furthermore, we demonstrate full-motion video processing of such simulated scenarios under different operational contextual constraints.

  5. Mean Line Pump Flow Model in Rocket Engine System Simulation (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Lavelle, Thomas M.


    A mean line pump flow modeling method has been developed to provide a fast capability for modeling turbopumps of rocket engines. Based on this method, a mean line pump flow code PUMPA has been written that can predict the performance of pumps at off-design operating conditions, given the loss of the diffusion system at the design point. The pump code can model axial flow inducers, mixed-flow and centrifugal pumps. The code can model multistage pumps in series. The code features rapid input setup and computer run time, and is an effective analysis and conceptual design tool. The map generation capability of the code provides the map information needed for interfacing with a rocket engine system modeling code. The off-design and multistage modeling capabilities of the code permit parametric design space exploration of candidate pump configurations and provide pump performance data for engine system evaluation. The PUMPA code has been integrated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code and an expander rocket engine system has been simulated. The mean line pump flow code runs as an integral part of the NPSS rocket engine system simulation and provides key pump performance information directly to the system model at all operating conditions.

  6. Improving a Computer Networks Course Using the Partov Simulation Engine (United States)

    Momeni, B.; Kharrazi, M.


    Computer networks courses are hard to teach as there are many details in the protocols and techniques involved that are difficult to grasp. Employing programming assignments as part of the course helps students to obtain a better understanding and gain further insight into the theoretical lectures. In this paper, the Partov simulation engine and…

  7. Real-time Simulation of Turboprop Engine Control System (United States)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Yi


    On account of the complexity of turboprop engine control system, real-time simulation is the technology, under the prerequisite of maintaining real-time, to effectively reduce development cost, shorten development cycle and avert testing risks. The paper takes RT-LAB as a platform and studies the real-time digital simulation of turboprop engine control system. The architecture, work principles and external interfaces of RT-LAB real-time simulation platform are introduced firstly. Then based on a turboprop engine model, the control laws of propeller control loop and fuel control loop are studied. From that and on the basis of Matlab/Simulink, an integrated controller is designed which can realize the entire process control of the engine from start-up to maximum power till stop. At the end, on the basis of RT-LAB platform, the real-time digital simulation of the designed control system is studied, different regulating plans are tried and more ideal control effects have been obtained.

  8. Visualization and simulation of complex flows in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Oliveira, Mónica


    This book focuses on the most recent advances in the application of visualization and simulation methods to understand the flow behavior of complex fluids used in biomedical engineering and other related fields. It shows the physiological flow behavior in large arteries, microcirculation, respiratory systems and in biomedical microdevices.

  9. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, Wayne [Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Rutland, Chris [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Singh, Gurpreet [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; McIlroy, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not

  10. Analysis of simulated engine sounds using a psychoacoustic model (United States)

    Duvigneau, Fabian; Liefold, Steffen; Höchstetter, Marius; Verhey, Jesko L.; Gabbert, Ulrich


    The aim of the paper is the evaluation and the prediction of the perceived quality of engine sounds, which is predicted in the design process by numerical simulations. Periodic combustion sounds of the operating engine are synthesized with the help of an overall numerical simulation approach before a real prototype exists. The perceived quality of the sound is rated in hearing tests using the method of relative comparison and absolute judgment. Results are transferred into an interval scaled ranking of the stimuli. Based on the data, a psychoacoustic model for sound quality is developed using psychoacoustic parameters. Predictions of this model are used to evaluate the sound quality of several technical design modifications, for example, different engine encapsulations. The results are visualized to allow a simple qualitative analysis of the sound perception. This results in an impartial and objective decision regarding the final design of an acoustic encapsulation with a higher perceived sound quality.

  11. Modeling of the higher pressure cooling system for transport vehicles engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of the engine cooling system for high coolant temperatures developed through AmeSim software. It presents the results of temperature course simulation, pressure course, and liquid cooling pump efficiency. It shows that it is possible to maintain the assumed constant pressure in the system and obtain it at the elevated liquid temperature leading to an increase in overall engine efficiency.

  12. ATLAS Tracking Detector Upgrade studies using the Fast Simulation Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Calace, Noemi; The ATLAS collaboration


    The successful physics program Run-1 of the LHC has put a strong emphasis on design studies for future upgrades of the existing LHC detectors. In ATLAS, testing alternative layouts through the full simulation and reconstruction chain is a work-intensive program, which can only be carried out for a few concept layouts. To facilitate layout prototyping, we have established a novel technique based on the ATLAS reconstruction geometry and a fast simulation engine that allows fast layout iterations and a realistic but fast Monte Carlo simulation. This approach is extended by a fast digitisation and reconstruction module.

  13. Comparison of Engineering Wake Models with CFD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Ivanell, S.


    The engineering wake models by Jensen [1] and Frandsen et al. [2] are assessed for different scenarios simulated using Large Eddy Simulation and the Actuator Line method implemented in the Navier-Stokes equations. The scenarios include the far wake behind a single wind turbine, a long row...... of turbines in an atmospheric boundary layer, idealised cases of an infinitely long row of wind turbines and infinite wind farms with three different spacings. Both models include a wake expansion factor, which is calibrated to fit the simulated wake velocities. The analysis highlights physical deficiencies...

  14. Simulation Study of a Vehicle Production Line for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.F. Ab Rashid


    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a motorcycle frame production line in a particular company in Malaysia. Due to the high demand, the company needs to increase its production by at least 12% compared with current output. In order to improve productivity, the production-floor data was collected and simulated using the discrete event simulation approach. Later, a number of suggestions for improvement were simulated to identify the effect of the suggestions on productivity. In addition, cost analysis was also undertaken to identify the profit margin for a particular period of time for each suggestion. Simulation results indicate that there are three suggestions that are able to fulfill the 12% volume increment. In the short term, the suggestion to hire an assistant line leader will give instant effect to the profit. Meanwhile, for the medium term, Poka-yoke will give higher profit compared with the others, while in the long term, SOP (standard operating procedure implementation will yield a better profit margin. In future, the simulation of a dynamic demand model for this product is suggested to cope with new trends in the market.

  15. Modelling and simulation of lead-acid battery pack powering electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burzyński Damian


    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects of modelling and simulation of energy storages based on the example of a lead-acid battery pack for powering an electric vehicle. The most frequently used energy storages, with particular emphasis on the difficulties in their proper selection for mobile equipment, was discussed. The mathematical model of the leadacid battery and the relations describing its respective parameters was also presented. A selected energy storage was subjected to detailed analysis with regards to the electrical and thermal parameters while powering an electric vehicle during an standard driving cycle in an urban area. The simulation was performed in the Matlab Simulink environment.

  16. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J.


    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  17. Comparison of cross culture engineering ethics training using the simulator for engineering ethics education. (United States)

    Chung, Christopher


    This paper describes the use and analysis of the Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE) to perform cross culture engineering ethics training and analysis. Details describing the first generation and second generation development of the SEEE are published in Chung and Alfred, Science and Engineering Ethics, vol. 15, 2009 and Alfred and Chung, Science and Engineering Ethics, vol. 18, 2012. In this effort, a group of far eastern educated students operated the simulator in the instructional, training, scenario, and evaluation modes. The pre and post treatment performance of these students were compared to U.S. Educated students. Analysis of the performance indicated that the far eastern educated student increased their level of knowledge 23.7 percent while U.S. educated students increased their level of knowledge by 39.3 percent.

  18. Internal combustion engines performance simulation; Simulacao de desempenho de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Jose F.C.; Barbosa, Joao R. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail:;


    A study of numerical methods for the simulation of internal combustion engines is presented. Functional blocks, representing each component of the engine, can be combined to simulate the engine. A model was selected for each component. The engine simulation is carried out connecting the functional blocks. The inviscid conservation equations coupled with loss models where solved using a C++ computer program. Engine performance simulation is shown and results compared with published data. (author)

  19. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Teruo; Shimazaki, Junya; Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Fukuhara, Yosifumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy Systems, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MW{sub th} with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  20. Engineering model of future motor vehicles. Final report Jul 75-Jun 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danckert, H.; Grove, H.W.; Schmidt, R.


    The objective of the work performed was to develop a comprehensive engineering model of future motor vehicles which will provide a realistic and uniform basis for developing safety requirements and assessing their future effects. To achieve the objectives a data base handled by a computer program was developed which consists of identified and projected design and performance data related to safety and other areas affecting safety (such as fuel economy requirements). This data base contains pertinent information on current and previous makes and models of the U.S. passenger car population back to 1965. A comprehensive statistical program package such as multiple regression, frequency and distribution functions, etc. was incorporated into the computer program for data evaluation and can be used to determine interdependencies between the variables contained in the data base. A weight-weight interdependency program makes it possible to project vehicle weight caused by planned alterations of certain substructures in order to increase vehicle safety. Using a set of assumptions the data base permits the projection of possible tendencies of future motor vehicles development.

  1. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at field capacity on five soils (13-66% clay). Stress propagation was then simulated with the semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth estimated from tyre characteristics as upper boundary condition, and v...

  2. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Tremaine


    Full Text Available Automated guided vehicles (AGVs are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication were successfully accomplished and tested in the real industrial environment. The developed AGV is capable of towing trolleys with a weight of up to 200kg at walking speed. The AGV can be incorporated into an intelligent material-handling system with multiple autonomous vehicles and work stations, thus providing flexibility and reconfigurability for the whole manufacturing system. Ergonomic and safety aspects were also considered in the design of the AGV. A comprehensive safety system that is compliant with industrial standards was implemented.

  3. Modelling, Simulations, and Optimisation of Electric Vehicles for Analysis of Transmission Ratio Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Walker


    Full Text Available Pure electric vehicles (PEVs provide a unique problem in powertrain design through the meeting of performance specifications whilst maximising driving range. The consideration of single speed and multispeed transmissions for electric vehicles provides two strategies for achieving desired range and performance specifications. Through the implementation of system level vehicle models, design analysis, and optimisation, this paper analyses the application of both single speed and two-speed transmission applications to electric vehicles. Initially, transmission ratios are designed based on grade and top speed requirements, and impact on vehicle traction curve is evaluated. Then performance studies are conducted for different transmission ratios using both single speed and two-speed powertrain configurations to provide a comparative assessment of the vehicles. Finally, multivariable optimisation in the form of genetic algorithms is employed to determine an optimal gear ratio selection for single speed and two-speed PEVs. Results demonstrate that the two-speed transmission is capable of achieving better results for performance requirements over a single speed transmission, including vehicle acceleration and grade climbing. However, the lower powertrain efficiency reduces the simulated range results.

  4. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.


    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  5. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.


    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  6. Probabilistic Load-Flow Analysis of Biomass-Fuelled Gas Engines with Electrical Vehicles in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Feeding biomass-fueled gas engines (BFGEs with olive tree pruning residues offers new opportunities to decrease fossil fuel use in road vehicles and electricity generation. BFGEs, coupled to radial distribution systems (RDSs, provide renewable energy and power that can feed electric vehicle (EV charging stations. However, the combined impact of BFGEs and EVs on RDSs must be assessed to assure the technical constraint fulfilment. Because of the stochastic nature of source/load, it was decided that a probabilistic approach was the most viable option for this assessment. Consequently, this research developed an analytical technique to evaluate the technical constraint fulfilment in RDSs with this combined interaction. The proposed analytical technique (PAT involved the calculation of cumulants and the linearization of load-flow equations, along with the application of the cumulant method, and Cornish-Fisher expansion. The uncertainties related to biomass stock and its heating value (HV were important factors that were assessed for the first time. Application of the PAT in a Spanish RDS with BFGEs and EVs confirmed the feasibility of the proposal and its additional benefits. Specifically, BFGEs were found to clearly contribute to the voltage constraint fulfilment. The computational cost of the PAT was lower than that associated with Monte-Carlo simulations (MCSs.

  7. Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NC (United States)


    This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations in commercial diesel engines and other areas. This analysis covers the period from 1974 through 2008 (and in some cases to early 2009).

  8. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Ares I Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Walker, David; Wilson, Heath; Fulton, Chris; Alday, Nathan; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael


    The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The primary purpose of the Ares System Integration Laboratory is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware - in-the-loop environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time simulation backbone to stimulate all required Ares components for verification testing. ARTE_VIIS provides high -fidelity dynamics, actuator, and sensor models to simulate an accurate flight trajectory in order to ensure realistic test conditions. ARTEMIS has been designed to take advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support hardware-in-the-loop testing to achieve real-time simulation with unprecedented model fidelity. A modular realtime design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been implemented.

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) ceramic design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This ceramic component design manual was an element of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). The ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the ceramic automotive gas turbine engine as a primary power plant. Of the several technologies requiring development before such an engine could become a commercial reality, structural ceramic components represented the greatest technical challenge, and was the prime focus of the program. HVTE-TS, which was created to support the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, continued the efforts begun in ATTAP to develop ceramic components for an automotive gas turbine engine. In HVTE-TS, the program focus was extended to make this technology applicable to the automotive gas turbine engines that form the basis of hybrid automotive propulsion systems consisting of combined batteries, electric drives, and on-board power generators as well as a primary power source. The purpose of the ceramic design manual is to document the process by which ceramic components are designed, analyzed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in a gas turbine engine. Interaction with ceramic component vendors is also emphasized. The main elements of the ceramic design manual are: an overview of design methodology; design process for the AGT-5 ceramic gasifier turbine rotor; and references. Some reference also is made to the design of turbine static structure components to show methods of attaching static hot section ceramic components to supporting metallic structures.

  10. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.


    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  11. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors. (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen


    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri


    Full Text Available In agri-food engineering many complex problems arise in plant and process design. Specifically the designer has to deal with fluid dynamics, thermal or mechanical problems, often characterized by physics coupling, non-linearity, irregular geometry, anisotropy and in definitive rather high complexity. In recent years, the ever growing availability of computational power at low cost, made these problems more often approached with numerical simulation techniques. Mainly in terms of finite elements and finite volumes. In this paper the fundamentals of numerical methods are briefly recalled and a discussion about their possibility of application in the food and agricultural engineering is developed.

  13. The effects of incorporating vehicle acceleration explicitly into a microscopic traffic simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger, A. P.


