WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle driving cycle

  1. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  2. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

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    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  3. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  4. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  5. The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation

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    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the

  6. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

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    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  7. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

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    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  8. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

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    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  9. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-05-02

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  10. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  11. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-02

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.

  12. [Instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle with different driving cycles by CMEM model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pu; Chen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Cheng; Li, Li; Jia, Ji-Hong; Dong, Yan-Qiang

    2009-05-15

    CMEM model for calculating time based instantaneous emission from light duty diesel vehicle and its input parameters were introduced. On-board test data were used to validate the simulation results. The relative error of THC, CO, and NOx are 14.2%, 3.7% and 32.7%, respectively, while the correlation coefficients reach 0.73, 0.72 and 0.87. The instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle simulated by CMEM model are strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle in Shanghai. The simulation of instantaneous emissions and fuel economy under the ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle, Japan 10-15 cycle and the cycle of shanghai arterial road show that the instantaneous emissions decline with the increase of the vehicle speed, especially from 0-10 km x h(-1) to 10-20 km x h(-1). The acceleration process dominated the whole emissions, which contributes over 30% of the total emission, and sometimes it even reaches over 70%. The contributions of shanghai arterial road for idle condition are 40% and 30%, emission factors of CO are 1.3, 1.5 and 1.4 times of ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle, Japan 10-15 cycle respectively; THC are respectively 1.5, 2.1 and 1.9 times of above cycles; and emission factors of NOx are respectively 1.2, 1.3 and 1.3 times of ECE-15 cycle, FTP cycle and Japan 10-15 cycle. The fuel economy of the light-duty diesel car on shanghai arterial road is the worst, which is 9.56 km x L(-1). The driving cycles used on abroad can not reflect the actual driving conditions in China.

  13. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  14. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  15. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles: Preprint

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    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that

  16. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  17. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

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    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

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    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  20. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

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    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  1. Electric-Drive Vehicles

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    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  4. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  5. Model development and analysis of a mid-sized hybrid fuel cell/battery vehicle with a representative driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mallouh, Mohammed; Abdelhafez, Eman; Salah, Mohammad; Hamdan, Mohammed; Surgenor, Brian; Youssef, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Vehicles powered with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are one of the main pollutant sources in large cities. Most of large cities (e.g. Amman, capital of Jordan) suffer from frequent traffic jams. This leads to frequent stops and starts, and hence, an increase in tailpipe emissions. One way to minimize emissions is to use electric motors in the powertrain configuration. In this study, the performance of a hybrid fuel cell (FC)/battery vehicle is investigated utilizing different worldwide driving cycles. Initially, a model of a mid-sized ICE vehicle is developed and validated against experimental tests. The ICE vehicle validated model is then modified to be driven with only an electric motor powered by a hybrid FC/battery system. The effect of driving pattern, which varies from city to city and from region to region, is investigated. A driving cycle that represents the driving patterns in Amman city is developed based on experimental data and then used to evaluate the performance of both ICE and hybrid FC/battery vehicle configurations. It is found that the performance of the hybrid FC/battery configuration is much better than the ICE version in terms of emissions, fuel economy, efficiency, and speed tracking error.

  6. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  7. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  8. Electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  9. Effect of Drive Cycle and Gasoline Particulate Filter on the Size and Morphology of Soot Particles Emitted from a Gasoline-Direct-Injection Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffaripour, Meghdad; Chan, Tak W; Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A; Smallwood, Gregory J; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2015-10-06

    The size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, that is, the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4-88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF particles emitted over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, particles emitted by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode particles emitted over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and

  10. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  11. Drives for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Internal combustion and electricity as engine driving forces are compared with regard to their specific weight, engine characteristics, efficiency in converting the primary energy and trends of development. Electric drives show a number of advantages especially in cities where frequent stop-and-go traffic is the rule: low emissions, low noise and good utilization of the primary energy are the main advantages here. Technically one needs to have suitable batteries and driving systems. With the Na-S-heavy duty battery coming on to the market a wave of innovations on the area of high-efficiency electric drives is expected in the following years. (orig.).

  12. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  13. Vehicle Driving Data Collection and Analysis Based on GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runze Hao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to build China's typical urban vehicle driving cycle, this paper based on the GPRS wireless data acquisition system, through the on-board PDA collect data, the kinematics fragments after initial treatment can be got, and then use the principal component analysis and dynamic clustering method to partition the fragments, so as to build a vehicle driving cycle. The new driving cycle compares about driving characteristics with the foreign typical driving cycle, the results show that the time ratio of driving characteristics of acceleration and deceleration based on China's urban driving cycle above the time ratio of driving characteristics of acceleration and deceleration in EU, the time ratio of constant speed based on China's urban driving cycle under the time ratio in EU.

  14. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  15. Impact of Different Driving Cycles and Operating Conditions on CO2 Emissions and Energy Management Strategies of a Euro-6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cubito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS and on its capability to maximize the efficiency of the powertrain in real life as well as during Type Approval (TA tests. Attempting to close the gap between TA and real world CO2 emissions, the European Commission has decided to introduce from September 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP, replacing the previous procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The aim of this work is the analysis of the impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and on energy management strategies of a Euro-6 HEV through the limited number of information available from the chassis dyno tests. The vehicle was tested considering different initial battery State of Charge (SOC, ranging from 40% to 65%, and engine coolant temperatures, from −7 °C to 70 °C. The change of test conditions from NEDC to WLTP was shown to lead to a significant reduction of the electric drive and to about a 30% increase of CO2 emissions. However, since the specific energy demand of WLTP is about 50% higher than that of NEDC, these results demonstrate that the EMS strategies of the tested vehicle can achieve, in test conditions closer to real life, even higher efficiency levels than those that are currently evaluated on the NEDC, and prove the effectiveness of HEV technology to reduce CO2 emissions.

  16. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  17. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  18. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  19. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NOx emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NOx ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NOx ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NOx emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NOx ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NOx ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NOx ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NOx ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NOx ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO budget and

  20. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  1. Drive system failure control for distributed drive electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yaou; Yang, Na; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the failure problem of distributed electric drive vehicle, the conventional control strategy of drive system failure is designed according to the characteristics of each wheel torque independent control and the redundant configuration of the power unit. On this basis, combined with the traditional body stability control technology, the direct yaw moment control method is used. The simulation results show that the conventional control method designed of the drive system failure can effectively improve the driving condition of the vehicle. The driving stability of the vehicle is further improved after the direct yaw torque control is applied.

  2. Batu Pahat Driving Cycle for Light Duty Gasoline Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul Abidin, Zainul Ameerul Ikhsan B.; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Ahmad, Osman Bin

    2017-08-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points that represents the vehicle speed versus time. Transient driving cycles involve many changes such as frequent speed changes during typical on-road driving condition [2]. Model driving cycles involve protracted periods at constant speeds. The Batu Pahat Driving Cycle (BPDC) developed to represent the driving pattern of people in a district of Batu Pahat. Based on this driving cycle, it will be a reference to other researchers to study about the gases emission release and fuel consumption by the vehicle on the dynamometer or automotive simulation based on this driving cycle. Existing driving cycles used such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-72/75, and Japan 10-15 Mode Cycle is not appropriate for Batu Pahat district because of different road conditions, driving habits and environmental of developed driving cycle countries are not same [2][14]. Batu Pahat drive cycle was developed for low-capacity gasoline engine under 150 cc and operating on urban roads, rural roads and road around Universiti Tun Hussein Onn. The importance of these driving cycle as the reference for other research to measure and do automotive simulation regarding fuel consumption and gas emission release from the motorcycle for these three type of driving cycle area. Another use for driving cycles is in vehicle simulations [3]. More specifically, they are used in propulsion system simulations to predict the performance of internal combustion engines, transmissions, electric drive systems, batteries, fuel cell systems, and similar components [18]. Data collection methods used in this study is the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). The results obtained are not similar to each other due to differences in congestion on data taken. From the driving cycle graph obtained, such as the average velocity, maximum velocity, the duration and Positive Acceleration Kinetic Energy (PKE) can be determined. In addition, the best

  3. Driving cycle suitable layout of permanent magnet synchronous machines for hybrid vehicles and electric powered vehicles; Fahrzyklusgerechte Auslegung von permanentmagneterregten Synchronmaschinen fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    An increasing environmental awareness and the prospect of a shortage of fossil resources will result in a development of efficient vehicles with a lower consumption of fuel. In addition to the hybrid electric vehicle, the electric powered vehicle increasingly is focused in the development of vehicles. A good efficiency is the most important demand on the electrical machine. The author of the book under consideration reports on exemplary operating point distributions for various vehicle concepts and user profiles. After comparing the most common types of machine in terms of the use in electrified powertrains, the permanent magnet synchronous machine is selected and discussed in detail. A table shows the advantages and disadvantages of all considered geometries and variations. Thus, a suitable combination of geometry for a given vehicle concept and its requirements are selected.

  4. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  5. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Seiho Kim; Jaesik Lee; Chulung Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models availabl...

  6. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  7. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the

  8. Efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahayadin, A. R.; Shahriman, A. B.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Z. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Harun, A.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Ibrahim, I.; Saad, M. A. M.; Rani, M. F. H.; Zunaidi, I.; Sahari, M.; Sarip, M. S.; Razali, M. Q. H. A.

    2017-10-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points representing the speed of vehicle versus time and used to determine the performance of vehicle in general. One of the critical portions of driving cycle development is route selection methodology. This paper describes the efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development. Previous data from JKR Road Traffic Volume Malaysia (RTVM) in 2015 is studied and analysed to propose the methodology in route selection. The selected routes are then analysed by using Google Maps. For each region, four (4) routes are selected for each urban and rural. For this paper, the selection of route is focused on northern region of Malaysia specifically in Penang. Penang is chosen for this study because it is one of the developed state in Malaysia that has many urban and rural routes. The methods of route selection constructed in this study could be used by other region to develop their own driving cycles.

  9. Development of Urban Driving Cycle with GPS Data Post Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GIS-based methodology for urban area driving cycle construction. The approach reaches beyond the frames of usual driving cycle development methods and takes into account another perspective of data collection. Rather than planning data collection, the approach is based on available in-vehicle measurement data post processing using Geographic Information Systems to manipulate the excessive database and extract only the representative and geographically limited individual trip data. With such data post processing the data was carefully adjusted to include only the data that describe representative driving in Ljubljana urban area. The selected method for the driving cycle development is based on searching for the best microtrips combination while minimizing the difference between two vectors; one based on generated cycle and the other on the database. Accounting for a large random sample of actual trip data, our approach enables more representative area-specific driving cycle development than the previously used techniques.

  10. Library of Samples for E-Vehicle Propulsion Drive Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassõlkin Anton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of testing cycles for the vehicle comparison is the long-term cycles and could not be used for the short-term transient mode imitations. Also, all the used nowadays testing cycles were designed for internal combustion engine vehicles and take into account not only energy and mechanical aspects, but also pollution and internal combustion engine characteristics. The paper presents a collection of sample signals developed to explore and simulate multiple system impacts to emulate different reference and load conditions. The study describes the major driving modes, such as the constant-speed cruising, speeding up and braking, typical parking regimes, uphill and downhill motion, and taking a turn. The developed testing equipment and software are described. Responses of the battery vehicle drives to the changeable controls and disturbances were studied in the laboratory test bench. The set of test cycles prepared in the frame of the ABB control arrangement was applied to the system evaluation and assessment. The developed methodology can be recommended to adjust the electric drives for different kinds of testing equipment. Experimental validation of the described approach has demonstrated the broad possibilities for the steady-state and transient modes of vehicle quality evaluation. It suits for recommendations that can be made with regard to the tuning of the drive regulators, control looping, sensor allocation, and feedback arrangements.

  11. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Capion, Karsten Emil; Juul, Nina

    2013-01-01

    With the integration of fluctuating renewable production into the electricity system, electric-drive vehicles may contribute to the resulting need for flexibility, given that the market conditions provide sufficient economic incentive. To investigate this, we consider the short-term management...... of electric vehicles in a market environment. From the perspective of vehicle operators participating in the electricity spot market, the problem is to optimally charge and discharge the vehicles in response to spot market prices. We consider the case of a vehicle owner who is a price......, therefore, we propose an ex ante vehicle aggregation approach. We illustrate the results in a Danish case study and find that, although optimal management of the vehicles does not allow for storage and day-to-day flexibility in the electricity system, the market provides incentive for intra-day flexibility....

  12. Design and optimization for vehicle driving cycle of rare-earth-free SynRM based on coupled lumped thermal and magnetic networks

    OpenAIRE

    López Torres, Carlos; García Espinosa, Antonio; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Romeral Martínez, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a range optimization of a SynRM (synchronous reluctance motor) and a PMaSynRM (permanent-magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor) according to a standard driving cycle, and the solutions obtained are compared. The proposed approach avoids the use of finite element analysis (FEA) during the optimization process, thus greatly reducing the time required to obtain the optimal solution. The paper validates the optimal motors obtained in different domains, since the methodol...

  13. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  14. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  15. Loss Prediction and Thermal Analysis of Surface-Mounted Brushless AC PM Machines for Electric Vehicle Application Considering Driving Duty Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally efficient loss prediction procedure and thermal analysis of surface-mounted brushless AC permanent magnet (PM machine considering the UDDS driving duty cycle by using a lumped parameters’ thermal model. The accurate prediction of loss and its variation with load are essential for thermal analysis. Employing finite element analysis (FEA to determine loss at every load point would be computationally intensive. Here, the finite element analysis and/or experiment based computationally efficient winding copper and iron loss and permanent magnet (PM power loss models are employed to calculate the electromagnetic loss at every operation point, respectively. Then, the lumped parameter thermal method is used to analyse the thermal behaviour of the driving PM machine. Experiments have been carried out to measure the temperature distribution in a motor prototype. The calculation and experiment results are compared and discussed.

  16. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  17. Drive-train simulator for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darren; Alexander, Marcus; Brunner, Doug; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The model formulation, development process, and experimental validation of a new vehicle powertrain simulator called LFM (Light, Fast, and Modifiable) are presented. The existing powertrain simulators were reviewed and it was concluded that there is a need for a new, easily modifiable simulation platform that will be flexible and sufficiently robust to address a variety of hybrid vehicle platforms. First, the structure and operating principle of the LFM simulator are presented, followed by a discussion of the subsystems and input/output parameters. Finally, a validation exercise is presented in which the simulator's inputs were specified to represent the University of Delaware's fuel cell hybrid transit vehicle and "driven" using an actual drive cycle acquired from it. Good agreement between the output of the simulator and the physical data acquired by the vehicle's on-board sensors indicates that the simulator constitutes a powerful and reliable design tool.

  18. Comparison of real driving cycles and consumed braking power in suburban Slovakian driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gechev Tsvetomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the features of suburban real driving cycles performed with CORRSYS DATRON measurement equipment on routes in the region of Žilina, Slovakia. It observes differences in the maximum and average vehicle velocities and the amount of braking in relation to the elevation profile of each individual cycle. Consumed braking power was also calculated in the different cycles in order to review the potential electricity regeneration capabilities of hybrid electric vehicles, operating on the same routes. The change in braking energy depending on vehicle mass and presence of grade on the routes in the measured cycles was also assessed. The calculations and plotting were done by using Matlab software.

  19. Combat Tracked Vehicle Final Drive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    bearings. A calculation of the L-10 life was made from the duty cycle for " stan - dard" gears and 50,000-lb vehicle weight. The sprocket load affects...GRTOL.TK Input Quality Class and Input tolerances and solve for tolerances solve for Q Class mEstimate general Q Class Grof gears STEP 3 lFind Actual

  20. GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

    2013-02-01

    When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

  1. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  2. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  3. Fuel cell drives for road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnah, R. M.

    For fuel-cell driven vehicles, including buses, the fuel cell may be the main, determining factor in the system but must be integrated into the complete design process. A Low-Floor Bus design is used to illustrate this point. The influence of advances in drive-train electronics is illustrated as are novel designs for motors and mechanical transmission of power to the wheels allowing the use of novel hub assemblies. A hybrid electric power system is being deployed in which Fuel Cells produce the energy needs but are coupled with batteries especially for acceleration phases and for recuperative braking.

  4. Alcohol consumption and cycling in contrast to driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeister, Carmen; Kronmaier, Markus

    2017-08-01

    In Germany, the legal blood alcohol limit for cyclists is much higher (0.16 percent) than the limit for drivers (0.05 percent) - as long as no crash has occurred. The proportion of police-recorded crashes with personal damage under the influence is higher for cyclists than drivers, and the blood alcohol concentrations are higher for cyclists than drivers. 63 women and 204 men who drive a car and use a bike and drink alcohol participated in the online study. In the sample, cycling under the influence (CUI) was more frequent and was observed more frequently among friends than driving under the influence (DUI). Persons who use a particular vehicle type more often in general and when they visit friends also use it more often after alcohol consumption. Persons who drink alcohol more often cycle more often after alcohol consumption. In all aspects covered, drink cycling was seen as more acceptable and less dangerous than drink driving. Persons who cycle more often under the influence observe drink cycling more often among their friends. They think they are less of a danger to themselves and others when cycling after alcohol consumption, and they agree less with the statement that one should leave one's bike parked after alcohol consumption. The attitudes that drinking is unsafe for one's own driving and that one should leave one's car parked are important predictors of (non-)drink driving. For cycling, the most important predictors are bike use frequency and observing drink cycling among friends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-78 EPA driving cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be... driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway fuel economy data is specified in this... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-78 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section...

  7. Is driving in a hot vehicle safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzuni, Paolo; Capone, Pasquale; Freda, Daniela; Del Gaudio, Michele

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the thermal conditions inside a passenger car driven after it was left a few hours in a shade-less parking lot, and the related implications for the driving performance. Experimental results for twelve tests carried out in four different vehicles are presented and discussed. Each test is characterized by means of the predicted core temperature tcore of the driver after 60 minutes, as calculated by a heat stress model. The fractional performance loss is calculated by adjusting existing algorithms for office tasks to accommodate literature data on driving-related tasks, and then re-casting the algorithm as a function of tcore instead of the air temperature ta. Based on measured temperatures and humidities, fractional performance losses up to 50% are predicted even for relatively simple tasks such as keeping the vehicle on a straight course. Performance losses in excess of 75% are predicted, under the most extreme thermal conditions, for demanding tasks, such as correctly identifying a signal and reacting in due time. The implementation in technical standards on heat stress assessment of two new thresholds is recommended. The lower threshold, to be set at tcore ≅ 37.1 °C, is aimed at ensuring that the subject is able to carry out demanding mental tasks without appreciable performance loss, while the higher threshold, to be set at tcore ≅ 37.2 °C applies to simpler tasks.

  8. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  9. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...

  10. Vehicle drive module having improved terminal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Phillips, Mark G.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-04-25

    A terminal structure for vehicle drive power electronics circuits reduces the need for a DC bus and thereby the incidence of parasitic inductance. The structure is secured to a support that may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as by direct contact between the terminal assembly and AC and DC circuit components. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  11. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  12. Towards functional safety in drive-by-wire vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmiller, Peter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This book presents approaches to address key challenges based on a vehicle level view and with a special emphasis on Drive-by-Wire systems. The design and testing of modern vehicle electronics are becoming more and more demanding due to increasing interdependencies among components and the safety criticality of tasks. The development towards Drive-by-Wire functionalities in vehicles with multiple actuators for vehicle control further increases the challenge. The book explicitly takes into account the interactions between components  and aims at bridging the gap between the need to generate additional customer benefits and the effort to achieve functional safety. The book follows a twofold approach: on the one side, it presents a toolchain to support efficient further development of novel functionalities for Drive-by-Wire vehicles. The toolchain comprises appropriate software tools and scaled and full-scale experimental vehicles. On the other side, development towards functionally safe and flexible Drive-by-W...

  13. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  14. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... on prices from the Nordic market. The results show that electric vehicles provide flexibility almost exclusively through charging. Moreover, the vehicles provide flexibility within the day but only limited flexibility from day to day when driving patterns are fixed....

  15. Electric vehicle machines and drives design, analysis and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K

    2015-01-01

    A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

  16. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  17. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  18. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs......) for private transportation using two very large data sets. The EV data set is collected from 164 vehicles (126 million rows) and the CV data set from 447 vehicles (206 million rows). Both data sets are collected in Denmark throughout 2012, with a logging frequency of 1 Hz. By comparing the two data sets, we...

  19. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  20. Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes a controller for detecting and compensating for vehicle rollback, as when the vehicle is started upward on an incline. The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement. A gear selector permits the driver to select an intended or desired direction of vehicle movement. If a speed and rotational sensor associated with the motor indicates vehicle movement opposite to the intended direction of vehicle movement, the motor is driven to a torque output magnitude as a nonconstant function of the rollback speed to counteract the vehicle rollback. The torque function may be either a linear function of speed or a function of the speed squared.

  1. A traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention.

  2. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention. PMID:25197697

  3. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  4. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  5. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  7. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  8. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  9. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  10. Quantifying electric vehicle battery degradation from driving vs. vehicle-to-grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Coignard, Jonathan; Zeng, Teng; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2016-11-01

    The risk of accelerated electric vehicle battery degradation is commonly cited as a concern inhibiting the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. However, little quantitative evidence exists in prior literature to refute or substantiate these concerns for different grid services that vehicles may offer. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to quantify electric vehicle (EV) battery degradation from driving only vs. driving and several vehicle-grid services, based on a semi-empirical lithium-ion battery capacity fade model. A detailed EV battery pack thermal model and EV powertrain model are utilized to capture the time-varying battery temperature and working parameters including current, internal resistance and state-of-charge (SOC), while an EV is driving and offering various grid services. We use the proposed method to simulate the battery degradation impacts from multiple vehicle-grid services including peak load shaving, frequency regulation and net load shaping. The degradation impact of these grid services is compared against baseline cases for driving and uncontrolled charging only, for several different cases of vehicle itineraries, driving distances, and climate conditions. Over the lifetime of a vehicle, our results show that battery wear is indeed increased when vehicles offer V2G grid services. However, the increased wear from V2G is inconsequential compared with naturally occurring battery wear (i.e. from driving and calendar ageing) when V2G services are offered only on days of the greatest grid need (20 days/year in our study). In the case of frequency regulation and peak load shaving V2G grid services offered 2 hours each day, battery wear remains minimal even if this grid service is offered every day over the vehicle lifetime. Our results suggest that an attractive tradeoff exists where vehicles can offer grid services on the highest value days for the grid with minimal impact on vehicle battery life.

  11. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage. Likewise...

  12. Teen driving: motor-vehicle crashes and factors that contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Jean T; Bingham, C Raymond

    2008-09-01

    The motor-vehicle crash risk of novice teen drivers is unacceptably high. This article examines the historical trends in fatal crash rates for male and female teen drivers as compared to adult drivers by both population and person-miles driven. The effect of motor-vehicle policies on teen driver crashes, characteristics of teen driver crashes, and combinations of these crash characteristics are also examined. A framework of seven categories of influences on teen driving behavior is presented, including the following elements: driving ability, developmental factors, behavioral factors, personality factors, demographics, the perceived environment, and the driving environment. Because a complex set of different factors influence teen drivers' behavior, comprehensive, multilevel interventions are needed to reduce teen drivers' exposure to high-risk driving conditions and to address factors identified in the framework.

  13. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  14. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th!nk City fleet is from US 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid.

  15. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  16. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  17. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  18. Assessment of the influence on vehicle emissions of driving style, vehicle technology and traffic measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgwal, H.C. van de; Gense, N.L.J.; Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of traffic measures and driving style on different vehicle emissions and on primary energy consumption, and the definition of vehicle parameters influencing the relation between them, is an interesting issue to be assessed in order to allow more realistic estimations of the impact of

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  20. Intelligent approach for parallel HEV control strategy based on driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Asadi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a methodological approach for the intelligent control of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) by the inclusion of the concept of driving cycles. In this approach, a fuzzy logic controller is designed to manage the internal combustion engine to work in the vicinity of its optimal condition instantaneously. In addition, based on the definition of microtrip, several driving patterns are classified that represent the congested to highway traffic conditions. The driving cycle and traffic conditions are then incorporated in an optimisation process to tune the fuzzy membership function parameters. In this study, the optimisation process is formulated to minimise the HEV fuel consumption (FC) and emissions as well as the satisfaction of the driving performance constraints. Finally, optimisation results are provided for three different driving cycles including ECE-EUDC, FTP and TEH-CAR. TEH-CAR is a driving cycle that is developed based on the experimental data collected from the real traffic condition in the city of Tehran. The results from the computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and reduction in FC and emissions while ensuring that the vehicle performance is not sacrificed.

  1. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  2. Compact drive for electric vehicles fit for series production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherf, H.; Angelis, J.

    1985-05-01

    For small series of up to 1000 electro-vehicles BBC has achieved optimum harmonization of energy storage unit, motor, transmission and actuators, and also control- and monitoring equipment. Harmonization of this driving system took weight, volume and cost into account. The reliability and operating convenience of the system are very good. (orig.).

  3. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  4. The Visual Representation and Acquisition of Driving Knowledge for Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Jiang, Qing; Li, Ping; Song, LiangTu; Wang, Rujing; Yu, Biao; Mei, Tao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the driving knowledge base of autonomous vehicle is designed. Based on the driving knowledge modeling system, the driving knowledge of autonomous vehicle is visually acquired, managed, stored, and maintenanced, which has vital significance for creating the development platform of intelligent decision-making systems of automatic driving expert systems for autonomous vehicle.

  5. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  6. Climate variability drives population cycling and synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Y. Pomara; Benjamin Zuckerberg

    2017-01-01

    Aim There is mounting concern that climate change will lead to the collapse of cyclic population dynamics, yet the influence of climate variability on population cycling remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that variability in survival and fecundity, driven by climate variability at different points in the life cycle, scales up from...

  7. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  8. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  9. Automated driving and autonomous functions on road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. J.; Lidberg, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, road vehicle automation has become an important and popular topic for research and development in both academic and industrial spheres. New developments have received extensive coverage in the popular press, and it may be said that the topic has captured the public imagination. Indeed, the topic has generated interest across a wide range of academic, industry and governmental communities, well beyond vehicle engineering; these include computer science, transportation, urban planning, legal, social science and psychology. While this follows a similar surge of interest - and subsequent hiatus - of Automated Highway Systems in the 1990s, the current level of interest is substantially greater, and current expectations are high. It is common to frame the new technologies under the banner of 'self-driving cars' - robotic systems potentially taking over the entire role of the human driver, a capability that does not fully exist at present. However, this single vision leads one to ignore the existing range of automated systems that are both feasible and useful. Recent developments are underpinned by substantial and long-term trends in 'computerisation' of the automobile, with developments in sensors, actuators and control technologies to spur the new developments in both industry and academia. In this paper, we review the evolution of the intelligent vehicle and the supporting technologies with a focus on the progress and key challenges for vehicle system dynamics. A number of relevant themes around driving automation are explored in this article, with special focus on those most relevant to the underlying vehicle system dynamics. One conclusion is that increased precision is needed in sensing and controlling vehicle motions, a trend that can mimic that of the aerospace industry, and similarly benefit from increased use of redundant by-wire actuators.

