WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle crashes involving

  1. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARISON OF SEVERITY AFFECTING FACTORS BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS INVOLVED IN SINGLE VEHICLE CRASHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda DISSANAYAKE, Ph.D., P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single vehicle crashes contribute to a significant amount of fatalities in the United States. At the same time, fatality crash involvement rates of young and older drivers are well above the average and both groups are identified as critical groups when it comes to highway safety. Therefore, the study described in this paper developed separate models to predict crash severity of single vehicle crashes by young and older drivers. By using the models, factors affecting towards increased crash severity were identified for each group and comparisons were made. Almost all the common identified factors influenced both driver groups in the same manner except in the case of alcohol and drug usage, which indicated an interesting finding in the case of crash severity of older drivers. Speeding and non-usage of a restraint device were the two most important factors affecting towards increased crash severity for both driver groups at all severity levels. Additionally, ejection and existence of curve/grade were determinants of higher young driver crash severity at all levels. For older drivers, having a frontal impact point was a severity determinant at all levels. County of residence and weather condition were not effective in making any changes with respect to crash severity at any level, while some other factors had a minimal affect. Findings of this study are beneficial in investigating the potential ways of reducing crash severity, which could also be influential in reducing the occurrence of crashes as well.

  3. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  5. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  6. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  7. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  8. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  9. A mixed logit analysis of two-vehicle crash severities involving a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Mohammad Saad B; Gkritza, Konstantina; Zhang, Wei; Hans, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Using motorcycle crash data for Iowa from 2001 to 2008, this paper estimates a mixed logit model to investigate the factors that affect crash severity outcomes in a collision between a motorcycle and another vehicle. These include crash-specific factors (such as manner of collision, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle actions), roadway and environmental conditions, location and time, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle attributes. The methodological approach allows the parameters to vary across observations as opposed to a single parameter representing all observations. Our results showed non-uniform effects of rear-end collisions on minor injury crashes, as well as of the roadway speed limit greater or equal to 55mph, the type of area (urban), the riding season (summer) and motorcyclist's gender on low severity crashes. We also found significant effects of the roadway surface condition, clear vision (not obscured by moving vehicles, trees, buildings, or other), light conditions, speed limit, and helmet use on severe injury outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  11. Seatbelt use to save money: Impact on hospital costs of occupants who are involved in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Seatbelt use is the single most effective way to save lives in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). However, although safety belt laws have been enacted in many countries, seatbelt usage throughout the world remains below optimal levels, and educational interventions may be needed to further increase seatbelt use. In addition to reducing crash-related injuries and deaths, reduced medical expenditures resulting from seatbelt use are an additional benefit that could make such interventions cost-effective. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between seatbelt use and hospital costs of injuries involved in MVC. The data used in this study were from the Nebraska CODES database for motor vehicle crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2013. The hospital cost information and information about other factors were obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data. A multivariable regression model was performed for the association between seatbelt use and hospital costs. Mean hospital costs were significantly lower among motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt ($2909), lap-only seatbelt ($2289), children's seatbelt ($1132), or booster ($1473) when compared with those not using any type of seatbelt ($7099). After adjusting for relevant factors, there were still significantly decreased hospital costs for motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt (84.7%), lap-only seatbelt (74.1%), shoulder-only seatbelt (40.6%), children's seatbelt (95.9%), or booster (82.8%) compared to those not using a seatbelt. Seatbelt use is significantly associated with reduced hospital costs among injured MVC occupants. The findings in this study will provide important educational information for emergency department nurses who can encourage safety belt use for vehicle occupants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Using linked data to evaluate motor vehicle crashes involving elderly drivers in Connecticut : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A deterministic algorithm was developed which allowed data from Department of Transportation motor vehicle crash records, state mortality registry records, and hospital admission and emergency department records to be linked for analysis of the impac...

  13. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  14. Association between commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue and proximity to rest areas and truck stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Rock, Peter J

    2017-11-22

    There is ongoing concern at the national level about the availability of adequate commercial vehicle rest areas and truck stops for commercial vehicle drivers to rest or to wait for a delivery window. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between the occurrence of sleepiness/fatigue-related (cases) vs. all other human factor-related commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes (controls) and proximity to rest areas, weigh stations with rest havens, and truck stops. Commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue were more likely to occur on roadways where the nearest rest areas/weigh stations with rest havens/truck stops were located 20 miles or more from the commercial vehicle crash site (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.32; Confidence Interval [CI] 1.615, 3.335] for 20-39.9 miles vs. commercial vehicle at-fault driver crashes with human factors other than sleepiness/fatigue cited in crash reports. Commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue also were more likely to occur on parkways compared to interstates (adjusted OR=3.747 [CI 2.83, 4.95]), during nighttime hours (adjusted OR=6.199 [CI 4.733, 8.119]), and on dry pavement (adjusted OR 1.909, [CI 1.373, 2.655]). The use of statewide crash data analysis coupled with ArcGIS mapping capabilities provided the opportunity to both statistically determine and to visualize the association between rest area/weigh station with rest haven/truck stop distance and the occurrence of commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue. Implementation and evaluation of commercial vehicle employer policies and interventions such as the use of commercial vehicle driver fatigue alert systems may help to reduce fatigue and sleepiness in commercial vehicle drivers. These results can be used by state and local highway transportation officials to inform and increase truck parking availability, especially on parkways. Copyright © 2017

  15. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  17. Description of light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report describes pre-crash scenarios that might be addressed by vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The focus is on crashes involving at least 1 light vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. The 2004-2008 General Esti...