    Full Text Available Explicitly incorporating individual vehicle acceleration into a traffic simulation model is not a trivial task, and typically results in a considerable increase in model complexity. For this reason, alternative implicit techniques have been introduced in the literature to compensate for the delay times associated with acceleration. In this paper, the claim is investigated that these implicit modelling techniques adequately account for the time delays due to vehicle acceleration; the modelling techniques are implemented in a simulated environment, and compared with models in which vehicle acceleration has been incorporated explicitly for a number of traffic network topologies and traffic densities. It is found that considerable discrepancies may result between the two approaches.

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: A Discrete Event Simulation Approach (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer


    This paper presented a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model for investigating and improving energy efficiency in vehicle assembly line. The car manufacturing industry is one of the highest energy consuming industries. Using Rockwell Arena DES package; a detailed model was constructed for an actual vehicle assembly plant. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. Sound energy efficiency model within this industry has two-fold advantage: reducing CO2 emission and cost reduction associated with fuel and electricity consumption. The paper starts with an overview of challenges in energy consumption within the facilities of automotive assembly line and highlights the parameters for energy efficiency. The results of the simulation model indicated improvements for energy saving objectives and reduced costs.

  15. Aerodynamic design of a space vehicle using the numerical simulation technique


    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Wada, Yasuhiro; Takanashi, Susumu; Ishiguro, Mitsuo; 山本 行光; 和田 安弘; 高梨 進; 石黒 満津夫


    Optimization or the aerodynamic configuration or a space vehicle 'HOPE' (H-2 Orbiting Plane) is conducted by using several numerical simulation codes in the transonic and hypersonic speed ranges. Design requirements are set on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics in the transonic speed and the aerodynamic heat characteristics in the hypersonic speed. This paper describes the procedure or the optimization or aerodynamic configurations by using the numerical simulation technique as an e...

  16. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating (United States)


    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) image shows the Hyper-X vehicle at a Mach 7 test condition with the engine operating. The solution includes both internal (scramjet engine) and external flow fields, including the interaction between the engine exhaust and vehicle aerodynamics. The image illustrates surface heat transfer on the vehicle surface (red is highest heating) and flowfield contours at local Mach number. The last contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape. This solution approach is one method of predicting the vehicle performance, and the best method for determination of vehicle structural, pressure and thermal design loads. The Hyper-X program is an ambitious series of experimental flights to expand the boundaries of high-speed aeronautics and develop new technologies for space access. When the first of three aircraft flies, it will be the first time a non-rocket engine has powered a vehicle in flight at hypersonic speeds--speeds above Mach 5, equivalent to about one mile per second or approximately 3,600 miles per hour at sea level. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly

  18. Simple Supercapacitor Charging Scheme of an Electric Vehicle on Small-scale Hardware Simulator: a Prototype Development for Education Purpose


    Al Tahtawi, Adnan Rafi; Rohman, Arief Syaichu


    Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS) is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle's powertrain on small-sca...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot ( Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (, the display and user interface (, and the program command line and configuration file parameters ( The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  20. Mechanistic-empirical subgrade design model based on heavy vehicle simulator test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL


    Full Text Available -empirical design models. This paper presents a study on subgrade permanent deformation based on the data generated from a series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) tests done at the Richmond Field Station in California. The total subgrade deflection was found to be a...

  1. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.


    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  3. End-To-End Simulation of Launch Vehicle Trajectories Including Stage Separation Dynamics (United States)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.


    The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.

  4. Can Next-Generation Vehicles Sustainably Survive in the Automobile Market? Evidence from Ex-Ante Market Simulation and Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoo Shin


    Full Text Available Introduced autonomous and connected vehicles equipped with emerging technologies are expected to change the automotive market. In this study, using stated preference (SP data collected from choice experiments conducted in Korea with a mixed multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model (MDCEV, we analyzed how the advent of next-generation of vehicles with advanced vehicle technologies would affect consumer vehicle choices and usage patterns. Additionally, ex-ante market simulations and market segmentation analyses were conducted to provide specific management strategies for next-generation vehicles. The results showed that consumer preference structures of conventional and alternative fuel types primarily differed depending on whether they were drivers or non-drivers. Additionally, although the introduction of electric vehicles to the automobile market is expected to negatively affect the choice probability and mileage of other vehicles, it could have a positive influence on the probability of purchasing an existing conventional vehicle if advanced vehicle technologies are available.

  5. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non‑Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL


    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2

  6. Large Eddy Simulation (LES for IC Engine Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Tang-Wei


    Full Text Available Numerical computations are carried out using an engineering-level Large Eddy Simulation (LES model that is provided by a commercial CFD code CONVERGE. The analytical framework and experimental setup consist of a single cylinder engine with Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC under motored conditions. A rigorous working procedure for comparing and analyzing the results from simulation and high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV experiments is documented in this work. The following aspects of LES are analyzed using this procedure: number of cycles required for convergence with adequate accuracy; effect of mesh size, time step, sub-grid-scale (SGS turbulence models and boundary condition treatments; application of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD technique.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Chamber for Button Turbojet Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongpeng


    Full Text Available To provide reference data for ultra-micro combustor, a new type button turbojet engine was designed and simulated the combustion’s steady-state process. The boundary condition of inlet was calculated using isentropic numerical calculation, taken into turbulent chemical reaction, heat radiation, and so on, getting the combustion chamber’s steady-state of the velocity, temperature and component concentration distribution, analysis the fuel/air flow and backflow, combustion efficiency and total pressure recovery coefficient, and compared with the experimental data. The calculation results can accurately reflect the actual combustion. The results show that combustion chamber exit velocity is about 65m/s, outlet temperature is around 1000K, the simulation and experimental data are similar, combustion chamber structure design is reasonable, and this paper will provide a basis for the future improvement of the millimeter scale turbojet engine.

  8. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine. (United States)

    Rapaport, D C


    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.

  9. Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan


    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the transfer of rocket engine flow simulation technology to work involving the development of blood pumps. Details are offered regarding the design and requirements of mechanical heart assist devices, or VADs (ventricular assist device). There are various computational fluid dynamics issues involved in the visualization of flow in such devices, and these are highlighted and compared to those of rocket turbopumps.

  10. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai


    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  11. Simulation Research on an Electric Vehicle Chassis System Based on a Collaborative Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenglian Feng


    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical controller was designed for the braking system, which is used for distributing the proportion of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking to improve braking performance. These two sub-controllers function at the same level of the vehicle chassis control system. In order to reduce the potential conflict between the two sub-controllers and realize a coordination optimization of electric vehicle performance, a collaborative controller was built, which serves as the upper controller to carry out an overall coordination analysis according to vehicle signals and revises the decisions of sub-controllers. A simulation experiment was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative control system can achieve an optimized vehicle handling stability and braking safety.

  12. A Simulation-Based Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible solution methodology for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with stochastic travel times (CVRPSTT. One of the basic ideas of the methodology is to consider a vehicle working time lower than the actual maximum vehicle working time when designing CVRPSTT solutions. In this way, the working time surplus can be used to cope with unexpected congestions when necessary. Another important idea is to transform the CVRPSTT instance to a limited set of capacitated vehicle routing problems (CVRP, each of which is defined by a given percentage of the maximum vehicle working time. Thus, our approach can take advantage of any efficient heuristic that already exists for the CVRP. Based on the two key ideas, this paper presents a simulation-based algorithm, in which Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain estimates of the cost and the reliability of each solution, and the Clarke and Wright heuristic is improved to generate more reliable solutions. Finally, a number of numerical experiments are done in the paper with the purpose of analyzing the efficiency of the described methodology under different uncertainty scenarios.

  13. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.


    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a 'NIMF' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel). The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO2. This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34,000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface.

  14. Simulating the value of electric-vehicle-grid integration using a behaviourally realistic model (United States)

    Wolinetz, Michael; Axsen, Jonn; Peters, Jotham; Crawford, Curran


    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) uses the interaction between electric vehicles and the electrical grid to provide benefits that may include reducing the cost of using intermittent renwable electricity or providing a financial incentive for electric vehicle ownerhip. However, studies that estimate the value of VGI benefits have largely ignored how consumer behaviour will affect the magnitude of the impact. Here, we simulate the long-term impact of VGI using behaviourally realistic and empirically derived models of vehicle adoption and charging combined with an electricity system model. We focus on the case where a central entity manages the charging rate and timing for participating electric vehicles. VGI is found not to increase the adoption of electric vehicles, but does have a a small beneficial impact on electricity prices. By 2050, VGI reduces wholesale electricity prices by 0.6-0.7% (0.7 MWh-1, 2010 CAD) relative to an equivalent scenario without VGI. Excluding consumer behaviour from the analysis inflates the value of VGI.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Liu


    Full Text Available Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system is a kind of naturally unstable underactuated system with high-rank unstable multivariable strongly coupling complicated dynamic nonlinear property. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation, as a basis of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle dynamics research, has the guiding effect for system design of the project demonstration and design phase. Dynamics model of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is established by importing a TSi ProPac package to the Mathematica software (version 8.0, which analyzes the stability and calculates the Lyapunov exponents of the system. The relationship between external force and stability of the system is analyzed by the phase trajectory. Proportional–integral–derivative control is added to the system in order to improve the stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle. From the research, Lyapunov exponent can be used to research the stability of hyperchaos system. The stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is better by inputting the proportional–integral–derivative control. The Lyapunov exponent and phase trajectory can help us analyze the stability of a system better and lay the foundation for the analysis and control of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system.

  16. Methodology for the focused design of exhaust tailpipe sound for vehicles with combustion engines. Case study: 'Sound Engineering' for sports vehicles; Methode zur gezielten Gestaltung des Muendungsgeraeuschs von Fahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotor - 'Sound Engineering' am Beispiel von Sportfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammoser, D.; Waibel, L. [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH (Germany)


    The subjective acoustic impression of a vehicle is strongly influenced by the exhaust tailpipe orifice noise. Depending on the customer target group and market segment the sound may be desired to be sporty or comfortable, rough or harmonic and in all cases it must fullfill the characteristics of the brand. The components that determine the quality of the sound are located near the engine at the front of the exhaust system. The available packaging space is there usually limited and must be specified together with the other engine peripheral parts and aggregates at an early stage of the vehicle development. This article shows an example of exhaust sound development for a 6 cylinder vehicle, to demonstrate what possibilities exist for sound development and how this can be supported by 1D gas dynamic prediction and subjective evaluation with simulated sound samples. Considering the fundamentals of music harmony, an analysis of the pressure pulse sequences in the front part of the exhaust system has been carried out to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters for the sound characteristics. (orig.)

  17. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection. (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A


    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time Accurate CFD Simulations of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle in the Transonic Regime (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph; Rojahn, Josh


    Significant asymmetries in the fluid dynamics were calculated for some cases in the CFD simulations of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle through its abort trajectories. The CFD simulations were performed steady state with symmetric boundary conditions and geometries. The trajectory points at issue were in the transonic regime, at 0 and 5 angles of attack with the Abort Motors with and without the Attitude Control Motors (ACM) firing. In some of the cases the asymmetric fluid dynamics resulted in aerodynamic side forces that were large enough that would overcome the control authority of the ACMs. MSFC s Fluid Dynamics Group supported the investigation into the cause of the flow asymmetries with time accurate CFD simulations, utilizing a hybrid RANS-LES turbulence model. The results show that the flow over the vehicle and the subsequent interaction with the AB and ACM motor plumes were unsteady. The resulting instantaneous aerodynamic forces were oscillatory with fairly large magnitudes. Time averaged aerodynamic forces were essentially symmetric.

  19. Simulation and experiment on transient temperature field of a magnetorheological clutch for vehicle application (United States)

    Wang, Daoming; Zi, Bin; Zeng, Yishan; Qian, Sen; Qian, Jun


    The unpredictable power fluctuation due to severe heating has been demonstrated to be a critical bottleneck technique restricting the application of magnetorheological (MR) clutches in vehicle industry. The aim of this study is to introduce a low-cost transient simulation approach for evaluating the heat build-up and dissipation of a liquid-cooled MR vehicle clutch. This paper firstly performs a detailed description of the developed MR clutch in terms of operation principle, material selection and configuration. Subsequently, transient temperature simulations are carried out under various conditions to reveal the distribution, variation and impact factors of the transient temperature field. Following these, an experimental setup is established for heating tests of the clutch prototype. Experimental results concerning the temperature variation of magnetorheological fluids and the maximum allowable transient slip power of the clutch prototype are presented, which in return verify the correctness and feasibility of the simulation.

  20. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Analysis (United States)

    Hanson, J. M.; Beard, B. B.


    This Technical Publication (TP) is meant to address a number of topics related to the application of Monte Carlo simulation to launch vehicle design and requirements analysis. Although the focus is on a launch vehicle application, the methods may be applied to other complex systems as well. The TP is organized so that all the important topics are covered in the main text, and detailed derivations are in the appendices. The TP first introduces Monte Carlo simulation and the major topics to be discussed, including discussion of the input distributions for Monte Carlo runs, testing the simulation, how many runs are necessary for verification of requirements, what to do if results are desired for events that happen only rarely, and postprocessing, including analyzing any failed runs, examples of useful output products, and statistical information for generating desired results from the output data. Topics in the appendices include some tables for requirements verification, derivation of the number of runs required and generation of output probabilistic data with consumer risk included, derivation of launch vehicle models to include possible variations of assembled vehicles, minimization of a consumable to achieve a two-dimensional statistical result, recontact probability during staging, ensuring duplicated Monte Carlo random variations, and importance sampling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Likhonina


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a FEA simulation of the vehicle crash with steel safety barriers in ANSYS LS-DYNA® 15.0. Two types of safety barriers are used: JSNH4/H2 and JSAM-2/H2. A geometrical model of the barrier in the Modeler ANSYS® Workbench™ 15.0 was created and after that it was transformed into LS-DYNA® 15.0 to complete the crash test simulation. After computation in solver ANSYS LS-DYNA® 15.0 the results of the simulation such as impact forces, a body displacement and an integral energy were analyzed.

  2. Dynamical Modeling and Control Simulation of a Large Flexible Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wie, Bong; Whorton, Mark


    This paper presents dynamical models of a large flexible launch vehicle. A complete set of coupled dynamical models of propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, structural dynamics, fuel sloshing, and thrust vector control dynamics are described. Such dynamical models are used to validate NASA s SAVANT Simulink-based program which is being used for the preliminary flight control systems analysis and design of NASA s Ares-1 Crew Launch Vehicle. SAVANT simulation results for validating the performance and stability of an ascent phase autopilot system of Ares-1 are also presented.