  10. Driving with central field loss III: vehicle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Albu, Amanda; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli; Bowers, Alex R

    2016-09-01

    Visual impairment associated with central field loss may make vehicle control more difficult due to the degraded view of the road. We evaluated how central field loss affects vehicle control in a driving simulator. Nineteen participants with binocular central field loss (acuity 6/9 to 6/60) and 15 controls with normal vision drove 10 scenarios, each about eight to 12 minutes. Speed, lane offset and steering wheel reversal rate were measured on straights, left and right curves, along city (approximately 50 km/h) and rural highway (approximately 100 km/h) routes. Following distance was measured on two city straight segments. Subjects with central field loss had higher steering wheel reversal rates (0.55 versus 0.45 reversals per second, p = 0.015), suggesting that the steering task was more demanding for them, requiring more steering corrections; however, they did not differ in other performance measures. Nearly all maintained a safe following distance, although they were more likely than controls with normal vision to lose sight of the lead car in scenarios that required following a car. Most measures of vehicle control did not significantly differ between participants with central field loss and those with normal vision; however, the higher steering wheel reversal rates suggest that, in compensating for their vision impairment, drivers with central field loss had to allocate extra steering effort to maintain their lane position, which in turn could reduce attentional resources for other driving tasks. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment and driving: Does in-vehicle distraction affect driving performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Andronas, Nikolaos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-06-01

    In-vehicle distraction is considered to be an important cause of road accidents. Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), because of their attenuated cognitive resources, may be vulnerable to the effects of distraction; however, previous relevant research is lacking. The main objective of the current study was to explore the effect of in-vehicle distraction on the driving performance of MCI patients, by assessing their reaction time at unexpected incidents and accident probability. Thirteen patients with MCI (age: 64.5±7.2) and 12 cognitively intact individuals (age: 60.0±7.7), all active drivers were introduced in the study. The driving simulator experiment included three distraction conditions: (a) undistracted driving, (b) conversing with passenger and (c) conversing through a hand-held mobile phone. The mixed ANOVA models revealed a greater effect of distraction on MCI patients. Specifically, the use of mobile phone induced a more pronounced impact on reaction time and accident probability in the group of patients, as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, in the driving condition "conversing with passenger" the interaction effects regarding reaction time and accident probability were not significant. Notably, the aforementioned findings concerning the MCI patients in the case of the mobile phone were observed despite the effort of the drivers to apply a compensatory strategy by reducing significantly their speed in this driving condition. Overall, the current findings indicate, for the first time, that a common driving practice, such as the use of mobile phone, may have a detrimental impact on the driving performance of individuals with MCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun; Marple, Dan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) driven in cold weather experience two major drawbacks of Li-ion batteries: drastic power loss (up to 10-fold at -30 °C) and restriction of regenerative braking at temperatures below 5-10 °C. Both factors greatly reduce cruise range, exacerbating drivers' range anxiety in winter. While preheating the battery before driving is a practice widely adopted to maintain battery power and EV drivability, it is time-consuming (on the order of 40 min) and prohibits instantaneous mobility. Here we reveal a control strategy that can rapidly restore EV battery power and permit full regeneration while driving at temperatures as low as -40 °C. The strategy involves heating the battery internally during regenerative braking and rest periods of driving. We show that this technique fully restores room-temperature battery power and regeneration in 13, 33, 46, 56 and 112 s into uninterrupted driving in 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 °C environments, respectively. Correspondingly, the strategy significantly increases cruise range of a vehicle operated at cold temperatures, e.g. 49% at -40 °C in simulated US06 driving cycle tests. The present work suggests that smart batteries with embedded sensing/actuation can leapfrog in performance.

  13. Development of a Cooperative Braking System for Front-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most electric vehicles adopt cooperative braking systems that can blend friction braking torque with regenerative braking torque to achieve higher energy efficiency while maintaining a certain braking performance and driving safety. This paper presented a new cooperative regenerative braking system that contained a fully-decoupled hydraulic braking mechanism based on a modified electric stability control system. The pressure control algorithm and brake force distribution strategy were also discussed. Dynamic models of a front wheel drive electric car equipped with this system and a simulation platform with a driver model and driving cycles were established. Tests to evaluate the braking performance and energy regeneration were simulated and analyzed on this platform and the simulation results showed the feasibility and effectiveness of this system.

  14. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  15. Why vehicle design matters: Exploring the link between line-of-sight, driving posture and risk factors for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, T R; Godwin, A A; Henry, D J; Grenier, S G; Callaghan, J; Demerchant, A

    2010-01-01

    Load haul dump (LHD) vehicles have been involved in workplace accidents resulting in fatal injuries and LHD operators also report high rates of musculoskeletal injury. Poor line-of-sight (LOS) and awkward postures adopted by the LHD operator increase the risk of driving related accidents and musculoskeletal injury. The purpose of this case study was to simultaneously measure point of regard (POR), driving posture and sitting position during the operation of a LHD in an underground mining environment in order to further understand the link between these variables and the design of the LHD vehicle. A 5.35 m3 bucket LHD vehicle was used and several driving tasks were analysed. The case study results showed that despite the driving task, the operator looked to the left side of the vehicle 65% of the time. Postural implications include extreme neck rotation (> 40 degrees) for 85% of the work cycle and the average peak compression at L4/L5 was 1843N. Despite changes in driving posture the average center of pressure location for the seated operator moved very little; however changes in peak pressure were observed. The design of the LHD vehicle dictated what the operator could see, which had a direct influence on driving postures adopted by the operator and resulted in several risk factors for musculoskeletal injury.

  16. Vehicle Real Driving Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides in an Urban Area from a large Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Oesterle, Tobias; Adler, Tim; Reh, Miriam; Tirpitz, Lukas; Kanatschnig, Florian; Lampel, Joahnnes; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx=NO +NO2) emissions by road vehicles are the major contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollution in cities. However, emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle, its engine, the age, condition of the vehicle, driving properties, modifications and many more. Even if official NOx emission data of the manufacturer exist, they are only valid for new vehicles and the current vehicle emission scandal shows clearly that these data are often wrong. Thus, real driving emissions (RDE) of the current vehicle fleet is required. With such data the contribution of individual vehicles to the NO2 and NOx levels in urban areas can be estimated. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding, replace or modify them. We developed a precise and fast ICAD (Iterative CAvity DOAS) NO2 instrument which can measure the concentration within the emission plume of vehicles under real driving conditions. The sampling was performed with an inlet at the front of a car which was following the investigated vehicles. The instrument measure NO2 and additionally CO2 with a time resolution of 2 seconds. With the observed NO2 values already strong emitters can easily be identified. With the use of known CO2 emissions, more reliable emissions for NO2 can be calculated for each vehicle. Currently the system is expanded with a NOx channel to derive the total nitrogen oxide emissions. The system was successfully applied in several studies over the last two years to investigate NO2 RDE. More than thousand vehicles were investigated. We observed that several vehicles from various brands show much higher emissions than allowed (more than a factor of 5). Highest emissions correlate for trucks and busses typically to older vehicles, what is not the case for cars. A large variability between different cars was

  17. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  18. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  19. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  20. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  1. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  2. Driving Performance and User's Evaluation of Self-Balancing Personal Mobility Vehicle with a Pedal Driving Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Jeong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a self-balancing personal mobility vehicle with a hybrid driving mechanism, called as Wi-PMP, and discuss its features from the perspectives of its power-assist driving performance and a rider's evaluation. The mobility vehicle consists of a wheeled inverted pendulum type mobile platform, and a hybrid driving mechanism that can use human and motor power together for driving. By performing a bump driving, a slope driving, and a outdoor driving experiment, we confirm that the proposed hybrid mechanism is valid for the integration of human and motor power, and is effective to increase the driving power and reduce electrical load on motors and batteries. We conducted several experiments to investigate the rider's evaluation on a sit-riding method compared to a stand-riding one. The questionnaire results showed that a rider felt more comfortable in the case of the sit-riding method when getting on and off, and when driving the mobility vehicle. This implies that riding-type self-balancing vehicles such as Wi-PMP have the potential to become familiar personal mobility vehicles in daily life.

  3. The Analysis of Drive Systems in Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Towards Identifying the Method of Drive Transmission – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of material concerned with the analysis of drive systems in remotely controlled underwater vehicles. The first part involved the problem of classification of unmanned underwater vehicles, mainly remotely controlled, as well as the nomenclature used in relation to various components of the discussed drive systems and thrusters. The functionality of particular drive systems was discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the analysed design technologies. This material presents the method of conducting an analysis of drive systems, its methodology and results.

  4. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Jerome B.; Boothe, Richard W.; Konrad, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

  5. Scientific Laboratory Platform for Testing the Electric Vehicle Equipped with DC Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazis V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a test platform for the low-power DC electric motor of a traction vehicle or a high-power motor scaled in the traction and braking modes. The load emulator of the traction drive is made using an induction motor controlled by a frequency converter. A microcontroller controls the bi-directional DC/DC converter and sends a speed reference signal to the frequency converter. The test bench is meant for determination of the power consumption by motor in various speed cycles, and will be used to demonstrate the operation of electric vehicle to students and to investigate the charging/discharging strategies of energy sources.

  6. Using Map Service API for Driving Cycle Detection for Wearable GPS Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    Following advancements in smartphone and portable global positioning system (GPS) data collection, wearable GPS data have realized extensive use in transportation surveys and studies. The task of detecting driving cycles (driving or car-mode trajectory segments) from wearable GPS data has been the subject of much research. Specifically, distinguishing driving cycles from other motorized trips (such as taking a bus) is the main research problem in this paper. Many mode detection methods only focus on raw GPS speed data while some studies apply additional information, such as geographic information system (GIS) data, to obtain better detection performance. Procuring and maintaining dedicated road GIS data are costly and not trivial, whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service application program interface (API) queries offers opportunities for mode detection tasks. The proposed driving cycle detection method takes advantage of map service APIs to obtain high-quality car-mode API route information and uses a trajectory segmentation algorithm to find the best-matched API route. The car-mode API route data combined with the actual route information, including the actual mode information, are used to train a logistic regression machine learning model, which estimates car modes and non-car modes with probability rates. The experimental results show promise for the proposed method's ability to detect vehicle mode accurately.

  7. Oil strategies benefits over different driving cycles using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Hanna; Chalet, David; Cormerais, Mickaël; Hetet, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    95 g/km is the allowed quantity of CO2 emission normalized to NEDC to be set in 2020. In addition, NEDC will be replaced by more severe driving cycles and will be united worldwide. To respond to those criteria, automotive industries are working on every possible field. Thermal management has been proved to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. Cold start is a primordial reason of overconsumption, as the engine highest efficiency is at its optimal temperature. At cold start, the engine's oil is at its lowest temperature and thus its higher viscosity level. A high viscosity oil generates more friction, which is one of the most important heat losses in the engine. In this paper, hot oil storage is studied. Numerical simulations on GT-suite model were done. The model consists of a 4-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine using a storage volume of 1 liter of hot oil. Ambient temperature variation were taken into consideration as well as different driving cycles. Furthermore, different configurations of the thermal strategy (multifunction oil sump) were proposed and evaluated. Lubricant temperature and viscosity profiles are presented in the article as well as fuel consumption savings for different configurations, driving cycles and ambient temperatures.

  8. Driving parts of Krebs cycle in reverse through mineral photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang V; Martin, Scot T

    2006-12-20

    Scenarios for driving the Krebs cycle in reverse in the absence of enzymatic networks have received much attention in the literature of prebiotic evolution because repeated cycling provides a core mechanism for the synthesis of useful biomolecules from carbon dioxide. Here, we show that three of the five reductive steps in the cycle can be driven photochemically at high yield by a ZnS colloid. The results show the conversion of oxaloacetate to malate, fumarate to succinate, and oxoglutarate to oxalosuccinate. The experimental conditions of circumneutral pH and 288 K, as well as the ZnS semiconductor photocatalyst particles (sphalerite), are believed to have been prevalent in the waters of early Earth. These findings therefore both establish and constrain the plausibility of the occurrence of heretofore difficult chemical conversions in prebiotic metabolic systems.

  9. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  10. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  11. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  12. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  13. Cold storage for thermal comfort in stop-start vehicles and urban driving cycles; Stockage d'energie et climatisation automobile en roulage urbain et mode stop-start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyonvarch, G.; Haller, R.; Lepetit, L. [Valeo Thermique Habitacle, 78 - La Verriere (France)

    2005-01-01

    The stop-start function strongly contributes to lower the fuel consumption of petrol vehicles. Its drawback is air conditioning disruption, since this is mechanically driven by the engine. An analysis of requirements reveals that the system specification should target maintaining of thermal comfort for 30 seconds at an ambient temperature of 35 deg C, which covers more than 90% of real conditions. Different solutions have been explored, including electrical air conditioning. This has proven to be adaptable to highly electrified cars, namely from 6 kW under 42 V, A comparison between all reviewed concepts has shown that thermal storage is the right solution in the initial 14 V stop-start context. (authors)

  14. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  15. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  16. Experimental modeling of the effect of hurricane wind forces on driving behavior and vehicle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M; Codjoe, Julius; Osman, Osama; Ishak, Sherif; Wolshon, Brian

    2015-01-01

    While traffic planning is important for developing a hurricane evacuation plan, vehicle performance on the roads during extreme weather conditions is critical to the success of the planning process. This novel study investigates the effect of gusty hurricane wind forces on the driving behavior and vehicle performance. The study explores how the parameters of a driving simulator could be modified to reproduce wind loadings experienced by three vehicle types (passenger car, ambulance, and bus) during gusty hurricane winds, through manipulation of appropriate software. Thirty participants were then tested on the modified driving simulator under five wind conditions (ranging from normal to hurricane category 4). The driving performance measures used were heading error and lateral displacement. The results showed that higher wind forces resulted in more varied and greater heading error and lateral displacement. The ambulance had the greatest heading errors and lateral displacements, which were attributed to its large lateral surface area and light weight. Two mathematical models were developed to estimate the heading error and lateral displacements for each of the vehicle types for a given change in lateral wind force. Through a questionnaire, participants felt the different characteristics while driving each vehicle type. The findings of this study demonstrate the valuable use of a driving simulator to model the behavior of different vehicle types and to develop mathematical models to estimate and quantify driving behavior and vehicle performance under hurricane wind conditions.

  17. An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan; Espié, Stéphane; Mårdh, Selina; Jansson, Jonas; Lundgren, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's ...

  18. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  19. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yihe Sun; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Kun Li; Yifei Jiang; Jie Wu

    2011-01-01

    Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system l...

  20. State of development of drive systems for electric vehicles; Entwicklungsstand der Antriebe fuer Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecksch, E. [Siemens AG, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The overview shows the newest state of drive systems for electric vehicles. First the characteristics of asynchronous and synchronous drive systems are explained. Then the importance of quality software for the vehicle and the drive control is described. Finally the current phase and effort of industrialisation of these drive systems is explained. (orig.) [German] In der Uebersicht wird der neueste Stand der Antriebe fuer Elektroautos behandelt. Zunaechst wird auf die Charakteristika von Asynchron- und Synchron-Antriebssystemen eingegangen. Danach wird aufgezeigt, welche Bedeutung Qualitaetssoftware fuer das Fahrzeug und die Antriebsregelung hat. Abschliessend wird dargelegt, in welchen Phasen und mit welchem Aufwand die Industrialisierung dieser Antriebssysteme erfolgt. (orig.)

  1. "Charge while driving" for electric vehicles: road traffic modeling and energy assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesco Paolo DEFLORIO; Luca CASTELLO; Ivano PINNA; Paolo GUGLIELMI

    2015-01-01

      Issue Title: Special Issue on Electric Vehicles and Their Integration with Power Grid The aim of this research study is to present a method for analyzing the performance of the wireless inductive charge-while-driving (CWD...

  2. Research on Control Strategy of Two Independent Rear Wheels Drive Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Daming; Zong, Changfu

    The 4 DOFS dynamic simulation model of two independent rear wheels drive electric vehicle was built by the Matlab/Simulink software. Asynchronous motors were used in the drive wheels .The motor vector control algorithm and the slip ratio differential control strategy are put forward in this paper. Simulation results showed that dynamic control of motor torque could be achieved with the vector control system and good steering stability of electric vehicle could be realized with differential algorithm.

  3. DESIGN OF A COMPACT DUAL-PURPOSE STARTING CLUTCH IN THE DRIVE OF A PROTOTYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PETRÓCI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the development of a dual-purpose clutch was based on racing experiences and application requirements, as well as the results from testing the new power unit in the existing prototype vehicle. In order to achieve the highest possible driving range of the prototype vehicle, it has been necessary to eliminate the maximum possible losses and drive in unnecessary components. The design aimed to achieve simple access, reliability and low weight.

  4. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  5. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  6. The effect of average cycling current on total energy of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Widanalage, W. D.; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the remaining range of a battery reliably, accurately and simply is imperative for effective power management of electrified vehicles and reducing driver anxiety resulting from perceived low driving range. Techniques for predicting the remaining range of an electric vehicle exist; in the best cases they are scaled by factors that account for expected energy losses due to driving style, environmental conditions and the use of on-board energy consuming devices such as air-conditioning. In this work, experimental results that establish the dependence of remaining electrical energy on the vehicle battery immediate cycling history are presented. A method to estimate the remaining energy given short-term cycling history is presented. This method differs from the traditional state of charge methods typically used in battery management systems by considering energy throughput more directly.

  7. Vehicle Velocity and Roll Angle Estimation with Road and Friction Adaptation for Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle velocity and roll angle are important information for active safety control systems of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. In order to obtain robustness estimation of vehicle velocity and roll angle, a novel method is proposed based on vehicle dynamics and the measurement information provided by the sensors equipped in modern cars. The method is robust with respect to different road and friction conditions. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle are analyzed, and a four-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of vehicle and a tire longitudinal dynamic equation are established. The relationship between the longitudinal and lateral friction forces is derived based on Dugoff tire model. The unknown input reconstruction technique of sliding mode observer is used to achieve longitudinal tire friction force estimation. A simple observer is designed for the estimation of the roll angle of the vehicle. And then using the relationship, the estimated longitudinal friction forces and roll angle, a sliding mode observer for vehicle velocity estimation is provided, which does not need to know the tire-road friction coefficient and road angles. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions.

  8. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  9. Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Borgman, Frank; Kamminga, Jaap; Hoek, Gerard

    Recent studies have suggested that exposures during traffic participation may be associated with adverse health effects. Traffic participation involves relatively short but high exposures. Potentially relevant exposures include ultrafine particles, fine particles (PM 2.5) and noise. Simultaneously, detailed real time exposure of particle number concentration (PNC), PM 2.5 and noise has been measured while driving and cycling 12 predefined routes of approximately 10-20 min duration. Sampling took place in eleven medium-sized Dutch cities on eleven weekdays in August till October 2006. To investigate variability in cyclists exposure, we systematically collected information on meteorology, GPS coordinates, type of road, traffic intensity, passing vehicles and mopeds while cycling. The overall mean PNC of car drivers was 5% higher than the mean PNC of cyclists. The overall mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the car was 11% higher than during cycling. Slightly higher 1-min peak concentrations were measured in the car (PNC 14%; PM 2.5 29% for 95-percentiles). Shorter duration peaks of PNC were higher during cycling (43% for 99-percentile of 1-s averages). Peaks in PNC typically last for less than 10 s. A large variability of exposure was found within and between routes. Factors that significantly predicted PNC variability during cycling were: passing vehicles (mopeds, cars), waiting for traffic lights, passing different types of (large) intersections and bicycle lanes and bike paths close to motorized traffic. No relation was found between PM 2.5 and those predictor variables. The correlation between PNC and noise was moderate (median 0.34). PM 2.5 had very low correlations with PNC and noise. PNC and PM 2.5 exposure of car drivers was slightly higher than that of cyclists. PNC was largely uncorrelated with PM 2.5 and reflected local traffic variables more than PM 2.5. Different factors were associated with high PNC and high noise exposures.

  10. Characterization of the near-term electric vehicle (ETV-1) breadboard propulsion system over the SAE J227a driving schedule D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.; Dustin, M. O.

    1981-01-01

    The electric test vehicle one (ETV-1) was built from the ground up with present state of the art technology. Two vehicles were built and are presently being evaluated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A duplicate set of propulsion system components was built, mounted on a breadboard, and delivered to NASA's Lewis Research Center for testing on the road load simulator (RLS). Driving cycle tests completed on the system are described.

  11. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  12. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Now days battery fed electric drives are commonly being used for electric vehicles applications, due to various advantages, such as: nearly zero emission, guaranteed load leveling, good transient operation and energy recovery during braking operation.

  13. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Now days battery fed electric drives are commonly being used for electric vehicles applications, due to various advantages, such as: nearly zero emission, guaranteed load leveling, good transient operation and energy recovery during braking operation.

  14. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...... to six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly sensitive to driving pattern and weather variables. The most important determinants of energy......-effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel...

  15. Development and applications of GREET 2.7 -- The Transportation Vehicle-CycleModel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Wu, Y.

    2006-12-20

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a vehicle-cycle module for the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been cited extensively and contains data on fuel cycles and vehicle operations. The vehicle-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The current model includes six vehicles--a conventional material and a lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems: internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.

  16. Pilot Study of Systems to Drive Autonomous Vehicles on Test Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Agardt, Erik; Löfgren, Markus

    2008-01-01

    This Master’s thesis is a pilot study that investigates different systems to drive autonomous and non-autonomous vehicles simultaneously on test tracks. The thesis includes studies of communication, positioning, collision avoidance, and techniques for surveillance of vehicles which are suitable for implementation. The investigation results in a suggested system outline. Differential GPS combined with laser scanner vision is used for vehicle state estimation (position, heading, velocity, etc.)...

  17. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF DRIVING CONDITIONS AND ON-ROAD EMISSIONS TRENDS FOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad H. Al-rifai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of road grade, vehicle speed, nu mber of vehicles and vehicle type on vehicle emissions. ANOVA analyses were conducte d among different driving conditions and vehicle emissions to discover the signif icant effects of driving conditions on measured emission rates. This study is intended t o improve the understanding of vehicle emission levels in Jordan. Gas emissio ns in real-world driving conditions were measured by a por table emissions measurement un it over six sections of an urban road. The road grade, speed, type and number of veh icles were found to have a significant influence on the rate of gas emissions. Road grade and diesel-fueled vehicles were positively correlate d with average emission rates . The average emission rates were higher at speeds ranging between 60–69 km/h than at three other speed ranges. The results of ANOVA showed a strong and consistent reg ression between rates of emissions measured and grade, speed and diesel vehicle parameters. The grade parameter contributed the most to the rate of emissions compare d to other parameters. Gasoline vehicles contributed the least.

  18. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maharun Mui’nuddin; Mohd Nor Mohamad Noor Iman

    2014-01-01

    Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV) in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control...

  19. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  20. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  1. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  2. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  3. Sensorless induction motor drive for electric vehicle application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach is applied to an existing commercial utility electric vehicle where previously used direct current (DC) series motor was replaced by the new AC induction ... induction motor, field oriented control, sensorless control. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 10, 2010, pp. 20-34 ...

  4. Driving with intelligent vehicles: driving behaviour with Adaptive Cruise Control and the acceptance by individual drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the following research questions: What are the effects of driver support systems on driving behaviour? To what extent will driver support systems be accepted by individual drivers? To what extent will driving behaviour and acceptance be determined by individual differences?

  5. Sleep-deprived motor vehicle operators are unfit to drive: a multidisciplinary expert consensus statement on drowsy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A; Wickwire, Emerson M; Barger, Laura K; Dement, William C; Gamble, Karen; Hartenbaum, Natalie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Pelayo, Rafael; Phillips, Barbara; Strohl, Kingman; Tefft, Brian; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Malhotra, Raman; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the consensus findings of the National Sleep Foundation Drowsy Driving Consensus Working Group, which was an expert panel assembled to establish a consensus statement regarding sleep-related driving impairment. The National Sleep Foundation assembled a expert panel comprised of experts from the sleep community and experts appointed by stakeholder organizations. A systematic literature review identified 346 studies that were abstracted and provided to the panelists for review. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 2 rounds of voting was used to reach consensus. A final consensus was reached that sleep deprivation renders motorists unfit to drive a motor vehicle. After reviewing growing evidence of impairment and increased crash risk among drivers who obtained less than optimal sleep duration in the preceding 24 hours, the panelists recognized the need for public policy guidance as to when it is certainly unsafe to drive. Toward this end, the panelists agreed upon the following expert consensus statement: "Drivers who have slept for two hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are not fit to operate a motor vehicle." Panelists further agreed that most healthy drivers would likely be impaired with only 3 to 5 hours of sleep during the prior 24 hours. There is consensus among experts that healthy individuals who have slept for 2 hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle. Prevention of drowsy driving will require sustained and collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Does crash risk increase when emergency vehicles are driving with lights and sirens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missikpode, Celestin; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Young, Tracy; Hamann, Cara

    2018-02-10

    Emergency vehicles, such as police, ambulances, and fire vehicles, need to arrive at the scene of emergencies as quickly as possible, and thus they often travel in emergency mode - using their lights and sirens and often bypassing traffic signals. We examined whether travelling in emergency mode increased crash risk among police, ambulance and fire vehicles. We conducted a quasi-induced exposure analysis using data from the Iowa Crash Database for the period of 2005 through 2013. The data are maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (IADOT), Office of Driver Services (ODS) and includes all investigating police officer's reports of motor vehicle crashes. The quasi-induced exposure method is an approach to calculate crash risk in the absence of exposure data using vehicles without a contributing cause (did not contribute to the crash) as a proxy for the baseline driving population. From 2005 - 2013, police vehicles were involved in 2406 crashes and ambulances and fire vehicles were involved in 528 crashes. Police vehicles were 1.8 times more likely to crash while driving in emergency mode than usual mode; this was a statistically significant increase. Ambulance and fire vehicles were not more likely to crash in emergency mode compared with usual mode. For police, other factors that contributed to crash risk included gender, age, icy/snowy roads, unpaved roads, and intersections. For ambulances and fire vehicles, other factors that contributed to crash risk included gender, age, weekends, icy/snowy roads and urban locations. Crash risk increased when police vehicles drove with lights and sirens but did not increase for ambulance and fire vehicles. Further research is necessary to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate crash risk among police vehicles. Cultural approaches which prioritize transportation safety in conjunction with reaching the scene as quickly as possible may be warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  8. Dynamics control of autonomous vehicle at driving limits and experiment on an autonomous formula racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamics controller for autonomous vehicle to simultaneously control it to the driving limits and follow the desired path is proposed. The dynamics controller consists of longitudinal and lateral controllers. In longitudinal controller, the G-G diagram is utilized to describe the driving and handling limits of the vehicle. The accurate G-G diagram is obtained based on phase plane approach and a nonlinear vehicle dynamic model with accurate tyre model. In lateral controller, the tyre cornering stiffness is estimated to improve the robustness of the controller. The stability analysis of the closed-looped error dynamics shows that the controller remains stable against parameters uncertainties in extreme condition such as tyre saturation. Finally, an electric autonomous Formula race car developed by the authors is used to validate the proposed controller. The autonomous driving experiment on an oval race track shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller.

  9. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  10. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  11. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  12. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts....../discharging availability of the vehicles along the day were obtained. Two types of EV availabilities were studied in this paper considering different charging/discharging conditions of EVs for the power system integration, i.e. EV availability all day andEV availability at home. The results show that the daily driving...