  18. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  19. Narrative text analysis to identify technologies to prevent motor vehicle crashes: examples from military vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  1. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  3. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least...

  4. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine Benn

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... vehicle crashes throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that syncope should be considered as one of several factors in a broad assessment of fitness to drive....

  5. New evidence concerning fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M

    2001-05-01

    Fatal crash rates for passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. A prior study, based on fatal crash experience through 1995, reported that vehicle models with antilock brakes were more likely than identical but 1-year-earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, but were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles. Overall, there was no significant effect of antilocks on the likelihood of fatal crashes. Similar analyses, based on fatal crash experience during 1996-98, yielded very different results. During 1996-98, vehicles with antilock brakes were again less likely than earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles, but they were no longer overinvolved in crashes fatal to their own occupants.

  6. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  7. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  8. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  9. Fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M; Lund, A K; Trempel, R E; Braver, E R

    1997-11-01

    Fatal crash rates of passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. Vehicles selected for analysis had no other significant design changes between the model years being compared, and the model years with and without antilocks were no more than two years apart. The overall fatal crash rates were similar for the two model years. However, the vehicles with antilocks were significantly more likely to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, particularly single-vehicle crashes. Conversely, antilock vehicles were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles or nonoccupants (pedestrians, bicyclists). Overall, antilock brakes appear to have had little effect on fatal crash involvement. Further study is needed to better understand why fatality risk has increased for occupants of antilock vehicles.

  10. Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Crash Severity Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Ada H; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle change in velocity (delta-v) is a widely used crash severity metric used to estimate occupant injury risk. Despite its widespread use, delta-v has several limitations. Of most concern, delta-v is a vehicle-based metric which does not consider the crash pulse or the performance of occupant restraints, e.g. seatbelts and airbags. Such criticisms have prompted the search for alternative impact severity metrics based upon vehicle kinematics. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the occupant impact velocity (OIV), acceleration severity index (ASI), vehicle pulse index (VPI), and maximum delta-v (delta-v) to predict serious injury in real world crashes. The study was based on the analysis of event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2013 cases. All vehicles in the sample were GM passenger cars and light trucks involved in a frontal collision. Rollover crashes were excluded. Vehicles were restricted to single-event crashes that caused an airbag deployment. All EDR data were checked for a successful, completed recording of the event and that the crash pulse was complete. The maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) was used to describe occupant injury outcome. Drivers were categorized into either non-seriously injured group (MAIS2-) or seriously injured group (MAIS3+), based on the severity of any injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and spine. ASI and OIV were calculated according to the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. VPI was calculated according to ISO/TR 12353-3, with vehicle-specific parameters determined from U.S. New Car Assessment Program crash tests. Using binary logistic regression, the cumulative probability of injury risk was determined for each metric and assessed for statistical significance, goodness-of-fit, and prediction accuracy. The dataset included 102,744 vehicles. A Wald chi-square test showed each vehicle-based crash severity metric

  11. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P

    2018-04-26

    Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution. To focus on crashes most likely to be affected, we limited analysis to crashes involving 16- & 17-year-old drivers occurring on days when school was in session. In the intervention county, there was a 14% downward shift in the time-series following the 75 min delay in school start times (p = .076). There was no change approaching statistical significance in any of the other three counties. Further analysis indicated marked, statistically significant shifts in hourly crash rates in the intervention county, reflecting effects of the change in school start time on young driver exposure. Crashes from 7 to 7:59 am decreased sharply (-25%, p = .008), but increased similarly from 8 to 8:59 am (21%, p = .004). Crashes from 2 to 2:59 pm declined dramatically (-48%, p = .000), then increased to a lesser degree from 3 to 3:59 pm (32%, p = .024) and non-significantly from 4 to 4:59 (19%, p = .102). There was no meaningful change in early morning or nighttime crashes, when drowsiness-induced crashes might have been expected to be most common. The small decrease in crashes among high school age drivers following the shift in school start time is consistent with the findings of other studies of teen driver crashes and school start times. All these studies, including the present one, have limitations, but the similar

  12. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.

  13. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  14. Factors that challenge health for people involved in the compensation process following a motor vehicle crash: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Lockwood, K.; Craig, A.; Cameron, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who claim compensation after a motor vehicle accident do not recover as well as people with similar injuries who do not claim compensation. It has been suggested that this impeded recovery is caused by the stressful compensation process and the adversarial attitude of

  15. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  16. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  17. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  18. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... operated over 33,000 motorcoaches, they logged nearly 750 million passenger trips, and they traveled over 1..., and Puerto Rico. To be included in FARS, a crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic...-occupant within 30 days of the crash. Motorcoaches are identified in FARS as ``cross-country intercity...