  3. Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu


    Full Text Available Computer 3D character animation essentially is a product, which is combined with computer graphics and robotics, physics, mathematics, and the arts. It is based on computer hardware and graphics algorithms and related sciences rapidly developed new technologies. At present, the mainstream character animation technology is based on the artificial production of key technologies and capture frames based on the motion capture device technology. 3D character animation is widely used not only in the production of film, animation, and other commercial areas but also in virtual reality, computer-aided education, flight simulation, engineering simulation, military simulation, and other fields. In this paper, we try to study physics based character animation to solve these problems such as poor real-time interaction that appears in the character, low utilization rate, and complex production. The paper deeply studied the kinematics, dynamics technology, and production technology based on the motion data. At the same time, it analyzed ODE, PhysX, Bullet, and other variety of mainstream physics engines and studied OBB hierarchy bounding box tree, AABB hierarchical tree, and other collision detection algorithms. Finally, character animation based on ODE is implemented, which is simulation of the motion and collision process of a tricycle.

  4. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)


    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  5. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 3rd Edition (United States)

    Varela, Jose G.; Reddy, Satish; Moeller, Enrique; Anderson, Keith


    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Project is now in the qualification phase of testing, and the Adams simulation has continued to evolve to model the complex dynamics experienced during the test article extraction and separation phases of flight. The ability to initiate tests near the upper altitude limit of the Orion parachute deployment envelope requires extractions from the aircraft at 35,000 ft-MSL. Engineering development phase testing of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) carried by the Carriage Platform Separation System (CPSS) at altitude resulted in test support equipment hardware failures due to increased energy caused by higher true airspeeds. As a result, hardware modifications became a necessity requiring ground static testing of the textile components to be conducted and a new ground dynamic test of the extraction system to be devised. Force-displacement curves from static tests were incorporated into the Adams simulations, allowing prediction of loads, velocities and margins encountered during both flight and ground dynamic tests. The Adams simulation was then further refined by fine tuning the damping terms to match the peak loads recorded in the ground dynamic tests. The failure observed in flight testing was successfully replicated in ground testing and true safety margins of the textile components were revealed. A multi-loop energy modulator was then incorporated into the system level Adams simulation model and the effect on improving test margins be properly evaluated leading to high confidence ground verification testing of the final design solution.

  6. Engineering-Based Thermal CFD Simulations on Massive Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Frisch


    Full Text Available The development of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD codes is a challenging task that entails efficient parallelization concepts and strategies in order to achieve good scalability values when running those codes on modern supercomputers with several thousands to millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical data structure for massive parallel computations that supports the coupling of a Navier–Stokes-based fluid flow code with the Boussinesq approximation in order to address complex thermal scenarios for energy-related assessments. The newly designed data structure is specifically designed with the idea of interactive data exploration and visualization during runtime of the simulation code; a major shortcoming of traditional high-performance computing (HPC simulation codes. We further show and discuss speed-up values obtained on one of Germany’s top-ranked supercomputers with up to 140,000 processes and present simulation results for different engineering-based thermal problems.

  7. FPGA Simulation Engine for Customized Construction of Neural Microcircuits (United States)

    Blair, Hugh T.; Cong, Jason; Wu, Di


    In this paper we describe an FPGA-based platform for high-performance and low-power simulation of neural microcircuits composed from integrate-and-fire (IAF) neurons. Based on high-level synthesis, our platform uses design templates to map hierarchies of neuron model to logic fabrics. This approach bypasses high design complexity and enables easy optimization and design space exploration. We demonstrate the benefits of our platform by simulating a variety of neural microcircuits that perform oscillatory path integration, which evidence suggests may be a critical building block of the navigation system inside a rodent’s brain. Experiments show that our FPGA simulation engine for oscillatory neural microcircuits can achieve up to 39× speedup compared to software benchmarks on commodity CPU, and 232× energy reduction compared to embedded ARM core. PMID:25584120

  8. Engineering-Based Thermal CFD Simulations on Massive Parallel Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jérôme


    The development of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is a challenging task that entails efficient parallelization concepts and strategies in order to achieve good scalability values when running those codes on modern supercomputers with several thousands to millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical data structure for massive parallel computations that supports the coupling of a Navier–Stokes-based fluid flow code with the Boussinesq approximation in order to address complex thermal scenarios for energy-related assessments. The newly designed data structure is specifically designed with the idea of interactive data exploration and visualization during runtime of the simulation code; a major shortcoming of traditional high-performance computing (HPC) simulation codes. We further show and discuss speed-up values obtained on one of Germany’s top-ranked supercomputers with up to 140,000 processes and present simulation results for different engineering-based thermal problems.

  9. Large Eddy Simulation of Engineering Flows: A Bill Reynolds Legacy. (United States)

    Moin, Parviz


    The term, Large eddy simulation, LES, was coined by Bill Reynolds, thirty years ago when he and his colleagues pioneered the introduction of LES in the engineering community. Bill's legacy in LES features his insistence on having a proper mathematical definition of the large scale field independent of the numerical method used, and his vision for using numerical simulation output as data for research in turbulence physics and modeling, just as one would think of using experimental data. However, as an engineer, Bill was pre-dominantly interested in the predictive capability of computational fluid dynamics and in particular LES. In this talk I will present the state of the art in large eddy simulation of complex engineering flows. Most of this technology has been developed in the Department of Energy's ASCI Program at Stanford which was led by Bill in the last years of his distinguished career. At the core of this technology is a fully implicit non-dissipative LES code which uses unstructured grids with arbitrary elements. A hybrid Eulerian/ Largangian approach is used for multi-phase flows, and chemical reactions are introduced through dynamic equations for mixture fraction and reaction progress variable in conjunction with flamelet tables. The predictive capability of LES is demonstrated in several validation studies in flows with complex physics and complex geometry including flow in the combustor of a modern aircraft engine. LES in such a complex application is only possible through efficient utilization of modern parallel super-computers which was recognized and emphasized by Bill from the beginning. The presentation will include a brief mention of computer science efforts for efficient implementation of LES.

  10. 100-Lb(f) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  11. Simulation of Ground Winds Time Series for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (United States)

    Adelfang, Stanley I.


    Simulation of wind time series based on power spectrum density (PSD) and spectral coherence models for ground wind turbulence is described. The wind models, originally developed for the Shuttle program, are based on wind measurements at the NASA 150-m meteorological tower at Cape Canaveral, FL. The current application is for the design and/or protection of the CLV from wind effects during on-pad exposure during periods from as long as days prior to launch, to seconds or minutes just prior to launch and seconds after launch. The evaluation of vehicle response to wind will influence the design and operation of constraint systems for support of the on-pad vehicle. Longitudinal and lateral wind component time series are simulated at critical vehicle locations. The PSD model for wind turbulence is a function of mean wind speed, elevation and temporal frequency. Integration of the PSD equation over a selected frequency range yields the variance of the time series to be simulated. The square root of the PSD defines a low-pass filter that is applied to adjust the components of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of Gaussian white noise. The first simulated time series near the top of the launch vehicle is the inverse transform of the adjusted FFT. Simulation of the wind component time series at the nearest adjacent location (and all other succeeding next nearest locations) is based on a model for the coherence between winds at two locations as a function of frequency and separation distance, where the adjacent locations are separated vertically and/or horizontally. The coherence function is used to calculate a coherence weighted FFT of the wind at the next nearest location, given the FFT of the simulated time series at the previous location and the essentially incoherent FFT of the wind at the selected location derived a priori from the PSD model. The simulated time series at each adjacent location is the inverse Fourier transform of the coherence weighted FFT. For a selected

  12. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański


    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  13. Study to the simulation for pedestrian-vehicle collision accident of the second crushing by PC-CRASH (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyang; Chao, Xiaoli; Hu, Xianguo


    In the pedestrian-vehicle accident, vehicle may make the second crushing for people after collision. Among the fatal accidents caused by this, there is necessary connection between the movement trail of vehicle and the position of pedestrian, therefore, this text compares with their position relationship through simulating the site of accident by PC-CRASH and the simulation between vehicle parameters and the position of pedestrian, analyzing the injury of each part in pedestrian and the condition of AIS. Analyze the whole process of second crushing and analyze accident cause to put forward scientific, effective solutions.

  14. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)


    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan


    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  16. Interactive simulations as teaching tools for engineering mechanics courses (United States)

    Carbonell, Victoria; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Elvira; Flórez, Mercedes


    This study aimed to gauge the effect of interactive simulations in class as an active teaching strategy for a mechanics course. Engineering analysis and design often use the properties of planar sections in calculations. In the stress analysis of a beam under bending and torsional loads, cross-sectional properties are used to determine stress and displacement distributions in the beam cross section. The centroid, moments and products of inertia of an area made up of several common shapes (rectangles usually) may thus be obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas (U-shape, L-shape, C-shape, etc). This procedure is used to calculate the second moments of structural shapes in engineering practice because the determination of their moments of inertia is necessary for the design of structural components. This paper presents examples of interactive simulations developed for teaching the ‘Mechanics and mechanisms’ course at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain. The simulations focus on fundamental topics such as centroids, the properties of the moment of inertia, second moments of inertia with respect to two axes, principal moments of inertia and Mohr's Circle for plane stress, and were composed using Geogebra software. These learning tools feature animations, graphics and interactivity and were designed to encourage student participation and engagement in active learning activities, to effectively explain and illustrate course topics, and to build student problem-solving skills.

  17. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.


    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  18. A High Performance Computing Framework for Physics-based Modeling and Simulation of Military Ground Vehicles (United States)


    supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF- CMMI -0840442. REFERENCES [1] Manferdelli, J.L., The Many-Core Inflection Point...M.S. Thesis , in Mechanical Engineering. 2010, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Madison. [11] Negrut, D., A. Tasora, M. Anitescu, H. Mazhar, T. Heyn...011-9246-y, 2011. [13] Hahn, P., On the Use of Meshless Methods in Acoustic Simulations - M.S. Thesis , in Mechanical Engineering. 2009, University

  19. Evaluating the Impact of E15 on Snowmobile Engine Durability and Vehicle Driveability: September 22, 2010 - August 15, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miers, Scott A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Blough, Jason R. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of E15 on current and legacy snowmobile engines and vehicles that could occur due to misfueling by the vehicle owner. Three test scenarios were conducted to evaluate the impact of E15, including cold-start performance and emissions, on-snow vehicle driveability, and laboratory exhaust emissions over the useful life of the engine. The eightengines tested represent current and legacy product that may exhibit sensitivity to increased ethanol blended in gasoline. Because a limited number of snowmobile engines were evaluated for this test program, the results are not statistically significant. However, the broad range of engine and mixture preparation technologies, combined with the various test scenarios provide preliminaryinformation to assess potential issues with E15 use in snowmobiles. Cold-start tests were performed at -6.7 degrees C (20 degrees F), -17.8 degrees C (0 degrees F), and -28.9 degrees C (-20 degrees F). The evaluation included time to start or number of pulls to start, engine speed, exhaust gas temperature, and start-up engine emissions concentrations. Statistically significant differences instarting times were not observed for most vehicles. Snowmobile driveability was analyzed using a subjective evaluation on a controlled test course. The drivers could not easily discern which fuel the snowmobiles were using during the subjective evaluation. Durability tests were conducted to measure the emissions and performance of the snowmobiles over the useful life of the vehicles (5,000miles). There were no fuel-related engine failures on E0 or E15. Carbon monoxide emissions were generally reduced by E15 relative to E0, by from 10% to 35%. Occasional misfueling of snowmobiles with E15 is not likely to cause noticeable or immediate problems for consumers. E15 is not approved for snowmobile use, and observations made during this study support the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency's decision to not

  20. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures (United States)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger


    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  1. Simulation of air pollution due to marine engines (United States)

    Stan, L. C.


    This paperwork tried to simulate the combustion inside the marine engines using the newest computer methods and technologies with the result of a diverse and rich palette of solutions, extremely useful for the study and prediction of complex phenomena of the fuel combustion. The paperwork is contributing to the theoretical systematization of the area of interest bringing into attention a thoroughly inventory of the thermodynamic description of the phenomena which take place in the combustion process into the marine diesel engines; to the in depth multidimensional combustion models description along with the interdisciplinary phenomenology taking place in the combustion models; to the FEA (Finite Elements Method) modelling for the combustion chemistry in the nonpremixed mixtures approach considered too; the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model was issued for the combustion area and a rich palette of results interesting for any researcher of the process.

  2. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua


    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  3. Numerical simulation of aerothermal loads in hypersonic engine inlets due to shock impingement (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, R.


    The effect of shock impingement on an axial corner simulating the inlet of a hypersonic vehicle engine is modeled using a finite-difference procedure. A three-dimensional dynamic grid adaptation procedure is utilized to move the grids to regions with strong flow gradients. The adaptation procedure uses a grid relocation stencil that is valid at both the interior and boundary points of the finite-difference grid. A linear combination of spatial derivatives of specific flow variables, calculated with finite-element interpolation functions, are used as adaptation measures. This computational procedure is used to study laminar and turbulent Mach 6 flows in the axial corner. The description of flow physics and qualitative measures of heat transfer distributions on cowl and strut surfaces obtained from the analysis are compared with experimental observations. Conclusions are drawn regarding the capability of the numerical scheme for enhanced modeling of high-speed compressible flows.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Jet Streams in Objects of Space Rocket Engineering (United States)

    Timoshenko, V. I.; Belotserkovets, I. S.

    The problems of numerical simulation of different jet streams in space rocket engineering objects and their elements are considered. The capabilities of the computing programs and computational techniques developed at the Institute of Technical Mechanics of the N.A.S. of Ukraine are discussed. The following aspects of jet stream problems are described: interaction of subsonic and supersonic jet streams with supersonic and subsonic boundless flows, with streams in pipes or channels, including jet streams in the launcher container and around the fuel pylons of a hypersonic flight vehicle with supersonic burning combustion chamber; the computation of single and composite supersonic jets in rocket propulsion systems and their interaction with surfaces; estimation of parameters in asymmetrical separating zones behind the bottom of a rocket with a working jet.

  5. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongcheol Lee


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems.