  13. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  14. Effects of vehicle interior geometry and anthropometric variables on automobile driving posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M P; Manary, M A; Flannagan, C A; Schneider, L W

    2000-01-01

    The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering wheel position, and seat cushion angle. Two seats differing in stiffness and seat back contour were used in testing. Driving postures were recorded using a sonic digitizer to measure the 3D locations of body landmarks. All test variables had significant independent effects on driving posture. Drivers were found to adapt to changes in the vehicle geometry primarily by changes in limb posture, whereas torso posture remained relatively constant. Stature accounts for most of the anthropometrically related variability in driving posture, and gender differences appear to be explained by body size variation. Large intersubject differences in torso posture, which are fairly stable across different seat and package conditions, are not closely related to standard anthropometric measures. The findings can be used to predict the effects of changes in vehicle and seat design on driving postures for populations with a wide range of anthropometric characteristics.

  15. Model based Fault Detection and Isolation for Driving Motors of a Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes model based current sensor and position sensor fault detection and isolation algorithm for driving motor of In-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. From low level perspective, fault diagnosis conducted and analyzed to enhance robustness and stability. Composing state equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM, current sensor fault and position sensor fault diagnosed with parity equation. Validation and usefulness of algorithm confirmed based on IPMSM fault occurrence simulation data.

  16. Life cycle cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents progress to date by the University of Dayton on the development of a life cycle cost model for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of a life cycle cost model. Cost categories are initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. The focus will be on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the life cycle costing model include continual support and upgrade of the R&M model. The primary result of the completed research will be a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely cost analysis in support of the conceptual design activities. The major objectives of this research are: to obtain and to develop improved methods for estimating manpower, spares, software and hardware costs, facilities costs, and other cost categories as identified by NASA personnel; to construct a life cycle cost model of a space transportation system for budget exercises and performance-cost trade-off analysis during the conceptual and development stages; to continue to support modifications and enhancements to the R&M model; and to continue to assist in the development of a simulation model to provide an integrated view of the operations and support of the proposed system.

  17. BRUSHLESS VALVE ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH MINIMUM EQUIPMENT EXCESS FOR AUTONOMOUS FLOATING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. B. Volyanskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a brushless valve electric drive with a minimum apparatus excess for an autonomous floating vehicle. Methodology. The construction of models of an automated electric drive with a contactless DC motor and the subsequent technical implementation of such automated electric drive under various control methods are possible using coordinate transformations of differential equations describing the electric motor under the assumed assumptions. Results. The analysis of the current state of an automated electric drive with a brushless DC motor in a special technique is carried out, possible directions for the improvement of automated electric drives are determined. A simple technical solution of an automated electric drive with a brushless DC motor was proposed and its mathematical model for an electric drive of an automatic floating vehicle with improved technical and economic parameters was developed. Model of an automated electric drive with a brushless DC motor are carried out. Originality. A simple technical solution for the construction of an automated electric drive with a brushless DC motor is proposed, which excludes the use of intermediate computation of coordinates and an expensive encoder. Practical value. Model of the proposed scheme of an automated electric drive with a minimum hardware redundancy, which confirmed the operability of the proposed solution, were carried out. Analysis of the dynamic and static characteristics of the proposed scheme of an automated asynchronous electric drive with a brushless DC motor with a simplified rotor position sensor has made it possible to determine the maximum speed control range with an allowable level of its pulsations.

  18. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  19. Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    electric vehicles (BEVs) and provides insight into the factors that affect their energy consumption by harnessing big data from real-world driving. The analysis relied on four data sources: (i) driving patterns collected from 741 drivers over a two-year period; (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road...... type; (iv) weather conditions. The results of the analysis measure the mean ECR of BEVs at 0.183 kW h/km, underline a 34% increase in ECR and a 25% decrease in driving range in the winter with respect to the summer, and suggest the electricity tariff for BEVs to be cost efficient with respect...... to conventional ones. Moreover, the results of the analysis show that driving speed, acceleration and temperature have non-linear effects on the ECR, while season and precipitation level have a strong linear effect. The econometric model of the ECR of BEVs suggests that the optimal driving speed is between 45...

  20. Vehicle Routing with Traffic Congestion and Drivers' Driving and Working Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport

  1. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...

  2. Generic methodology for driving range estimation of electric vehicle with on-road charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical estimation of driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) with contactIess on-road charging system is presented in this paper. Inductive power transfer (IPT) systems with different configurations (static, dynamic), power levels and road coverage have different (and non-linear) impact on

  3. 32 CFR 634.9 - Suspension or revocation of driving or privately owned vehicle registration privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE..., family members, retired members of the military services, DOD civilian personnel, and others with... to military traffic supervision. (3) Driving privileges will be revoked for a mandatory period of not...

  4. A hierarchical detection method in external communication for self-driving vehicles based on TDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-ani, Muzhir Shaban; McDonald-Maier, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Security is considered a major challenge for self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles. These vehicles depend heavily on communications to predict and sense their external environment used in their motion. They use a type of ad hoc network termed Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Unfortunately, VANETs are potentially exposed to many attacks on network and application level. This paper, proposes a new intrusion detection system to protect the communication system of self-driving cars; utilising a combination of hierarchical models based on clusters and log parameters. This security system is designed to detect Sybil and Wormhole attacks in highway usage scenarios. It is based on clusters, utilising Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to overcome some of the obstacles of VANETs such as high density, high mobility and bandwidth limitations in exchanging messages. This makes the security system more efficient, accurate and capable of real time detection and quick in identification of malicious behaviour in VANETs. In this scheme, each vehicle log calculates and stores different parameter values after receiving the cooperative awareness messages from nearby vehicles. The vehicles exchange their log data and determine the difference between the parameters, which is utilised to detect Sybil attacks and Wormhole attacks. In order to realize efficient and effective intrusion detection system, we use the well-known network simulator (ns-2) to verify the performance of the security system. Simulation results indicate that the security system can achieve high detection rates and effectively detect anomalies with low rate of false alarms. PMID:29315302

  5. A hierarchical detection method in external communication for self-driving vehicles based on TDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheeti, Khattab M Ali; Al-Ani, Muzhir Shaban; McDonald-Maier, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Security is considered a major challenge for self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles. These vehicles depend heavily on communications to predict and sense their external environment used in their motion. They use a type of ad hoc network termed Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Unfortunately, VANETs are potentially exposed to many attacks on network and application level. This paper, proposes a new intrusion detection system to protect the communication system of self-driving cars; utilising a combination of hierarchical models based on clusters and log parameters. This security system is designed to detect Sybil and Wormhole attacks in highway usage scenarios. It is based on clusters, utilising Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to overcome some of the obstacles of VANETs such as high density, high mobility and bandwidth limitations in exchanging messages. This makes the security system more efficient, accurate and capable of real time detection and quick in identification of malicious behaviour in VANETs. In this scheme, each vehicle log calculates and stores different parameter values after receiving the cooperative awareness messages from nearby vehicles. The vehicles exchange their log data and determine the difference between the parameters, which is utilised to detect Sybil attacks and Wormhole attacks. In order to realize efficient and effective intrusion detection system, we use the well-known network simulator (ns-2) to verify the performance of the security system. Simulation results indicate that the security system can achieve high detection rates and effectively detect anomalies with low rate of false alarms.

  6. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  7. Using discriminant analysis to detect intrusions in external communication for self-driving vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab M.Ali Alheeti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Security systems are a necessity for the deployment of smart vehicles in our society. Security in vehicular ad hoc networks is crucial to the reliable exchange of information and control data. In this paper, we propose an intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS to protect the external communication of self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles. This technology has the ability to detect Denial of Service (DoS and black hole attacks on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. The advantage of the proposed IDS over existing security systems is that it detects attacks before they causes significant damage. The intrusion prediction technique is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA which are used to predict attacks based on observed vehicle behavior. We perform simulations using Network Simulator 2 to demonstrate that the IDS achieves a low rate of false alarms and high accuracy in detection.

  8. Data Acquisition System for Electric Vehicle's Driving Motor Test Bench Based on VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Song; Chenguang, Lv

    In order to solve such problems as great labor intensity, high cost, low efficiency and accuracy during the performance experiment for driving motor system of electric vehicles, and realize data acquisition automatically and synchronously, a data acquisition system for driving motor test bench based on visual instruments is designed. This data acquisition system can be used to obtain the driving motor's parameters of currents and voltages at the same time. This system's hardware is based on electric vehicle's motor test bench in Beijing Institute of Technology, and combined with PXI2010 data acquisition card from ADLINK Company. Visual c++ software is adopted as development tool. In this paper, the design and realization of the hardware and software are presented. Experiment results show that this system improves the efficiency and quality of testing task with high utility. And experiment data can be obtained accurately.

  9. Modelling and modal properties of the railway vehicle bogie with two individual wheelset drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of two-axled bogie of a railway vehicle. In comparison with recent publications introducing mathematical models of an individual wheelset drive, this paper is focused on modelling of complex bogie vibration. The bogie frame is linked by primary suspension to the two wheelset drives with hollow shafts and by secondary suspension to the car body. The method is based on the system decomposition into three subsystems – two individual wheelset drives including the mass of the rail and the bogie frame coupled with a half of the car body – and on modelling of couplings among subsystems. The eigenvalues of a linearized autonomous model and stability conditions are investigated in dependence on longitudinal creepage and forward velocity of the railway vehicle. The nonlinear model will be used for investigating the dynamic loading of bogie components caused by different types of excitation.

  10. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  11. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  12. Circadian clock NAD+ cycle drives mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Clara Bien; Affinati, Alison H; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Yu, Wei; Sena, Laura A; Ilkayeva, Olga; Marcheva, Biliana; Kobayashi, Yumiko; Omura, Chiaki; Levine, Daniel C; Bacsik, David J; Gius, David; Newgard, Christopher B; Goetzman, Eric; Chandel, Navdeep S; Denu, John M; Mrksich, Milan; Bass, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation to synchronize oxidative metabolic pathways with the 24-hour fasting and feeding cycle. Circadian control of the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) generated rhythms in the acetylation and activity of oxidative enzymes and respiration in isolated mitochondria, and NAD(+) supplementation restored protein deacetylation and enhanced oxygen consumption in circadian mutant mice. Thus, circadian control of NAD(+) bioavailability modulates mitochondrial oxidative function and organismal metabolism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding.

  13. ANALYS OF EXPERIMENTAL HYBRID CAR TESTING RESULTS ON URBAN DRIVING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental hybrid car testing results are presented. The estimation of hybrid car draft-speed characteristics, energy and ecological indicators on urban driving cycle are given.

  14. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vehicle impoundments improve drinking and driving licence suspension outcomes: Large-scale evidence from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick A; Ma, Tracey; Elzohairy, Yoassry

    2016-10-01

    Although vehicle impoundment has become a common sanction for various driving offences, large-scale evaluations of its effectiveness in preventing drinking and driving recidivism are almost non-existent in the peer-reviewed literature. One reason is that impoundment programs have typically been introduced simultaneously with other countermeasures, rendering it difficult to disentangle any observed effects. Previous studies of impoundment effectiveness conducted when such programs were implemented in isolation have typically been restricted to small jurisdictions, making high-quality evaluation difficult. In contrast, Ontario's "long-term" and "seven-day" impoundment programs were implemented in relative isolation, but with tight relationships to already existing drinking and driving suspensions. In this work, we used offence data produced by Ontario's population of over 9 million licensed drivers to perform interrupted time series analysis on drinking and driving recidivism and on rates of driving while suspended for drinking and driving. Our results demonstrate two key findings: (1) impoundment, or its threat, improves compliance with drinking and driving licence suspensions; and (2) addition of impoundment to suspension reduces drinking and driving recidivism, possibly through enhanced suspension compliance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Microbial Engines That Drive Earth's Biogeochemical Cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul G. Falkowski; Tom Fenchel; Edward F. Delong

    2008-01-01

    .... Hence, although there is enormous genetic diversity in nature, there remains a relatively stable set of core genes coding for the major redox reactions essential for life and biogeochemical cycles...

  17. Safely towards self-driving vehicles : new opportunities new risks and new challenges during the automation of the traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van & Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    There are more and more systems on the market to support the driver in his vehicle. Step by step the automation of our vehicles increases, the traffic system is in a transition towards self-driving vehicles. The automation offers opportunities to make our traffic safer, cleaner and more efficient.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  20. An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Dolz, Vicente; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrated that real-world emissions usually exceed the levels achieved in the laboratory based type approval processes. By means of on-board emissions measurements, it has been shown that nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel engines substantially exceed the limit imposed by the Euro 6 regulation. Thus, with the aim of complementing the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle, the real driving emissions cycle will be introduced after 1 September 2017 to regulate the vehicle emissions in real-world driving situations. This paper presents on-board gaseous emissions measurements from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle in a real-world driving route using a portable emissions measurement system. The test route characteristics follow the requirements imposed by the RDE regulation. The analysis of the raw emissions results suggests that the greatest amount of nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide are emitted during the urban section of the test route, confirming that lower speeds with more accelerations and decelerations lead to higher nitrogen oxides emissions levels than constant high speeds. Moreover, the comparison of the two calculation methods proposed by the real driving emissions regulation has revealed emissions rates differences ranging from 10% to 45% depending on the pollutant emission and the trip section considered (urban or total). Thus, the nitrogen oxides emissions conformity factor slightly varies from one method to the other.

  1. Analysis of vehicle and driving condition influences on road classification from vehicle signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Schmeitz, R.M.T.; Wouters, A.P.; Teerhuis, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Suspension settings generally are a compromise for performance on different road roughness and stability requirements. With a priori information of the road roughness a superior performance can be achieved, and this information can be obtained from vehicle based road classification methods that use

  2. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  3. Driving cycle characterization and generation, for design and control of fuel cell buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Bram Veenhuizen; P. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar

    2009-01-01

    Optimization routines for battery, supercap and fuel cell stack in a fuel cell based propulsion system face two problems: the tendency to cycle beating and the necessity to maintain identical amounts of stored energy in battery and supercap at the start and end of the driving cycle used in the

  4. Electric drives in the vehicle sector. Textbook and manual. 2. enl. ed.; Elektrische Antriebe in der Fahrzeugtechnik. Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiel, Gerhard [FH Dortmund (Germany). Fahrzeugtechnik

    2009-07-01

    The text book under consideration reports on the fundamentals of power generation, energy conversion, induction engine a well as their application in drive systems such as hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. First of all, current and future energy sources for power train drives are presented and compared with one another. Subsequently, electro-chemical energy stores and energy converters such as fuel cell or double-layer condensers are considered. These energy storages and energy converters are used in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Additionally, the transformer and the central topic of interest 'Electrical Engines' are considered. Not only standard machines (direct current motor, asynchronous motor, synchronous motor, linear motor) will be described but also engines which are applied in future passenger car drives and railway drives (reluctance motor, transverse flow engine, BLDC engine). Drive systems are presented by the example of an electric locomotive and a magnetic levitation transport system (superconducting MAGLEV).

  5. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  6. The effects of disruption in attention on driving performance patterns: analysis of jerk-cost function and vehicle control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Dong-Won; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Yu, Na-Rae; Lim, Dae-Woon; Min, Byung-Chan; Tack, Gye-Rae; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2013-07-01

    This study analyzes the effects of attention disruption factors, such as sending text messages (STM) and performing searching navigation (SN) on driving performance patterns while actively driving, centering on motion signals. To this end, it analyzes not only data on control of the vehicle including the Anterior-Posterior Coefficient of Variation (APCV), Medial-Lateral Coefficient of Variation (MLCV), and Deviation of Vehicle Speed but also motion data such as the Jerk-Cost function (JC). A total of 55 drivers including 28 males (age: 24.1 ± 1.5, driving experience: 1.8 years ± 1.7 years) and 27 females (age: 23.8 ± 2.6, driving experience: 1.5 ± 1.0) participated in this study. All subjects were instructed to drive at a constant speed (90 km/h) for 2 min while keeping a distance of 30 m from the front car also running at a speed of 90 km/h. They were requested to drive for the first 1 min and then drive only (Driving Only) or conduct tasks while driving for the subsequent 1 min (Driving + STM or Driving + SN). The information on APCV, MLCV, and deviation of speed were delivered by a driving simulator. Furthermore, the motion signal was measured using 4 high-speed infrared cameras and based on the measurement results, JCs in a total of 6 parts including left shoulder (L.shoulder), left elbow (L.elbow), left hand (L.hand), right knee (R.knee), right ankle (R.ankle), and right toe (R.toe) were calculated. Differences among the results of 3 conditions of experiment, Driving Only, Driving + STM, and Driving + SN, were compared and analyzed in terms of APCV, MLCV, Deviation of Vehicle Speed, and JC. APCV and Deviation of Vehicle Speed increased in Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. MLCV increased in Driving + STM and Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. In the case of most JCs except that of L.hand, the values increased in Driving + SN, compared to Driving Only. This study indicated that JC could be a reliable parameter for the evaluation of driving

  7. Solid polymer fuel cell favourable for vehicle drive. Vaste polymeer brandstofcel kansrijk voor voertuigaandrijving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, D. (Hoofdgroep Energie en Milieu TNO, Delft (Netherlands))

    1991-05-01

    A fuel cell drive equipped vehicle can lead to a reduction of the energy consumption and the emissions. However, fuel cells are still too large, too heavy and too expensive to be applicated in cars. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) seem to offer the best prospects. A brief overview is given of developments in the fuel cell technology. Some demonstration programs and research activities in Europe are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 ill., 3 refs., 1 tab.

  8. The microbial engines that drive Earth's biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Paul G; Fenchel, Tom; Delong, Edward F

    2008-05-23

    Virtually all nonequilibrium electron transfers on Earth are driven by a set of nanobiological machines composed largely of multimeric protein complexes associated with a small number of prosthetic groups. These machines evolved exclusively in microbes early in our planet's history yet, despite their antiquity, are highly conserved. Hence, although there is enormous genetic diversity in nature, there remains a relatively stable set of core genes coding for the major redox reactions essential for life and biogeochemical cycles. These genes created and coevolved with biogeochemical cycles and were passed from microbe to microbe primarily by horizontal gene transfer. A major challenge in the coming decades is to understand how these machines evolved, how they work, and the processes that control their activity on both molecular and planetary scales.

  9. The Microbial Engines That Drive Earth’s Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Paul G.; Fenchel, Tom; Delong, Edward F.

    2008-05-01

    Virtually all nonequilibrium electron transfers on Earth are driven by a set of nanobiological machines composed largely of multimeric protein complexes associated with a small number of prosthetic groups. These machines evolved exclusively in microbes early in our planet’s history yet, despite their antiquity, are highly conserved. Hence, although there is enormous genetic diversity in nature, there remains a relatively stable set of core genes coding for the major redox reactions essential for life and biogeochemical cycles. These genes created and coevolved with biogeochemical cycles and were passed from microbe to microbe primarily by horizontal gene transfer. A major challenge in the coming decades is to understand how these machines evolved, how they work, and the processes that control their activity on both molecular and planetary scales.

  10. Driving Performance After Self-Regulated Control Transitions in Highly Automated Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Alexander; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed. Twenty-six drivers drove two scenarios with an automated driving feature activated. Drivers were asked to read a newspaper or monitor the system and relinquish or resume control from the automation when prompted by vehicle systems. Driving performance in terms of lane positioning and steering behavior was assessed for 20 seconds post resuming control to capture the resulting level of control. It was found that lane positioning was virtually unaffected for the duration of the 20-second time span in both automated conditions compared to the manual baseline when drivers resumed manual control; however, significant increases in the standard deviation of steering input were found for both automated conditions compared to baseline. No significant differences were found between the two automated conditions. The results indicate that when drivers self-paced the transfer back to manual control they exhibit less of the detrimental effects observed in system-paced conditions. It was shown that self-paced transitions could reduce the risk of accidents near the edge of the operational design domain. Vehicle manufacturers must consider these benefits when designing contemporary systems.

  11. Driving with advanced vehicle technology: A qualitative investigation of older drivers' perceptions and motivations for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Jessica; Vrkljan, Brenda; Grenier, Amanda; Van Miltenburg, Benita

    2017-09-01

    For older drivers, in-vehicle technology offers much potential to improve safety and increase longevity of retaining both licensure and community mobility. However, little is known about how older drivers perceive Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVTs) based on everyday driving experience. Interviews with 35 older drivers (20 men; 15 women) aged 60-85 who owned a vehicle with at least two AVTs (e.g., back-up camera, lane departure warning) were conducted to explore the meanings that older drivers assigned to AVTs and motivations for use, including whether age-related functional changes were part of their automobile purchase decision. Findings indicate that age-related changes are not a primary reason for why older adults seek out AVTs, but they still perceived and experienced AVTs to counteract age-related changes in driving performance based upon changes they felt occurring within the body. Older drivers also described AVTs as generating a sense of comfort behind-the-wheel. Comfort with this technology was equated with convenience, ease of use, and increased feelings of safety. Discussion emphasizes how assessments of the quality of driving performance and value of technology occur in relation to an aging body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  13. Modelling the Effect of Driving Events on Electrical Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and climate change are some of the main problems that humankind is currently facing. The electrification of the transport sector will help to reduce these problems, but one of the major barriers for the massive adoption of electric vehicles is their limited range. The energy consumption in these vehicles is affected, among other variables, by the driving behavior, making range a value that must be personalized to each driver and each type of electric vehicle. In this paper we offer a way to estimate a personalized energy consumption model by the use of the vehicle dynamics and the driving events detected by the use of the smartphone inertial sensors, allowing an easy and non-intrusive manner to predict the correct range for each user. This paper proposes, for the classification of events, a deep neural network (Long-Short Time Memory which has been trained with more than 22,000 car trips, and the application to improve the consumption model taking into account the driver behavior captured across different trips, allowing a personalized prediction. Results and validation in real cases show that errors in the predicted consumption values are halved when abrupt events are considered in the model.

  14. A novel integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Zong, Changfu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a systematic design with multiple hierarchical layers is adopted in the integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles. A reference model and the optimal preview acceleration driver model are utilised in the driver control layer to describe and realise the driver's anticipation of the vehicle's handling characteristics, respectively. Both the sliding mode control and terminal sliding mode control techniques are employed in the vehicle motion control (MC) layer to determine the MC efforts such that better tracking performance can be attained. In the tyre force allocation layer, a polygonal simplification method is proposed to deal with the constraints of the tyre adhesive limits efficiently and effectively, whereby the load transfer due to both roll and pitch is also taken into account which directly affects the constraints. By calculating the motor torque and steering angle of each wheel in the executive layer, the total workload of four wheels is minimised during normal driving, whereas the MC efforts are maximised in extreme handling conditions. The proposed controller is validated through simulation to improve vehicle stability and handling performance in both open- and closed-loop manoeuvres.

  15. Design and Optimization of the Power Management Strategy of an Electric Drive Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the power management control strategy of electric drive system and, in particular, improves the fuel economy for electric drive tracked vehicles. Combined with theoretical analysis and experimental data, real-time control oriented models of electric drive system are established. Taking into account the workloads of engine and the SOC (state of charge of battery, a fuzzy logic based power management control strategy is proposed. In order to achieve a further improvement in fuel economic, a DEHPSO algorithm (differential evolution based hybrid particle swarm optimization is adopted to optimize the membership functions of fuzzy controller. Finally, to verify the validity of control strategy, a HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform is built based on dSPACE and related experiments are carried out. The results indicate that the proposed strategy obtained good effects on power management, which achieves high working efficiency and power output capacity. Optimized by DEHPSO algorithm, fuel consumption of the system is decreased by 4.88% and the fuel economy is obviously improved, which will offer an effective way to improve integrated performance of electric drive tracked vehicles.

  16. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jia-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  18. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Eaves, S.S. [Eaves Devices, Charlestown, RI (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  19. Assessment of risks for elevated NOx emissions of diesel vehicles outside the boundaries of RDE. Identifying relevant driving and vehicle conditions and possible abatement measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van; Cuelenaere, R.F.A.; Ligterink, N.E.

    2017-01-01

    With RDE (Real Driving Emissions) legislation a new chapter in emission testing has started for light-duty vehicles. RDE legislation poses new and more complex engineering targets for manufacturers. The expectation is that RDE will bring major improvements in the emission performance of LD vehicles

  20. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  1. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  2. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy... Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle...), determine the 5-cycle city fuel economy using the following equation: ER27DE06.037 Where: ER27DE06.038 Where...

  3. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John W; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with potential consequences for melting of Earth's interior. A numerical model of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that explicitly includes melt transport is used to calculate the melting effects that would be caused by Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations. Model results interpreted in the context of an analytical approximation predict sea-level induced variations in crustal thickness on the order of hundreds of meters. The specifics of the response depend on rates of sea-level change, mid-ocean ridge spreading rates, and mantle permeability. Spectral analysis of the bathymetry of the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows significant spectral energy near 23, 41, and 100 ky periods, consistent with model results and with the spectral content of Pleistocene sea-level variability. These results support the hypothesis that sea-floor topography records the magmatic response to changes in sea level, reinforcing the...

  4. Long-Life, Oil-Free, Light-Weight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A multi-roller "oil free" traction drive is under development for use on vehicles used in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary...

  5. Influences on dispatch of power generation when introducing electric drive vehicles in an Irish power system year 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Mullane, Alan; Meibom, Peter

    Increased focus on global warming and CO2 emissions imply increased focus on the energy system, consisting of the heat, power, and transport systems. Solutions for the heat and power system are increasing penetrations of renewable heat and power generation plants such as wind power and biomass heat...... plants. For the future transport system, electric drive vehicles are expected to be one of the solutions. Introducing different electric drive vehicle penetrations in a power system with a large amount of wind power, changes the usage of the predefined power system. This work presents investigations...... of different charging regimes’ influence of the power dispatch in the Irish power system. Analyses show an overall cost decrease and CO2 emission increase in the heat and power system with the introduction of electric drive vehicles. Furthermore, increased intelligence in the electric drive vehicle charging...

  6. Evaluating the Safety Benefits of a Low-Cost Driving Behavior Management System in Commercial Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This project provides an independent evaluation of a commercially available low-cost driving behavior management system. Participating drivers from two carriers (identified as Carrier A and Carrier B) drove an instrumented vehicle for 17 consecutive ...

  7. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  8. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  9. How much do electric drive vehicles matter to future U.S. emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Samaneh; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles--known collectively as electric drive vehicles (EDVs)--may represent a clean and affordable option to meet growing U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) demand. The goal of this study is 2-fold: identify the conditions under which EDVs achieve high LDV market penetration in the U.S. and quantify the associated change in CO2, SO2, and NOX emissions through midcentury. We employ the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES), a bottom-up energy system model, along with a U.S. data set developed for this analysis. To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. Across these scenarios, oil prices and battery cost have the biggest effect on EDV deployment. The model results do not demonstrate a clear and consistent trend toward lower system-wide emissions as EDV deployment increases. In addition to the trade-off between lower tailpipe and higher electric sector emissions associated with plug-in vehicles, the scenarios produce system-wide emissions effects that often mask the effect of EDV deployment.

  10. A Human-Machine-Cooperative-Driving Controller Based on AFS and DYC for Vehicle Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult and important project to coordinate active front steering (AFS and direct yaw moment control (DYC, which has great potential to improve vehicle dynamic stability. Moreover, the balance between driver’s operation and advanced technologies’ intervention is a critical problem. This paper proposes a human-machine-cooperative-driving controller (HMCDC with a hierarchical structure for vehicle dynamic stability and it consists of a supervisor, an upper coordination layer, and two lower layers (AFS and DYC. The range of AFS additional angle is constrained, with consideration of the influence of AFS on drivers’ feeling. First, in the supervisor, a nonlinear vehicle model was utilized to predict vehicle states, and the reference yaw rate, and side slip angle values were calculated. Then, the upper coordination layer decides the control object and control mode. At last, DYC and AFS calculate brake pressures and the range of active steering angle, respectively. The proposed HMCDC is evaluated by co-simulation of CarSim and MATLAB. Results show that the proposed controller could improve vehicle dynamic stability effectively for the premise of ensuring the driver’s intention.