  20. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  1. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  3. SELF-REPORTED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRASH-INVOLVED AND NON-CRASH-INVOLVED THREE-WHEELER DRIVERS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. SOMASUNDARASWARAN, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being an important mode of transportation in the developing world, little research has been conducted to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving three wheel vehicles. This study surveyed a convenient sample of 505 professional three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka to explore the similarities and differences in the demographic and work characteristics between three-wheeler drivers who reported experiencing at least one collision in the past twelve months and those who reported that they were not involved in any collisions. Our study revealed some interesting results that were quite different from those obtained in the studies on professional drivers in developed countries. In particular, both drivers with less than one year and more than five years of driving experience in our study were found to be associated with higher probability of crash involvement. Also, the number of trips per day and the average travel distance per trip were found to be insignificant in delineating between crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. Moreover, crash-involved drivers, on average, have significantly fewer working days per week and fewer hours per day, suggesting that the conventional approach used in most developed countries to tackle fatigue among professional drivers do not appear to be suitable for solving the road safety problem involving three-wheeler drivers in a developing country. Also, since the age of most drivers falls in a narrow range, this U-shaped relationship is not likely to be a result of youth and ageing but of inexperience in newer drivers and complacency in more experienced drivers. Lastly, since a relatively large proportion of the drivers had driven without a valid driving license, legislation and enforcement interventions are likely to be less effective than education and engineering countermeasures.

  4. Impact of connected vehicles on mitigating secondary crash risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the risk of secondary crashes is a key goal for effective traffic incident management. However, only few countermeasures have been established in practices to achieve the goal. This is mainly due to the stochastic nature of both primary and secondary crashes. Given the emerging connected vehicle (CV technologies, it is highly likely that CVs will soon be able to communicate with each other through the ad-hoc wireless vehicular network. Information sharing among vehicles is deemed to change traffic operations and allow motorists for more proactive actions. Motorists who receive safety messages can be motivated to approach queues and incident sites with more caution. As a result of the improved situational awareness, the risk of secondary crashes is expected to be reduced. To examine whether this expectation is achievable or not, this study aims to assess the impact of connectivity on the risk of secondary crashes. A simulation-based modeling framework that enables vehicle-to-vehicle communication module was developed. Since crashes cannot be directly simulated in micro-simulation, the use of surrogate safety measures was proposed to capture vehicular conflicts as a proxy for secondary crash risk upstream of a primary crash site. An experimental study was conducted based on the developed simulation modeling framework. The results show that the use of connected vehicles can be a viable way to reduce the risk of secondary crashes. Their impact is expected to change with an increasing market penetration of connected vehicles.

  5. Light vehicle crash avoidance needs and countermeasure profiles for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direc...

  6. Factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Penmetsa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Crash data was collected from 2011 to 2013 for the State of North Carolina in the United States. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze crash data because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable (overcorrection or oversteering. The crash involvement due to overcorrection or oversteering of a vehicle decreased as the age of the driver increased. Drivers are 2.22 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when ill, 3.44 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when under fatigue, and 1.61 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when fallen asleep compared to normal physical conditions. Overall, driver characteristics and speed limit tend to play a major role in overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Programs to reduce impaired driving might help in the reduction of overcorrection or oversteering related crash fatalities or injuries. Additionally, training and driver education programs focusing on identified factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles will benefit drivers on how to respond during emergency or panic situations. Keywords: Overcorrection, Oversteering, Vehicle, Logistic regression, Crash

  7. Assessing crash risk considering vehicle interactions with trucks using point detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung Kate; Jeong, Kyungsoo; Tok, Andre; Ritchie, Stephen G

    2018-03-12

    Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs). In addition, a truck detection algorithm using a Gaussian Mixture (GM) model was developed to identify trucks and to estimate truck exposure from ILD data. Using the identified vehicle types from the GM model, vehicle interaction metrics were categorized into three groups based on the combination of leading and following vehicle types. The effects of the proposed traffic measures on crash risk were modeled in two different cases of prior- and non-crash using a case-control approach utilizing a conditional logistic regression. Results showed that the vehicle interactions between the leading and following vehicle types were highly associated with crash risk, and further showed different impacts on crash risk by traffic conditions. Specifically, crashes were more likely to occur when a truck following a non-truck had shorter average headway but greater headway variance in heavy traffic while a non-truck following a truck had greater headway variance in light traffic. This study obtained meaningful conclusions that vehicle interactions involved with trucks were significantly related to the crash likelihood rather than the measures that estimate average traffic condition such as total volume or average headway of the traffic stream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  9. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...

  10. Depiction of priority light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    A template of pre-crash scenarios is presented to depict national crash statistics and kinematic information of time-to-collision for the design of appropriate crash countermeasures based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. This template serv...

  11. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  12. Vehicle mass and injury risk in two-car crashes: A novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei, Reza; Maher, Mike; Titheridge, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology based on disaggregate analysis of two-car crash data to estimate the partial effects of mass, through the velocity change, on absolute driver injury risk in each of the vehicles involved in the crash when absolute injury risk is defined as the probability of injury when the vehicle is involved in a two-car crash. The novel aspect of the introduced methodology is in providing a solution to the issue of lack of data on the speed of vehicles prior to the crash, which is required to calculate the velocity change, as well as a solution to the issue of lack of information on non-injury two-car crashes in national accident data. These issues have often led to focussing on relative measures of injury risk that are not independent of risk in the colliding cars. Furthermore, the introduced methodology is used to investigate whether there is any effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of mass ratio, and whether there are any effects associated with the gender and age of the drivers. The methodology was used to analyse two-car crashes to investigate the partial effects of vehicle mass and size on absolute driver injury risk. The results confirmed that in a two-car collision, vehicle mass has a protective effect on its own driver injury risk and an aggressive effect on the driver injury risk of the colliding vehicle. The results also confirmed that there is a protective effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of vehicle mass for frontal and front to side collisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compulsive Cell Phone Use and History of Motor Vehicle Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Stephen S.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; King, Kevin M.; Kernic, Mary A.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian; Mack, Christopher D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use and explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. Methods We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an on-line assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. Results We found the CPOS to be comprised of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (RR 1.13, CI 1.01 to 1.26). For each one-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Conclusions Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. PMID:23910571