  6. Feasibility Study of Laboratory Simulation of Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle Base Heating (United States)

    Park, Chung Sik; Sharma, Surendra; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)


    The feasibility of simulating in a laboratory the heating environment of the base region of the proposed reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle during its ascent is examined. The propellant is assumed to consist of hydrocarbon (RP1), liquid hydrogen (LH2), and liquid oxygen (LO2), which produces CO and H2 as the main combustible components of the exhaust effluent. Since afterburning in the recirculating region can dictate the temperature of the base flowfield and ensuing heating phenomena, laboratory simulation focuses on the thermochemistry of the afterburning. By extrapolating the Saturn V flight data, the Damkohler number, in the base region with afterburning for SSTO vehicle, is estimated to be between 30 and 140. It is shown that a flow with a Damkohler number of 1.8 to 25 can be produced in an impulse ground test facility. Even with such a reduced Damkohler number, the experiment can adequately reproduce the main features of the flight environment.

  7. The hybrid bio-inspired aerial vehicle: Concept and SIMSCAPE flight simulation. (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T


    This paper introduces a Silver Gull-inspired hybrid aerial vehicle, the Super Sydney Silver Gull (SSSG), which is able to vary its structure, under different manoeuvre requirements, to implement three flight modes: the flapping wing flight, the fixed wing flight, and the quadcopter flight (the rotary wing flight of Unmanned Air Vehicle). Specifically, through proper mechanism design and flight mode transition, the SSSG can imitate the Silver Gull's flight gesture during flapping flight, save power consuming by switching to the fixed wing flight mode during long-range cruising, and hover at targeted area when transferring to quadcopter flight mode. Based on the aerodynamic models, the Simscape, a product of MathWorks, is used to simulate and analyse the performance of the SSSG's flight modes. The entity simulation results indicate that the created SSSG's 3D model is feasible and ready to be manufactured for further flight tests.

  8. A numerical simulation of wheel spray for simplified vehicle model based on discrete phase method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Hu


    Full Text Available Road spray greatly affects vehicle body soiling and driving safety. The study of road spray has attracted increasing attention. In this article, computational fluid dynamics software with widely used finite volume method code was employed to investigate the numerical simulation of spray induced by a simplified wheel model and a modified square-back model proposed by the Motor Industry Research Association. Shear stress transport k-omega turbulence model, discrete phase model, and Eulerian wall-film model were selected. In the simulation process, the phenomenon of breakup and coalescence of drops were considered, and the continuous and discrete phases were treated as two-way coupled in momentum and turbulent motion. The relationship between the vehicle external flow structure and body soiling was also discussed.

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications


    Hong-Wen He; Rui Xiong; Yu-Hua Chang


    Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UD...

  10. Simulation of liquid propellant rocket engine combustion instabilities (United States)

    Ventrice, M. B.; Fang, J. C.; Purdy, K. R.


    A simulation technique for studying the high frequency combustion instabilities of liquid propellant rocket engines has been developed and used to investigate various aspects of instability phenomena. Of importance was investigation of the significance of the method of coupling the combustion and the gas dynamics of the system. Two coupling processes were studied: linear response of the combustion process to pressure fluctuations, and the nature of the resulting instabilities; and nonlinear response of the combustion process to velocity fluctuations, and the nature of the resulting instabilities. For the combustion model studied, nonlinear (velocity) coupling was found to more closely characterize liquid propellant instabilities.

  11. Industrial fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for production of biodiesel and its application in vehicle diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo eXiao


    Full Text Available Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60 m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L-1 day-1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying and ball milling methods to harvest, dry and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  12. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines. (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu


    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  13. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Lv


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abnormal vibration considering the track and the vehicle system. The influence of wheel eccentricity on the car body vibration was firstly analyzed. Simulated acceleration of car body has a great accordance with test. The wheel eccentricity could excite the resonance of car body at the speed of 21 km/h, and the vertical acceleration would increase considerably. Decreasing the secondary stiffness can effectively reduce the vertical vibration caused by wheel eccentricity, especially at the resonant speed. In the secondary test, the peak of car body acceleration at speed of 20 km/h is not appearing when only renewing the wheels, and the acceleration is decreasing obviously at the domain frequency. It is further determined that the abnormal vibration is mainly caused by the wheel eccentricity.

  14. Modelling and Simulation of Packed Bed Catalytic Converter for Oxidation of Soot in Diesel Powered Vehicles Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasikin


    Full Text Available Diesel vehicle is used in Indonesia in very big number. This vehicle exhausts pollutants especially diesel soot that can be reduces by using a catalytic converter to convert the soot to CO2. To obtain the optimal dimension of catalytic converter it is needed a model that can represent the profile of soot weight, temperature and pressure along the catalytic converter. In this study, a model is developed for packed bed catalytic converter in an adiabatic condition based on a kinetic study that has been  reported previously. Calculation of developed equations in this model uses Polymath 5.X solver with Range Kutta Method. The simulation result shows that temperature profile along catalytic converter increases with the decrease of soot weight,  while pressure profile decreases. The increase of soot weight in entering gas increases the needed converter length. On the other hand, the increase of catalyst diameter does not affect to soot weight along converter and temperature profile, but results a less pressure drop. For 2.500 c diesel engine, packed bed catalytic converter with ellipse's cross sectional of 14,5X7,5 cm diagonal and 0,8 cm catalyst particle diameter, needs 4,1 cm length.

  15. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation on Short Wave Irregular Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Kristensen, Lars B; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    joints, spring-damper elements and the welded structures it is crucial to have information on the time history of the loads. For trucks carrying payloads the most important load contribution is undoubtedly the reaction forces between terrain and tires. By use of virtual prototypes it is possible...... between simulated data and experimental data obtained from full vehicle testing. The experimental work is carried out by letting a dump truck pass a set of well defined obstacles. Based on the obtained agreement between simulated and measured results the tire model is considered suitable for describing...

  16. Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project-Modeling and Simulation for Wireless Sensor Applications (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Griner, James H., Jr.


    This paper describes the efforts in modeling and simulating electromagnetic transmission and reception as in a wireless sensor network through a realistic wing model for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management project at the Glenn Research Center. A computer model in a standard format for an S-3 Viking aircraft was obtained, converted to a Microwave Studio software format, and scaled to proper dimensions in Microwave Studio. The left wing portion of the model was used with two antenna models, one transmitting and one receiving, to simulate radio frequency transmission through the wing. Transmission and reception results were inconclusive.

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application


    Jingming Liang; Zefeng Wu


    A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT) model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, based on which, th...

  18. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.


    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  19. Dynamic simulation of road vehicle door window regulator mechanism of cross arm type (United States)

    Miklos, I. Zs; Miklos, C.; Alic, C.


    The paper presents issues related to the dynamic simulation of a motor-drive operating mechanism of cross arm type, for the manipulation of road vehicle door windows, using Autodesk Inventor Professional software. The dynamic simulation of the mechanism involves a 3D modelling, kinematic coupling, drive motion parameters and external loads, as well as the graphically view of the kinematic and kinetostatic results for the various elements and kinematic couplings of the mechanism, under real operating conditions. Also, based on the results, the analysis of the mechanism components has been carried out using the finite element method.

  20. Preduction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation (United States)


    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE MOBILITY ON LARGE-SCALE SOFT- SOIL TERRAIN MAPS USING PHYSICS -BASED SIMULATION Tamer M. Wasfy, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dave...NRMM • Objectives • Soft Soils • Review of Physics -Based Soil Models • MBD/DEM Modeling Formulation – Joint & Contact Constraints – DEM Cohesive...visibility. • Empirical relations tuned using 1960’s to 1980’s military vehicles. • NRMM may not be accurate for new military vehicles: oversized wheels

  1. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  2. Parametric Optimization Through Numerical Simulation of VCR Diesel Engine (United States)

    Ganji, Prabhakara Rao; Mahmood, Al-Qarttani Abdulrahman Shakir; Kandula, Aasrith; Raju, Vysyaraju Rajesh Khana; Rao, Surapaneni Srinivasa


    In the present study, the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine was analyzed numerically using CONVERGE™ Computational Fluid Dynamics code in order to optimize the design/operating parameters such as Compression Ratio (CR), Start of Injection (SOI) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). VCR engine was run for 100 % load to test its performance and it was validated for standard configuration. Simulations were performed by varying the design/operating parameters such as CR (18-14), SOI (17°-26° bTDC) and EGR (0-15 %) at constant fuel injection pressure of 230 bar and speed of 1500 rpm. The effect of each of these parameters on pressure, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot are presented. Finally, regression equations were developed for pressure, NOx and soot by using the simulation results. The regression equations were solved for multi objective criteria in order to reduce the NOx and soot while maintaining the baseline performance. The optimized configuration was tested for validation and found satisfactory.

  3. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris


    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  5. Development of a Model-Based Systems Engineering Application for the Ground Vehicle Robotics Sustainment Industrial Base (United States)


    Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering Technology Symposium HC Human Capital HIIT Helsinki Institute of Information Technology UNCLASSIFIED vii...Technology (TKK), and the Helsinki Institute of Information Technology ( HIIT ), the report introduced the concept and the state-of-the-art in the market

  6. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... (United States)


    ... Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements; NESHAP: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production; and... EPA's 610 Review related to Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... questions concerning EPA's 610 Review related to NESHAP: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production, please...

  7. Design of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle gas cylinder filling semi-physical simulation training and assessment system (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zheng, Jianrong; Zhao, Yinghui


    With the rapid development of LNG vehicle in China, the operator's training and assessment of the operating skills cannot operate on material objects, because of Vehicle Gas Cylinder's high pressure, flammable and explosive characteristics. LNG Vehicle Gas Cylinder's filling simulation system with semi-physical simulation technology presents the overall design and procedures of the simulation system, and elaborates the realization of the practical analog machine, data acquisition and control system and the computer software, and introduces the design process of equipment simulation model in detail. According to the designed assessment system of the Vehicle Gas Cylinder, it can obtain the operation on the actual cylinder filling and visual effects for the operator, and automatically record operation, the results of real operation with its software, and achieve the operators' training and assessment of operating skills on mobile special equipment.

  8. A study of finite element modeling for simulation of vehicle rollover (United States)

    Lin, Zhigui; Liu, Changye; Lv, Juncheng; Jia, Ligang; Sun, Haichao; Chen, Tao


    At present, the automobile ownership has been a very large figure, and growing rapidly with the social progress and development. Automobile has been one of the most important transportation in people's life. Accordingly, there are a large number of fatalities and serious injuries in traffic accident every year. Vehicle safety has been paid more and more attentions in recent years. There are several kinds of traffic accidents including frontal crash, side crash, etc., while rollover crash is a special kind. The vehicle rollover has the lowest incidence in the all kinds of traffic accidents but has the highest rate of seriously injuries, most of which lead to death. For these reasons, it is very necessary to study the vehicle rollover crash. However, it's so hard that there are a small amount of literatures studying rollover due to its variety, large degree of freedom, and difficulty to repeat and control. The method to investigate rollover crash contains experiment, the finite element method and rigid-body-based models. The finite element method contains many advantages such as low cost, repeatability, detailed data and so on, but the limitation is obvious. A test and simulation has been accomplished to study the FEM for vehicle rollover crash particularly in this paper.

  9. Capacitated Windy Rural Postman Problem with Several Vehicles: A Hybrid Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani


    Full Text Available This paper presents the capacitated Windy Rural Postman Problem with several vehicles. For this problem, two objectives are considered. One of them is the minimization of the total cost of all vehicle routes expressed by the sum of the total traversing cost and another one is reduction of the maximum cost of vehicle route in order to find a set of equitable tours for the vehicles. Mathematical formulation is provided. The multi-objective simulated annealing (MOSA algorithm has been modified for solving this bi-objective NP-hard problem. To increase algorithm performance, Taguchi technique is applied to design experiments for tuning parameters of the algorithm. Numerical experiments are proposed to show efficiency of the model. Finally, the results of the MOSA have been compared with MOCS (multi-objective Cuckoo Search algorithm to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides good solutions and performs significantly better than the MOCS.

  10. Research on Simulation of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Software ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingyue CHEN


    Full Text Available Three configurations (series, parallel, and series-parallel of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV are studied, this study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three HEV in the paper. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration for the City Hybrid bus design. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge (SOC that provide a good estimate of how the City Hybrid bus will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the HEV occurs during deceleration. Results show that the series-parallel HEV configuration is optimal, and provides the references in both parameter optimization and performance debugging for the development of City Hybrid bus.

  11. Fast calculating surrogate models for leg and head impact in vehicle-pedestrian collision simulations. (United States)

    Wimmer, Peter; Benedikt, Martin; Huber, Philipp; Ferenczi, Izabella


    In previous research, a tool chain to simulate vehicle-pedestrian accidents from ordinary driving state to in-crash has been developed. This tool chain allows for injury criteria-based, vehicle-specific (geometry, stiffness, active safety systems, etc.) assessments. Due to the complex nature of the included finite element analysis (FEA) models, calculation times are very high. This is a major drawback for using FEA models in large-scale effectiveness assessment studies. Therefore, fast calculating surrogate models to approximate the relevant injury criteria as a function of pedestrian vehicle collision constellations have to be developed. The development of surrogate models for head and leg injury criteria to overcome the problem of long calculation times while preserving high detail level of results for effectiveness analysis is shown in this article. These surrogate models are then used in the tool chain as time-efficient replacements for the FEA model to approximate the injury criteria values. The method consists of the following steps: Selection of suitable training data sets out of a large number of given collision constellations, detailed FEA calculations with the training data sets as input, and training of the surrogate models with the FEA model's input and output values. A separate surrogate model was created for each injury criterion, consisting of a response surface that maps the input parameters (i.e., leg impactor position and velocity) to the output value. In addition, a performance test comparing surrogate model predictions of additional collision constellations to the results of respective FEA calculations was carried out. The developed method allows for prediction of injury criteria based on impact constellation for a given vehicle. Because the surrogate models are specific to a certain vehicle, training has to be redone for a new vehicle. Still, there is a large benefit regarding calculation time when doing large-scale studies. The method can be

  12. Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines (United States)

    Immich, H.; Alting, J.; Kretschmer, J.; Preclik, D.