  11. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  12. A Low Cost Sensors Approach for Accurate Vehicle Localization and Autonomous Driving Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vivacqua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous driving in public roads requires precise localization within the range of few centimeters. Even the best current precise localization system based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS can not always reach this level of precision, especially in an urban environment, where the signal is disturbed by surrounding buildings and artifacts. Laser range finder and stereo vision have been successfully used for obstacle detection, mapping and localization to solve the autonomous driving problem. Unfortunately, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDARs are very expensive sensors and stereo vision requires powerful dedicated hardware to process the cameras information. In this context, this article presents a low-cost architecture of sensors and data fusion algorithm capable of autonomous driving in narrow two-way roads. Our approach exploits a combination of a short-range visual lane marking detector and a dead reckoning system to build a long and precise perception of the lane markings in the vehicle’s backwards. This information is used to localize the vehicle in a map, that also contains the reference trajectory for autonomous driving. Experimental results show the successful application of the proposed system on a real autonomous driving situation.

  13. Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Rapone, Mario

    Within the European research project ARTEMIS, significant works have been conducted to analyse the hot emissions of pollutant from the passenger cars regarding the driving cycles and to propose modelling approaches taking into account large but heterogeneous datasets recorded in Europe. The review and analysis of a large range of test cycles enabled first the building-up of a set of contrasted cycles specifically designed for characterizing the influence of the driving conditions. These cycles were used for the measurement of the pollutants emission rates from nine passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions measured on 30 vehicles tested on cycles adapted to their motorization (i.e., cycles for high- or low-powered cars, inducing thus a significant difference in the dynamic) were also considered for analysing the influence of the cycles and of the kinematic parameters on the hot emission rates of the regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, CO 2, PM). An analyses of variance demonstrated the preponderance of the driving type (urban, rural road, motorway), of the vehicle category (fuel, emission standard) and emitting status (high/normal emitter) and thus the pertinence of analysing and modelling separately the corresponding emissions. It also demonstrated that Urban driving led systematically to high diesel emission rates and to high CO 2, HC and NO x emissions from petrol cars. Congested driving implied high CO 2 (diesel and petrol) and high diesel NO x emission. On motorway, the very high speeds generated high CO 2, while unsteady speeds induced diesel NO x and petrol CO over-emissions. A search for pertinent kinematic parameters showed that urban diesel emissions were mostly sensitive to stops and speed parameters, while petrol emissions were rather sensitive to acceleration parameters. On the motorway, diesel NO x and CO 2 emissions rates increased with the speed variability and occurrence of high speeds, while CO 2 and CO over-emission from petrol cars were

  14. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  15. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namju Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  16. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  17. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  18. Performance measurement of the upgraded Microcab-H4 with academic drive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Rais

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The original Microcab-H4, a hybrid fuel cell car, was tested with Academic drive cycle. After several years, the car was upgraded and tested with the ECE 15 drive cycle. The result showed the car has higher energy efficiency. However, the result could not be compared to the original car due to different drive cycle test. This research was done to measure the performance and energy efficiency of the Upgraded Microcab-H4 with Academic drive cycle. The measure of car energy efficiency was done through four tests: Run on battery, run on battery and Ballard fuel cell, and run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cell. The energy efficiency was calculated based on the hydrogen consumption after 5 cycles. The lowest energy efficiency was run on battery and Ballard fuel cell with (1.01 km/MJ. The highest energy efficiency was run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cells (1.10 km/MJ, which is higher than previous tests.

  19. Modelling and Improvement of Thermal Cycling in Power Electronics for Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    cycling of power devices in a motor drive application and modelling their impact on the thermal stress. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling in the power semiconductors have been modelled, and after investigating the dynamic behavior of the system, adverse temperature swings......It is well known that the dynamical change of the thermal stress in the power devices is one of the major factors that have influences on the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics. The main objective of this paper consists of identifying the main parameters that affect the thermal...... are identified during the acceleration and deceleration periods of the motor. The main causes for these adverse thermal cycles have been presented and, consequently, the influence of the deceleration slope, modulation technique and reactive current on the thermal cycles has been analyzed. Finally, the improved...

  20. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-05

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns.

  1. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  2. Life Cycle GHG of NG-Based Fuel and Electric Vehicle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG- based fuels to the GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs powered with NG-to-electricity in China. A life-cycle model is used to account for full fuel cycle and use-phase emissions, as well as vehicle cycle and battery manufacturing. The reduction of life-cycle GHG emissions of EVs charged by electricity generated from NG, without utilizing carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS technology can be 36%–47% when compared to gasoline vehicles. The large range change in emissions reduction potential is driven by the different generation technologies that could in the future be used to generate electricity in China. When CCS is employed in power plants, the GHG emission reductions increase to about 71%–73% compared to gasoline vehicles. It is found that compressed NG (CNG and liquefied NG (LNG fuels can save about 10% of carbon as compared to gasoline vehicles. However, gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel made through the Fischer-Tropsch method will likely lead to a life-cycle GHG emissions increase, potentially 3%–15% higher than gasoline, but roughly equal to petroleum-based diesel. When CCS is utilized, the GTL fueled vehicles emit roughly equal GHG emissions to petroleum-based diesel fuel high-efficient hybrid electric vehicle from the life-cycle perspective.

  3. Dynamically optimised driving cycle - result for the Autarkic Hybrid; Dynamisch optimierter Fahrzyklus - Ergebnis fuer den Autarken Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.; Kleimaier, A.

    1999-07-01

    The optimal dimensioning of the components in the drive system of the autarkic hybrid vehicle has been investigated in SFB 365 with methods of control-technical component tuning. The problem of the mutual dependence of dimension and operational mode of the drive system must be solved. In the following contribution a dynamic optimisation method is presented that enables to calculate an optimal operational mode for a set driving cycle. Optimisation aim is the minimisation of the fuel consumption while maintaining a balanced load condition of the traction battery. The obtained consumption value and the calculated variations in time of the system components are used for the analysis of the component configuration. (orig.) [German] Mit Methoden der regelungstechnischen Komponentenabstimmung wird im SFB 365 die optimale Dimensionierung der Komponenten im Antriebsstrang des Autarken Hybridfahrzeuges untersucht. Dazu muss das Problem der wechselseitigen Abhaengigkeit von Dimensionierung und Betriebsfuehrung des Antriebsstranges geloest werden. Im folgenden soll ein dynamisches Optimierungsverfahren vorgestellt werden, mit welchem fuer einen gegebenen Fahrzyklus die Berechnung einer optimierten Betriebsfuehrung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Optimierungsziel ist in diesem Fall die Minimierung des Kraftstoffverbrauches unter Einhaltung einer ausgeglichenen Ladezustandsbilanz der Traktionsbatterie. Der erreichte Verbrauchswert und die berechneten Zeitverlaeufe der Systemgroessen werden zur Analyse der Komponentenkonfiguration herangezogen. (orig.)

  4. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  5. Stereovision-based 2D spatial map construction for a safe vehicle driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the method for an effective and intelligent route decision of an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) using a 2D spatial map of the stereo camera system is proposed. The depth information and disparity map are detected in the inputting images of a parallel stereo camera. The distance between the automatic moving robot and the obstacle detected and the 2D spatial map obtained from the location coordinates, and then the relative distance between the obstacle and the other objects obtained from them. The unmanned ground vehicle moves automatically by effective and intelligent route decision using the obtained 2D spatial map. From some experiments on robot driving with 24 frames of the stereo images, it is analyzed that error ratio between the calculated and measured values of the distance between the objects is found to be very low value of 1.57% on average, respectably.

  6. Functional safety for road vehicles new challenges and solutions for e-mobility and automated driving

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Hans-Leo

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...

  7. Leakage current and commutation losses reduction in electric drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliani, El Hadj

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, leakage current and inverter losses, produced by adjustable-speed AC drive systems become one of the main interested subject for researchers on Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. The continuous advancements in solid state device engineering have considerably minimized the switching transients for power switches but the high dv/dt and high switching frequency have caused many adverse effects such as shaft voltage, bearing current, leakage current and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The major objective of this paper is to investigate and suppress of the adverse effects of a PWM inverter feeding AC motor in EV and HEV. A technique to simultaneously reduce the leakage current and the switching losses is presented in this paper. Based on a discontinuous space vector pulse width modulation (DSVPWM) and a modular switches gate resistance, inverter losses and leakage current are reduced. Algorithms are presented and implemented on a DSP controller and experimental results are presented.

  8. 11th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: team approaches to intelligent driving and machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Lane, Gerald R.

    2003-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990's. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Both the U.S. and international teams focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligtent driving capabilities. Over the past 11 years, the competition has challenged both undergraduates and graduates, including Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military, and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 40 universities and colleges have participated. In this paper, we describe some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition, and discuss the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  9. Effects of in-vehicle monitoring on the driving behavior of teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Kirley, Bevan B; McCartt, Anne T

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to determine if teenage driving behavior improves when a monitoring and feedback device is installed in the teen's vehicle. Vehicles of 85 teenage drivers were fit with a device that detected all instances of sudden braking/acceleration, speeding, and nonuse of seat belts. Drivers were assigned randomly to one of four research groups, differing in whether or not an alert sounded in the vehicle and whether or not parents were given access to websites containing notification records. Time trends in event rates per mile traveled were compared using Poisson regression. Seat belt use improved when violations were reported to the parent websites, and improved even more when in-vehicle alerts were activated. Consistent reductions in speeding were achieved only when teenagers received alerts about their speeding behavior, believed their speeding behavior would not be reported to parents if corrected, and when parents were being notified of such behavior by report cards. Electronic monitoring of teenage drivers can reduce the incidence of risky behavior, especially seat belt nonuse. More complicated behavior is more difficult to change, however. Parent participation is key to successful behavioral modification, but it is yet to be determined how best to encourage such participation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  11. Frequency and time domain characteristics of digital control of electric vehicle in-wheel drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzebowicz Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel electric drives are promising as actuators in active safety systems of electric and hybrid vehicles. This new function requires dedicated control algorithms, making it essential to deliver models that reflect better the wheel-torque control dynamics of electric drives. The timing of digital control events, whose importance is stressed in current research, still lacks an analytical description allowing for modeling its influence on control system dynamics. In this paper, authors investigate and compare approaches to the analog and discrete analytical modeling of torque control loop in digitally controlled electric drive. Five different analytical models of stator current torque component control are compared to judge their accuracy in representing drive control dynamics related to the timing of digital control events. The Bode characteristics and stepresponse characteristics of the analytical models are then compared with those of a reference model for three commonly used cases of motor discrete control schemes. Finally, the applicability of the presented models is discussed.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of the Vibration Characteristics of the In-Wheel Motor Driving Vehicle Based on Bond Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bond graph theory is applied to the modeling and analysis of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle. First, an 11-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle is established based on bond graph, and then the correctness of the model is verified. Second, under the driving condition of class B road excitations and a speed of 50 Km/h, the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle are simulated and analyzed, and the activity of each part in the system is then calculated. Third, these parts that have less of an effect on the vibration characteristics of an in-wheel motor driving vehicle are identified according to the magnitude of the activity, and then the model is simplified by removing these parts. Finally, the reliability of the simplified model is verified by comparing the vibration characteristics of the model before and after simplification. This study can provide a method for the modeling and simulation of the vibration characteristics of the in-wheel motor driving vehicle.

  13. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-08-01

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  14. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economy values from the tests performed using gasoline or diesel test fuel. (ii)(A) Calculate the 5-cycle...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values determined...

  15. Stakeholders' opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process

  16. Driver distraction: the effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Anderson, Janet; Regan, Michael A; Triggs, Thomas J; Brown, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a simulator study that examined the effects of distraction upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. There were two in-vehicle distracter tasks: operating the vehicle entertainment system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone conversation. The effect of visual clutter was examined by requiring participants to drive in simple and complex road environments. Overall measures of driving performance were collected, together with responses to roadway hazards and subjective measures of driver perceived workload. The two in-vehicle distraction tasks degraded overall driving performance, degraded responses to hazards and increased subjective workload. The performance decrements that occurred as a result of in-vehicle distraction were observed in both the simple and complex highway environments and for drivers in different age groups. One key difference was that older drivers traveled at lower mean speeds in the complex highway environment compared with younger drivers. The conclusions of the research are that both in-vehicle tasks impaired several aspects of driving performance, with the entertainment system distracter having the greatest negative impact on performance, and that these findings were relatively stable across different driver age groups and different environmental complexities.

  17. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.

  18. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  19. Ethanol or bioelectricity? Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic bioenergy use in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-09-17

    Our study evaluates life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol and bioelectricity use in U.S. light-duty vehicles. The well-to-pump, pump-to-wheel, and vehicle cycle stages are modeled. All ethanol (E85) and bioelectricity pathways have similar life cycle fossil energy use (~ 100 MJ/100 vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT)) and net GHG emissions (~5 kg CO2eq./100 VKT), considerably lower (65-85%) than those of reference gasoline and U.S. grid-electricity pathways. E85 use in a hybrid vehicle and bioelectricity use in a fully electric vehicle also have similar life cycle biomass and total energy use (~ 350 and ~450 MJ/100 VKT, respectively); differences in well-to-pump and pump-to-wheel efficiencies can largely offset each other. Our energy use and net GHG emissions results contrast with findings in literature, which report better performance on these metrics for bioelectricity compared to ethanol. The primary source of differences in the studies is related to our development of pathways with comparable vehicle characteristics. Ethanol or vehicle electrification can reduce petroleum use, while bioelectricity may displace nonpetroleum energy sources. Regional characteristics may create conditions under which either ethanol or bioelectricity may be the superior option; however, neither has a clear advantage in terms of GHG emissions or energy use.

  20. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Next Generation Intelligent Driver-Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative System for Energy Efficient Driving in Connected Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Transportation-related fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions have received increasing public concern in recent years. To reduce energy consumption and mitigate the environmental impact of transportation activities, this dissertation research work aims at providing technical solutions by taking advantage of recent technology development in vehicle automation, vehicle connectivity and vehicle electrification. More specifically, a driver-vehicle-infrastructure cooperative framewor...

  2. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  3. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  4. Prevalence of sleepiness while driving four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji: a population-based survey (TRIP 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod

    2013-08-01

    Sleepiness has been shown to be a risk factor for road crashes in high-income countries, but has received little attention in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the prevalence of sleepiness and sleep-related disorders among drivers of four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji. Using a two-stage cluster sampling roadside survey conducted over 12 months, we recruited a representative sample of people driving four-wheel motor vehicles on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire sought self-report information on driver characteristics including sleep-related measures. The 752 motor vehicle drivers recruited (84% response rate) were aged 17-75 years, with most driving in Viti Levu undertaken by male subjects (93%), and those identifying with Indian (70%) and Fijian (22%) ethnic groups. Drivers who reported that they were not fully alert accounted for 17% of driving, while a further 1% of driving was undertaken by those who reported having difficulty staying awake or feeling sleepy. A quarter of the driving time among 15-24-year-olds included driving while sleepy or not fully alert, with a similar proportion driving while chronically sleep deprived (ie, with less than five nights of adequate sleep in the previous week=27%). Driving while acutely or chronically sleep deprived was generally more common among Fijians compared with Indians. Driving while not fully alert is relatively common in Fiji. Sleepiness while driving may be an important contributor to road traffic injuries in this and other low- and middle-income countries.

  5. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  6. Trends in electric drive technology for hybrid and electric vehicles; Trends in der elektrischen Antriebstechnologie fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Heinz (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present book contains 22 articles dealing with electric drives in electric vehicles. This technology still holds substantial optimisation potential and will continue to be a differentiator among hybrid and electric vehicles in the future as well. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt 22 Beitraege, welche sich mit dem elektrischen Antrieb in Elektrofahrzeugen befassen, da er ein nicht unerhebliches Optimierungspotenzial besitzt und zukuenftig auch ein Differenzierungsmerkmal bei Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen darstellen wird.

  7. Age differences in the takeover of vehicle control and engagement in non-driving-related activities in simulated driving with conditional automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hallie; Feng, Jing

    2017-09-01

    High-level vehicle automation has been proposed as a valuable means to enhance the mobility of older drivers, as older drivers experience age-related declines in many cognitive functions that are vital for safe driving. Recent research attempted to examine age differences in how engagement in non-driving-related activities impact driving performance, by instructing drivers to engage in mandatory pre-designed activities. While the mandatory engagement method allows a precise control of the timing and mental workload of the non-driving-related activities, it is different from how a driver would naturally engage in these activities. This study allowed younger (age 18-35, mean age=19.9years) and older drivers (age 62-81, mean age=70.4years) to freely decide when and how to engage in voluntarily chosen non-driving-related activities during simulated driving with conditional automation. We coded video recordings of participants' engagement in non-driving-related activities. We examined the effect of age, level of activity-engagement and takeover notification interval on vehicle control performance during the takeover, by comparing between the high and low engagement groups in younger and older drivers, across two takeover notification interval conditions. We found that both younger and older drivers engaged in various non-driving-related activities during the automated driving portion, with distinct preferences on the type of activity for each age group (i.e., while younger drivers mostly used an electronic device, older drivers tended to converse). There were also significant differences between the two age groups and between the two notification intervals on various driving performance measures. Older drivers benefited more than younger drivers from the longer interval in terms of response time to notifications. Voluntary engagement in non-driving-related activities did not impair takeover performance in general, although there was a trend of older drivers who were

  8. DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an evolutionary drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Kristian Alsbjerg; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Sharma, Nynne; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-12-09

    DNA transposons are primitive genetic elements which have colonized living organisms from plants to bacteria and mammals. Through evolution such parasitic elements have shaped their host genomes by replicating and relocating between chromosomal loci in processes catalyzed by the transposase proteins encoded by the elements themselves. DNA transposable elements are constantly adapting to life in the genome, and self-suppressive regulation as well as defensive host mechanisms may assist in buffering 'cut-and-paste' DNA mobilization until accumulating mutations will eventually restrict events of transposition. With the reconstructed Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon as a powerful engine, a growing list of transposable elements with activity in human cells have moved into biomedical experimentation and preclinical therapy as versatile vehicles for delivery and genomic insertion of transgenes. In this review, we aim to link the mechanisms that drive transposon evolution with the realities and potential challenges we are facing when adapting DNA transposons for gene transfer. We argue that DNA transposon-derived vectors may carry inherent, and potentially limiting, traits of their mother elements. By understanding in detail the evolutionary journey of transposons, from host colonization to element multiplication and inactivation, we may better exploit the potential of distinct transposable elements. Hence, parallel efforts to investigate and develop distinct, but potent, transposon-based vector systems will benefit the broad applications of gene transfer. Insight and clever optimization have shaped new DNA transposon vectors, which recently debuted in the first DNA transposon-based clinical trial. Learning from an evolutionary drive may help us create gene vehicles that are safer, more efficient, and less prone for suppression and inactivation.

  9. DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an evolutionary drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    DNA transposons are primitive genetic elements which have colonized living organisms from plants to bacteria and mammals. Through evolution such parasitic elements have shaped their host genomes by replicating and relocating between chromosomal loci in processes catalyzed by the transposase proteins encoded by the elements themselves. DNA transposable elements are constantly adapting to life in the genome, and self-suppressive regulation as well as defensive host mechanisms may assist in buffering ‘cut-and-paste’ DNA mobilization until accumulating mutations will eventually restrict events of transposition. With the reconstructed Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon as a powerful engine, a growing list of transposable elements with activity in human cells have moved into biomedical experimentation and preclinical therapy as versatile vehicles for delivery and genomic insertion of transgenes. In this review, we aim to link the mechanisms that drive transposon evolution with the realities and potential challenges we are facing when adapting DNA transposons for gene transfer. We argue that DNA transposon-derived vectors may carry inherent, and potentially limiting, traits of their mother elements. By understanding in detail the evolutionary journey of transposons, from host colonization to element multiplication and inactivation, we may better exploit the potential of distinct transposable elements. Hence, parallel efforts to investigate and develop distinct, but potent, transposon-based vector systems will benefit the broad applications of gene transfer. Insight and clever optimization have shaped new DNA transposon vectors, which recently debuted in the first DNA transposon-based clinical trial. Learning from an evolutionary drive may help us create gene vehicles that are safer, more efficient, and less prone for suppression and inactivation. PMID:24320156

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Fuel Pathways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianduo Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tsinghua University Life Cycle Analysis Model (TLCAM is applied to calculate the life cycle fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for more than 20 vehicle fuel pathways in China. In addition to conventional gasoline and diesel, these include coal- and gas-based vehicle fuels, and electric vehicle (EV pathways. The results indicate the following. (1 China’s current dependence on coal and relative low-efficiency processes limits the potential for most alternative fuel pathways to decrease energy consumption and emissions; (2 Future low-carbon electricity pathways offer more obvious advantages, with coal-based pathways needing to adopt carbon dioxide capture and storage technology to compete; (3 A well-to-wheels analysis of the fossil energy consumption of vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG showed that they are comparable to conventional gasoline vehicles. However, importing rather than domestically producing LNG for vehicle use can decrease domestic GHG emissions by 35% and 31% compared with those of conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles, respectively; (4 The manufacturing and recovery of battery and vehicle in the EV analysis has significant impact on the overall ability of EVs to decrease fossil energy consumption and GHG emissions from ICEVs.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: Novel Mathematical Methods to Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-08-18

    Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models.

  12. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-04

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent.

  13. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  14. Towards a methodology to identify design changes for urban transport infrastructure in the era of automated driving and vehicle sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturker, M.; Milakis, D.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    Automated driving and vehicle sharing are considered among the most influential concepts for future urban and transport systems. While research has so far examined impacts of these concepts on traffic and to some extent mobility, the question about potential implications for urban transport

  15. Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Ahmad; Omar, Mohammed; Hayajneh, Mohammed; Mayyas, Abdel Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Lightwiegh materials and vehicles' electrification are among the most viable and economic solutions to improve fuel ecocnmoy of vehicles and reduce environmental impacts in the operational phase of typical vehicle's life cycle span. This study aims to shed more light on the combined effect of lightweighing and electrification by assessing different lightweight designs and electric powetrians from the environmental perspective using a life cycle analysis coupled with an emphasis on energy expenditures and carbon dioxide emissions. This paper discusses the life cycle assessment for several advanced powertrains namely; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) relative to the conventional gasoline operated internal combustion engine based power train vehicles. The main focus will be on the energy greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the material extraction and resources phase, manufacturing phase and use phase (operation and maintenance). While most of the current studies focus on the use phase that does not reflect the correct environmental impacts associated with advanced powertrains, thus the presented text applies a holistic LCA approach that covers pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, operational and end-of-life phases, plus another indirect phase to account for fuel extraction, refining and transportation to the end-users or customers. Based on the LCA emissions results, one may infer that environmental policies that reduce emissions rates from the electricity sector can mitigate this effect without completely eliminating it. Interestingly, the analysis show that lightweight vehicles with internal combustion engines have less impacts on the environment as a direct result of upstream emissions associated with electricity generation in United States. This scenario can differ in other countries with higher renewable and sustainable energy generated electric powers.

  16. Research on optimization of test cycles for comfort to the special vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, Marian; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    The comfort of vehicles, regardless of their type is represent a requirement to by fulfilled in the context of current technological developments special vehicles generally move under different soil, time, or season conditions, and the land in which the vehicles move is complex and varied in the physical structure. Due to the high level of involvement in the driveability, safety and comfort of automotive, suspension system is a key factor with major implications for vibration and noise, affecting the human body. The objective of the research is related to determining the test cycles of special vehicles that are approaching real situations, to determine the level of comfort. The evaluate of the degree of comfort will be realized on acceleration values recorded, especially the vertical ones that have the highest influence on the human body. Thus, in this way the tests can be established needed to determine the level of comfort required for each particular type of special vehicle. The utility of the test cycles to optimize comfort is given to the accurate identification of the specific test needs, depending on the each vehicle.

  17. Simulation of an electric vehicle model on the new WLTC test cycle using AVL CRUISE software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Cioroianu, Constantin; Marinescu, Dănuţ Gabriel; Iorga, Adrian; Răzvan Sibiceanu, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, environmental pollution has become a general issue and the automotive industry is probably the most affected. The principal air-quality pollutant emissions from petrol, diesel and LPG engines are carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, un-burnt hydrocarbons. Modern cars produce only quite small quantities of the air quality pollutants, but the emissions from large numbers of cars add to a significant air quality problem. Electric vehicles are an answer to this problem because they have absolutely no emissions. These vehicles have some major disadvantages regarding cost and range. In this paper, an electric vehicle model will be created in the AVL Cruise software. The constructed model is based on the existing Dacia Sandero. Also unlike the real car, the model presented has different characteristics since it is a full electric vehicle. It has an electric motor instead of the petrol engine and a battery pack placed in the trunk. The model will be simulated in order to obtain data regarding vehicle performance, energy consumption and range on the new WLTC test cycle. The obtained know-how will help on later improvements of the electric model regarding methods to increase the vehicle range on the new WLTC test cycle.

  18. [Life cycle assessment of the infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Wang, Shujuan; Ni, Weidou; Chen, Changhe

    2003-05-01

    In order to promote the application of life cycle assessment and provide references for China to make the project of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles in the near future, 10 feasible plans of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles were designed according to the current technologies of producing, storing and transporting hydrogen. Then life cycle assessment was used as a tool to evaluate the environmental performances of the 10 plans. The standard indexes of classified environmental impacts of every plan were gotten and sensitivity analysis for several parameters were carried out. The results showed that the best plan was that hydrogen will be produced by natural gas steam reforming in central factory, then transported to refuelling stations through pipelines, and filled to fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen gas at last.

  19. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  20. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  1. System Efficiency Improvement for Electric Vehicles Adopting a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Direct Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the endurance mileage of electric vehicles (EVs, it is important to decrease the energy consumption of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM drive system. This paper proposes a novel loss optimization control strategy named system efficiency improvement control which can optimize both inverter and motor losses. A nonlinear power converter loss model is built to fit the nonlinear characteristics of power devices. This paper uses double Fourier integral analysis to analytically calculate the fundamental and harmonic components of motor current by which the fundamental motor loss and harmonic motor loss can be accurately analyzed. From these loss models, a whole-frequency-domain system loss model is derived and presented. Based on the system loss model, the system efficiency improvement control method applies the genetic algorithm to adjust the motor current and PWM frequency together to optimize the inverter and motor losses by which the system efficiency can be significantly improved without seriously influence on the system stability over the whole operation range of EVs. The optimal effects of system efficiency is verified by the experimental results in both Si-IGBT-based PMSM system and SiC-MOSFET-based system.