  14. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  16. Injury and side impact air bag deployment in near and far sided motor vehicle crashes, United States, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadter, Greg; Grabowski, Jurek G; Burke, Christine; Aldaghlas, Tayseer A; Robinson, Linda; Fakhry, Samir M

    2008-12-01

    Side impact crashes, the most lethal type, account for 26% of all motor vehicle crashes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors associated with SIAB deployment and occupant injury. All passenger vehicles equipped with SIABs that were involved in a side impact crash were identified from the National Automotive Sampling System database. Crashes with multiple impacts, ejections, unbelted drivers or rollovers were excluded from the study. The outcome variables of interest were SIAB deployment and driver injury. SIAB deployment was compared in similar crashes to analyze the impact on driver's injury severity score. Other crash factors were also examined to analyze what role they play in SIAB deployment rates and injury rates, such as plane of contact, striking object and Delta-V. The data set for this study contained 247 drivers in near and far side crashes in vehicles with installed SIABs. Overall SIAB deployment was 43% in side impact crashes. A significant factor associated with both the SIAB deployment rate and the driver's injury rate was increased Delta-V. SIABs do not deploy consistently in crashes with a high Delta-V or with a lateral primary direction of force and a front plane of contact. In these two scenarios, further research is warranted on SIAB deployments. With SIAB deployment, it appears drivers are able to sustain a higher Delta-V impact without serious injury.

  17. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  18. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  19. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

  1. Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%.

  2. Development of a method to rate the primary safety of vehicles using linked New Zealand crash and vehicle licensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle safety rating systems aim firstly to inform consumers about safe vehicle choices and, secondly, to encourage vehicle manufacturers to aspire to safer levels of vehicle performance. Primary rating systems (that measure the ability of a vehicle to assist the driver in avoiding crashes) have not been developed for a variety of reasons, mainly associated with the difficult task of disassociating driver behavior and vehicle exposure characteristics from the estimation of crash involvement risk specific to a given vehicle. The aim of the current study was to explore different approaches to primary safety estimation, identifying which approaches (if any) may be most valid and most practical, given typical data that may be available for producing ratings. Data analyzed consisted of crash data and motor vehicle registration data for the period 2003 to 2012: 21,643,864 observations (representing vehicle-years) and 135,578 crashed vehicles. Various logistic models were tested as a means to estimate primary safety: Conditional models (conditioning on the vehicle owner over all vehicles owned); full models not conditioned on the owner, with all available owner and vehicle data; reduced models with few variables; induced exposure models; and models that synthesised elements from the latter two models. It was found that excluding young drivers (aged 25 and under) from all primary safety estimates attenuated some high risks estimated for make/model combinations favored by young people. The conditional model had clear biases that made it unsuitable. Estimates from a reduced model based just on crash rates per year (but including an owner location variable) produced estimates that were generally similar to the full model, although there was more spread in the estimates. The best replication of the full model estimates was generated by a synthesis of the reduced model and an induced exposure model. This study compared approaches to estimating primary safety that could mimic

  3. Fatal and serious road crashes involving young New Zealand drivers: a latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    , infrastructure characteristics, environmental conditions, demographic characteristics, driving behaviour, and pre-crash manoeuvres. The analysis yielded 15 and 8 latent classes of, respectively, single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes, and average posterior probabilities measured the odds of correct...

  4. Using linked data to evaluate hospital charges for motor vehicle crash victims in Pennsylvania : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The report uses police-reported crash data that have been linked to hospital discharge data to evaluate charges for hospital care provided to motor vehicle crash victims in Pennsylvania. Approximately 17,000 crash victims were hospitalized in Pennsyl...

  5. Driver sleepiness and risk of motor vehicle crash injuries: a population-based case control study in Fiji (TRIP 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-03-01

    Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in roadside surveys (controls). An interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by drivers or proxies collected information on potential risks for crashes including sleepiness while driving, and factors that may influence the quantity or quality of sleep. Following adjustment for confounders, there was an almost six-fold increase in the odds of injury-involved crashes for vehicles driven by people who were not fully alert or sleepy (OR 5.7, 95%CI: 2.7, 12.3), or those who reported less than 6 h of sleep during the previous 24 h (OR 5.9, 95%CI: 1.7, 20.9). The population attributable risk for crashes associated with driving while not fully alert or sleepy was 34%, and driving after less than 6 h sleep in the previous 24 h was 9%. Driving by people reporting symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnoea was not significantly associated with crash risk. Driver sleepiness is an important contributor to injury-involved four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, highlighting the need for evidence-based strategies to address this poorly characterised risk factor for car crashes in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Association Rule Mining on Five Years of Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Jean Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, road accidents kill more than a million people and injure more than 20 million worldwide. This paper aims to offer guidance on road safety and create awareness by pinpointing the major causes of traffic accidents. The study investigates motor vehicle crashes in the Genesee Finger Lakes Region of New York State. Frequency Pattern Growth algorithm is utilized to cultivate knowledge and create association rules to highlight the time and environment settings that cause the most catastrophic crashes. This knowledge can be used to warn drivers about the dangers of accidents, and how the consequences are worse given a specific context. For instance, a discovered rule from the data states that ‘most of the crashes occur between 12:00 pm and 6:00pm’; hence, it is suggested to modify existing navigation application to warn drivers about the increase in risk factor.