    In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown. The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines Advanced injector head technologies Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies. The main technologies for enhanced heat transfer investigated by subscale chamber hot-firing tests are: Increase of chamber length Hot gas side ribs in the chamber Artificially increased surface roughness. The developments for advanced injector head technologies were focused on the design of a new modular subscale chamber injector head. This injector head allows for an easy exchange of different injection elements: By this, cost effective hot-fire tests with different injection element concepts can be performed. The developments for advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies are based on subscale chamber tests with a new design of the Astrium subscale chamber. The subscale chamber has been modified by introduction of a segmented cooled cylindrical section which gives the possibility to test different manufacturing concepts for cooled chamber technologies by exchanging the individual segments. The main technology efforts versus advanced manufacturing technologies shown in this paper are: Soldering techniques Thermal barrier coatings for increased chamber life. A new technology effort is dedicated especially to LOX/Hydrocarbon propellant combinations. Recent hot fire tests on the subscale chamber with Kerosene and Methane as fuel have already been performed. A comprehensive engine system trade-off between the both propellant combinations (Kerosene vs. Methane) is presently under preparation.

  13. Simulation Study (SimStudy): A Simulation Tool for Engineers and Mission Planners (United States)


    and build additional terrain databases . The SimStudy continues to be updated to mimic the ever-improving capabilities and demands of simulation...April 2009. 9. Stoliker, F.N., “ AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series, Volume 14: Introduction to Flight Test Engineering,” North Atlantic Treaty...Organization Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, AGARD -AG_300 Vol. 14, Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France, September 1995. 14 LIST OF

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Increase of the Vehicle Mass for 3-Wheeled Motorcycles (United States)

    This action changes the regulatory definition of a motorcycle to include 3-wheeled vehicles weighing up to 1749 pounds effective for 1998 and later model year motorcycles for which emission standards are in place.

  15. Simulation of Road Traffic Applying Model-Driven Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Road traffic is an important phenomenon in modern societies. The study of its different aspects in the multiple scenarios where it happens is relevant for a huge number of problems. At the same time, its scale and complexity make it hard to study. Traffic simulations can alleviate these difficulties, simplifying the scenarios to consider and controlling their variables. However, their development also presents difficulties. The main ones come from the need to integrate the way of working of researchers and developers from multiple fields. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE addresses these problems using Modelling Languages (MLs and semi-automatic transformations to organise and describe the development, from requirements to code. This paper presents a domain-specific MDE framework for simulations of road traffic. It comprises an extensible ML, support tools, and development guidelines. The ML adopts an agent-based approach, which is focused on the roles of individuals in road traffic and their decision-making. A case study shows the process to model a traffic theory with the ML, and how to specialise that specification for an existing target platform and its simulations. The results are the basis for comparison with related work.

  16. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.


    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen


    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  18. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He


    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Vehicle Dynamics on the Surface of Phobos (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Balaram, J. Bob; Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Devalla, Avinash


    In this paper we analyze the dynamics of a spacecraft in proximity of Phobos by developing the equations of motion of a test mass in the Phobos rotating frame using a model based on circularly-restricted three body problem, and by analyzing the dynamics of a ATHLETE hopper vehicle interacting with the soil under different soil-interaction conditions. The main conclusion of the numerical studies is that the system response is dominated by the stiffness and damping parameters of the leg springs, with the soil characteristics having a much smaller effect. The system simulations identify ranges of parameters for which the vehicle emerges stably (relying only on the passive viscoelastic damper at each leg) or unstably (needing active attitude control) from the hop. The implication is that further experimental and possibly computational modeling work, as well as site characterization (from precursor missions) will be necessary to obtain validated performance models.

  20. TCC-III Engine Benchmark for Large-Eddy Simulation of IC Engine Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiffmann P.


    Full Text Available A collaborative effort is described to benchmark the TCC-III engine, and to illustrate the application of this data for the evaluation of sub-grid scale models and valve simulation details on the fidelity of Large-Eddy Simulations (LES. The TCC-III is a spark ignition 4-stroke 2-valve engine with a flat head and piston and is equipped with a full quartz liner for maximum optical access that allows high-speed flow measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV; the TCC-III has new valve seats and a modified intake-system compared to previous configurations. This work is an extension of a previous study at an engine speed of 800 RPM and an intake manifold pressure (MAP of 95 kPa, where a one-equation eddy viscosity LES model yielded accurate qualitative and quantitative predictions of ensemble averaged mean and RMS velocities during the intake and compression stroke. Here, experimental data were acquired with parametric variation of engine speed and intake manifold absolute pressure to assess the capability of LES models over a range of operating conditions of practical relevance. This paper focuses on the repeatability and accuracy of the measured PIV data, acquired at 1 300 RPM, at two different MAP (95 kPa and 40 kPa, and imaged at multiple data planes and crank angles. Two examples are provided, illustrating the application of this data to LES model development. In one example, the experimental data are used to distinguish between the efficacies of a one-equation eddy viscosity model versus a dynamic structure one-equation model for the sub-grid stresses. The second example addresses the effects of numerical intake-valve opening strategy and local mesh refinement in the valve curtain.

  1. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey (United States)


    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...environment, establish a test procedure for evaluating the performance and create a validated simulation tool for evaluating system -level performance [5, 6...Electric  Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) – Parallel Electric  Family Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV) – Hydraulic Hybrid  Family Medium

  2. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Verification (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Beard, Bernard B.


    This paper is focused on applying Monte Carlo simulation to probabilistic launch vehicle design and requirements verification. The approaches developed in this paper can be applied to other complex design efforts as well. Typically the verification must show that requirement "x" is met for at least "y" % of cases, with, say, 10% consumer risk or 90% confidence. Two particular aspects of making these runs for requirements verification will be explored in this paper. First, there are several types of uncertainties that should be handled in different ways, depending on when they become known (or not). The paper describes how to handle different types of uncertainties and how to develop vehicle models that can be used to examine their characteristics. This includes items that are not known exactly during the design phase but that will be known for each assembled vehicle (can be used to determine the payload capability and overall behavior of that vehicle), other items that become known before or on flight day (can be used for flight day trajectory design and go/no go decision), and items that remain unknown on flight day. Second, this paper explains a method (order statistics) for determining whether certain probabilistic requirements are met or not and enables the user to determine how many Monte Carlo samples are required. Order statistics is not new, but may not be known in general to the GN&C community. The methods also apply to determining the design values of parameters of interest in driving the vehicle design. The paper briefly discusses when it is desirable to fit a distribution to the experimental Monte Carlo results rather than using order statistics.

  3. Development of teaching material to integrate GT-POWER into combustion courses for IC engine simulations. (United States)


    The main objective of this project was to develop instructional engineering projects that utilize the newly-offered PACE software GT-POWER for engine simulations in combustion-related courses at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. Stud...

  4. Application of Finite Element Based Simulation and Modal Testing Methods to Improve Vehicle Powertrain Idle Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Sendur


    Full Text Available Current practice of analytical and test methods related to the analysis, testing and improvement of vehicle vibrations is overviewed. The methods are illustrated on the determination and improvement of powertrain induced steering wheel vibration of a heavy commercial truck. More specifically, the transmissibility of powertrain idle vibration to cabin is investigated with respect to powertrain rigid body modes and modal alignment of the steering column/wheel system is considered. It is found out that roll mode of the powertrain is not separated from idle excitation for effective vibration isolation as well as steering wheel column mode is close to the 3rd engine excitation frequency order, which results in high vibration levels. Powertrain roll mode is optimized by tuning the powertrain mount stiffness to improve the performance. Steering column mode is also separated from the 3rd engine excitation frequency by the application of a mass absorber. It is concluded that the use of analytical and test methods to address the complex relation between design parameters and powertrain idle response is effective to optimize the system performance and evaluate the trade-offs in the vehicle design such as vibration performance and weight. Reference Number:

  5. An introduction to network modeling and simulation for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Burbank, Jack; Ward, Jon


    This book provides the practicing engineer with a concise listing of commercial and open-source modeling and simulation tools currently available including examples of implementing those tools for solving specific Modeling and Simulation examples. Instead of focusing on the underlying theory of Modeling and Simulation and fundamental building blocks for custom simulations, this book compares platforms used in practice, and gives rules enabling the practicing engineer to utilize available Modeling and Simulation tools. This book will contain insights regarding common pitfalls in network Modeling and Simulation and practical methods for working engineers.

  6. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use


    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  7. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.


    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  8. Simulation on Toxic Gases in Vehicle Exhaust Equipped with Modified Catalytic Converter : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.


    Full Text Available Air pollution and global warming is a major issue nowadays. One of the main contributors to be the emission of harmful gases produced by vehicle exhausts lines. The harmful gases like NOx, CO, unburned HC and particulate matter increases the global warming, so catalytic converter plays a vital role in reducing harmful gases. Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. This research deals with the gas emission flow in the catalytic converter involving the heat transfer, velocity flow, back pressure and others chemical reaction in the modified catalytic converter by using FeCrAl as a substrate that is treated using the ultrasonic bath and electroplating techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain a quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. The description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software was simulated in this research in order to provide better efficiency and ease the reusability of the catalytic converter by comparing experimental data with software analysing data. The result will be expected to demonstrate a good approximation of gas emission in the modified catalytic converter simulation data compared to experimental data in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter. Therefore studies on simulation of flow through the modified catalytic converter are very important to increase the accuracy of the obtained emission result.

  9. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil


    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver--flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  10. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar


    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  11. Centaur engine gimbal friction characteristics under simulated thrust load (United States)

    Askew, J. W.


    An investigation was performed to determine the friction characteristics of the engine gimbal system of the Centaur upper stage rocket. Because the Centaur requires low-gain autopilots in order to meet all stability requirements for some configurations, control performance (response to transients and limit-cycle amplitudes) depends highly on these friction characteristics. Forces required to rotate the Centaur engine gimbal system were measured under a simulated thrust load of 66,723 N (15,000 lb) and in an altitude/thermal environment. A series of tests was performed at three test conditions; ambient temperature and pressure, ambient temperature and vacuum, and cryogenic temperature and vacuum. Gimbal rotation was controlled, and tests were performed in which rotation amplitude and frequency were varied by using triangular and sinusoidal waveforms. Test data revealed an elastic characteristic of the gimbal, independent of the input signal, which was evident prior to true gimbal sliding. The torque required to initiate gimbal sliding was found to decrease when both pressure and temperature decreased. Results from the low amplitude and low frequency data are currently being used in mathematically modeling the gimbal friction characteristics for Centaur autopilot performance studies.

  12. Simulation and testing of new control methods for achieving low emissions in gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, P.M.


    In the past few years, development of clean burning land-based industrial gas turbines have been the focus for many manufacturers. This effort lead to the development of the LM6000 dry low emission engine. As a part of the control system, a real time mathematical model of the engine was included. This model is used to control the air and fuel low paths to the engine`s new combustor. A real time simulator was needed to simulate the control system hardware and engine. A brief discussion and some basic concepts of the combustor, along with a full discussion on the development of the real time simulator, follows in this paper.

  13. [Instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle with different driving cycles by CMEM model]. (United States)

    Dai, Pu; Chen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Cheng; Li, Li; Jia, Ji-Hong; Dong, Yan-Qiang


    CMEM model for calculating time based instantaneous emission from light duty diesel vehicle and its input parameters were introduced. On-board test data were used to validate the simulation results. The relative error of THC, CO, and NOx are 14.2%, 3.7% and 32.7%, respectively, while the correlation coefficients reach 0.73, 0.72 and 0.87. The instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle simulated by CMEM model are strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle in Shanghai. The simulation of instantaneous emissions and fuel economy under the ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle, Japan 10-15 cycle and the cycle of shanghai arterial road show that the instantaneous emissions decline with the increase of the vehicle speed, especially from 0-10 km x h(-1) to 10-20 km x h(-1). The acceleration process dominated the whole emissions, which contributes over 30% of the total emission, and sometimes it even reaches over 70%. The contributions of shanghai arterial road for idle condition are 40% and 30%, emission factors of CO are 1.3, 1.5 and 1.4 times of ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle, Japan 10-15 cycle respectively; THC are respectively 1.5, 2.1 and 1.9 times of above cycles; and emission factors of NOx are respectively 1.2, 1.3 and 1.3 times of ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle and Japan 10-15 cycle. The fuel economy of the light-duty diesel car on shanghai arterial road is the worst, which is 9.56 km x L(-1). The driving cycles used on abroad can not reflect the actual driving conditions in China.

  14. Design and Performance Evaluation of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless Engine Valve Actuator for Future Vehicle Applications. (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun; Cho, Kwanghyun; Park, Sang-Shin; Choi, Seibum B


    This paper details the new design and dynamic simulation of an electro-hydraulic camless engine valve actuator (EH-CEVA) and experimental verification with lift position sensors. In general, camless engine technologies have been known for improving fuel efficiency, enhancing power output, and reducing emissions of internal combustion engines. Electro-hydraulic valve actuators are used to eliminate the camshaft of an existing internal combustion engines and used to control the valve timing and valve duration independently. This paper presents novel electro-hydraulic actuator design, dynamic simulations, and analysis based on design specifications required to satisfy the operation performances. An EH-CEVA has initially been designed and modeled by means of a powerful hydraulic simulation software, AMESim, which is useful for the dynamic simulations and analysis of hydraulic systems. Fundamental functions and performances of the EH-CEVA have been validated through comparisons with experimental results obtained in a prototype test bench.

  15. Process analysis for vehicle access in Uberlândia’s regional airport: a simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alves Silva Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The growing number of users of these passenger terminals indicates that the quality of services should be improved through the expansion of their capacity or by process rationalization. This article aims to contribute to the improvement of the vehicle access process at Uberlândia’s airport using the Discrete Event Simulation and Queue Theory. During the analysis, three scenarios that can improve the subsystem were identified, two of which were more advantageous: one for the short-term and another for the medium term, through the establishment of an access route.

  16. Simulation of Flapping-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using X-plane and Matlab/Simulink


    A. Kaviyarasu; Senthil Kumar, K.


    This paper presents the simulation of flapping-wing unmanned aerial vehicle model using X-plane and Matlab/ Simulink. The flapping-wing ornithopter model (i.e. an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings) has been developed in plane maker software and executed in the X-plane environment. The key idea of flapping-wing mechanism in X-plane software is by varying its dihedral angle sinusoidally. This sinusoidally varying dihedral angle of wing creates upward and downward stroke moments inturn t...