  2. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  3. Oceanic crustal carbon cycle drives 26-million-year atmospheric carbon dioxide periodicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Dutkiewicz, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) data for the last 420 million years (My) show long-term fluctuations related to supercontinent cycles as well as shorter cycles at 26 to 32 My whose origin is unknown. Periodicities of 26 to 30 My occur in diverse geological phenomena including mass extinctions, flood basalt volcanism, ocean anoxic events, deposition of massive evaporites, sequence boundaries, and orogenic events and have previously been linked to an extraterrestrial mechanism. The vast oceanic crustal carbon reservoir is an alternative potential driving force of climate fluctuations at these time scales, with hydrothermal crustal carbon uptake occurring mostly in young crust with a strong dependence on ocean bottom water temperature. We combine a global plate model and oceanic paleo-age grids with estimates of paleo-ocean bottom water temperatures to track the evolution of the oceanic crustal carbon reservoir over the past 230 My. We show that seafloor spreading rates as well as the storage, subduction, and emission of oceanic crustal and mantle CO 2 fluctuate with a period of 26 My. A connection with seafloor spreading rates and equivalent cycles in subduction zone rollback suggests that these periodicities are driven by the dynamics of subduction zone migration. The oceanic crust-mantle carbon cycle is thus a previously overlooked mechanism that connects plate tectonic pulsing with fluctuations in atmospheric carbon and surface environments.

  4. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  5. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  6. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  7. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  8. Technology and Key Strategy of IE4 Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Subramonium A K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and energy conservations are the main concern of 21st century Asia Pacific developing countries. This concern has compelled to design and develop zero pollution road transportation Electric Vehicles (EVs. The EV system consist of energy storage devices such as battery, fuel cell, ultra-capacitors along with electric propulsion, body of the vehicle and energy management system with the diversified technology of electrical, electronics, mechanical, automotive and chemical engineering. The objective of electric vehicle is to produce commercial viable range, efficient performance, and comfort with safety and reliable operations at cheaper price than its counterpart the Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV. The PMBLDC motors are the present choice of automobile industries and researchers because of its high power density, compact size, reliability, with noise free and minimum maintenance requirements. The present state of art Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC Motor drive for the electric vehicle application is studied / reviewed in this paper.. In addition the study also reveals the advancement of the Power Processing Unit (PPU which consists of Microelectronics and Controls (Me and C to produce the super-premium efficiency PMBLDC drive system for EV applications.

  9. Powertrain Matching and Optimization of Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System for Electric Vehicle Based on Quantum Genetic Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the driving range and improve the overall performance of all-electric vehicles, a new dual-motor hybrid driving system with two power sources was proposed. This system achieved torque-speed coupling between the two power sources and greatly improved the high performance working range of the motors; at the same time, continuously variable transmission (CVT was achieved to efficiently increase the driving range. The power system parameters were determined using the “global optimization method”; thus, the vehicle’s dynamics and economy were used as the optimization indexes. Based on preliminary matches, quantum genetic algorithm was introduced to optimize the matching in the dual-motor hybrid power system. Backward simulation was performed on the combined simulation platform of Matlab/Simulink and AVL-Cruise to optimize, simulate, and verify the system parameters of the transmission system. Results showed that quantum genetic algorithms exhibited good global optimization capability and convergence in dealing with multiobjective and multiparameter optimization. The dual-motor hybrid-driving system for electric cars satisfied the dynamic performance and economy requirements of design, efficiently increasing the driving range of the car, having high performance, and reducing energy consumption of 15.6% compared with the conventional electric vehicle with single-speed reducers.

  10. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions.

  11. The Role of Interaction Patterns with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Eco-Features for Drivers' Eco-Driving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias G; Franke, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles. Eco-driving in HEVs is particularly challenging due to the systems' dynamic energy flows. As a result, drivers are likely to show diverse eco-driving behaviors, depending on factors like knowledge and motivation. The eco-features represent an interface for the control of the systems' energy flows. A sample of 121 HEV drivers who had constantly logged their fuel consumption prior to the study participated in an online questionnaire. Drivers' interaction patterns with the eco-features were related to fuel efficiency. A common factor was identified in an exploratory factor analysis, characterizing the intensity of actively dealing with electric energy, which was also related to fuel efficiency. Driver characteristics were not related to this factor, yet they were significant predictors of fuel efficiency. From the perspective of user-energy interaction, the relationship of the aggregated factor to fuel efficiency emphasizes the central role of drivers' perception of and interaction with energy conversions in determining HEV eco-driving success. To arrive at an in-depth understanding of drivers' eco-driving behaviors that can guide interface design, authors of future research should be concerned with the psychological processes that underlie drivers' interaction patterns with eco-features.

  12. Design and analysis of new fault-tolerant permanent magnet motors for four-wheel-driving electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Gong, Wensheng; Chen, Qian; Jian, Linni; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Wenxiang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor for four-wheel-driving electrical vehicles is proposed. It adopts an outer-rotor topology, which can help generate a large drive torque, in order to achieve prominent dynamic performance of the vehicle. Moreover, by adopting single-layer concentrated-windings, fault-tolerant teeth, and the optimal combination of slot and pole numbers, the proposed motor inherently offers negligible electromagnetic coupling between different phase windings, hence, it possesses a fault-tolerant characteristic. Meanwhile, the phase back electromotive force waveforms can be designed to be sinusoidal by employing PMs with a trapezoidal shape, eccentric armature teeth, and unequal tooth widths. The electromagnetic performance is comprehensively investigated and the optimal design is conducted by using the finite-element method.

  13. Eco-driving : strategic, tactical, and operational decisions of the driver that improve vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "This report presents information about the effects of decisions that a driver can make to : influence on-road fuel economy of light-duty vehicles. These include strategic decisions : (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route sel...

  14. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Simon [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR”3”, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  15. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MINIMAL HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES: THE REALITY BEYOND THE DRIVING TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Saeian, Kia; Schubert, Christine M; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Franco, Jose; Varma, Rajiv R; Gibson, Douglas P; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Stravitz, R Todd; Heuman, Douglas M; Sterling, Richard K; Shiffman, Mitchell; Topaz, Allyne; Boyett, Sherry; Bell, Debulon; Sanyal, Arun J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have impaired driving skills, but association of MHE with motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Standard psychometric tests (SPT) or inhibitory control test (ICT) can be used to diagnose MHE. The aim was to determine the association of MHE with crashes and traffic violations over the preceding year and on 1-year follow-up. Cirrhotics were diagnosed with MHE by ICT (MHEICT) and SPT (MHESPT). Self and department-of-transportation (DOT)-reports were used to determine crashes and violations over the preceding year. Agreement between self and DOT-reports was analyzed. Patients then underwent 1 year follow-up for crash/violation occurrence. Crashes in those with/without MHEICT and MHESPT were compared. 167 cirrhotics had DOT-reports, of which 120 also had self-reports. A significantly higher proportion of MHEICT cirrhotics experienced crashes in the preceding year compared to those without MHE by self-report (17% vs. 0%, p=0.0004) and DOT-reports (17% vs. 3%, p=0.004, relative risk:5.77). SPT did not differentiate between those with/without crashes. A significantly higher proportion of patients with crashes had MHEICT compared to MHESPT, both self-reported (100% vs. 50%, p=0.03) and DOT-reported (89% vs. 44%, p=0.01). There was excellent agreement between self and DOT-reports for crashes and violations (Kappa 0.90 and 0.80). 109 patients were followed prospectively. MHEICT patients had a significantly higher future crashes/violations compared to those without (22% vs. 7%, p=0.03) but MHESPT did not. MHEICT (Odds ratio:4.51) and prior year crash/violation (Odds ratio:2.96) were significantly associated with future crash/violation occurrence. PMID:19670416

  17. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  18. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  19. Optimization design and dynamic analysis on the drive mechanisms of flapping-wing air vehicles based on flapping trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingwang; Zhang, Xingwei; Luo, Pan; Huang, Panpan

    2017-10-01

    The optimization designs and dynamic analysis on the driving mechanism of flapping-wing air vehicles on base of flapping trajectory patterns is carried out in this study. Three different driving mechanisms which are spatial double crank-rocker, plane five-bar and gear-double slider, are systematically optimized and analysed by using the Mat lab and Adams software. After a series debugging on the parameter, the comparatively ideal flapping trajectories are obtained by the simulation of Adams. Present results indicate that different drive mechanisms output different flapping trajectories and have their unique characteristic. The spatial double crank-rocker mechanism can only output the arc flapping trajectory and it has the advantages of small volume, high flexibility and efficient space utilization. Both planar five-bar mechanism and gear-double slider mechanism can output the oval, figure of eight and double eight flapping trajectories. Nevertheless, the gear-double slider mechanism has the advantage of convenient parameter setting and better performance in output double eight flapping trajectory. This study can provide theoretical basis and helpful reference for the design of the drive mechanisms of flapping-wing air vehicles with different output flapping trajectories.

  20. Differences between obese and non-obese drivers in preferred vehicle interior components setting and driving posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yihun; Park, Woojin

    2017-05-01

    This study compared obese and non-obese drivers in the preferred seat and steering wheel setting and preferred driving posture. Twenty-one extremely obese and 23 non-obese drivers participated. Each participant determined the most preferred setting of the interior components using an adjustable vehicle mock-up; the preferred components setting and corresponding preferred driving posture were recorded. The participant groups exhibited significant differences in the preferred interior components setting. The obese group created larger steering wheel-seat space than the non-obese, with greater rearward seat displacement, more upright steering wheel angle and smaller steering wheel column displacement. It also exhibited more upright seatback angle deemed necessary for facilitating steering wheel reach with the increased steering wheel-seat distance. The between-group differences in the preferred driving posture were less pronounced: no significant group mean angle differences were found except for the elbow joint angles. Also, the mean hip joint centre positions did not significantly differ. Practitioner Summary: To contribute to larger driver packaging, this study compared obese and non-obese drivers in the preferred vehicle interior components setting and driving posture. The obese group created significantly larger space between the steering wheel and seat than the non-obese, through interior components adjustments. The between-group postural differences were less pronounced.

  1. Anti-lock braking systems on four-wheel drive vehicles. Pt. 1; Bremsenregelsysteme in Fahrzeugen mit Allradantrieb. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennel, H.; Klusemann, R.; Kranz, T.; Kuemmel, M.; Schmidt, R. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    In order to combine four-wheel drives with vehicle dynamic control systems, Continental Teves had to develop methods of mastering the specific basic problems which four-wheel drives cause. In the following article, the company describes problems and solutions and shows which controls are necessary for the different four-wheel drive concepts. Part 2 of the article will follow in the next edition of ATZ. (orig.) [German] Um Allradantrieb und Bremsenregelsysteme zu kombinieren, wurden bei Continental Teves Methoden entwickelt, um die spezifischen Grundprobleme, die der Allradantrieb erzeugt, zu beherrschen. Im Folgenden stellt das Unternehmen Probleme und Loesungen dar und zeigt auf, welche Regelungen bei den unterschiedlichen Allrad-Antriebskonzepten erforderlich sind. Teil 2 des Beitrags folgt in der naechsten Ausgabe der ATZ. (orig.)

  2. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  3. A meta-analysis of in-vehicle and nomadic voice-recognition system interaction and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sarah M; Caird, Jeff K; Steel, Piers

    2017-09-01

    Driver distraction is a growing and pervasive issue that requires multiple solutions. Voice-recognition (V-R) systems may decrease the visual-manual (V-M) demands of a wide range of in-vehicle system and smartphone interactions. However, the degree that V-R systems integrated into vehicles or available in mobile phone applications affect driver distraction is incompletely understood. A comprehensive meta-analysis of experimental studies was conducted to address this knowledge gap. To meet study inclusion criteria, drivers had to interact with a V-R system while driving and doing everyday V-R tasks such as dialing, initiating a call, texting, emailing, destination entry or music selection. Coded dependent variables included detection, reaction time, lateral position, speed and headway. Comparisons of V-R systems with baseline driving and/or a V-M condition were also coded. Of 817 identified citations, 43 studies involving 2000 drivers and 183 effect sizes (r) were analyzed in the meta-analysis. Compared to baseline, driving while interacting with a V-R system is associated with increases in reaction time and lane positioning, and decreases in detection. When V-M systems were compared to V-R systems, drivers had slightly better performance with the latter system on reaction time, lane positioning and headway. Although V-R systems have some driving performance advantages over V-M systems, they have a distraction cost relative to driving without any system at all. The pattern of results indicates that V-R systems impose moderate distraction costs on driving. In addition, drivers minimally engage in compensatory performance adjustments such as reducing speed and increasing headway while using V-R systems. Implications of the results for theory, design guidelines and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Connect & Drive - On the use of vehicle-to-vehicle communications to increase Traffic Stability and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert

    2009-01-01

    At moderate to high traffic densities, road traffic exhibits an unstable behavior, resulting in decrease traffic efficiency. One of the phenomena that can be observed at these densities is the propagation of shock waves against the flow of traffic, which seriously reduce the speed of vehicles. The

  5. Hydrogen-fueled postal vehicle performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption, range, and emissions data were obtained while operating a hydrogen-fueled postal delivery vehicle over a defined Postal Service Driving Cycle and the 1975 Urban Driving Cycle. The vehicle's fuel consumption was 0.366 pounds of hydrogen per mile over the postal driving cycle and 0.22 pounds of hydrogen per mile over the urban driving cycle. These data correspond to 6.2 and 10.6 mpg equivalent gasoline mileage for the two driving cycles, respectively. The vehicle's range was 24.2 miles while being operated on the postal driving cycle. Vehicle emissions were measured over the urban driving cycle. HC and CO emissions were quite low, as would be expected. The oxides of nitrogen were found to be 4.86 gm/mi, a value which is well above the current Federal and California standards. Vehicle limitations discussed include excessive engine flashbacks, inadequate acceleration capability the engine air/fuel ratio, the water injection systems, and the cab temperature. Other concerns are safety considerations, iron-titanium hydride observed in the fuel system, evidence of water in the engine rocker cover, and the vehicle maintenance required during the evaluation.

  6. Intercomparison of real-time tailpipe ammonia measurements from vehicles tested over the new world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle (WLTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Zardini, Alessandro A; Lilova, Velizara; Meyer, Daniel; Nakatani, Shigeru; Hibel, Frank; Ewers, Jens; Clairotte, Michael; Hill, Leslie; Astorga, Covadonga

    2015-05-01

    Four light-duty vehicles (two diesel, one flex-fuel, and one gasoline vehicle) were tested as part of an intercomparison exercise of the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) aiming at measuring real-time ammonia emissions from the vehicles' raw exhaust at the tailpipe. The tests were conducted in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), Ispra, Italy. HORIBA, CGS, and the Sustainable Transport Unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) took part in the measurement and analysis of the four vehicles' exhaust emissions over the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle class 3, version 5.3 using a HORIBA MEXA 1400 QL-NX, a CGS BLAQ-Sys, and the JRC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The measured ammonia concentrations and the emission profiles revealed that these three instruments are suitable to measure ammonia from the vehicles' raw exhaust, presenting no significant differences. Furthermore, results showed that measurement of ammonia from the vehicle exhaust using online systems can be performed guaranteeing the reproducibility and repeatability of the results. While no ammonia was detected for any of the two diesel vehicles (even though, one was equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system), we report average ammonia emission factors 8-10 mg/km (average concentrations 20-23 ppm) and 10-12 mg/km (average concentrations 22-24 ppm) for the flex-fuel and gasoline vehicles, respectively.

  7. Widespread ability of fungi to drive quinone redox cycling for biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Bergmann, Michael; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Wood-rotting fungi possess remarkably diverse extracellular oxidation mechanisms, including enzymes, such as laccase and peroxidases, and Fenton chemistry. The ability to biologically drive Fenton chemistry by the redox cycling of quinones has previously been reported to be present in both ecologically diverging main groups of wood-rotting basidiomycetes. Therefore, we investigated whether it is even more widespread among fungal organisms. Screening of a diverse selection of a total of 18 ascomycetes and basidiomycetes for reduction of the model compound 2,6-dimethoxy benzoquinone revealed that all investigated strains were capable of reducing it to its corresponding hydroquinone. In a second step, depolymerization of the synthetic polymer polystyrene sulfonate was used as a proxy for quinone-dependent Fenton-based biodegradation capabilities. A diverse subset of the strains, including environmentally ubiquitous molds, white-rot fungi, as well as peatland and aquatic isolates, caused substantial depolymerization indicative for the effective employment of quinone redox cycling as biodegradation tool. Our results may also open up new paths to utilize diverse fungi for the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  9. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant

  10. An adaptive finite element method for computing emergency manoeuvres of ground vehicles in complex driving scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.; Alirezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    In emergency cases a vehicle has to avoid colliding with one or more obstacles, stay within road boundaries, satisfy acceleration and jerk limits, fulfil stability requirements and respect vehicle system dynamics limitations. The real time solution of such a problem is difficult and as a result

  11. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  12. Co-Design Based Lateral Motion Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs have considerable advantages in terms of energy optimization, drivability and driving safety due to the remarkable actuation flexibility of electric motors. However, in their current implementations, various real-time data in the vehicle control system are exchanged via a controller area network (CAN, which causes network congestion and network-induced delays. These problems could lead to systemic instability and make the system integration difficult. The goal of this paper is to provide a design methodology that can cope with all these challenges for the lateral motion control of AWID-EVs. Firstly, a continuous-time model of an AWID-EV is derived. Then an expression for determining upper and lower bounds on the delays caused by CAN is presented and with which a discrete-time model of the closed-loop CAN system is derived. An expression on the bandwidth utilization is introduced as well. Thirdly, a co-design based scheme combining a period-dependent linear quadratic regulator (LQR and a dynamic period scheduler is designed for the resulting model and the stability criterion is also derived. The results of simulations and hard-in-loop (HIL experiments show that the proposed methodology can effectively guarantee the stability of the vehicle lateral motion control while obviously declining the network congestion.

  13. A novel multi-drive electric vehicle system control based on multi-input multi-output PID controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel-motor drive electric vehicle (EV is an innovative configuration of the modern EV, in which each wheel is driven individually by an electric motor. The classical traction motor control called the Independent Machine Control Structure (IMCS using a PID speed controller presents major inconveniences in modern EV safety, when the proposed control can not ensure stability of the EV with differing road topology and variations of speed. A new approach is proposed for a control of a two-in-wheel-motor drive EV, called the Maximum Control Structure MCS. This is based on a multivariable PID (MIMO-PID strategy, which is employed to estimate the linear speed error of each of the two back driving wheels, when the error of each wheel is taken into account in the other speed control computations. Simulation results show that the new control system presents increased safety for the EVs compared with the IMCS strategy and can maintain the error slip rate within the optimal range, ensuring the stability of the vehicle either in a straight or a curved line.

  14. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  15. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 3: appendix E to technical report, comprehensive EVTECA results tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume III presents the results of the total energy cycle model runs, which are summarized in Volume I.

  16. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  17. THE APPLICATION OF RTK-GPS AND STEER-BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY TO THE AUTOMATIC DRIVING OF VEHICLES AND AN EVALUATION OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu OMAE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic vehicle driving has long been the subject of research efforts designed to improve the safety and efficiency of automobile transportation. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated sensors and automobiles have brought automatic driving systems closer to reality. In this paper we describe an attempt to apply real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS, a highly precise positioning system, and steer-by-wire body technology, which has advanced greatly in recent years, to automatic driving. In addition, we also describe the results of research into human factors related to automatic driving, which will become more and more important as automatic driving is put to practical use.

  18. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  19. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xunmin Ou; Xiliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM) has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for natural gas- (NG-) based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1) compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW) fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon c...

  20. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Messagie; Faycal-Siddikou Boureima; Thierry Coosemans; Cathy Macharis; Joeri van Mierlo

    2014-01-01

    How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). Would it be ...

  1. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  2. A Study on the Control Performance of Electronic Differential System for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic differential system (EDS is an important issue for four-wheel drive electric vehicles. This paper delineates an advanced EDS steering strategy and carries out a careful study of its control performance by numerical simulations that comply with the requirements of ISO4238:2012. The results demonstrate that the EDS feedback gain plays an important role to its control performance, particularly to its steering characteristics. Moreover, the analysis and discussion disclose the mechanism of the relationship between the feedback gain and the steering characteristics, which will contribute to further research and EDS development.

  3. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  4. The Effect of Distributed Parameters on Conducted EMI from DC-Fed Motor Drive Systems in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in DC-fed motor drive systems in electric vehicles (EVs always introduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI emissions and may lead to motor drive system energy transmission losses. The effect of distributed parameters on conducted EMI from the DC-fed high voltage motor drive systems in EVs is studied. A complete test for conducted EMI from the direct current fed(DC-fed alternating current (AC motor drive system in an electric vehicle (EV under load conditions is set up to measure the conducted EMI of high voltage DC cables and the EMI noise peaks due to resonances in a frequency range of 150 kHz–108 MHz. The distributed parameters of the motor can induce bearing currents under low frequency sine wave operation. However the impedance of the distributed parameters of the motor is very high at resonance frequencies of 500 kHz and 30 MHz, and the effect of the bearing current can be ignored, so the research mainly focuses on the distributed parameters in inverters and cables at 500 kHz and 30 MHz, not the effect of distributed parameters of the motor on resonances. The corresponding equivalent circuits for differential mode (DM and common mode (CM EMI at resonance frequencies of 500 kHz and 30 MHz are established to determine the EMI propagation paths and analyze the effect of distributed parameters on conducted EMI. The dominant distributed parameters of elements responsible for the appearing resonances at 500 kHz and 30 MHz are determined. The effect of the dominant distributed parameters on conducted EMI are presented and verified by simulation and experiment. The conduced voltage at frequencies from 150 kHz to 108 MHz can be mitigated to below the limit level-3 of CISPR25 by changing the dominant distributed parameters.

  5. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  6. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013. Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5% and between 2012 and 2013 (-0.5%, significant reductions were observed in the years immediately after the publication of these laws that prohibit drunk driving. These improvements towards the control of drunk driving show a change in the Brazilian population’s lifestyle.

  7. An Optimization Study on an Eco-Friendly Engine Cycle Named as Dual-Miller Cycle (DMC for Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Guven

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is an indispensable part of technology and it is commonly used in land and marine vehicles. However, diesel engines release NOx emissions due to high combustion temperatures. They have harmful effects on the environment such as sources of photo-chemical fog and climate changes. Therefore, they must be reduced and limited. The Miller cycle application is a NOx control method and it is popular in the recent years to abate NOx produced from the internal combustion engines (ICEs. A performance investigation of a Dual-Miller cycle (DMC engine in terms of power (PO, power density (PD and effective efficiency (EE has been performed using a new finite-time thermodynamics modeling (FTTM in this study. The effects of engine design and operating parameters on the engine performance (EPER have been examined. Additionally, the energy losses have been determined resulting from incomplete combustion (IC, friction (FR, heat transfer (HT and exhaust output (EO. The results presented could be an essential tool for DMC marine engine designers.

  8. Location, duration, and power; How Americans' driving habits and charging infrastructure inform vehicle-grid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.

    The substitution of electrical energy for gasoline as a transportation fuel is an initiative both with a long history, and one made both pressing and important in today's policy discussion by renewed interest in plug-in vehicles. The research presented in this dissertation attempts to inform the policy discussion for governments, for electric utilities, for the makers of electric cars, and for the industries developing and planning charging infrastructure. To that end, the impacts of variations to several possible system design parameters, on several metrics of evaluation, are assessed. The analysis is based on a dataset of vehicle trips collected by Georgia Institute of Technology, tracking almost 500 vehicles that commute to, from or within the Atlanta city center, comprising Atlanta `commuter-shed'. By assuming that this dataset of trips defines the desired travel behavior of urban and suburban American populations, the effects of travel electrification in personal vehicles can be assessed. Several significant and novel findings have emerged from this research. These include the conclusion that at-work charging is not necessarily the logical next step beyond home-charging, as it will in general add little to the substitutability of electric vehicles. In contrast, high power en-route charging, combined with modest power home charging is shown to be surprisingly effective, potentially requiring of EV drivers a total time spent at en-route recharging stations similar to that for liquid fueled cars. From the vehicle marketing perspective, a quantification of the hybrid household effect, wherein multi-vehicle households own one EV, showed that about a quarter of all households could adopt a vehicle with 80 miles of range with no changes to travel patterns. Of interest to grid management, this research showed an apparent maximum fleet-wide load from unregulated charging of about 1 kW per vehicle, regardless of EVSE power or EV battery size. This contrasts with a

  9. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicles, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The design, performance, and programmatic definition of shuttle derived launch vehicles (SDLV) established by two different contractors were assessed and the relative life cycle costs of space transportation systems using the shuttle alone were compared with costs for a mix of shuttles and SDLV's. The ground rules and assumptions used in the evaluation are summarized and the work breakdown structure is included. Approaches used in deriving SDLV costs, including calibration factors and historical data are described. Both SDLV cost estimates and SDLV/STS cost comparisons are summarized. Standard formats are used to report comprehensive SDLV life cycle estimates. Hardware cost estimates (below subsystem level) obtained using the RCA PRICE 84 cost model are included along with other supporting data.

  10. [An intercept survey on the status of driving after alcohol drinking among motor vehicle drivers in 6 counties of Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xin-wei; Song, Xiao-chun; Bao, Ping; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Yun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the status of driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers and to provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 7-day intercept survey on driving after alcohol drinking, having drinking habit or driving after getting drunk, among motor vehicle drivers, was conducted in 6 counties of Zhejiang province, 2010. 16 467 motor vehicle drivers were included in the survey. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol [blood alcohol concentration (BAC) > 0 mg/100 ml], having habit of drinking alcohol (20 mg/100 ml ≤ BAC driving after being drunk (BAC ≥ 80 mg/100 ml), were 1.82%, 1.03% and 0.27% respectively. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol, having habit of drink alcohol and driving and drunk-driving among the drivers from urban areas were significantly higher than those of drivers from rural areas, and those rates of male drivers were significantly higher than female drivers as well. 60.20% of drivers after drinking alcohol, were 35 to 49 year-olds, and the three above said rates all increased along with age. The highest above said three rates were observed at 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Compared with other motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists possessed the highest rates of the three items, as 9.27%, 5.01% and 1.57% respectively. Driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers still prevailed in Zhejiang, especially between 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Drivers from the cities, being male or motorcyclists were among the high-risk populations that called for special attention to be paid in the future, including law enforcement and health promotion to fight against the problem.

  11. Medical assessment of fitness to drive for commercial and private vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D; Cashman, C

    2007-05-01

    At a recent Irish College of General Practitioner's meeting a needs assessment was carried out as regards GP's training and education in the determination of medical 'fitness to drive'. Participants (n-62) in this survey highlighted the following results. Nearly all are involved in certifying people to drive (over 2/3 for commercial drivers). Difficult issues such as the aging driver, the driver who needs particular medication (i.e. centrally acting agents) or driving with visual impairment were highlighted by those surveyed. While 2/3 refer to the Department of the Environment 'Green Book' for guidance on how to determine 'fitness to drive' with regard to national legislation and standards, and a lesser number refer to the UK (DVLA) or other guidelines; all identified a gap in these recommendations and requested greater clarification regarding 'fitness to drive' in Ireland.' (The solutions proposed by the participants to address this deficit could be divided into two main categories. These included: easy access to clear medical guidelines and training with regard to these i.e. publication or website) and the option for case referral to a medical doctor with expertise in transportation medicine.

  12. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  13. Driving a CERN vehicle in the European Union: new customs regulation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    On 1 May 2015, the European Union brought in a new regulation regarding “the temporary importation of means of transport intended to be used by a natural person resident in the customs territory of the Union” (see here).   This regulation also applies to vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN, but does not necessitate any modifications to the provisions of Operational Circular No. 4 regarding the use of these vehicles. The Direction régionale des douanes du Léman (Léman regional customs directorate) has informed the Organization that members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel may present their CERN access card instead of the contract of employment specified in the European regulation in the event of inspection by the customs authorities. In this context, we would like to remind you of the following provisions of Operational Circular No. 4: Paragraph 10 (“Use of vehicles for private purposes (e.g. for transpor...