  7. Correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists in single-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.

  8. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  9. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  10. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  13. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilo, D. D., E-mail: djoksus-2010@yahoo.com; Lukamana, N. I., E-mail: n.indra.lukmana@gmail.com; Budiana, E. P., E-mail: budiana.e@gmail.com; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P., E-mail: danar1405@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  14. Vehicle-to-Vehicle crash avoidance technology : public acceptance final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Crash Avoidance Public Acceptance report summarizes data from a survey of the current level of awareness and acceptance of V2V technology. The survey was guided by findings from prior studies and 12 focus groups. A total ...

  15. 77 FR 32712 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...-0070] Technical Report: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement... comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report... be received no later than October 1, 2012. ADDRESSES: Report: The technical report is available on...

  16. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal motorcycle crashes and the interrelationships of endorsement status and motorcycle type with operator characteristics like riding impaired. Cases were drawn from a database tracking fatal crashes occurring within Cuyahoga County, Ohio, from 2005 to 2011. Analysis focused on 75 fatal motorcycle crashes in which the deceased motorcycle operators were male and coroner's reports, police crash reports, and license endorsement status were available. Analysis included comparison of means, chi square testing, and binary logistic regression. More than half of motorcyclists (53%) did not have motorcycle endorsements. Mean age of unendorsed riders was 36.8 years, compared to 44.2 years for endorsed riders. Motorcyclists were considered at fault in 69 percent of cases, most often due to reckless operation, failure to control, or speeding. Mean blood alcohol concentration for fatally injured motorcyclists was 0.06 percent. Marijuana was the most common drug identified in blood tests. Nonendorsement was associated with younger age, single-vehicle crash, and having a prior license suspension. Neither endorsement status nor bike type was associated with likelihood of testing positive for alcohol or drugs of abuse. Riders of sport motorcycles were more likely than cruiser/touring bike operators to be wearing helmets and less likely to be endorsed. The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals.

  18. An anticipative escape system for vehicles in water crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuanliang; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qi; Zhu, Yantao; Yang, Jiawei; Liao, Mengdi; Yang, Liming

    2017-07-01

    In this article, it designs an escape system for vehicles in water crashes. The structure mainly contains sensors, control organs and actuating mechanism for both doors and windows. Sensors judge whether the vehicle falls into water or is in the falling process. The actuating mechanism accepts the signal delivered by the control organs, then open the electronic central lock on doors and meanwhile lower the window. The water escape system is able to anticipate drowning situations for vehicles and controls both doors and windows in such an emergency. Under the premise of doors staying in an undamaged state, it is for sure that people in the vehicle can open the door while drowning in the water and safely escape.

  19. Analyzing the Relationship Between Car Generation and Severity of Motor-Vehicle Crashes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove

    2013-01-01

    .e., car’s first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity...... car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i...... analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers’ injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked...

  20. Statistical analysis of vehicle crashes in Mississippi based on crash data from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Traffic crash data from 2010 to 2014 were collected by Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) and extracted for the study. Three tasks were conducted in this study: (1) geographic distribution of crashes; (2) descriptive statistics of crash ...

  1. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  2. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  3. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  4. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political subdivision of a... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0156] RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash...'s response to petitions for reconsideration of a November 12, 2008 final rule that amended the child...

  5. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  6. Standardisation of heavy vehicle crash investigation procedures in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles and even less is known about the real cause of these accidents. This paper reports on the findings of a study on the status of heavy vehicle accident investigation procedures in South Africa. This study involved a...

  7. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of crashes using FE vehicle models. Relations between vehicle types and crash characteristics; Yugen yoso model wo mochiita sharyo no shototsu kaiseki. Sharyo type to shototsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, O. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the crash characteristics of vehicles under the condition of real-world accidents. This paper pays attention to the differences in the crash characteristics of a vehicle colliding with a vehicle which is a different type. Vehicles on the market can be divided broadly into two vehicle structures, monocoque structure and frame structure. Monocoque structure is mainly used for passenger vehicles and frame structure is for recreational vehicles (RV). In recent years, RV has been a large seller on the market. So accidents between passenger vehicles and a RVs occur frequently. The analysis of experimental data and computer simulation, which is predicated on the experimental data, was carried out for this study. In the analysis of experimental data, barrier force data from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) were analyzed. The FE passenger vehicle model which is based on systematic validation tests was used for the computer simulation of car-to-car collisions. (author)

  9. Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-09-01

    In May 2007, Montgomery County, Maryland, implemented an automated speed enforcement program, with cameras allowed on residential streets with speed limits of 35 mph or lower and in school zones. In 2009, the state speed camera law increased the enforcement threshold from 11 to 12 mph over the speed limit and restricted school zone enforcement hours. In 2012, the county began using a corridor approach, in which cameras were periodically moved along the length of a roadway segment. The long-term effects of the speed camera program on travel speeds, public attitudes, and crashes were evaluated. Changes in travel speeds at camera sites from 6 months before the program began to 7½ years after were compared with changes in speeds at control sites in the nearby Virginia counties of Fairfax and Arlington. A telephone survey of Montgomery County drivers was conducted in Fall 2014 to examine attitudes and experiences related to automated speed enforcement. Using data on crashes during 2004-2013, logistic regression models examined the program's effects on the likelihood that a crash involved an incapacitating or fatal injury on camera-eligible roads and on potential spillover roads in Montgomery County, using crashes in Fairfax County on similar roads as controls. About 7½ years after the program began, speed cameras were associated with a 10% reduction in mean speeds and a 62% reduction in the likelihood that a vehicle was traveling more than 10 mph above the speed limit at camera sites. When interviewed in Fall 2014, 95% of drivers were aware of the camera program, 62% favored it, and most had received a camera ticket or knew someone else who had. The overall effect of the camera program in its modified form, including both the law change and the corridor approach, was a 39% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an incapacitating or fatal injury. Speed cameras alone were associated with a 19% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an