  17. The simulation of occasional road disturbances for studying mobile vehicles dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Alexeeva


    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for simulating random road disturbances based on the method of non-canonically decomposing random functions in the form of deterministic functions depending on just three random quantities under any probability distribution law. The mathematical methods developed for modeling random road disturbances give an accurate representation of the random function perturbations in the framework of the correlation theory using just three random variables. The proposed approach allows to obtain more reliable data on the spectral composition of the microrelief, to simplify the study of the dynamics of mobile vehicles and reduce the amount of computation in comparison with other methods.

  18. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Simulation of fuel demand for wood-gas in combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available In the era of the oil crisis and proceeding contamination of the natural environment, it is attempted to substitute fossil raw materials with alternative carriers. For many years, road transport has been considered as one of the main sources of the substances deteriorating air quality. Applicable European directives oblige the member states to implement biofuels and biocomponents into the general fuel market, however, such process is proceeding gradually and relatively slowly. So far, alternative fuels have been used on a large scale to substitute diesel fuel or petrol. Derivatives of vegetable raw materials, such as vegetable oils or their esters and ethanol extracted from biomass, are used to that end. It has been noticed that there is no alternative to LPG which, due to financial reasons, is more and more popular as fuel in passenger cars. In relation to solutions adopted in the past, it has been decided to analyse the option of powering a modern passenger car with wood gas - syngas. Such fuel has been practically used since the 1920's. To that end, a computer simulation created in SciLab environment was carried out. Passenger car Fiat Seicento, fitted with Fire 1.1 8V petrol engine with power of 40kW, whose parameters were used to prepare the model, was selected as the model vehicle. The simulation allows the determination of engine demand on the given fuel. Apart from the wood gas included in the title, petrol, methane and LPG were used. Additionally, the created model enables the determination of the engine power at the time of the indicated fuels supply. The results obtained in the simulation revealed considerable decrease in the engine power when the wood gas was supplied and the increased consumption of this fuel. On the basis of the analysis of the professional literature describing numerous inconveniences connected with the use of this fuel as well as the obtained results, it has been established that using the wood gas as alternative

  20. Simulation of fuel demand for wood-gas in combustion engine (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Tucki, Karol; Wata, Mateusz


    In the era of the oil crisis and proceeding contamination of the natural environment, it is attempted to substitute fossil raw materials with alternative carriers. For many years, road transport has been considered as one of the main sources of the substances deteriorating air quality. Applicable European directives oblige the member states to implement biofuels and biocomponents into the general fuel market, however, such process is proceeding gradually and relatively slowly. So far, alternative fuels have been used on a large scale to substitute diesel fuel or petrol. Derivatives of vegetable raw materials, such as vegetable oils or their esters and ethanol extracted from biomass, are used to that end. It has been noticed that there is no alternative to LPG which, due to financial reasons, is more and more popular as fuel in passenger cars. In relation to solutions adopted in the past, it has been decided to analyse the option of powering a modern passenger car with wood gas - syngas. Such fuel has been practically used since the 1920's. To that end, a computer simulation created in SciLab environment was carried out. Passenger car Fiat Seicento, fitted with Fire 1.1 8V petrol engine with power of 40kW, whose parameters were used to prepare the model, was selected as the model vehicle. The simulation allows the determination of engine demand on the given fuel. Apart from the wood gas included in the title, petrol, methane and LPG were used. Additionally, the created model enables the determination of the engine power at the time of the indicated fuels supply. The results obtained in the simulation revealed considerable decrease in the engine power when the wood gas was supplied and the increased consumption of this fuel. On the basis of the analysis of the professional literature describing numerous inconveniences connected with the use of this fuel as well as the obtained results, it has been established that using the wood gas as alternative fuel is currently

  1. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments (United States)


    ... Industry 541514 Commercial Importers of 811112 Vehicles and Vehicle 811198 Components. Industry 336111... data and to identify which manufacturers have a credit surplus or deficit for the given model year...

  2. Extraction and Separation Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with ADAMS Simulation (United States)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Cuthbert, Peter A.


    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has increased efforts to demonstrate the performance of fully integrated parachute systems at both higher dynamic pressures and in the presence of wake fields using a Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and a Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), respectively. Modeling the extraction and separation events has proven challenging and an understanding of the physics is required to reduce the risk of separation malfunctions. The need for extraction and separation modeling is critical to a successful CPAS test campaign. Current PTV-alone simulations, such as Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), require accurate initial conditions (ICs) drawn from a separation model. Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS), a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) tool, was employed to provide insight into the multi-body six degree of freedom (DOF) interaction between parachute test hardware and external and internal forces. Components of the model include a composite extraction parachute, primary vehicle (PTV or PCDTV), platform cradle, a release mechanism, aircraft ramp, and a programmer parachute with attach points. Independent aerodynamic forces were applied to the mated test vehicle/platform cradle and the separated test vehicle and platform cradle. The aero coefficients were determined from real time lookup tables which were functions of both angle of attack ( ) and sideslip ( ). The atmospheric properties were also determined from a real time lookup table characteristic of the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) atmosphere relative to the planned test month. Representative geometries were constructed in ADAMS with measured mass properties generated for each independent vehicle. Derived smart separation parameters were included in ADAMS as sensors with defined pitch and pitch rate criteria used to refine inputs to analogous avionics systems for optimal separation conditions. Key design variables were dispersed in a Monte

  3. Simulation Based Studies in Software Engineering: A Matter of Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bernard Nicolau de França


    Full Text Available Despite the possible lack of validity when compared with other science areas, Simulation-Based Studies (SBS in Software Engineering (SE have supported the achievement of some results in the field. However, as it happens with any other sort of experimental study, it is important to identify and deal with threats to validity aiming at increasing their strength and reinforcing results confidence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential threats to SBS validity in SE and suggest ways to mitigate them. METHOD: To apply qualitative analysis in a dataset resulted from the aggregation of data from a quasi-systematic literature review combined with ad-hoc surveyed information regarding other science areas. RESULTS: The analysis of data extracted from 15 technical papers allowed the identification and classification of 28 different threats to validity concerned with SBS in SE according Cook and Campbell’s categories. Besides, 12 verification and validation procedures applicable to SBS were also analyzed and organized due to their ability to detect these threats to validity. These results were used to make available an improved set of guidelines regarding the planning and reporting of SBS in SE. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based studies add different threats to validity when compared with traditional studies. They are not well observed and therefore, it is not easy to identify and mitigate all of them without explicit guidance, as the one depicted in this paper.

  4. Modeling, analysis, and simulation of the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership (United States)

    Xu, Mingtao; Ye, Zhirui; Shan, Xiaofeng


    A two-dimensional logistic model is proposed to describe the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership. The endogenous interaction between road networks and vehicle ownership and how natural market forces and policies transformed into their co-development are considered jointly in this model. If the involved parameters satisfy a certain condition, the proposed model can arrive at a steady equilibrium level and the final development scale will be within the maximum capacity of an urban traffic system; otherwise, the co-development process will be unstable and even manifest chaotic behavior. Then sensitivity tests are developed to determine the proper values for a series of parameters in this model. Finally, a case study, using Beijing City as an example, is conducted to explore the applicability of the proposed model to the real condition. Results demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively simulate the co-development of road network and vehicle ownership for Beijing City. Furthermore, we can obtain that their development process will arrive at a stable equilibrium level in the years 2040 and 2045 respectively, and the equilibrium values are within the maximum capacity.

  5. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device (United States)


    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  6. Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Solver Module for Rocket Engine and Propulsion System Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campell, Bryan T; Davis, Roger L


    .... The solver is targeted to the commercial dynamic simulation software package Simulink(Registered) for integration into a larger suite of modules developed for simulating rocket engines and propulsion systems...

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam


    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  8. Establishing a "Centre for Engineering Experimentation and Design Simulation": A Step towards Restructuring Engineering Education in India (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, P.


    Reforms in undergraduate engineering curriculum to produce engineers with entrepreneurial skills should address real-world problems relevant to industry and society with active industry support. Technology-assisted, hands-on projects involving experimentation, design simulation and prototyping will transform graduates into professionals with…

  9. Evaluation of coupled finite element/meshfree method for a robust full-scale crashworthiness simulation of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tang


    Full Text Available The crashworthiness of a railway vehicle relates to its passive safety performance. Due to mesh distortion and difficulty in controlling the hourglass energy, conventional finite element methods face great challenges in crashworthiness simulation of large-scale complex railway vehicle models. Meshfree methods such as element-free Galerkin method offer an alternative approach to overcome those limitations but have proved time-consuming. In this article, a coupled finite element/meshfree method is proposed to study the crashworthiness of railway vehicles. A representative scenario, in which the leading vehicle of a high-speed train impacts to a rigid wall, is simulated with the coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method in LS-DYNA. We have compared the conventional finite element method and the coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method with the simulation results of different levels of discretization. Our work showed that coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method is a suitable alternative of finite element method to handle the nonlinear deformation in full-size railway vehicle crashworthiness simulation. The coupled method can reduce the hourglass energy in finite element simulation, to produce robust simulation.

  10. Simulation of a Production Line with Automated Guided Vehicle: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Verpa Leite


    Full Text Available Currently, companies have increasingly needed to improve and develop their processes to flexible the production in order to reduce waiting times and increase productivity through smaller time intervals. To achieve these objectives, efficient and automated transport and handling material systems are required. Therefore, the AGV systems (Automated Guided Vehicle are often used to optimize the flow of materials within the production systems. In this paper, the author evaluates the usage of an AGV system in an industrial environment and analyzes the advantages, disadvantages of the project. Furthermore, the author uses the systems simulation software Promodel® 7.0 to develop a model, based on data collected from real production system, in order to analyze and optimize the use of AGVs. Throughout this paper, problems are identified as well as solution adopted by the author and the results obtained from the simulations.

  11. CFD Simulation of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle with Booster Separation Motor and Reaction Control Plumes (United States)

    Gea, L. M.; Vicker, D.


    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate a very complicated flow field encountered during the space shuttle ascent. The flow field features nozzle plumes from booster separation motor (BSM) and reaction control system (RCS) jets with a supersonic incoming cross flow at speed of Mach 4. The overset Navier-Stokes code OVERFLOW, was used to simulate the flow field surrounding the entire space shuttle launch vehicle (SSLV) with high geometric fidelity. The variable gamma option was chosen due to the high temperature nature of nozzle flows and different plume species. CFD predicted Mach contours are in good agreement with the schlieren photos from wind tunnel test. Flow fields are discussed in detail and the results are used to support the debris analysis for the space shuttle Return To Flight (RTF) task.

  12. Operation and evaluation of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Mission Simulator in an automated terminal area metering and spacing ATC environment (United States)

    Houck, J. A.


    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center on the development of a mission simulator for use in the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program. A brief description of the goals and objectives of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program is presented. A more detailed description of the Mission Simulator, in its present configuration, and its components is provided. Finally, a description of the first research study conducted in the Mission Simulator is presented along with a discussion of some preliminary results from this study.

  13. What do autonomous vehicles mean to traffic congestion and crash? : Network traffic flow modeling and simulation for autonomous vehicles. (United States)


    Transportation infrastructure is quickly moving towards revolutionary changes to : accommodate the deployment of AVs. On the other hand, the transition to new : vehicle technologies will be shaped in large part by changes in performance of : roadway ...

  14. Design and Simulation Analysis for Integrated Vehicle Chassis-Network Control System Based on CAN Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu


    Full Text Available Due to the different functions of the system used in the vehicle chassis control, the hierarchical control strategy also leads to many kinds of the network topology structure. According to the hierarchical control principle, this research puts forward the integrated control strategy of the chassis based on supervision mechanism. The purpose is to consider how the integrated control architecture affects the control performance of the system after the intervention of CAN network. Based on the principle of hierarchical control and fuzzy control, a fuzzy controller is designed, which is used to monitor and coordinate the ESP, AFS, and ARS. And the IVC system is constructed with the upper supervisory controller and three subcontrol systems on the Simulink platform. The network topology structure of IVC is proposed, and the IVC communication matrix based on CAN network communication is designed. With the common sensors and the subcontrollers as the CAN network independent nodes, the network induced delay and packet loss rate on the system control performance are studied by simulation. The results show that the simulation method can be used for designing the communication network of the vehicle.

  15. Electro-Quasistatic Simulations in Bio-Systems Engineering and Medical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. van Rienen


    Full Text Available Slowly varying electromagnetic fields play a key role in various applications in bio-systems and medical engineering. Examples are the electric activity of neurons on neurochips used as biosensors, the stimulating electric fields of implanted electrodes used for deep brain stimulation in patients with Morbus Parkinson and the stimulation of the auditory nerves in deaf patients, respectively. In order to simulate the neuronal activity on a chip it is necessary to couple Maxwell's and Hodgkin-Huxley's equations. First numerical results for a neuron coupling to a single electrode are presented. They show a promising qualitative agreement with the experimentally recorded signals. Further, simulations are presented on electrodes for deep brain stimulation in animal experiments where the question of electrode ageing and energy deposition in the surrounding tissue are of major interest. As a last example, electric simulations for a simple cochlea model are presented comparing the field in the skull bones for different electrode types and stimulations in different positions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH


    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  17. 40 CFR 1051.20 - May I certify a recreational engine instead of the vehicle? (United States)


    ... engines you also sell separately, you may ask to certify all these engines in a single engine family or in separate engine families. (b) If you certify an engine under this section, you must use the test procedures... produce under this section consistent with the requirements of § 1051.135. On the emission control...

  18. Rubble-pile Simulations Using The Open Dynamics Engine (United States)

    Korycansky, Donald; Asphaug, E.