  14. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  15. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  16. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  17. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades.

  18. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  19. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  20. HMGA1 drives stem cell, inflammatory pathway, and cell cycle progression genes during lymphoid tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuldenfrei Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1 gene is widely overexpressed in diverse cancers and portends a poor prognosis in some tumors, the molecular mechanisms that mediate its role in transformation have remained elusive. HMGA1 functions as a potent oncogene in cultured cells and induces aggressive lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice. Because HMGA1 chromatin remodeling proteins regulate transcription, HMGA1 is thought to drive malignant transformation by modulating expression of specific genes. Genome-wide studies to define HMGA1 transcriptional networks during tumorigenesis, however, are lacking. To define the HMGA1 transcriptome, we analyzed gene expression profiles in lymphoid cells from HMGA1a transgenic mice at different stages in tumorigenesis. Results RNA from lymphoid samples at 2 months (before tumors develop and 12 months (after tumors are well-established was screened for differential expression of > 20,000 unique genes by microarray analysis (Affymetrix using a parametric and nonparametric approach. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in a subset of genes. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for cellular pathways and functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Early in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced inflammatory pathways with NFkappaB identified as a major node. In established tumors, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cell cycle progression, cell-mediated immune response, and cancer. At both stages in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cellular development, hematopoiesis, and hematologic development. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that stem cell and immature T cell genes are enriched in the established tumors. To determine if these results are relevant to human tumors, we knocked-down HMGA1 in human T-cell leukemia cells and identified a subset of genes dysregulated in both the transgenic and human lymphoid tumors. Conclusions We found that HMGA1 induces

  1. Air pollutants and toxic emissions of various mileage motorcycles for ECE driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2017-03-01

    Motorcycles were selected to determine their fuel consumption and exhaust emissions following ECE driving cycles. Exhaust constituents including CO2, CO, NOx, total hydrocarbons (THC) and hydrocarbon species (27 paraffins, 9 olefins, 16 aromatics and 15 carbonyls) were investigated for this work. The age of 10- 90% of the selected motorcycles ranged from 2.5 to 12.4 years, and their mileage ranged from 5400 to 39,300 km. CO emission ranged from 1.4 to 6.4 g/km (median value: 2.98 g/km), THC from 0.41 to 1.54 g/km (median value: 0.98 g/km), NOx from 0.16 to 0.28 g/km (median value: 0.21 g/km), CO2 from 58.9 to 62.2 g/km (median value: 60.5 g/km) and fuel consumption from 30.7 to 36.4 km/L (median value: 33.4 km/L), corresponding to the percentage cumulative data from 10 to 90% of the selected motorcycles. Results indicated that the motorcycle exhaust emission and fuel consumption depended on their mileage and ages. An increase in mileage of 1000 km resulted in an increase of 103 mg for CO emission and 14.7 mg for hydrocarbon emission and a reduction of 1.52 mg NOx emission and 0.11 km per liter fuel consumption. For various VOC groups, a mileage increase of 1000 km corresponding to the increased exhaust emission of paraffins was 6.71 mg, olefins 1.90 mg, aromatics 7.04 mg, carbonyls 0.283 mg and 67 VOC species 15.9 mg. Fuel consumption and emissions of CO and hydrocarbon increased in motorcycles over the guaranteed mileage of 15,000 km.

  2. FEATURES OF RESOURCE TESTING OF THE HYDRAULIC BRAKE DRIVE ELEMENTS OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Revin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the resource testing facilities and methods of automobile brake cylinders in terms of ABS working process adequacy is carried out. A testing stand construction and a method of carrying out the resource testing of hydraulic drive elements of the automobile automated braking sys-tem is offered.

  3. Fitness to drive in early stage dementia : an instrumented vehicle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Over 25 percent of people age 80 and older suffer from some form of dementia, with Alzheimers Disease accounting for around 75 percent of all instances. It is estimated that around one-third of people with dementia continue to drive. Compared to t...

  4. General Motor Vehicle Drivers' Knowledge and Practices Regarding Drink Driving in Yinchuan and Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Keqin; King, Mark; Fleiter, Judy; Sheehan, Mary; Ma, Wenjun; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Drink driving contributes to significant levels of injury and economic loss in China but is not well researched. This study examined knowledge, drink-driving practices, and alcohol misuse problems among general drivers in Yinchuan. The objectives were to gain a better understanding of drink driving in Yinchuan, identify areas that need to be addressed, and compare the results with a similar study in Guangzhou. This was a cross-sectional study with a survey designed to collect information on participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge and practices in relation to drinking and driving. The survey was composed of questions on knowledge and practices in relation to drink driving and was administered to a convenience sample of 406 drivers. Alcohol misuse problems were assessed by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Males accounted for the main proportion of drivers sampled from the general population ("general drivers"). A majority of general drivers in both cities knew that drunk driving had become a criminal offense in 2011; however, knowledge of 2 legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits was quite low. Fewer drivers in Yinchuan (22.6%) than in Guangzhou (27.9) reported having been stopped by police conducting breath alcohol testing at least once in the last 12 months. The mean AUDIT score in Yinchuan (M = 8.2) was higher than that in Guangzhou (M = 7.4), and the proportion of Yinchuan drivers with medium or higher alcohol misuse problems (31.2%) was correspondingly higher than in Guangzhou (23.1%). In Yinchuan, males had a significantly higher AUDIT score than females (t = 3.454, P <.001), similar to Guangzhou. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on potential predictors of the AUDIT score (age, gender, monthly income, education level, years licensed, and age started drinking). There were significant individual contributions of gender (beta = 0.173, P =.09) and age at which drinking started (beta = 0.141, P

  5. Design, construction and integration of hybrid drive components in commercial vehicles. The MAN hybrid drive truck TGL 12.220; Auslegung, Aufbau und Integration von Hybrid-Antriebskomponenten im Nutzfahrzeug. Der MAN Hybrid-Verteiler-Lkw TGL 12.220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschl, Stefan; Hipp, Eberhand; Doebereiner, Rolf [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to the passenger car the drive train of commercial vehicles is designed basically in view of a maximum efficiency, because the fuel consumption has a determining portion in the vehicle operating expenses of the operators. The pay load of the vehicle also has a high value, in particular in the small and middle segment from 8 t of total weight. In view of pollutant issues the environmental zones which may be also driven by commercial vehicles only from a certain pollutant class were already furnished by many local authority districts. Additional demands for a purely, emission free electric short distance operation can result from suitable emission editions in bigger towns in future. MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG meet these topical challenges with the development of a hybriddelivery truck of the 12 t - class. At this the aim is to meet to the demands after low CO{sub 2} issue and purely electric operation by a powerful battery system and the recuperation of brake energy. For the integration of the hybrid components in the vehicle it was respected to preserve the pay load of the vehicle without limiting the functionality. The dimensioning of the hybrid drive train for a delivery truck vehicle, the vehicle integration and the effects on the lifecycle economics are lighted up in the following. (orig.)

  6. Ending America’s Energy Insecurity: How Electric Vehicles Can Drive the Solution to Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    rather than zero emissions , precisely because of technology limitations (Boyd, 1996). Those efforts were before the advent of the Tesla Roadster, Nissan...U.S. is consumed as motor gasoline. If overnight the U.S. stopped using oil to power its vehicles, if overnight drivers switched to electric...for approximately 50 percent of the oil the U.S. consumes. Likewise, 50 percent of oil consumed in the U.S. is consumed as motor gasoline. If

  7. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  8. The effects of social interactions with in-vehicle agents on a driver's anger level, driving performance, situation awareness, and perceived workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Myounghoon; Walker, Bruce N; Gable, Thomas M

    2015-09-01

    Research has suggested that interaction with an in-vehicle software agent can improve a driver's psychological state and increase road safety. The present study explored the possibility of using an in-vehicle software agent to mitigate effects of driver anger on driving behavior. After either anger or neutral mood induction, 60 undergraduates drove in a simulator with two types of agent intervention. Results showed that both speech-based agents not only enhance driver situation awareness and driving performance, but also reduce their anger level and perceived workload. Regression models show that a driver's anger influences driving performance measures, mediated by situation awareness. The practical implications include design guidelines for the design of social interaction with in-vehicle software agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of the placement method of fuel dispenserson the refueling cycle of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Ruslan Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics of production processes at a gas station is a critical point in the system of petroleum products, on the operation of which the effectiveness and sustainability of the transport sector depends. The provision and supply of road transportation of petroleum products is one of the most urgent tasks.Technological processes of reception, storage of fuel and refuelling of motor vehicles on petrol stations needs a scientific study of their structure and organization. At the design stage of a gas station, it is necessary to consider quite a lot of different factors: the configuration of the area under the gas station, the scheme of arrangement and the number of fuel dispensers, the trajectory of motion and the design of vehicles, calls to the station, distance between cars on duty, between the elements of buildings and equipment, as well as the requirements for fire, building, public, sanitary-epidemiological and state regulations. Therefore, the designer has a great opportunity for varying the parameters of the elements of the station, especially when considering the characteristics of the fueled vehicles.Typical projects at a same power station include various sizes, the seizure of land to build a station changes from planning decisions and the locations of all its technological elements. For increase of functioning efficiency of transportation systems of petroleum products in modern conditions on the basis of the design and technical innovations it is necessary to conduct special studies.Research planning decisions for a refueling station led to the conclusion that the placement of technological equipment in the refueling area has a certain impact on the length of vehicles service. Improving the layout of the refueling zone several times reduces the loss of the components of the refueling cycle time and increase the capacity of the station.Information base describing the stages of a gas station includes parts of refueling cycle time and

  10. Drive assembly concepts for electric-powered vehicles - state-of-the-art of the development; Antriebskonzepte fuer Elektroautos - Stand der Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbauer, W. [Siemens AG, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The electric-powered vehicle is a reasonable alternative to conventional vehicles in order to avoid local pollutant emission completely, especially in conurbations and in those areas, which are sensitive to environmental pollution. The criteria and evaluation of various drive assembly concepts, concerning technology, costs and future trends are described in the present report. The stage of the development reveals, that even today there already exist well designed drive assembly concepts, adapted to the corresponding vehicle concept, which enable a series production of electric-powered vehicles. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Elektroauto ist eine sinnvolle Alternative zum konventionellen Fahrzeug, um Schadstoff-Emissionen lokal voellig zu vermeiden und um die Laermbelaestigung zu mindern - insbesondere in Ballungsgebieten und in bezueglich Umweltbelastung sensitiven Bereichen. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Kriterien und Bewertung verschiedener Antriebskonzepte bezueglich Technik, Kosten und kuenftiger Trends beschrieben. Der Entwicklungsstand zeigt, dass es bereits heute ausgereifte - dem jeweiligen Fahrzeugkonzept angepasst - Antriebsloesungen gibt, mit denen das Elektroauto in Serie produziert werden kann. (orig.)

  11. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  12. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  13. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  14. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high

  15. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  16. Carbon emission targets for driving sustainable mobility with US light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes-Casey, Hilary G; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willcox, Blair

    2009-02-01

    Models and frameworks to guide "sustainable mobility" of personal transportation lack definitive quantitative targets. This paper defines sustainable mobility targets for US light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to help stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at 450 or 550 ppm. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon stabilization pathways are used to equitably distribute future carbon dioxide emissions to the US. Allowable US emissions are then allocated to the LDV sector according to the current share of national emissions. Average on-road LDV well-to-wheel carbon emissions must be reduced from 160 g/mile (2002) to 20 g/mile by 2050 to contribute to a 450 ppm CO2 goal. Strategies to reduce LDV greenhouse gas emissions include reducing travel demand, improving average fuel economy, and utilizing low-carbon ethanol. Simulations using EIA modeling parameters indicate that average LDV fuel economy must reach 136 mpg, cellulosic ethanol must make up over 83% of fuel market share, or annual LDV travel demand must be reduced by about 53% by 2050 to help meet LDV greenhouse gas targets based on a 450 ppm CO2 stabilization goal. Recent federal energy security policy and plug-in hybrid technology programs may also help meet LDV carbon emission targets in the short term by reducing gasoline use, but an aggressive combination of strategies will be needed to keep vehicle CO2 in line with an emissions target to 2050.

  17. Non-Model-Based Control of a Wheeled Vehicle Pulling Two Trailers to Provide Early Powered Mobility and Driving Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Td Vr, David A

    2018-01-01

    Non-model-based control of a wheeled vehicle pulling two trailers is proposed. It is a fun train for disabled children consisting of a locomotive and two carriages. The fun train has afforded opportunities for both disabled and able bodied young people to share an activity and has provided early driving experiences for disabled children; it has introduced them to assistive and powered mobility. The train is a nonlinear system and subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints, so that position and state depend on the path taken to get there. The train is described, and then, a robust control algorithm using proportional-derivative filtered errors is proposed to control the locomotive. The controller was not dependent on an accurate model of the train, because the mass of the vehicle and two carriages changed depending on the number, size, and shape of children and wheelchair seats on the train. The controller was robust and stable in uncertainty. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach, and the suggested control algorithm is shown to be acceptable without knowing the exact plant dynamics.

  18. A High-Performance Control Method of Constant V/f-Controlled Induction Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase induction motor used as a propulsion system for the electric vehicle (EV is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output, and strong coupling system. For such a complicated model system with unmeasured and unavoidable disturbances, as well as parameter variations, the conventional vector control method cannot meet the demands of high-performance control. Therefore, a novel control strategy named least squares support vector machines (LSSVM inverse control is presented in the paper. Invertibility of the induction motor in the constant V/f control mode is proved to confirm its feasibility. The LSSVM inverse is composed of an LSSVM approximating the nonlinear mapping of the induction motor and two integrators. The inverse model of the constant V/f-controlled induction motor drive is obtained by using LSSVM, and then the optimal parameters of LSSVM are determined automatically by applying a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO. Cascading the LSSVM inverse with the induction motor drive system, the pseudolinear system can be obtained. Thus, it is easy to design the closed-loop linear regulator. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Neural Network Control-Based Drive Design of Servomotor and Its Application to Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic guided vehicle (AGV is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN control is considered to assist the PID control for gain tuning. The experimental results are first provided to verify the correctness of the neural network plus PID control for 400 W-motor control system. Secondly, the AGV includes two sets of the designed motor systems and CAN BUS transmission so that it can move along the straight line and curve paths shown in the taped videos.

  20. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  1. Impact of smoking on in-vehicle fine particle exposure during driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hongji; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-09-01

    Indoor smoking ban in public places can reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, smoking in cars and homes has continued. The purpose of this study was to assess particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) concentration in moving cars with different window opening conditions. The PM 2.5 level was measured by an aerosol spectrometer inside and outside moving cars simultaneously, along with ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration, speed, temperature and humidity inside cars. Two sport utility vehicles were used. Three different ventilation conditions were evaluated by up to 20 repeated experiments. In the pre-smoking phase, average in-vehicle PM 2.5 concentrations were 16-17 μg m -3. Regardless of different window opening conditions, the PM 2.5 levels promptly increased when smoking occurred and decreased after cigarette was extinguished. Although only a single cigarette was smoked, the average PM 2.5 levels were 506-1307 μg m -3 with different window opening conditions. When smoking was ceased, the average PM 2.5 levels for 15 min were several times higher than the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35 μg m -3. It took longer than 10 min to reach the level of the pre-smoking phase. Although UFP levels had a similar temporal profile of PM 2.5, the increased levels during the smoking phase were relatively small. This study demonstrated that the SHS exposure in cars with just a single cigarette being smoked could exceed the US EPA NAAQS under realistic window opening conditions. Therefore, the findings support the need for public education against smoking in cars and advocacy for a smoke-free car policy.

  2. Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondato, Fernando; Bazzell, Jane; Schwartz, Linda; Mc Donald, Bruce W; Fisher, Robert; Anderson, S Shawn; Galindo, Arcenio; Dueck, Amylou C; Scott, Luis R

    2017-01-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Thirty patients (73±9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  4. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  5. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  6. Driving into Euroland with AdBlue. Environmental friendly diesel technology for utility vehicles; Mit AdBlue ins Euroland. Umweltfreundliche Dieseltechnologie fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The SCR-diesel technology introduced by DaimlerChrysler has already established itself successfully in the field of utility vehicles under the name BlueTec. This drive technique already meets today the exhaust gas limiting values of tomorrow and is now also available for buses. (orig.)

  7. Metagenomic potential for and diversity of N-cycle driving microorganisms in the Bothnian Sea sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasigraf, Olivia; Schmitt, Julia; Jetten, M.S.M.; Lüke, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle is driven by a plethora of reactions transforming nitrogen compounds between various redox states. Here, we investigated the metagenomic potential for nitrogen cycle of the in situ microbial community in an oligotrophic, brackish environment of the Bothnian Sea

  8. Eco-driving: behavioural pattern change in Polish passenger vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Piotr Oskar; Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czuba, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    In Poland, as in the rest of Europe, air quality depends primarily on emissions from municipal, domestic and road transport sources. The problems of appropriate air quality are especially important within urban areas due to numerous sources of emissions being concentrated in relatively small spaces in both large cities and small/medium-sized towns. Due to the steadily increasing share of urban population in the overall number of population, the issue of providing clean air will over the years become a more significant problem for human health, and therefore a stronger incentive to intensify research. The key challenge faced by a modern society is, therefore, to limit harmful substance emissions in order to minimise the contribution of transport to pollution and health hazards. Increasingly stringent emission standards are being imposed on car manufacturers; on the other hand, scant regard is paid to the issue of drivers, i.e. how they can help reduce emissions and protect their life and health by applying eco-driving rules.

  9. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  10. Competition-induced starvation drives large-scale population cycles in Antarctic krill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Alexey B; de Roos, André M; Meyer, Bettina; Kawaguchi, So; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) - one of the most abundant animal species on Earth - exhibits a 5-6 year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modeling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales. Our model indicates that the cycle amplitude increases with reduction of krill loss rates. Thus, a decline of apex predators is likely to increase the oscillation amplitude, potentially destabilizing the marine food web with drastic consequences for the entire Antarctic ecosystem.

  11. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  12. The Virtual Driving Coach - design and preliminary testing of a predictive eco-driving assistance system for heavy-duty vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heyes, Daniel; Daun, Thomas J; Zimmermann, Andreas; Lienkamp, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The commercial vehicle sector is characterized by high competitive pressure. Fuel consumption is one major factor that influences the transport efficiency and competitiveness of logistics companies...

  13. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghua Han; Jinkuan Wang; Qiang Zhao; Peng Han

    2014-01-01

    Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stoch...

  14. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  15. Model predictive controller-based multi-model control system for longitudinal stability of distributed drive electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ke; Yuan, Xiaofang; Liu, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Distributed drive electric vehicle(DDEV) has been widely researched recently, its longitudinal stability is a very important research topic. Conventional wheel slip ratio control strategies are usually designed for one special operating mode and the optimal performance cannot be obtained as DDEV works under various operating modes. In this paper, a novel model predictive controller-based multi-model control system (MPC-MMCS) is proposed to solve the longitudinal stability problem of DDEV. Firstly, the operation state of DDEV is summarized as three kinds of typical operating modes. A submodel set is established to accurately represent the state value of the corresponding operating mode. Secondly, the matching degree between the state of actual DDEV and each submodel is analyzed. The matching degree is expressed as the weight coefficient and calculated by a modified recursive Bayes theorem. Thirdly, a nonlinear MPC is designed to achieve the optimal wheel slip ratio for each submodel. The optimal design of MPC is realized by parallel chaos optimization algorithm(PCOA)with computational accuracy and efficiency. Finally, the control output of MPC-MMCS is computed by the weighted output of each MPC to achieve smooth switching between operating modes. The proposed MPC-MMCS is evaluated on eight degrees of freedom(8DOF)DDEV model simulation platform and simulation results of different condition show the benefits of the proposed control system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  17. Department of Transportation vs self-reported data on motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions for stroke survivors: do they agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, Hillel M; Guo, Meiqi; O'Hara, Paddi; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Marshall, Shawn C; Hunt, Lynn; Jessup, Anita; Biggs, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Research on stroke survivors' driving safety has typically used either self-reports or government records, but the extent to which the 2 may differ is not known. We compared government records and self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions in a sample of stroke survivors. The 56 participants were originally recruited for a prospective study on driving and community re-integration post-stroke; the study population consisted of moderately impaired stroke survivors without severe communication disorders who had been referred for a driving assessment. The driving records of the 56 participants for the 5 years before study entry and the 1-year study period were acquired with written consent from the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO), Canada. Self-reports of collisions and convictions were acquired via a semistructured interview and then compared with the MTO records. Forty-three participants completed the study. For 7 (13.5%) the MTO records did not match the self-reports regarding collision involvement, and for 9 (17.3%) the MTO records did not match self-reports regarding driving convictions. The kappa coefficient for the correlation between MTO records and self-reports was 0.52 for collisions and 0.47 for convictions (both in the moderate range of agreement). When both sources of data were consulted, up to 56 percent more accidents and up to 46 percent more convictions were identified in the study population in the 5 years before study entry compared to when either source was used alone. In our population of stroke survivors, self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions differed from government records. In future studies, the use of both government and self-reported data would ensure a more accurate picture of driving safety post-stroke.

  18. Large herbivores as a driving force of woodland-grassland cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Perry

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the mutual interactions between the population dynamics of large herbivores and wood-pasture cycles in eutrophic wetlands. Therefore, habitat use and population dynamics of large herbivores, the effects of large herbivores on vegetation development, and the mutual interactions

  19. Climate and environmental effects of electric vehicles versus compressed natural gas vehicles in China: a life-cycle analysis at provincial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2013-02-05

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs), which are mainly coal-based and natural gas-based, are the two most widely proposed replacements of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) in P.R. China. We examine fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), PM(2.5), PM(10), NO(x), and SO(2) of CNGVs and EVs relative to gasoline ICEVs and hybrids, by Chinese province. CNGVs can currently reduce emissions of GHGs, PM(10), PM(2,5), NO(x), and SO(2) by approximately 6%, 7%, 20%, 18% and 22%, respectively. EVs can reduce GHG emissions by 20%, but increase PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x), and SO(2) emissions by approximately 360%, 250%, 120%, and 370%, respectively. Nevertheless, results vary significantly by province. Regarding their contribution to national emissions, PM increases from EVs are unimportant, because light-duty passenger vehicles contribute very little to overall PM emissions nationwide (≤0.05%); however, their NO(x) and SO(2) increases are important. Since China is striving to reduce power plant emissions, EVs are expected to have equivalent or even lower SO(2) and NO(x) emissions relative to ICEVs in the future (2030). Before then, however, EVs should be developed according to the cleanness of regional power mixes. This would lower their SO(2) and NO(x) emissions and earn more GHG reduction credits.

  20. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  1. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  2. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  3. Accidents can happen to any of us, whether we are on foot, cycling or driving

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Excessive speeding, STOP signs not respected, a cyclist on the wrong side of the road, a pedestrian not paying attention, someone on a mobile phone while driving - are you familiar with any of these situations? The HSE Unit would like to express its opinion in light of the road accident statistics involving personnel at CERN.   In 2011, the HSE Unit's Accident/Incident Prevention and Follow-up Service recorded 28 motoring accidents involving personnel either on the CERN site or on journeys to and from work - double the 2010 statistics! These include accidents that could have been avoided by reducing speed or not using a mobile phone while driving. At CERN, the majority of accidents linked to journeys continues to affect cyclists, with the number of cases now close to 30 each year. In order to ensure the safety of personnel, the HSE Unit would like to remind cyclists that wearing a protective helmet is highly recommended and that it is essential to ensure that you can be seen (bicycle lig...

  4. Effects on driving performance of interacting with an in-vehicle music player: a comparison of three interface layout concepts for information presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Trotter, Margaret J; Lenné, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Interface design is an important factor in assessing the potential effects on safety of interacting with an in-vehicle information system while driving. In the current study, the layout of information on a visual display was manipulated to explore its effect on driving performance in the context of music selection. The comparative effects of an auditory-verbal (cognitive) task were also explored. The driving performance of 30 participants was assessed under both baseline and dual task conditions using the Lane Change Test. Concurrent completion of the music selection task with driving resulted in significant impairment to lateral driving performance (mean lane deviation and percentage of correct lane changes) relative to the baseline, and significantly greater mean lane deviation relative to the combined driving and the cognitive task condition. The magnitude of these effects on driving performance was independent of layout concept, although significant differences in subjective workload estimates and performance on the music selection task across layout concepts highlights that potential uncertainty regarding design use as conveyed through layout concept could be disadvantageous. The implications of these results for interface design and safety are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  6. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  7. Dynamic Remodeling of Membrane Composition Drives Cell Cycle through Primary Cilia Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Siew Cheng; Chiba, Shuhei; Suzuki, Masako; Su, Emily; Roberson, Elle C; Pusapati, Ganesh V; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Rohatgi, Rajat; Reiter, Jeremy F; Ikegami, Koji; Inoue, Takanari

    2017-01-12

    The life cycle of a primary cilium begins in quiescence and ends prior to mitosis. In quiescent cells, the primary cilium insulates itself from contiguous dynamic membrane processes on the cell surface to function as a stable signaling apparatus. Here, we demonstrate that basal restriction of ciliary structure dynamics is established by the cilia-enriched phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase, Inpp5e. Growth induction displaces ciliary Inpp5e and accumulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in distal cilia. This change triggers otherwise-forbidden actin polymerization in primary cilia, which excises cilia tips in a process we call cilia decapitation. While cilia disassembly is traditionally thought to occur solely through resorption, we show that an acute loss of IFT-B through cilia decapitation precedes resorption. Finally, we propose that cilia decapitation induces mitogenic signaling and constitutes a molecular link between the cilia life cycle and cell-division cycle. This newly defined ciliary mechanism may find significance in cell proliferation control during normal development and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  9. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  10. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  11. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs, except for Otto-cycle HDEs subject to the alternative standards... alternative exhaust emission standards in this paragraph (f)(2) shall apply to new 2004 through 2007 model...

  12. Energy-optimized longitudinal guidance of motor vehicles through the use of forward-looking driving strategies; Energieoptimale Laengsfuehrung von Kraftfahrzeugen durch Einsatz vorausschauender Fahrstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radke, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    The present work deals with the energy-optimal longitudinal guidance of motor vehicles, which are anticipatory uses familiar route data in order to realize a maximum energy-efficient driving strategy to suit the driver. To solve this optimization problem, a resource-efficient algorithm is developed and embedded in a driver assistance system for automated longitudinal guide prototypically used. The system achieves a fuel saving of about 10%.

  13. Long-Life, Oil-Free Polymeric, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-roller traction drives have several advantages relative to geared units for aerospace and commercial drive applications. Among these are zero backlash, low...