  10. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Rib and sternum fractures in the elderly and extreme elderly following motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vishal; Conroy, Carol; Chang, David; Tominaga, Gail T; Coimbra, Raul

    2011-05-01

    As the population ages, the need to protect the elderly during motor vehicle crashes becomes increasingly critical. This study focuses on causation of elderly rib and sternum fractures in seriously injured elderly occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. We used data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database (1997-2009). Study case criteria included occupant (≥ 65 years old) drivers (sitting in the left outboard position of the first row) or passengers (sitting in the first row right outboard position) who were in frontal or side impacts. To avoid selection bias, only occupants with a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 3 (serious) or greater severity injury were included in this study. Odds ratios were used as a descriptive measure of the strength of association between variables and Chi square tests were used to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between categorical variables. Of the 211 elderly (65-79 years old) occupants with thoracic injury, 92.0% had rib fractures and 19.6% had sternum fractures. For the 76 extreme elderly (80 years or older) with thoracic injury, 90.4% had rib fractures and 27.7% had sternum fractures. Except for greater mortality and more rib fractures caused by safety belts, there were no differences between the extreme elderly and the elderly occupants. Current safety systems may need to be redesigned to prevent rib and sternum fractures in occupants 80 years and older. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC AND TRAFFIC FLOW FACTORS FOR VEHICLE CRASHES USING SPATIOTEMPORAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gill

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  14. Investigation of Roadway Geometric and Traffic Flow Factors for Vehicle Crashes Using Spatiotemporal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  15. Explaining reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2012-01-01

    To explain a reduction in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010. Retrospective ecological study. For 2005-2010, police data on pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs) were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62%) outside crosswalks, 766 (30%) on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8%) on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers' traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks. No change was observed in the rate of

  16. Explaining reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Kudryavtsev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explain a reduction in pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010. Study design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. For 2005–2010, police data on pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. Results. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62% outside crosswalks, 766 (30% on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8% on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers’ traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. Conclusions. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes

  17. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  18. SUV rollover in single vehicle crashes and the influence of ESC and SSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallan, Michael J; Jermakian, Jessica Steps

    2008-10-01

    The modern Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) fleet continues to go through a transformation in response to the concern that they are at an increased risk of rollover. Our research objective was to look at changes in rollover rates for single vehicle crashes in the modern SUV fleet (corresponding to NCAP rollover testing model years) and the impact of electronic stability control (ESC) and lowered center of gravity. We looked at 2001-2006 NASS-GES data on a probability sample of 3,331 SUVs involved in single vehicle crashes, weighted to represent 324,149 crashes in the study population. Static Stability Factor (SSF) information from NCAP testing and ESC presence (from IIHS) were also incorporated. 20.2% of these SUVs were involved a rollover, which decreased by more than half from model year 2001 (25.3%) through 2006 (11.5%). Nearly 9% had ESC as a standard feature, including 47% in model year 2006. The majority of the late model year decline in rollover rates can be attributed to ESC presence and higher SSF. Rollover was two-thirds less likely (adjusted OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.20-0.55) in SUVs with ESC as a standard feature versus those known not to have ESC. Those SUVs with SSF > or = 1.20 were significantly less likely to rollover (adjusted OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.48). Additional significant predictors of rollover included SUV size, driver age and alcohol use. Our study builds on the previous work of NHTSA, IIHS, and others with regard to rollover risk by looking at an even wider array of late model year SUVs.

  19. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-level Bayesian analyses for single- and multi-vehicle freeway crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents multi-level analyses for single- and multi-vehicle crashes on a mountainous freeway. Data from a 15-mile mountainous freeway section on I-70 were investigated. Both aggregate and disaggregate models for the two crash conditions were developed. Five years of crash data were used in the aggregate investigation, while the disaggregate models utilized one year of crash data along with real-time traffic and weather data. For the aggregate analyses, safety performance functions were developed for the purpose of revealing the contributing factors for each crash type. Two methodologies, a Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model and a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with correlated random effects, were estimated to simultaneously analyze the two crash conditions with consideration of possible correlations. Except for the factors related to geometric characteristics, two exposure parameters (annual average daily traffic and segment length) were included. Two different sets of significant explanatory and exposure variables were identified for the single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes. It was found that the Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model is superior to the Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model, the former with a substantially lower DIC and more significant variables. In addition to the aggregate analyses, microscopic real-time crash risk evaluation models were developed for the two crash conditions. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were estimated with the random parameters accounting for seasonal variations, crash-unit-level diversity and segment-level random effects capturing unobserved heterogeneity caused by the geometric characteristics. The model results indicate that the effects of the selected variables on crash occurrence vary across seasons and crash units; and that geometric characteristic variables contribute to the segment variations: the more unobserved heterogeneity have been accounted, the better