    We describe a series of calculations of low-speed collisions of km-scale rubble piles (i.e. asteroids or planetesimals), similar to previous work (Korycansky and Asphaug 2006). The rubble piles are aggregates of polyhedra held together by gravity and friction. Collision velocities are typically of order 1 to 100 m/sec.In this work we make use of a so-called "physics engine" to solve the equations of rigid-body motion and collisions of the polyhedra. Such code libraries have been primarily developed for computer simulations and games. The chief advantage of these libraries is the inclusion of sophisticated algorithms for collision detection, which we have found to be the main computational bottleneck in our calculations. The package we have used is the Open Dynamics Engine, a freely available open-source library ( It solves the equations of motion to first-order accuracy in time and utilizes a fast algorithm for collision detection. We have found a factor of approximately 30 speed-up for our calculations, allowing the exploration of a much larger range of parameter space and the running of multiple calculations in order to sample the stochasticity of the results. For the calculations we report on here, the basic model is the collision of an impactor in the range 0.1--1 km in diameter with a target of 1 km diameter.argets are modeled with 1000 polyhedral elements and impactors modeled with 1 to 1000 elements depending on mass. Collisions of objects with both equal-mass elements, and elements chosen from a power-law distribution, are studied. We concentrate on determining the energy required for catastrophic disruption (Q*D) as a function of impactor/target mass atio and impactor parameter for off-center collisions. This work has been supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program grant NNX07AQ04G.

  19. Experimental investigation of a comfort heating system for a passenger vehicle with an air-cooled engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, K. Suleyman [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey)


    This study describes a novel approach utilizing waste heat from the exhaust gas for comfort heating of the passenger compartment of a vehicle with an air-cooled engine. In the devised system, a water stream heated by the hot exhaust gas was sent to the passenger compartment of a commercial minibus with an air-cooled engine, and the system was tested under various operating conditions. Variations of the temperatures at several locations inside the vehicle were monitored while ambient temperatures were -3, 0, 5 and 10{sup o}C and there were various numbers of passengers on board. It is found that the system shows a reasonable heating performance while consuming no extra fuel for this purpose, and experimental data is in good agreement with numerical results based on heat loss calculations. Results show that when the ambient temperature is above 0{sup o}C and the engine speed is above 2500rpm, the system yielded comfortable compartment temperatures. Compared with alternative methods using extra fuel for comfort heating, the proposed system decreases vehicle operating costs and environmental pollution caused by the heating system as well as causing a lower global warming. (author)

  20. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang


    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  1. The numerical and experimental simulation of hypervelocity flow around the HYFLEX vehicle forebody (United States)

    Johnston, I. A.; Tuttle, S. L.; Jacobs, P. A.; Shimoda, T.

    Numerical and experimental techniques are used to model the flow and pressure distribution around the forebody of the HYFLEX hypersonic flight vehicle. We compare numerical simulation results with modified Newtonian theory and flight data to determine the accuracy of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique used. The numerical simulations closely match the trends in flight data, and show that real gas effects have a small but significant influence on the nose pressure distribution. We also present pressure results from a scale-model tested in a shock tunnel, and compare them with simulation results. For the shock tunnel experiment, the model was placed such that part of the upper surface was in a region of the test flow where nonuniformities were significant, and it was shown that the numerical simulation could adequately capture these experimental flow features. The binary scaling parameter (describing the similarity in species dissociation between flight and model) was used to design the scale-model tests in the shock tunnel, and its effectiveness is discussed. We find that matching the flight Mach number in the shock tunnel experiment is not critical for reproducing flight pressure data, so long as flight velocity is matched, and binary scaling is maintained.

  2. Design Of Fuzzy Logic Traffic Controller For Isolated Intersections With Emergency Vehicle Priority System Using MATLAB Simulation


    Jha, Mohit; Shukla, Shailja


    Traffic is the chief puzzle problem which every country faces because of the enhancement in number of vehicles throughout the world, especially in large urban towns. Hence the need arises for simulating and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. Fuzzy optimization deals with finding the values of input parameters of a complex simulated system which result in desired output. This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy logic traffic controller f...

  3. Prediction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation (United States)


    SOFT-SOIL TERRAIN MAPS USING PHYSICS -BASED SIMULATION Tamer Wasfy*, Paramsothy Jayakumar**, Dave Mechergui**, and Srinivas Sanikommu** *Advanced...relations used in NRMM. The objective of this paper is to present a high-fidelity physics -based approach to accurately and reliably predict the a high-fidelity multibody dynamics model which includes models of the various vehicle systems including chassis, wheels /tires, suspension system

  4. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  5. Simulation of a vehicle with an ICE, CVT and ISG powertrain: a pre-study for concept evaluation and dimensioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, E. van den; Haas, J. de; Frijlink, P.; Schaerlaeckens, W.


    Up to now, reduction of fuel consumption of vehicles equipped with CVT transmission has not been exploited to its full potential due to the reduced driveability when driving the optimum efficiency engine operating points. An ISG system with torque boost capabilities can be used to restore this

  6. Simple supercapacitor charging scheme of an electric vehicle on small-scale hardware simulator: a prototype development for education purpose


    Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi; Arief Syaichu Rohman


    Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS) is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle’s powertrain on small-sca...

  7. Simulation-Based Approach for Studying the Balancing of Local Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski


    Full Text Available Modern society is facing great challenges due to pollution and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. As part of solving these challenges, the use of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles (EVs is rapidly increasing. However, increased dynamics have triggered problems in balancing energy supply and consumption demand in the power systems. The resulting uncertainty and unpredictability of energy production, consumption, and management of peak loads has caused an increase in costs for energy market actors. Therefore, the means for studying the balancing of local smart grids with EVs is a starting point for this paper. The main contribution is a simulation-based approach which was developed to enable the study of the balancing of local distribution grids with EV batteries in a cost-efficient manner. The simulation-based approach is applied to enable the execution of a distributed system with the simulation of a local distribution grid, including a number of charging stations and EVs. A simulation system has been constructed to support the simulation-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out by executing the scenario related to balancing local distribution grids with EV batteries in a step-by-step manner. The evaluation results indicate that the simulation-based approach is able to facilitate the evaluation of smart grid– and EV-related communication protocols, control algorithms for charging, and functionalities of local distribution grids as part of a complex, critical cyber-physical system. In addition, the simulation system is able to incorporate advanced methods for monitoring, controlling, tracking, and modeling behavior. The simulation model of the local distribution grid can be executed with the smart control of charging and discharging powers of the EVs according to the load situation in the local distribution grid. The resulting simulation system can be applied to the study of balancing local smart grids with EV

  8. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Stang


    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  9. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, John H.


    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  10. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, John H.


    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test

  11. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, Matt J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, Russell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, Nick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  12. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang


    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  13. An Optimization Study on an Eco-Friendly Engine Cycle Named as Dual-Miller Cycle (DMC for Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Guven


    Full Text Available The diesel engine is an indispensable part of technology and it is commonly used in land and marine vehicles. However, diesel engines release NOx emissions due to high combustion temperatures. They have harmful effects on the environment such as sources of photo-chemical fog and climate changes. Therefore, they must be reduced and limited. The Miller cycle application is a NOx control method and it is popular in the recent years to abate NOx produced from the internal combustion engines (ICEs. A performance investigation of a Dual-Miller cycle (DMC engine in terms of power (PO, power density (PD and effective efficiency (EE has been performed using a new finite-time thermodynamics modeling (FTTM in this study. The effects of engine design and operating parameters on the engine performance (EPER have been examined. Additionally, the energy losses have been determined resulting from incomplete combustion (IC, friction (FR, heat transfer (HT and exhaust output (EO. The results presented could be an essential tool for DMC marine engine designers.

  14. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.


    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  15. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.


    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  16. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)


    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  17. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests (United States)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes


    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  18. Three-dimensional simulation of the piston group of internal combustion engines - aspects of dynamic analysis; Dreidimensionale Simulation der Kolbengruppe in Verbrennungsmotoren - Aspekte der dynamischen Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, B.; Bargende, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen


    Simulation methods applied in the development of crankshaft drives for internal combustion piston engines are commonly based on a programs for analyzing multibody systems combined with FE programs. Researchers at the Institue of Internal Combustion Engines and Motor Vehicles of Stuttgart University attempt to design mechanical systems like crankshaft drives on the basis of FE prpgrams alone by defining the components of the piston group as interacting contact bodies. One important point in crankshaft drive simulation is the dynamic analysis, i.e. the calculation of the crankshaft drive in consideration of the mass forces. Once boundary conditions, initial conditions and damping parameters have been defined, this method yields satisfactory results. [German] Auch bei der Weiterentwicklung des Kurbeltriebes in Hubkolbenmotoren mit innerer Verbrennung werden neben den experimentellen Methoden zunehmend Simulationsverfahren eingesetzt. Diese beruhen bis jetzt auf einer Kopplung von Programmen zur Analyse von Mehr-Koerper-Systemen (MKS) mit Programmen, die auf der Finite-Element-Methode (FEM) basieren. Am Institut fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen der Universitaet Stuttgart wird versucht, mechanische Systeme wie den Kurbeltrieb allein mit FE-Programmen zu loesen. Dazu werden die einzelnen Bauteile der Kolbengruppe als Kontaktkoerper definiert, die miteinander in Beziehung treten. Ein wichtiger Punkt bei der Simulation des Kurbeltriebs ist die dynamische Analyse, also die Berechnung des Kurbeltriebs unter Beruecksichtigung der Massenkraefte. Nachdem es gelungen ist, fuer die dynamische Berechnung die richtigen Rand-, bzw. Anfangsbedingungen sowie geeignete Daempfungsparameter zu finden, lassen sich mit diesem Verfahren recht gute Ergebnisse erzielen. (orig.)

  19. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  20. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Transportation Studies through Simulating Transportation for Realistic Engineering Education and Training (STREET)


    Chen-Fu Liao; David Levinson; Henry Liu


    The practice of transportation engineering and planning has evolved substantially over the past several decades. A new paradigm for transportation engineering education is required to better engage students and deliver knowledge. Simulation tools have been used by transportation professionals to evaluate and analyze the potential impact of design or control strategy changes. Conveying complex transportation concepts can be effectively achieved by exploring them through simulation. Simulation ...

  1. Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations. (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerová, R; Janour, Z


    The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon.

  2. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments (United States)


    ... tractors and in pickup trucks and vans. Also exclusive to the EPA rules are standards for nitrous oxide (N...) for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from 0.02 to 0.020 g/hp-hr to account for the... vehicle, thereby obtaining the relative marginal improvement between the two vehicles (the ``improvement...

  3. Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Key Components of Special Transport Vehicle for Blowout Prevention Equipment Based on ADAMS (United States)

    Yang, Huixiang; Zhao, Junpeng; Jiang, Dawei; Song, Guowa; Zhang, Bangcheng


    The mounted structure is a part of the whole vehicle, and determines the rationality of the vehicle design. First of all, through the ADAMS and CATIA data transmission interface, the use of CATIA to create a special model of the blowout prevention equipment, the model is imported into ADAMS; Secondly, ADAMS related settings in the definition of force, boundary conditions, and calculate the time step and other related parameters. Finally, the simulation results of the flipping mechanism are obtained by dynamic simulation analysis. The results show that the design of the truck loading structure meets the actual performance requirements.

  4. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development (United States)


    Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV VI Composite 6-9% Fuel...evaluating their performance and create a validated simulation tool for evaluating system -level performance [5, 6]. During the course of this...Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) – Parallel Electric  Family Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV) – Hydraulic Hybrid  Family Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV

  5. Engineering Design Study for the Adaptation, Assembly, and Installation of a Regenerative Mechanical Differential Steer Unit for Tracked Amphibious Vehicle (United States)


    existing HS-400 transmission. These improvements make the GSD-10 competitive with modern hydrostatic and hydrokinetic military transmissions. 3.1.1...modern hydrokinetic and hydromechanical transmissions. The maximum torque of the steer motor is determined by the desired tractive effort to weight...torque and the engine torque) and the speed ratio (quotient of the turbine and engine speeds) relationship employed in the present simulation is shown

  6. Geometry and Simulation Results for a Gas Turbine Representative of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) (United States)

    Claus, Russell W.; Beach, Tim; Turner, Mark; Hendricks, Eric S.


    This paper describes the geometry and simulation results of a gas-turbine engine based on the original EEE engine developed in the 1980s. While the EEE engine was never in production, the technology developed during the program underpins many of the current generation of gas turbine engines. This geometry is being explored as a potential multi-stage turbomachinery test case that may be used to develop technology for virtual full-engine simulation. Simulation results were used to test the validity of each component geometry representation. Results are compared to a zero-dimensional engine model developed from experimental data. The geometry is captured in a series of Initial Graphical Exchange Specification (IGES) files and is available on a supplemental DVD to this report.

  7. Using elements of game engine architecture to simulate sensor networks for eldercare. (United States)

    Godsey, Chad; Skubic, Marjorie


    When dealing with a real time sensor network, building test data with a known ground truth is a tedious and cumbersome task. In order to quickly build test data for such a network, a simulation solution is a viable option. Simulation environments have a close relationship with computer game environments, and therefore there is much to be learned from game engine design. In this paper, we present our vision for a simulated in-home sensor network and describe ongoing work on using elements of game engines for building the simulator. Validation results are included to show agreement on motion sensor simulation with the physical environment.

  8. Measurement of vehicle emissions and power performance of an engine dedicated to gasoline converted to natural gas vehicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Meneses Oscar Febo


    Full Text Available The present research work reports the factorial experiment carried out in the Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Research (IIME of the Major Saint Andrew University (UMSA, the purpose was to evaluate vehicle power and emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, as well as other gases with harmful effects on human health, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons generated by an internal combustion engine dedicated to gasoline and converted to bi-fuel CNG. For experimentation, a test stand was assembled with a motor commonly used in light transport vehicles in the city of La Paz, and converted to CNG in two types of transformation technology, third and fifth generation, the first being subsidized by the Bolivian State. The results allowed to determine that emissions depend on the operating regime and that the vehicles converted to CNG do not significantly reduce the emission of GHG issued per unit time in relation to original operation with gasoline, this is because they generate higher emission gas flows in the same operating regimes. Emission of other gases harmful to health are significantly superior when converting to the engine with technology of 3rd generation without use of mixer. Being also its performance of lower power, it falls between 87 and 75% of the original value. It is evident that the type of technology and mode of conversion applied influences the emissions and vehicular power.

  9. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, David [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)


    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design.

  10. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lapworth


    Full Text Available The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  11. Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration (United States)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.


    This paper discusses the detailed design of an XML databinding framework for aircraft engine simulation. The framework provides an object interface to access and use engine data. while at the same time preserving the meaning of the original data. The Language independent representation of engine component data enables users to move around XML data using HTTP through disparate networks. The application of this framework is demonstrated via a web-based turbofan propulsion system simulation using the World Wide Web (WWW). A Java Servlet based web component architecture is used for rendering XML engine data into HTML format and dealing with input events from the user, which allows users to interact with simulation data from a web browser. The simulation data can also be saved to a local disk for archiving or to restart the simulation at a later time.