  14. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  15. ATPase Cycle of the Nonmotile Kinesin NOD Allows Microtubule End Tracking and Drives Chromosome Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Sindelar, C; Mulko, N; Collins, K; Kong, S; Hawley, R; Kull, F

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of nonexchange chromosomes during Drosophila melanogaster meiosis requires the proper function of NOD, a nonmotile kinesin-10. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the NOD catalytic domain in the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound states. These structures reveal an alternate conformation of the microtubule binding region as well as a nucleotide-sensitive relay of hydrogen bonds at the active site. Additionally, a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the nucleotide-free microtubule-NOD complex shows an atypical binding orientation. Thermodynamic studies show that NOD binds tightly to microtubules in the nucleotide-free state, yet other nucleotide states, including AMPPNP, are weakened. Our pre-steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrates that NOD interaction with microtubules occurs slowly with weak activation of ADP product release. Upon rapid substrate binding, NOD detaches from the microtubule prior to the rate-limiting step of ATP hydrolysis, which is also atypical for a kinesin. We propose a model for NOD's microtubule plus-end tracking that drives chromosome movement.

  16. Anaerobic respiration using a complete oxidative TCA cycle drives multicellular swarming in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-10-30

    Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. Bacterial locomotion and the existence of microbes were the first scientific

  17. Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. PMID:23111869

  18. Gallium, a promising candidate to disrupt the vicious cycle driving osteolytic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazic-Geljic, Ivana; Guberovic, Iva; Didak, Blanka; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy; Schmid-Alliana, Annie; Boukhechba, Florian; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Verron, Elise

    2016-09-15

    Bone metastases of breast cancer typically lead to a severe osteolysis due to an excessive osteoclastic activity. On the other hand, the semi-metallic element gallium (Ga) displays an inhibitory action on osteoclasts, and therefore on bone resorption, as well as antitumour properties. Thus, we explored in vitro Ga effects on osteoclastogenesis in an aggressive bone metastatic environment based on the culture of pre-osteoclast RAW 264.7 cells with conditioned medium from metastatic breast tumour cells, i.e. the breast tumour cell line model MDA-MB-231 and its bone-seeking clone MDA-231BO. We first observed that Ga dose-dependently inhibited the tumour cells-induced osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. To mimic a more aggressive environment where pro-tumourigenic factors are released from bone matrix due to osteoclastic resorption, metastatic breast tumour cells were stimulated with TGF-β, a mayor cytokine in bone metastasis vicious cycle. In these conditions, we observed that Ga still inhibited cancer cells-driven osteoclastogenesis. Lastly, we evidenced that Ga affected directly and strongly the proliferation/viability of both cancer cell lines, as well as the expression of major osteolytic factors in MDA-231BO cells. With the exception of two small scale clinical studies from 1980s, this is the first time that antitumour properties of Ga have been specifically studied in the context of bone metastases. Our data strongly suggest that, through its action against the vicious cycle involving bone cells and tumour cells, Ga represents a relevant and promising candidate for the local treatment of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Mn–S redox cycling drive sedimentary dolomite formation? A hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrash, Daniel A.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; González-Arismendi, Gabriela; Gordon, Robert A.; Méndez, José A.; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O. (CLS); (UCV-Venezuela); (CNRS-UMR); (Alberta)

    2016-06-10

    The formation of dolomite in modern peritidal environments is linked to the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg by extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and alkalinity generation through organic carbon respiration facilitating the nucleation of dolomite precursors. In the past two decades, microbial sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and methanotrophy have all been considered as potential drivers of the nucleation process, but it remains unclear why dolomite formation could not also occur in suboxic sediments where abundant alkalinity is produced by processes linked to Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction coupled with the diffusion and reoxidation of reduced sulfur species. Here we report the interstitial occurrence of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra within suboxic sediments associated with remnant microbial mats that developed in the peritidal zone of the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela. Multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF and XRD, and spatially resolved XANES microanalyses, show that the dolomite-cemented interval exhibits depleted bulk iron concentrations, but is interstitially enriched in Mn and elemental sulfur (S⁰). Manganese occurs in several oxidation states, indicating that the dolomite-cemented interval was the locus of complex biological redox transformations characterized by coupled Mn and S cycling. The tight correspondence between sedimentary Mn and MgCO₃ concentrations further hints at a direct role for Mn during dolomitization. While additional studies are required to confirm its relevance in natural settings, we propose a model by which coupled Mn–S redox cycling may promote alkalinity generation and thus dolomite formation in manner similar to, or even more efficiently, than bacterial sulfate reduction alone.

  20. Changes in vascular plant functional types drive carbon cycling in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Lilli; Bragazza, Luca; Erhagen, Björn; Limpens, Juul; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands store a large organic carbon (C) pool that is highly exposed to future environmental changes with consequent risk of releasing enormous amounts of C. Biotic changes in plant community structure and species abundance might have an even stronger impact on soil organic C dynamics in peatlands than the direct effects of abiotic changes. Therefore, a sound understanding of the impact of vegetation dynamics on C cycling will help to better predict the response of peatlands to environmental changes. Here, we aimed to assess the role of plant functional types (PFTs) in affecting peat decomposition in relation to climate warming. To this aim, we selected two peatlands at different altitude (i.e. 1300 and 1700 m asl) on the south-eastern Alps of Italy. The two sites represent a contrast in temperature, overall vascular plant biomass and relative ericoids abundance, with the highest biomass and ericoids occurrence at the low latitude. Within the sites we selected 20 plots of similar microtopographical position and general vegetation type (hummocks). All plots contained both graminoids and ericoids and had a 100% cover of Sphagnum mosses. The plots were subjected to four treatments (control, and three clipping treatments) in which we selectively removed aboveground biomass of ericoids, graminoids or both to explore the contribution of the different PFTs for soil respiration (n=5) and peat chemistry. Peat chemical composition was determined by the analysis of C and N and their stable isotopes in association with pyrolysis GC/MS. Soil respiration was measured after clipping with a Licor system. Preliminary findings suggest that peat decomposition pathway and rate depend on plant species composition and particularly on differences in root activity between PFTs. Finally, this study underlines the importance of biotic drivers to predict the effects of future environmental changes on peatland C cycling.

  1. Impact of Silicon Carbide Devices on the Dynamic Performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of silicon carbide (SiC metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs on the dynamic performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive systems. The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs are evaluated experimentally taking into account temperature variations. Then the switching characteristics are firstly introduced into the transfer function of a SiC-inverter fed PMSM drive system. The main contribution of this paper is the investigation of the dynamic control performance features such as the fast response, the stability and the robustness of the drive system considering the characteristics of SiC MOSFETs. All the results of the SiC-drive system are compared to the silicon-(Si insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs drive system counterpart, and the SiC-drive system manifests a higher dynamic performance than the Si-drive system. The analytical results have been effectively validated by experiments on a test bench.

  2. Discrete Event Simulation Model of the Ground Maintenance Operations Cycle of a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope III, John T

    2006-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was first to develop a conceptual model of maintenance operations needed to regenerate a launch vehicle between flights, and then to translate this conceptual model...

  3. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stochastic. Under the assumptions, the proposed operating strategy for battery is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem considering reliability and failure number. And an explicit expression of the average cost rate is derived for battery lifetime. Results show that the proposed operating strategy enhances the availability and reliability at a low cost.

  4. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  5. Project InitiativE-BW - Real-world driving, energy demand, user experiences and emissions of electrified vehicle fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Kugler, Ulrike; Schmitt, Michael; Özdemir, Enver Doruk

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers see electrified vehicles (EV) as one instrument to reduce local air pollution and also towards a mitigation of climate change. It is known that the “real driving” energy demand of conventional vehicles is significantly higher than the norm consumption. However, there is limited knowledge for the real-world energy demand and charging patterns of EV fleets. Furthermore, first user experiences are important for the uptake of the electrified vehicles. There are not many studies...

  6. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice: results of a Dutch field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolderdijk, J W; Knockaert, J; Steg, E M; Verhoef, E T

    2011-05-01

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we tested the effects of a Pay-As-You-Drive insurance fee on driving speed. A group of young drivers could save money on their monthly insurance fee by keeping the speed limit. Driving speed was monitored through GPS technology during one year. Analyses showed that, relative to pre- and post-measurement, as well as a control group, the introduction of a Pay-As-You-Drive insurance fee significantly reduced speed violations of young drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of...

  8. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  9. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  10. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bloom, Ira D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dees, Dennis W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  11. Can "the voices in the car" persuade drivers to go green?: effects of benefit appeals from in-vehicle voice agents and the role of drivers' affective states on eco-driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2014-04-01

    The present research investigated the possibility of using an in-vehicle voice agent to promote eco-driving. Considering that both types of benefit appeals--egoistic (emphasizing benefits to the self) and altruistic (emphasizing benefits to others)--could be employed to promote eco-driving behavior, we explored the effects of benefit appeals delivered by an in-vehicle voice agent on driving performance. In particular, we tested whether and how the valence (positive vs. negative) of drivers' affective states moderates the effects, drawing on the functionalist affect-cognition framework, which has theorized that positive affect leads people to focus more on self-interest, whereas negative affect leads people to become more sensitive to social norms. An experiment was conducted in which participants, after undergoing affect (happy vs. sad) elicitation, received messages (egoistic vs. altruistic) promoting eco-driving from an in-vehicle voice agent while performing a simulated driving task. Results were partially consistent with the functionalist affect-cognition framework. Happy participants performed better on eco-driving when they were exposed to egoistic appeals than to altruistic appeals. On the other hand, the driving performance data from sad participants did not yield a significant difference between the egoistic condition and the altruistic condition. Participants' driving performance data further revealed that the joint effects of benefit appeals and affective states on safe driving performance mirrored the joint effects on eco-driving performance, confirming a close relationship between the two driving behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications for the use of in-vehicle voice agents and benefit appeals in promoting eco-driving and safe driving are discussed.

  12. Direct Yaw-Moment Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network-Induced Delays through Parameter-Dependent Fuzzy SMC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust direct yaw-moment control (DYC through parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (SMC approach for all-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs subject to network-induced delays. AWID-EVs have obvious advantages in terms of DYC over the traditional centralized-drive vehicles. However it is one of the most principal issues for AWID-EVs to ensure the robustness of DYC. Furthermore, the network-induced delays would also reduce control performance of DYC and even deteriorate the EV system. To ensure robustness of DYC and deal with network-induced delays, a parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC method based on the real-time information of vehicle states and delays is proposed in this paper. The results of cosimulations with Simulink® and CarSim® demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Moreover, the results of comparison with a conventional FSMC controller illustrate the strength of explicitly dealing with network-induced delays.

  13. Power Sharing and Voltage Vector Distribution Model of a Dual Inverter Open-End Winding Motor Drive System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A drive system with an open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (OW-PMSM fed by a dual inverter and powered by two independent power sources is suitable for electric vehicles. By using an energy conversion device as primary power source and an energy storage element as secondary power source, this configuration can not only lower the DC-bus voltage and extend the driving range, but also handle the power sharing between two power sources without a DC/DC (direct current to direct current converter. Based on a drive system model with voltage vector distribution, this paper proposes a desired power sharing calculation method and three different voltage vector distribution methods. By their selection strategy the optimal voltage vector distribution method can be selected according to the operating conditions. On the basis of the integral synthesizing of the desired voltage vector, the proposed voltage vector distribution method can reduce the inverter switching frequency while making the primary power source follow its desired output power. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed methods, which improve the primary power source’s energy efficiency by regulating its output power and lessen inverter switching loss by reducing the switching frequency. This system also provides an approach to the energy management function of electric vehicles.

  14. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice : Results of a Dutch field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, J.W.; Knockaert, J.; Steg, L.; Verhoef, E.T.

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we

  15. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice: Results of a Dutch field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, J.W.; Knockaert, J.; Steg, E.M.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we

  16. Naturalistic driving : observing everyday driving behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic Driving is a relatively new research method for the observation of everyday driving behaviour of road users. For this purpose, systems are installed in subjects’ own vehicles that unobtrusively register vehicle manoeuvres, driver behaviour (such as eye, head and hand manoeuvres) and

  17. Numerical Simulation Analysis of an Oversteer In-Wheel Small Electric Vehicle Integrated with Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izhar Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to conventional vehicle, most in-wheel small EVs that exist today are designed with understeer (US characteristic. They are safer on the road but possess poor cornering performance. With recent in-wheel motor and steer-by wire technology, high cornering performance vehicle does not limit to sport or racing cars. We believe that oversteer (OS design approach for in-wheel small EV can increase the steering performance of the vehicle. However, one disadvantage is that OS vehicle has a stability limit velocity. In this paper, we proposed a Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering (4WDIS for in-wheel small EV with OS characteristic. The aim of implementing 4WDIS is to develop a high steer controllability and stability of the EV at any velocity. This paper analyses the performance of OS in-wheel small EV with 4WDIS by using numerical simulation. Two cornering conditions were simulated which are (1 steady-state cornering at below critical velocity and (2 steady-state cornering over critical velocity. The objective of the simulation is to understand the behavior of OS in-wheel small EV and the advantages of implementing the 4WDIS. The results show that an in-wheel small EV can achieve high cornering performance at low speed while maintaining stability at high speed.

  18. Solar drives in practice. Equipment, motors and vehicles successfully running on solar power. Solarantriebe in der Praxis. Geraete, Maschinen und Fahrzeuge erfolgreich mit Sonnenenergie betreiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koethe, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    The book comprises the following chapters: 1. Solar power sources; 2. Solar power generation by means of solar cells; 3. Power supply for electric motors; 4. Electronic components; 5. Batteries; 6. Solar-powered equipment; 7. Electric motors; 8. A.c. and three-phase current motors; 9. D.c. motors; 10. Compact and miniature motors; 11. Design of solar drives; 12. Applications of compact solar motors; 13. Water pumps powered by compact motors; 14. Solar-powered electric road vehicles; 15. Solar-powered boats. (HW)

  19. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  20. Electric drive vehicle systems : suggested changes to large truck and motorcoach regulations and inspection procedures : [technology brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Most commercial vehicles on the road today use : low-voltage electrical systems (12/24 volts direct : current). The current Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Regulations (FMCSRs), North American Standard : (NAS) inspection procedures, and out-of-service...

  1. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  2. High Temperature All Silicon-Carbide (SiC) DC Motor Drives for Venus Exploration Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of creating high-temperature silicon-carbide (SiC) based motor drives for...

  3. Life cycle analysis and environmental effect of electric vehicles market evolution in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    João P. Ribau, Ana F. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel dependency in Portugal is represented in around 76% of the total primary energy use, from which almost half is associated to the road transport sector. The reduction of imported fossil energy, pollutants and CO2 emissions is seen as a solution to a more sustainable energy system. This paper analyzes the market penetration of battery electric vehicles in the road transport sector as an alternative and more efficient technology, considering its maximum share in the transport sector ...

  4. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  5. System controls challenges of hypersonic combined-cycle engine powered vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Ianculescu, George D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aircraft with air-breathing engines have been described as the most complex and challenging air/space vehicle designs ever attempted. This is particularly true for aircraft designed to accelerate to orbital velocities. The propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane will be an active factor in maintaining the aircraft on course. Typically addressed are the difficulties with the aerodynamic vehicle design and development, materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal concern. Far more important than merely a subset of propulsion performance, the propulsion control system resides at the crossroads of trajectory optimization, engine static performance, and vehicle-engine configuration optimization. To date, solutions at these crossroads are multidisciplinary and generally lag behind the broader performance issues. Just how daunting these demands will be is suggested. A somewhat simplified treatment of the behavioral characteristics of hypersonic aircraft and the issues associated with their air-breathing propulsion control system design are presented.

  6. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  7. Evaluating distraction of in-vehicle information systems while driving by predicting total eyes-off-road times with keystroke level modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Christian; Naujoks, Frederik; Prill, Andy; Neukum, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly complex in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) have become available in the automotive vehicle interior. To ensure usability and safety of use while driving, the distraction potential of system-associated tasks is most often analyzed during the development process, either by employing empirical or analytical methods, with both families of methods offering certain advantages and disadvantages. The present paper introduces a method that combines the predictive precision of empirical methods with the economic advantages of analytical methods. Keystroke level modeling (KLM) was extended to a task-dependent modeling procedure for total eyes-off-road times (TEORT) resulting from system use while driving and demonstrated by conducting two subsequent simulator studies. The first study involved the operation of an IVIS by N = 18 participants. The results suggest a good model fit (R(2)Adj. = 0.67) for predicting the TEORT, relying on regressors from KLM and participant age. Using the parameter estimates from study 1, the predictive validity of the model was successfully tested during a second study with N = 14 participants using a version of the IVIS prototype with a revised design and task structure (rPred.-Obs. = 0.58). Possible applications and shortcomings of the approach are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  9. Anti-lock braking systems on four-wheel drive vehicles. Pt. 2; Bremsregelsysteme in Fahrzeugen mit Allradantrieb. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennel, H. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Methodenentwicklung/Regelungstechnik; Klusemann, R. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Regelalgorithmen ASR; Kranz, T. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Hardwareentwicklung/Software; Kuemmel, M. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Applikation ESP; Schmidt, R. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Regelalgorithmen ABS

    2000-10-01

    In order to combine four-wheel drives with anti-lock braking systems, Continental Teves had to develop methods of mastering the specific basic problems which four-wheel drives cause. In the following article, the company describes problems and solutions and shows which controls are necessary for the different four-wheel drive concepts. Part 2 of the article will follow in the next edition of ATZ. (orig.) [German] Um Allradantrieb und Bremsenregelsysteme zu kombinieren, wurden bei Continental Teves Methoden entwickeln, um die spezifischen Grundprobleme, die der Allradantrieb erzeugt, zu beherrschen. Im Teil 2 werden die Einfluesse des Antriebsstrangs auf die Motorschleppmomenten-Regelung (MSR) und das ESP untersucht. Weiterhin erfolgt eine Darstellung der Motorbremsmomentunterstuetzung und der Interaktion mit anderen Steuergeraeten bzw. Regelsystemen. (orig.)

  10. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit. I...

  11. Media Messages and Tools to Reduce Serious Single Vehicle Run-Off-the-Road Crashes Resulting from Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Center for Health and Safety Culture conducted research for the Idaho Transportation Department to develop media messages and tools to reduce fatalities and serious injuries related to Run-Off-the-Road, single-vehicle crashes in Idaho using the P...

  12. Design of a High Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Driving Capacitive Incremental Actuators usable in Electric Vehicles (EVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    the converter for efficiently charging and discharging the capacitive actuator from 0 V to 2.5 kV and vice versa, respectively. The converter is used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive incremental actuator, which has the potential to be used in automotive (e.g., EVs), space...

  13. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of

  14. Analysis of the economic and ecological performances in the transient regimes of the European driving cycle for a midsize SUV equipped with a DHEP, using the simulation platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancă, Gheorghe; Ivan, Florian; Iozsa, Daniel; Nisulescu, Valentin

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the tendency of the car manufacturers is to continue the expansion of the global production of SUVs (Sport Utility Vehicle), while observing the requirements imposed by the new pollution standards by developing new technologies like DHEP (Diesel Hybrid Electric Powertrain). Experience has shown that the transient regimes are the most difficult to control from an economic and ecological perspective. As a result, this paper will highlight the behaviour of such engines that are provided in a middle class SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle), which operates in such states. We selected the transient regimes characteristic to the NMVEG (New Motor Vehicle Emissions Group) cycle. The investigations using the modelling platform AMESim allowed for rigorous interpretations for the 16 acceleration and 18 deceleration states. The results obtained from the simulation will be validated by experiments.

  15. Hybrid vehicles system studies and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schmal, Dick [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Inst. (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In the design of hybrid vehicles, several factors must be taken into account. Amongst others, accurate analysis of the proposed driving cycle and the state of charge of the battery systems can allow for full optimisation of the proposed design, which can be fully validated by effective simulation programs. (Author)

  16. Emissions from U.S. waste collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoun, Mousa A; Reinhart, Debra R; Gammoh, Fatina T; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-01

    This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6-10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluación de la eficiencia energética de vehículos pesados en el ciclo // Evaluation of the heavy duty trucks energy efficiency in the modified drive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pérez-Gálvez

    2010-01-01

    acceleration stageinvolving the fuel energy during the impulsion of payload until it reaches a certain speed.Key words: drive cycle, fuel consumption, mathematical models, vehicle evaluation.

  18. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  19. The Effect of Cycling on the State of Health of the Electric Vehicle Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Gillian; Putrus, Ghanim; Jiang, Tianxiang; Kotter, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the experimental results available for lithium ion battery degradation which has been used to create a model of the effect of the identified parameters on the ageing of an EV battery. The parameters affecting degradation are generally accepted to be; state of charge, depth of discharge, charging rate and battery temperature. Values for each of these parameters have been found for three versions of a typical daily cycling scenario; uncontrolled charging, dela...

  20. Safety assessment monitoring on-vehicle with automatic recording SAMOVAR. Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle Safety in Europe DRIVE II Project V2007 Deliverable D3 : methodologies for evaluating usage of vehicle data recorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1994-01-01

    This deliverable describes the methodologies to be used within the SAMOVAR project to assess the effects of installing data recorders in vehicles. By way of introduction, the general principles guiding the project are outlined, together with the role of the different types of vehicle data recorders

  1. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  2. Actual Problems of Administrative Responsibility for Admission to Driving a Person Who Is Under the Influence of Alcohol or Who Does Not Have the Right to Drive a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina V. Kuyanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study are the norms of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses providing for the grounds and procedure for bringing to administrative responsibility of officials and legal entities for admission of a person to driving who is under the influence of alcohol or who does not have the right to drive a vehicle. The object of the study is public relations, developing in the field of road safety. The Author, in the framework of the article, pays attention to the peculiarities of regulation of the public relations under consideration by by-laws; problems of law application practice; explanations of the judicial authorities that allow to unify the practice of resolving the relevant category of cases, to ensure the most effective protection of the rights and legitimate interests of society and the state in the field of road safety. Proposals specifying certain provisions of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses are formulated

  3. THE MOMENT OF UNSAFETY FOR DRIVING IN CONDITIONS OF POOR VISIBILITY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EVALUATION OF VEHICLE BRAKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarayev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigation of a car collision with a pedestrian under limited visibility condi-tions. For this purpose an expert has to analyze the accident details and determine the critical time at which the car driver must take an action to avoid the collision. The analysis is complicated due to the fact that the vehicle is equipped with an anti-blocking braking system and does not leave a braking trace on the pavement. In this case, a relevant expert analysis technique does not exist. The development of such techniques as the basis of this scientific work is given.

  4. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  5. THEORETICAL AND JUDICIAL PRACTICE REFLECTIONS REGARDING THE OFFENCE OF PUTTING INTO CIRCULATION OR DRIVING AN UNREGISTERED/UNLISTED VEHICLE (ART. 334. CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Sorin NICOLESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the entry into force of the New Criminal Code, the offenses of road safety on public roads have been repealed from the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 95/2002 and inserted into the contents of the normative document. At the time of the transition, the legislator has chosen to amend certain aspects relating to the existing criminal incriminations of antisocial deeds in direct connection with the road domain. The regulation of the offense for putting into circulation or driving an unlisted vehicle contained in the provisions of article 334 of the New Criminal Code has a correspondent in Article 85 of the GEO no. 195/2002 on the circulation on public roads. The deeds incriminated by the provisions referred to in Article 334 par. (1, (2, (3 and (4 have the content almost identical with the previous settlement thereof, with differences under the aspect of the sanctioning regime. Also, regarding the content, the only difference which is meant to better clarify the incrimination conditions refers to the requirement that the vehicle or the tram not to be registered or recorded according to the law. During the study, we shall try to present a series of theoretical aspects and judicial practice regarding the committing of such crimes.

  6. The life cycle of the policy for preventing road accidents: an empirical example of the policy for reducing drunk driving crashes in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variation of the effect of preventive policy on reducing traffic accidents. The life cycle theory was introduced to describe the safety effect of the intervening policy over time. Poisson regression models with dummy-based and time-based specifications were used to evaluate the effect of an intervening policy over an observation period following its implementation. The policy of "Criminal sanction for drunk driving (CSFDD)" in Taipei city was evaluated as an empirical example to determine whether the temporal variation of safety effect happened to the CSFDD policy. The study results showed that alcohol consumption, arresting the drunk driving offenders, and the implementation of the CSFDD were the significant factors affecting the rate of occurrence of fatal accidents involving drunk driving. The effect of the CSFDD policy appeared to be a rapid initial response followed by a lower rate of decay. The existence of the life cycle implies that employing different observation periods following the implementation of a specific policy to evaluate its performance may obtain different effects. The results of this study are crucial for policy evaluation. The effects of safety policy should be carefully interpreted in order to avoid misleading the relevant authorities in coming to the wrong conclusions and as such make the wrong decisions. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Analysis and overview of the guidelines for assessing fitness to drive for commercial and private vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, R G

    2005-06-01

    Guidelines on fitness to drive were released by AUSTROADS and the National Road Transport Commission in September 2003. No recognised legal medical authority was cited. There are three parts in the document: (i) background information, (ii) specific medical conditions and (iii) appendices of relevant documents and contacts. This paper analyses the relevance of the guidelines for physicians and notes that the disclaimer exonerates its authors from potential repercussions. Guidelines for both private and commercial drivers are combined in the document and the basis for such delineation is defined. A lack of universal Australian standards with no State indicating the driver's responsibility to report changes in health standards on the issued licences is confirmed by the guidelines. Not all States indemnify physicians for reporting contrary to patients' wishes, while South Australia and the Northern Territory mandate reporting those at risk. Much of the language is patronizing, expecting '... conciliatory and supportive ...' behaviour even with recalcitrant patients. No allowance is made for patients who may not fulfil the guidelines but whom the doctor may consider fit to drive. Ambiguity regarding responsibility to report, as identified in the background section, may leave the doctor vulnerable for not reporting a patient who subsequently may cause injury. Attempt is made to differentiate the role of the specialist from the family general practitioner (GP), advocating specialists for commercial drivers, although this is largely left to the discretion of the GP. There is an implied onus on doctors to report all patients with the conditions under review. Some diagnoses, such as syncope, are discussed in different sections with application of conflicting limitations. Inappropriate language, such as reference to a seizure being '... an isolated non-epileptiform event ...', or withdrawal of medications failing to be restricted to anti-epileptic medications confounds

  8. Charging infrastructures for electric vehicles. Development and evaluation of a development strategy on the basis of driving performance; Ladeinfrastrukturen fuer Elektrofahrzeuge. Entwicklung und Bewertung einer Ausbaustrategie auf Basis des Fahrverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kley, Fabian

    2011-07-01

    Recently, electric vehicles have once again been attracting increased attention against the backdrop of rising oil prices and the necessity to reduce CO2-emissions. However, it is as yet still unclear which charging infrastructure will be required for these vehicles. Charging infrastructure has not been a major topic in the literature and electric mobility studies up to now. The focus here tends to be on technical design, different standardization efforts, or the demands for a dense infrastructure. The users' perspective is reflected to some extent in surveys conducted in the scope of acceptance studies of electric mobility. However, so far, no analysis has been made of which charging infrastructure will be required based on driving behavior. This thesis therefore describes the technical alternatives for charging an electric vehicle and assesses the charging infrastructure based on an economic assessment considering real driving behavior. An optimal charging profile is determined for each pattern of driving behavior using dynamic programming and entered into a total cost assessment. The optimization incorporates different vehicle concepts, charging infrastructures, as well as battery aging. A minimum cost vehicle concept and the optimal battery size can be determined for each charging profile helping to derive a suitable charging infrastructure. In contrast to the widely held belief that a public charging infrastructure is indispensable, this thesis was able to show that charging should take place in the private domain at low charging power levels. Besides fully electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids are well suited for early market adoption and mean that people can benefit earlier from the advantages of electric mobility with a high all-electric driving share and a guaranteed driving range because of the additional combustion engine. This thesis is based on my research conducted at the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) in Karlsruhe

  9. An algorithm on simultaneous optimization of performance and mass parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M. A.; Mazraeshahi, H. K.; Ramesh, D.; Montazer, E.; Salami, E.; Romli, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for the determination of optimum parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles is introduced. The parameters affecting the objective function, which is the ratio of specific impulse to gross mass of the launch vehicle, are chosen to achieve maximum specific impulse as well as minimum mass for the structure of engine, tanks, etc. The proposed algorithm uses constant integration of thrust with respect to time for launch vehicle with specific diameter and length to calculate the optimum working condition. The results by this novel algorithm are compared to those obtained from using Genetic Algorithm method and they are also validated against the results of existing launch vehicle.