  1. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    In crashes between a car and a light truck or van (LTV), car occupants are more likely to be killed than LTV occupants. The extent this is due to the greater harm imposed by LTVs on cars or the greater protection they offer their own occupants is not known. We conducted a case-control study of collisions between two passenger vehicles in the USA during 1990-2008. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes (N=157,684); one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes (N=379,458). Adjusted for the type of vehicle they were riding in and other confounders, occupants of vehicles colliding with any type of LTVs (categorised as compact sport utility vehicles (SUV), full-size SUVs, minivans, full-size vans, compact pickups and full-size pickups) were at higher risk of death compared with occupants colliding with cars. Adjusted for the type of vehicle they crashed with and other confounders, occupants of LTVs in a collision with any vehicle were at lower risk of death compared with car occupants. Compared with a crash between two cars, the overall RR of death in a crash between any of the other 27 different combinations of vehicle types was 1.0 or greater, except for crashes between two full-size pickups, where the RR of death was 0.9. Although LTVs protect their own occupants better than cars do, LTVs are associated with an excess total risk of death in crashes with cars or other LTVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in

  3. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year where state property located along Indiana Department of Transportation : (INDOT) maintained right-of-way needs to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. INDOT incurs significant financi...

  4. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year that require infrastructure located along right-of-way maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. This infrastructure includ...

  5. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  6. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  7. Age and pedestrian injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes: a heteroskedastic logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Kim, Sungyop

    2008-09-01

    This research explores the injury severity of pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes. It is hypothesized that the variance of unobserved pedestrian characteristics increases with age. In response, a heteroskedastic generalized extreme value model is used. The analysis links explanatory factors with four injury outcomes: fatal, incapacitating, non-incapacitating, and possible or no injury. Police-reported crash data between 1997 and 2000 from North Carolina, USA, are used. The results show that pedestrian age induces heteroskedasticity which affects the probability of fatal injury. The effect grows more pronounced with increasing age past 65. The heteroskedastic model provides a better fit than the multinomial logit model. Notable factors increasing the probability of fatal pedestrian injury: increasing pedestrian age, male driver, intoxicated driver (2.7 times greater probability of fatality), traffic sign, commercial area, darkness with or without streetlights (2-4 times greater probability of fatality), sport-utility vehicle, truck, freeway, two-way divided roadway, speeding-involved, off roadway, motorist turning or backing, both driver and pedestrian at fault, and pedestrian only at fault. Conversely, the probability of a fatal injury decreased: with increasing driver age, during the PM traffic peak, with traffic signal control, in inclement weather, on a curved roadway, at a crosswalk, and when walking along roadway.

  8. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transport company safety climate - the impact on truck driver behaviour and crash involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Sullman, Mark J. M.; Stephens A. N.; Pajo K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the relationships between safety climate and driving behavior and crash involvement. Methods: A total of 339 company-employed truck drivers completed a questionnaire that measured their perceptions of safety climate, crash record, speed choice, and aberrant driving behaviors (errors, lapses, and violations). Results: Although there was no direct relationship between the drivers' perceptions of safety climate and crash involvement, safety clima...

  10. Solutions for acceleration measurement in vehicle crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, D. S.; Covaciu, D.

    2017-10-01

    Crash tests are useful for validating computer simulations of road traffic accidents. One of the most important parameters measured is the acceleration. The evolution of acceleration versus time, during a crash test, form a crash pulse. The correctness of the crash pulse determination depends on the data acquisition system used. Recommendations regarding the instrumentation for impact tests are given in standards, which are focused on the use of accelerometers as impact sensors. The goal of this paper is to present the device and software developed by authors for data acquisition and processing. The system includes two accelerometers with different input ranges, a processing unit based on a 32-bit microcontroller and a data logging unit with SD card. Data collected on card, as text files, is processed with a dedicated software running on personal computers. The processing is based on diagrams and includes the digital filters recommended in standards.

  11. Using linked data to evaluate medical and financial outcomes of motor vehicle crashes in Connecticut : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A deterministic algorithm was developed which allowed data from Department of Transportation motor vehicle crash records, state mortality registry records, and hospital admission and emergency department records to be linked for analysis of the finan...

  12. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  13. Hotspots and causes of motor vehicle crashes in Baltimore, Maryland: A geospatial analysis of five years of police crash and census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary; de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; El-Gabri, Deena; Johnson, Abree; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-11-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading killer of youth (aged 15-29) and are projected to be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. To better understand road traffic crash locations and characteristics in the city of Baltimore, we used police and census data, to describe the epidemiology, hotspots, and modifiable risk factors involved to guide further interventions. Data on all crashes in Baltimore City from 2009 to 2013 were made available from the Maryland Automated Accident Reporting System. Socioeconomic data collected by the US CENSUS 2010 were obtained. A time series analysis was conducted using an ARIMA model. We analyzed the geographical distribution of traffic crashes and hotspots using exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial autocorrelation. Spatial regression was performed to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic indicators on hotspots. In Baltimore City, between 2009 and 2013, there were a total of 100,110 crashes reported, with 1% of crashes considered severe. Of all crashes, 7% involved vulnerable road users and 12% had elderly or youth involvement. Reasons for crashes included: distracted driving (31%), speeding (6%), and alcohol or drug use (5%). After 2010, we observed an increasing trend in all crashes especially from March to June. Distracted driving then youth and elderly drivers were consistently the highest risk factors over time. Multivariate spatial regression model including socioeconomic indicators and controlling for age, gender and population size did not show a distinct predictor of crashes explaining only 20% of the road crash variability, indicating crashes are not geographically explained by socioeconomic indicators alone. In Baltimore City, road traffic crashes occurred predominantly in the high density center of the city, involved distracted driving and extremes of age with an increase in crashes from March to June. There was no association between socioeconomic variables where crashes occurred and hotspots. In depth analysis of