  12. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.


    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  13. A simulator-based analysis of engineering treatments for right-hook bicycle crashes at signalized intersections. (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer; Hurwitz, David S; Monsere, Christopher M; Fleskes, Kayla


    A right-hook crash is a crash between a right-turning motor vehicle and an adjacent through-moving bicycle. At signalized intersections, these crashes can occur during any portion of the green interval when conflicting bicycles and vehicles are moving concurrently. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of four types of engineering countermeasures - regulatory signage, intersection pavement marking, smaller curb radius, and protected intersection design - at modifying driver behaviors that are known contributing factors in these crashes. This research focused on right-hook crashes that occur during the latter stage of the circular green indication at signalized intersections with a shared right-turn and through lane. Changes in driver performance in response to treatments were measured in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Twenty-eight participants each completed 22 right-turn maneuvers. A partially counterbalanced experimental design exposed drivers to critical scenarios, which had been determined in a previous experiment. For each turn, driver performance measures, including visual attention, crash avoidance, and potential crash severity, were collected. A total of 75 incidents (47 near-collisions and 28 collisions) were observed during the 616 right turns. All treatments had some positive effect on measured driver performance with respect to the right-turn vehicle conflicts. Further work is required to map the magnitude of these changes in driver performance to crash-based outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths. (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G


    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  15. Solar thermal rocket engine (STRE) thrust characteristics at the change of engine operation mode and of the flight vehicle attitude in the solar system (United States)

    Kudrin, O. I.


    Relationships are presented which describe changes in the thrust and specific impulse of a solar thermal rocket engine due to a change in the flow rate of the working fluid (hydrogen). Expressions are also presented which describe the variation of the STRE thrust and specific impulse with the distance between the flight vehicle and the sun. Results of calculations are presented for an STRE with afterburning of the working fluid (hydrogen + oxygen) using hydrogen heating by solar energy to a temperature of 2360 K.



  17. The effect of engine and transmission oil viscometrics on vehicle fuel consumption


    Hawley, J. Gary; Bannister, Chris D.; Brace, Chris J.; Akehurst, S.; Pegg, Ian; Avery, M. R.


    An extensive programme of work has been undertaken to assess the potential benefits of modulating the properties of both the engine and the transmission lubricating oils to achieve lower fuel consumption. The performance of the engine lubricants was evaluated on a production diesel engine on a transient test bed. The main engine lubricating-oil viscometric properties investigated were the cold cranking shear, the kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C, and the high-temperature high-shear value....

  18. Integration of an acoustic drive simulator in the engine development process; Einbindung eines akustischen Fahrsimulators in den Motorenentwicklungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettelbeck, C.; Riemann, D.; Sellerbeck, P. [HEAD acoustics GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)


    Due to constantly decreasing development time the integration of tools for simulation and generation of a virtual reality is an efficient way in order to identify weak spots or possible improvements of products as early as possible. Referring to the engine development the NVH division becomes increasingly interesting and thus an important element of the demands on new products. With the help of the Binaural Transfer Path Analysis and Synthesis (BTPA/BTPS), a tool developed at HEAD acoustics, a binaural interior noise can be generated from engine test rig multi-channel measurements. The interactive acoustical driving simulator H3S provides the opportunity of a very realistic evaluation of the NVH behavior of vehicle interior noise and vibration. The combination of the BTPA/BTPS procedure and the driving simulator offers an product in a realistic surrounding and in combination with other NVH components like wind or tire noise for all operating conditions already at an early stage in the project phase.

  19. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... (United States)


    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... of a certified final Tier 4 off-road diesel engine for the same power rating. The date by which each... power system-- including diesel, alternative fueled, or heavy-duty pilot ignition engine--certified to...

  20. Results of experimental research of the tribological characteristics of oils from engines and power transmitters of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić


    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention is focused on the development of modern devices and methods for monitoring condition changes of tribomehanical characteristics in systems. There are different physical and chemical methods and tribology methods for tribomehanical system diagnosis. Experience in technical systems exploitation showed that the most effective failure prognosis is based on particles created as a result of wear. The analysis of oil samples containing particles-products of wear, enables the evaluation of system tribology conditions in different phases of system exploitation. The paper presents the tribological tests in the analysis of oils used for the assessment of its condition. The paper also deals with the results of the experimental research of tribological characteristics of motor and power transmitter oils sampled from engines and power transmitters of the Mercedes O 345, PUCH 300GD and PINZGAUER 710M vehicles in exploitation. The investigations showed that there is a change of tribological characteristics of lubrication oils in the vehicle engine and power transmitters. These changes are in a direct dependence of the state of all elements of the tribomechanical engine and power transmitters system, and they depend on their functional characteristics. The conclusion is based on the realized testing.

  1. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  2. Engineering Cost Analysis of the Urban-Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle System (United States)


    The Urban Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle (UTACV) is presently being developed as a means of improving urban transportation. This report covers the development of a cost analysis conducted for the UTACV. The report covers the development of a computer pr...

  3. Proposed Rule for Repeal of Emission Requirements for Glider Vehicles, Glider Engines, and Glider Kits (United States)

    Rule to finalize standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that would improve fuel efficiency and cut carbon pollution to reduce the impacts of climate change, while bolstering energy security and spurring manufacturing innovation.

  4. Experiences with Integrating Simulation into a Software Engineering Curriculum (United States)

    Bollin, Andreas; Hochmuller, Elke; Mittermeir, Roland; Samuelis, Ladislav


    Software Engineering education must account for a broad spectrum of knowledge and skills software engineers will be required to apply throughout their professional life. Covering all the topics in depth within a university setting is infeasible due to curricular constraints as well as due to the inherent differences between educational…

  5. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus


    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems


    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  7. Modeling of Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension with Magnetorhological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasa Richard


    Full Text Available Modeling of suspension is a current topic. Vehicle users require both greater driving comfort and safety. There is a space to invent new technologies like magnetorheological dampers and their control systems to increase these conflicting requirements. Magnetorheological dampers are reliably mathematically described by parametric and nonparametric models. Therefore they are able to reliably simulate the driving mode of the vehicle. These simulations are important for automotive engineers to increase vehicle safety and passenger comfort.

  8. Closed loop models for analyzing engineering requirements for simulators (United States)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D.


    A closed loop analytic model, incorporating a model for the human pilot, (namely, the optimal control model) that would allow certain simulation design tradeoffs to be evaluated quantitatively was developed. This model was applied to a realistic flight control problem. The resulting model is used to analyze both overall simulation effects and the effects of individual elements. The results show that, as compared to an ideal continuous simulation, the discrete simulation can result in significant performance and/or workload penalties.

  9. Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for utilizing measured responses on a vehicle to reconstruct road profiles and their attendant defects. The study seeks to capitalize on the popularization of vehicle information systems, where sensors...

  10. Use of Probabilistic Engineering Methods in the Detailed Design and Development Phases of the NASA Ares Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Fayssal, Safie; Weldon, Danny


    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program called Constellation to send crew and cargo to the international Space Station, to the moon, and beyond. As part of the Constellation program, a new launch vehicle, Ares I, is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Designing a launch vehicle with high reliability and increased safety requires a significant effort in understanding design variability and design uncertainty at the various levels of the design (system, element, subsystem, component, etc.) and throughout the various design phases (conceptual, preliminary design, etc.). In a previous paper [1] we discussed a probabilistic functional failure analysis approach intended mainly to support system requirements definition, system design, and element design during the early design phases. This paper provides an overview of the application of probabilistic engineering methods to support the detailed subsystem/component design and development as part of the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the new Ares I Launch Vehicle. Specifically, the paper discusses probabilistic engineering design analysis cases that had major impact on the design and manufacturing of the Space Shuttle hardware. The cases represent important lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Program and clearly demonstrate the significance of probabilistic engineering analysis in better understanding design deficiencies and identifying potential design improvement for Ares I. The paper also discusses the probabilistic functional failure analysis approach applied during the early design phases of Ares I and the forward plans for probabilistic design analysis in the detailed design and development phases.

  11. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald


    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  12. Simulation of a two-stroke diesel engine for propulsion in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Koosup Yum


    Full Text Available Propulsion in waves is a complex physical process that involves interactions between a hull, a propeller, a shaft and a prime mover which is often a diesel engine. Among the relevant components, the diesel engine plays an important role in the overall system dynamics. Therefore, using a proper model for the diesel engine is essential to achieve the reasonable accuracy of the transient simulation of the entire system. In this paper, a simulation model of a propulsion system in waves is presented with emphasis on modeling a two-stroke marine diesel engine: the framework for building such a model and its mathematical descriptions. The models are validated against available measurement data, and a sensitivity analysis for the transient performance of the diesel engine is carried out. Finally, the results of the system simulations under various wave conditions are analyzed to understand the physical processes and compare the efficiency for different cases.

  13. Product Representation to support validation of simulation models in Computer aided engineering


    Kain, Andreas;Gaag, Andreas;Lindemann, Udo


    Computer aided engineering (CAE) provides proper means to support New Product Development (NPD) by simulation tools. Simulation furthers early identification of product characteristics to reduce costs and time. The applicability of simulation models in NPD strongly depends on their validity, thus validating a simulation poses a major issue to provide correct experimentation results. The authors propose a matrix based approach to combine solution neutral system representation, solution specifi...

  14. Prévision par la simulation des émissions de polluants d'un véhicule Forecasting Pollutant Emissions by a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapy J.


    Full Text Available Les émissions de polluants d'un véhicule ont été modélisées avec l'hypothèse que le comportement du moteur peut se prévoir sur le véhicule à partir de mesures établies au banc moteur pour des points stabilisés. Cette méthode, déjà utilisée avec succès pour la modélisation des consommations, s'est montrée satisfaisante pour la prévision des émissions lors de la plupart des modes de fonctionnement du véhicule, seules certaines périodes transitoires ont nécessité des hypothèses et des mesures complémentaires. Le modèle a été testé en adaptant sur des véhicules des moteurs dont les émissions avaient été préalablement relevées au banc, puis en mesurant les effluants du véhicule sur banc à rouleaux pour des parcours du type cycles normalisés. De cette manière un bon accord s'est révélé entre les mesures et les calculs utilisant les données établies au banc moteur, les écarts étant d'environ 10 % en ce qui concerne les émissions d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés, et de 4 % pour l'oxyde de carbone et les oxydes d'azote. Ces écarts ont paru satisfaisants, comparés à la précision que l'on constate habituellement sur les mesures tant sur le véhicule qu'au banc moteur. A model for simulating pollutant emissions by automotive vehicles has been worked out and is based on the assumption that the engine behavior of the vehicle can be forecast from measurements made on a test bench under steady running conditions. This method has already been successfully tested for modeling consumption. It has also proved satisfactory for simulating emissions during most vehicle running conditions. Some transient phases were the only times when supplementury assumptions and measurements were required. The model was tested by equipping vehicles with engines whose emissions had previously been determined on a test bench. The pollutant were measured for a vehicle on a roller test bench for trips ot the standardizet cycletype and then

  15. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of the Vibration Characteristics of the In-Wheel Motor Driving Vehicle Based on Bond Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan


    Full Text Available Bond graph theory is applied to the modeling and analysis of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle. First, an 11-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle is established based on bond graph, and then the correctness of the model is verified. Second, under the driving condition of class B road excitations and a speed of 50 Km/h, the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle are simulated and analyzed, and the activity of each part in the system is then calculated. Third, these parts that have less of an effect on the vibration characteristics of an in-wheel motor driving vehicle are identified according to the magnitude of the activity, and then the model is simplified by removing these parts. Finally, the reliability of the simplified model is verified by comparing the vibration characteristics of the model before and after simplification. This study can provide a method for the modeling and simulation of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle.

  17. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  18. Simulation and analysis of vertical displacement characteristics of three wheels reverse trike vehicle with PID controller application (United States)

    Wibowo, Lambang, Lullus; Erick Chandra, N.; Muhayat, Nurul; Jaka S., B.


    The purpose of this research is to obtain a mathematical model (Full Vehicle Model) and compare the performance of passive and active suspension systems of a Three-Wheels Reverse Trike vehicle. Vehicle suspension system should able to provide good steering handling and passenger comfort. Vehicle suspension system generally only uses passive suspension components with fix spring and damper coefficients. An active suspension developed from the traditional (passive) suspension design can directly control the actuator force in the suspension system. In this paper, modeling and simulation of passive and active suspension system for a Full Vehicle Model is performed using Simulink-MATLAB software. Ziegler & Nichols tuning method is used to obtain controller parameters of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. Comparison between passive and active suspension with PID controller is conducted for disturbances input of single bump road surface profile 0.1 meters. The results are the displacement and acceleration of the vehicle body in the vertical direction of active suspension system with PID control is better in providing handling capabilities and comfort for the driver than of passive suspension system. The acceleration of 1,8G with the down time of 2.5 seconds is smaller than the acceleration of 2.5G with down time of 5.5 seconds.

  19. Growing Tissues in Real and Simulated Microgravity: New Methods for Tissue Engineering


    Grimm, Daniela; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Ulbrich, Claudia; Magnusson, Nils E.; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann


    Tissue engineering in simulated (s-) and real microgravity (r-μg) is currently a topic in Space medicine contributing to biomedical sciences and their applications on Earth. The principal aim of this review is to highlight the advances and accomplishments in the field of tissue engineering that could be achieved by culturing cells in Space or by devices created to simulate microgravity on Earth. Understanding the biology of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures is very important for...

  20. Propulsion and Power Supplies for Unmanned Vehicles. Volume I. Engines for Small Propeller-Driven RPVS (United States)


    aircraft and powered sailplanes Comments: Twin carburettors *1 62 RPV ENGINE SEARCH (AGARD) HP GROUP 69 Country of origin: Argentine Manufacturer...Aircraft Engine Division, Crewe, England. E. Fuel system i. Type Carburettor 2. Make and Model Marvel. $cheblcr MA-3SPA 3. Fuel - Aviation Gasoline 80/ any engine part, excluding cylinder assemblies, shall not exceed 250°F (121 C). 5. Fuel Metering System (a) Carburettor See section E/2 (b) Fuel