  10. Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Huang, Yanlan; Pressley, Joyce C

    2016-12-01

    While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932). Statistical analysis was based on Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Associations of restraint use and other outcomes with alcohol and drug use were measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). More than half (54.8 %) of the study population were positive for drugs or alcohol at the time of crash. Approximately half of drivers were belted, but this varied from 67.1 % (unimpaired) to 33.0 % (drugs plus alcohol). Compared to the unimpaired, the odds of a driver being unbelted varied: alcohol and cannabis (OR 3.70, 95 % CI 3.44-3.97), alcohol only (3.50,3.36-3.65), stimulants (2.13,1.91-2.38), depressants (2.09,1.89-2.31), narcotics (1.84,1.67-2.02) and cannabis only (1.55,1.43-1.67). Compared to belted drivers, unbelted drivers were over 4 times more likely to die. Driving violations varied across drug/drug alcohol combinations. Speed-related violations were higher for drivers positive for stimulants, alcohol, cannabis, and cannabis plus alcohol, with a more than two fold increase for alcohol and cannabis (2.36, 2.05, 2.71). Mechanisms through which drugs, alcohol and substance combinations produce increased risks to occupant safety include lowered restraint use and increases in risky driving behaviors, including speeding, lane, passing, turning and signal/sign violations.

  11. Real-Time Analysis of a Modified State Observer for Sensorless Induction Motor Drive Used in Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Krishna S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode Luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. In addition, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence are observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in the Simulink environment. Then, the Simulink model is integrated with real-time (RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.

  12. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  13. An optimal sampling approach to modelling whole-body vibration exposure in all-terrain vehicle driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaoshu; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Toppila, Esko; Marjanen, Ykä; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Lu, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and several safety standards obligate to measure WBV. The high cost of direct measurements in large epidemiological studies raises the question of the optimal sampling for estimating WBV exposures given by a large variation in exposure levels in real worksites. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. A daily exposure to WBV was recorded for 9-24 days among 48 all-terrain vehicle drivers. Four data-sets based on root mean squared recordings were obtained from the measurement. The data were modelled using semi-variogram with spectrum analysis and the optimal sampling scheme was derived. The optimum sampling period was 140 min apart. The result was verified and validated in terms of its accuracy and statistical power. Recordings of two to three hours are probably needed to get a sufficiently unbiased daily WBV exposure estimate in real worksites. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals. Practitioner Summary: Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and safety standards obligate to measure WBV. However, direct measurements can be expensive. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals.

  14. Mechanical Hybrid KERS Based on Toroidal Traction Drives: An Example of Smart Tribological Design to Improve Terrestrial Vehicle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in terms of efficiency and traction capabilities a recently patented traction drive, referred to as the double roller full-toroidal variator (DFTV. We compare its performance with the single roller full-toroidal variator (SFTV and the single roller half-toroidal variator (SHTV. Modeling of these variators involves challenging tribological issues; the traction and efficiency performances depend on tribological phenomena occurring at the interface between rollers and disks, where the lubricant undergoes very severe elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Interestingly, the DFTV shows an improvement of the mechanical efficiency over a wide range of transmission ratios and in particular at the unit speed ratio as in such conditions in which the DFTV allows for zero-spin, thus strongly enhancing its traction capabilities. The very high mechanical efficiency and traction performances of the DFTV are exploited to investigate the performance of a flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS, where the efficiency of the variator plays an important role in determining the overall energy recovery performance. The energy boost capabilities and the round-trip efficiency are calculated for the three different variators considered in this study. The results suggest that the energy recovery potential of the mechanical KERS can be improved with a proper choice of the variator.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Neodymium-Iron-Boron Magnet-to-Magnet Recycling for Electric Vehicle Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongyue; Afiuny, Peter; Dove, Stephen; Furlan, Gojmir; Zakotnik, Miha; Yih, Yuehwern; Sutherland, John W

    2018-02-27

    Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets offer the strongest magnetic field per unit volume, and thus, are widely used in clean energy applications such as electric vehicle motors. However, rare earth elements (REEs), which are the key materials for creating NdFeB magnets, have been subject to significant supply uncertainty in the past decade. NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling has recently emerged as a promising strategy to mitigate this supply risk. This paper assesses the environmental footprint of NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling by directly measuring the environmental inputs and outputs from relevant industries and compares the results with production from 'virgin' materials, using life cycle assessments. It was found that magnet-to-magnet recycling lowers environmental impacts by 64-96%, depending on the specific impact categories under investigation. With magnet-to-magnet recycling, key processes that contribute 77-95% of the total impacts were identified to be 1) hydrogen mixing & milling (13-52%), 2) sintering & annealing (6-24%), and 3) electroplating (6-75%). The inputs from industrial sphere that play key roles in creating these impacts were electricity (24-93% of the total impact) and nickel (5-75%) for coating. Therefore, alternative energy sources such as wind and hydroelectric power are suggested to further reduce the overall environmental footprint of NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling.

  16. Ascent phase trajectory optimization for vehicle with multi-combined cycle engine based on improved particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Wang, Xiaogang; Bai, Yuliang; Cui, Naigang

    2017-11-01

    An improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is proposed to optimize the ascent phase trajectory for vehicle with multi-combined cycle engine. Aerodynamic and thrust models are formulated in couple with flying states and environment. Conventional PSO has advantages in solving complicated optimization problems but has troubles in constraints handling and premature convergence preventing. To handle constraints, a modification in the fitness function of infeasible particles is executed based on the constraints violation and a comparation is executed to choose the better particle according to the fitness. To prevent premature, a diminishing number of particles are chosen to be mutated on the velocity by random times and directions. The ascent trajectory is divided into sub-phases according to engine modes. Different constraints, control parameters and engine models are considered in each sub-phase. Though the proposed algorithm is straightforward in comprehension and implementation, the numerical examples demonstrate that the algorithm has better performance than other PSO variants. In comparation with the commercial software GPOPS, the performance index of IPSO is almost the same as GPOPS but the results are less oscillating and dependent on initial values.

  17. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  18. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-12-04

    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  19. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  20. Nature of macroeconomic equilibrium and driving force of economic cycles in the light of difference between money and exergy forms in cost estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.V. [National Politechnical Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); Brodianskii, V.M. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    The main problem of exergy application directly in economic analysis is to find valid correlation between money-based cost and exergy based one (including exergy expenses of labour) and to define exergy cost as an economic category among the existing traditional economic ones. The present report is aimed to search the way for this macroeconomic problems` solution. It is demonstrated that exergy-based cost can be recalculated in a monetary form using a coefficient, defined as a ratio between money supply and the total exergy of all natural resources involved in production process, i.e. as a ratio between monetary and exergy bases. The difference between `natural` and current prices (P) can be used directly both for general quantitative characteristics of an economic cycles driving force and for control of market relationship imperfection. It is shown that for the period of time with the positive P, that is, current price is lower than a `natural` one, the recoveries in business cycles are observed. For the period of time with the negative P, that is, current price is higher than a natural one, economic recessions are observed. The moment of time when P = 0 corresponds to the turning point of a business cycle. In such a way the possibility to predict the turning points of business cycles is demonstrated. 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Reducing Diesel Engine Drive Cycle Fuel Consumption through Use of Cylinder Deactivation to Maintain Aftertreatment Component Temperature during Idle and Low Load Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrunal C. Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern on-road diesel engine systems incorporate flexible fuel injection, variable geometry turbocharging, high pressure exhaust gas recirculation, oxidation catalysts, particulate filters, and selective catalytic reduction systems in order to comply with strict tailpipe-out NOx and soot limits. Fuel consuming strategies, including late injections and turbine-based engine exhaust throttling, are typically used to increase turbine-outlet temperature and flow rate in order to reach the aftertreatment component temperatures required for efficient reduction of NOx and soot. The same strategies are used at low load operating conditions to maintain aftertreatment temperatures. This paper demonstrates that cylinder deactivation (CDA can be used to maintain aftertreatment temperatures in a more fuel-efficient manner through reductions in airflow and pumping work. The incorporation of CDA to maintain desired aftertreatment temperatures during idle conditions is experimentally demonstrated to result in fuel savings of 3.0% over the HD-FTP drive cycle. Implementation of CDA at non-idle portions of the HD-FTP where BMEP is below 3 bar is demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption further by an additional 0.4%, thereby resulting in 3.4% fuel savings over the drive cycle.

  2. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanzila; Frey, H Christopher

    2017-12-07

    U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative. A systematic comparison of the real-world emission rates of U.S. light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) versus CL, and emission standards has not been previously reported. The purpose of this work is to compare regulatory limits (both CLs and emission standards) and the real-world emissions of LDGVs. The sensitivity of the comparisons to cold start emission was assessed. Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) were used to measure hot stabilized exhaust emissions of 122 LDGVs on a specified 110 mile test route. Cold start emissions were measured with PEMS for a selected vehicle sample of 32 vehicles. Emissions were measured for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). For each vehicle, a Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) modal emission rate model was developed. The VSP modal rates were weighted by the standard driving cycles and real-world driving cycles to estimate the respective cycle average emission rates (CAERs). Measured vehicles were matched with certification test vehicles for comparison. For systematic trends in comparison, vehicles were classified into four groups based on the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission regulation, and the vehicle type such as passenger car and passenger truck. Depending on the cycle-pollutant and the vehicle groups, hot stabilized CAERs are on average either statistically significantly

  4. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

  5. Integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on the split-phase PM motors for plug-in vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Haghbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on a split-phase permanent magnet (PM motor is presented and described for a plug-in vehicle. The motor windings are reconfigured by a relay for the traction and charging operation. In traction mode, the motor is like a normal three-phase motor, whereas in the charging mode, after windings reconnection, the system is a three-phase Boost rectifier. One important challenge to use the motor as three inductors in charger circuit is to have it in standstill during the battery charging. Based on the presented mathematical model of a split-phase PM motor, the zero-torque condition of the motor is explained which led to a proper windings reconnection for the charging. Simulation and experimental results of two separate practical systems are provided to verify the proposed integrated battery charger. Some practical limitations and design recommendations are provided to achieve a more realistic practical system.

  6. Control Information and Data Processing of Vehicle based on Global Position System

    OpenAIRE

    Shupeng Zhao; Miao Tian; Shifang Zhang; Jiuxi Li

    2013-01-01

    A testing system based on Data Stream function of vehicle electronic control system was developed to test the city bus driving cycle. A mufti-function Vehicle Traveling Data Recorder based on GPS which can realize the vehicles positioning and navigating was investigated. The system included data acquisition module, display module, print module, GPS module, communication module and so on. This system adopts the FRAM memory as the storing equipment in which the automobile realized the real-time...

  7. Empirical fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Plötz, Patrick; Funke, Simon; Jochem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) combine electric and conventional propulsion. Official fuel consumption values of PHEVs are based on standardized driving cycles, which show a growing discrepancy with real-world fuel consumption. However, no comprehensive empirical results on PHEV fuel consumption are available, and the discrepancy between driving cycle and empirical fuel consumption has been conjectured to be large for PHEV. Here, we analyze real-world fuel consumption data from 2,00...

  8. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakes, Michel; Kluiters, Edwin; Schmal, Dick; Mourad, Salem; ten Have, Peter T. J. H.

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements.

  9. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  10. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1231-90 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified test fuel (§ 86.1213) at room temperature. Then drive the vehicle through at least one cycle of... recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel at the approximate mid-volume of the fuel when the... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and...

  12. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis drives a vicious cycle of metabolic insufficiency and mitochondrial DNA deletion mutation accumulation in aged rat skeletal muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Herbst

    Full Text Available Aged muscles possess dysfunctional fibers that contain intracellular expansions of somatically derived mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations. At high abundance, these mutations disrupt the expression of mitochondrially-encoded protein subunits of the electron transport chain resulting in aerobic respiration deficient muscle fiber segments. These fiber segments atrophy and break contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function that occurs with age. By combining micro-dissection of individual muscle fibers with microarray analysis, we observed the response induced within these abnormal muscle fibers and detected an increase in many genes affecting metabolism and metabolic regulation. The transcriptional profile and subsequent protein validation suggested that a non-compensatory program of mitochondrial biogenesis was initiated. We hypothesized that this non-adaptive program of mitochondrial biogenesis was driving mtDNA deletion mutation accumulation. We tested this hypothesis by treating aged rats with β-Guanidinopropionic acid, a compound that stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. β-Guanidinopropionic acid treatment increased muscle mitochondrial genome copy number and resulted in a 3.7 fold increase in the abundance of electron transport chain negative muscle fiber segments. We conclude that in electron transport system abnormal muscle fiber segments, a vicious cycle of metabolic insufficiency and non-compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis drive mtDNA deletion mutation accumulation.

  14. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... configuration 5-cycle fuel economy values as determined in § 600.207-08 for low-altitude tests. (1) If the... from the tests performed using gasoline or diesel test fuel. (ii) If 5-cycle testing was performed on... gas test fuel, if 5-cycle testing was performed on the alcohol or natural gas test fuel. Otherwise...

  15. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles. The assessments are done from a life cycle perspective. The effect on human health, resources and ecosystems is considered when calculating the environmental impact. The total cost of ownership (TCO model includes the purchase price, registration and road taxes, insurance, fuel or electricity cost, maintenance, tires replacement, technical control, battery leasing and battery replacement. In the presented analysis different vehicle technologies and fuels are compared (petrol, diesel, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, battery electric vehicles (BEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs on their level of environmental impact and cost per kilometer. The analysis shows a lower environmental impact for electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles have a higher total cost of ownership compared to conventional vehicles, even though the fuel operating costs are significantly lower. The purchase cost of electric vehicles is highly linked to the size of the battery pack, and not to the size of the electric vehicle. This explains the relative high cost for the electric city cars and the comparable cost for the medium and premium cars.

  16. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  17. Combined application of multi-criteria optimization and life-cycle sustainability assessment for optimal distribution of alternative passenger cars in US

    OpenAIRE

    Onat, Nuri Cihan; Küçükvar, Murat; Tatari, Ömer; Zheng, Qipeng Phil

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to advance the existing sustainability assessment framework for alternative passenger cars with a combination of life-cycle sustainability assessment and multi-criteria decision-making. To this end, sixteen macro-level sustainability impacts are evaluated for seven different vehicle types: internal combustion vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with all-electric ranges of 16, 32, 48, and 64 km of electric powered drive, and battery electric ...

  18. How extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycle affects Japanese economy ? Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations; Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960`s, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn`t expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980`s. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI`s macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen`s takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  19. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  20. Disease-associated CAG·CTG triplet repeats expand rapidly in non-dividing mouse cells, but cell cycle arrest is insufficient to drive expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Hilley, James D; Morales, Fernando; Adam, Berit; James, Helen E; Monckton, Darren G

    2014-06-01

    Genetically unstable expanded CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeats are causal in a number of human disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. It is still widely assumed that DNA polymerase slippage during replication plays an important role in the accumulation of expansions. Nevertheless, somatic mosaicism correlates poorly with the proliferative capacity of the tissue and rates of cell turnover, suggesting that expansions can occur in the absence of replication. We monitored CAG·CTG repeat instability in transgenic mouse cells arrested by chemical or genetic manipulation of the cell cycle and generated unequivocal evidence for the continuous accumulation of repeat expansions in non-dividing cells. Importantly, the rates of expansion in non-dividing cells were at least as high as those of proliferating cells. These data are consistent with a major role for cell division-independent expansion in generating somatic mosaicism in vivo. Although expansions can accrue in non-dividing cells, we also show that cell cycle arrest is not sufficient to drive instability, implicating other factors as the key regulators of tissue-specific instability. Our data reveal that de novo expansion events are not limited to S-phase and further support a cell division-independent mutational pathway. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Inhibition of AMPK and Krebs cycle gene expression drives metabolic remodeling of Pten-deficient preneoplastic thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria G; Russo, Marika A; Kang, Kristy S; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly proliferating and neoplastically transformed cells generate the energy required to support rapid cell division by increasing glycolysis and decreasing flux through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway, usually without alterations in mitochondrial function. In contrast, little is known of the metabolic alterations, if any, which occur in cells harboring mutations that prime their neoplastic transformation. To address this question, we used a Pten-deficient mouse model to examine thyroid cells where a mild hyperplasia progresses slowly to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Using this model, we report that constitutive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation caused by PTEN deficiency in nontransformed thyrocytes results in a global downregulation of Krebs cycle and OXPHOS gene expression, defective mitochondria, reduced respiration, and an enhancement in compensatory glycolysis. We found that this process does not involve any of the pathways classically associated with the Warburg effect. Moreover, this process was independent of proliferation but contributed directly to thyroid hyperplasia. Our findings define a novel metabolic switch to glycolysis driven by PI3K-dependent AMPK inactivation with a consequent repression in the expression of key metabolic transcription regulators. ©2013 AACR.

  2. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  3. Quantifying the environmental impact of a Li-rich high-capacity cathode material in electric vehicles via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Yu, Yajuan; Huang, Kai; Chen, Bo; Deng, Wensheng; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A promising Li-rich high-capacity cathode material (xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2) has received much attention with regard to improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. This study presents an environmental impact evaluation of a lithium-ion battery with Li-rich materials used in an electric vehicle throughout the life cycle of the battery. A comparison between this cathode material and a Li-ion cathode material containing cobalt was compiled in this study. The battery use stage was found to play a large role in the total environmental impact and high greenhouse gas emissions. During battery production, cathode material manufacturing has the highest environmental impact due to its complex processing and variety of raw materials. Compared to the cathode with cobalt, the Li-rich material generates fewer impacts in terms of human health and ecosystem quality. Through the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and sensitivity analysis, we found that the electricity mix and energy efficiency significantly influence the environmental impacts of both battery production and battery use. This paper also provides a detailed life cycle inventory, including firsthand data on lithium-ion batteries with Li-rich cathode materials.

  4. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  5. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  6. Study of Advantages of PM Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for HEVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, Pedro J [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Adams, Donald J [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    The gains in efficiency and reduction in battery costs that can be achieved by changing the effective number of stator turns in an electric motor are demonstrated by simulating the performance of an electric vehicle on a set of eight standard driving cycles.

  7. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set,

  8. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  9. Control Strategy Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust evolutionary computation method called a “memetic algorithm (MA” to optimize the control parameters in parallel HEVs. The “local search” mechanism implemented in the MA greatly enhances its search capabilities. In the implementation of the method, the fitness function combines with the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR and is set up according to an electric assist control strategy (EACS to minimize the fuel consumption (FC and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx of the vehicle engine. At the same time, driving performance requirements are also considered in the method. Four different driving cycles, the new European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal Test Procedure (FTP, Economic Commission for Europe + Extra-Urban driving cycle (ECE + EUDC, and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS are carried out using the proposed method to find their respectively optimal control parameters. The results show that the proposed method effectively helps to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as guarantee vehicle performance.

  10. 78 FR 60275 - Alternative Method for Calculating Off-Cycle Credits for Mercedes-Benz Vehicles Under the Light...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...., small/mid-size/large cars and light-duty trucks) (See Section II-III of Mercedes-Benz Application...-start effectiveness unless the vehicle possesses an electric heater circulation pump, or equivalent...-start system includes an electric ] heater circulation pump that maintains cabin heating in cold...

  11. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    station in Germany. The driving patterns that were applied in these experiments were the FTP and EU test cycles. Since the biodegradability of lubricants changes with age, it was necessary to measure this change by driving the vehicles for a number of kilometers in order to obtain a full picture......The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  12. Ecodriver. D12.2: Multi-modal in-vehicle and nomadic device eco-driving support for car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibberd, D.; Jamson, H.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Obdeijn, C.; Hof, T.; Weerdt, C.A. van der; Paradies, G.L.; et al

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a report of the work conducted in Work Package 12: eco-driving system development and HMI feedback. The tasks required development of simple eco-driving feedback model algorithms and test scenarios and an assessment of basic systems and feedback modalities. These

  13. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  14. Design and cost study for development of lead--acid batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [Goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinlein, C E

    1977-01-01

    A design for an improved state-of-the-art (ISOA) battery is proposed in this report. It is believed that this ISOA design is the most efficient design achievable within the constraints of the ISOA battery development program. These constraints include realistic time and financial limitations, and compatibility with existing high-speed production equipment. The ISOA battery is in fact an improved, state-of-the-art lead--acid battery suitable for use in an electric vehicle. A durable, light-weight polypropylene container and cover complete with single-point watering and venting features are incorporated in the ISOA design. A number of materials and process parameters with profound affect on battery performance will be chosen only after extensive evaluation and cell testing. Development of an advanced lead--acid electric vehicle battery will involve the evaluation and application of effective forward concepts in the design of the battery. Many weight-saving designs will be incorporated. Significant improvements in active material efficiencies and integrity are required. The goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 life cycles are ambitious but achievable. The cycle life goal appears to be the most formidable. Investigations of charging equipment and parameters will be undertaken. The impact of manufacturing plants on the environment and natural resources is discussed. 3 figures, 23 tables. (RWR)

  15. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas and air emissions of electric vehicles: A comparison between China and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) of electric vehicles (EVs) in China and the United States (U.S.), two of the largest potential markets for EVs in the world. Six of the most economically developed and populated regions in China and the U.S. were selected. The results showed that EV fuel-cycle emissions depend substantially on the carbon intensity and cleanness of the electricity mix, and vary significantly across the regions studied. In those regions with a low share of coal-based electricity (e.g., California), EVs can reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions (except for PM) significantly compared with conventional vehicles. However, in the Chinese regions and selected U.S. Midwestern states where coal dominates in the generation mix, EVs can reduce GHG emissions but increase the total and urban emissions of air pollutants. In 2025, EVs will offer greater reductions in GHG and air pollutant emissions because emissions from power plants will be better controlled; EVs in the Chinese regions examined, however, may still increase SO2 and PM emissions. Reductions of 60-85% in GHGs and air pollutants could be achieved were EVs charged with 80% renewable electricity or the electricity generated from the best available technologies of coal-fired power plants, which are futuristic power generation scenarios.

  16. EVALUATION OF RANGE ESTIMATES FOR TOYOTA FCHV-ADV UNDER OPEN ROAD DRIVING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, D.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-07-10

    of additional range calculated from the average fuel economy from the day times the remaining usable hydrogen. Driving range results were independently calculated for each vehicle, and these results averaged together to achieve the final 431-mile range estimate. The uncertainty on these results is relatively low due to eight independent measurements of distance and six separate measurements of hydrogen usage, with a resulting uncertainty of {+-} 7 miles ({+-} 1.7%) based on spread between the low and high values from all of the multiple measurements. The average fuel economy resulting from the day's driving was 68.3 miles/kg and the total hydrogen stored on-board at 70 MPa was calculated to be 6.31 kg. The speed profiles were analyzed and compared to standard driving cycles, and were determined to be of moderate aggressiveness. The city segments of the route had average speeds slightly greater than the UDDS cycle and the highway segments were close to the HWFET & US06 cycles. The average acceleration for the highway driving was very close to the HWFET cycle, and the city portions had average accelerations lower than the UDDS and US06 cycles. We feel that the route accurately reflects realistic driving behaviors in southern California on a typical weekday, and is an appropriate benchmark to use in the verification of a fuel cell vehicle's range.

  17. Operando lithium plating quantification and early detection of a commercial LiFePO4 cell cycled under dynamic driving schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2017-07-01

    Lithium plating is considered one of the most detrimental phenomenon in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), as it increases cell degradation and might lead to safety issues. Plating induced LIB failure presents a major concern for emerging applications in transportation and electrical energy storage. Hence, the necessity to operando monitor, detect and analyze lithium plating becomes critical for safe and reliable usage of LIB systems. Here, we report in situ lithium plating analyses for a commercial graphite||LiFePO4 cell cycled under dynamic stress test (DST) driving schedule. We designed a framework based on incremental capacity (IC) analysis and mechanistic model simulations to quantify degradation modes, relate their effects to lithium plating occurrence and assess cell degradation. The results show that lithium plating was induced by large loss of active material on the negative electrode that eventually led the electrode to over-lithiate. Moreover, when lithium plating emerged, we quantified that the loss of lithium inventory pace was increased by a factor of four. This study illustrates the benefits of the proposed framework to improve lithium plating analysis. It also discloses the symptoms of lithium plating formation, which prove valuable for novel, online strategies on early lithium plating detection.

  18. Modeling hydraulic regenerative hybrid vehicles using AMESim and Matlab/Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alfred; Smid, Edzko; Eshraghi, Moji; Caldwell, Niall; Woody, Dan

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the overview of the simulation modeling of a hydraulic system with regenerative braking used to improve vehicle emissions and fuel economy. Two simulation software packages were used together to enhance the simulation capability for fuel economy results and development of vehicle and hybrid control strategy. AMESim, a hydraulic simulation software package modeled the complex hydraulic circuit and component hardware and was interlinked with a Matlab/Simulink model of the vehicle, engine and the control strategy required to operate the vehicle and the hydraulic hybrid system through various North American and European drive cycles.

  19. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV or Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV? —Deciding Between Different Alternative Drives Based on Measured Individual Operational Profiles Véhicule électrique à batteries (BEV ou véhicule électrique à prolongateur d’autonomie (REEV ? — Choisir entre différents entraînements alternatifs sur la base de profils opérationnels individuels mesurés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marker S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large number of concepts for drive train electrification and a corresponding broad variety of available drive train configurations were presented to the public. They all have their pros and cons for the customer. This paper discusses a tool enabling the customer to select the drive train which is best suited to his individual purposes. The presented approach focuses on BEV and REEV and is characterized by a three-step procedure: the customer’s individual driving behaviour is measured: individualized driving cycles and operational habits including the daily kilometrage are derived; numerical models of the alternative drive train concepts are run to simulate the energy consumption by applying these individualized cycles. The study reveals that battery sizing is the most important component. It would be more efficient to use a REEV with a smaller battery instead of a BEV: at a given range of 50 km the BEV covers 50% of the kilometers (corresponding to 90% of all daily distances while the REEV covers 100% of all daily distances, out of it 70% on electric driving. This leads to less CO2 emission compared to the combined use of BEV and conventional cars. The REEV with the smallest battery is amortized first referred to conventional cars. The influence of the individual usage pattern can be translated to operational costs. The REEV urban driver covers 85% by electric driving and has thus lower operational costs than the REEV inter-urban driver with 64% electric driving. Récemment, un grand nombre de concepts d’électrification des groupes motopropulseurs et une large variété correspondante de configurations disponibles ont été présentés au public. Tous possèdent des avantages et des inconvénients pour le client. Cet article traite d’un outil permettant au client de sélectionner le groupe motopropulseur le plus adapté à ses besoins individuels. L’approche présentée se focalise sur les véhicules BEV (Battery

  20. Practice Safe Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)<