  14. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  15. Traffic crash involvement: experiential driving knowledge and stressful contextual antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legree, Peter J; Heffner, Tonia S; Psotka, Joseph; Martin, Daniel E; Medsker, Gina J

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have rarely examined stressful environments and psychological characteristics as predictors of driving behavior in the same study. The authors hypothesized that (a) safer drivers more accurately assess physical and emotional traffic hazards and (b) stress and emotional states elevate crash risk. The hypotheses were evaluated with procedural and declarative tacit driving knowledge tests requiring assessment of emotional and contextual hazards and with accident reports describing crash antecedents, including stressful events and environmental conditions. Analyses identified separate driving knowledge factors corresponding to emotional and contextual hazards that were significantly related to the crash criteria. Accident report analyses show that stress significantly elevates at-fault crash risk. The results demonstrate the importance of experiential knowledge acquired without instruction (procedural or tacit knowledge) and provide safety recommendations.

  16. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  17. Crash safety concerns for out-of-position occupant postures: A look toward safety in highly automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Poplin, Gerald S; Shaw, Greg; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-04-09

    Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and airbags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out of position. We investigated the frequency, demographics, and injury outcomes for out-of-position occupants using NASS-CDS. A matched analysis was performed to compare injury outcomes for out-of-position passengers with in-position drivers involved in similar crashes. Finally, case studies for out-of-position occupants were examined in the Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database. Only 0.5% of occupants in NASS-CDS with a coded posture were out of position at the time of crash. Of the out-of-position occupants, being turned or seated sideways was almost as likely as being reclined. Out-of-position occupants were younger and less likely to be belted than their in-position counterparts. Analysis of the injury data indicated a trend that being out of position was associated with an elevated risk for serious injury. However, the number of out-of-position occupants was too small to provide a definitive or statistically significant conclusion on injury outcome. Though highly automated vehicles may eventually reduce the number of crashes and traffic fatalities in the future, there will be a transition period when these vehicles remain at risk from collisions with human-driven vehicles. These crashes could cause higher than anticipated rates of injury if occupants are less likely to be belted or tend to be in positions for which restraints are not optimized. This study highlights the need for future research on occupant response and

  18. Identification of vehicle components associated with severe thoracic injury in motor vehicle crashes: a CIREN and NASS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, R; Pintar, F A

    2008-01-01

    Thoracic trauma secondary to motor vehicle crashes (MVC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Specific vehicle features may increase the risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. We sought to determine which vehicle contact points were associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury in MVC to focus subsequent design modifications necessary to reduce thoracic injury. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) databases from 1993 to 2001 and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) databases from 1996 to 2004 were analyzed separately using univariate and multivariate logistic regression stratified by restraint use and crash direction. The risk of driver thoracic injury, defined as an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) of score > or =3, was determined as it related to specific points of contact between the vehicle and the driver. The incidence of severe chest injury in NASS and CIREN were 5.5% and 33%, respectively. The steering wheel, door panel, armrest, and seat were identified as contact points associated with an increased risk of severe chest injury. The door panel and arm rest were consistently a frequent cause of severe injury in both the NASS and CIREN data. Several vehicle contact points, including the steering wheel, door panel, armrest and seat are associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. These elements need to be further investigated to determine which characteristics need to be manipulated in order to reduce thoracic trauma during a crash.

  19. Trends and projections of vehicle crash related fatalities and injuries in Northwest Gondar, Ethiopia: A time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The numbers of lives lost and disabilities due to vehicle crashes indicated an upward trend in the last decade showing future burden in terms of societal and economic costs threatening the lives of many individuals. Surveillance systems that could enable to monitor patterns of vehicle crashes with preventive strategies must be established.

  20. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  1. Mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R; Eppinger, R H

    2001-11-01

    This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the acetabulum and proximal femur occurred in five out of the eight tests, and distal femoral bone fracture occurred in one test. These results underscore the importance of leg pre-positioning and the orientation of the impacting axis to produce specific types of trauma to the pelvic region of the lower extremity.

  2. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour. Copyright © 2015

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.

  4. Improving the Effectiveness of Countermeasures to Prevent Motor Vehicle Crashes among Young Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.

    2003-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury and death among adolescents 16 to 19 years of age. Three areas of countermeasures for decreasing young driver risk are driver education, licensing policies, and parental management. Driver education is an essential part of teaching adolescents the rules of the road and operating a…

  5. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  6. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Globally, trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a major cause of death and disability with majority occur- ... Bodabodas are a major form of transport in the city of. Kampala and in other towns in East Africa. .... Injury Control Injury Surveillance Reports (2000 – 2003). Injury Control Centre, Kampala. 4.

  7. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible.

  8. A comprehensive review of rollover accidents involving vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E; Scheibe, Robert R; Eyges, Vitaly E

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present.

  9. Linear regression crash prediction models : issues and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The paper develops a linear regression model approach that can be applied to : crash data to predict vehicle crashes. The proposed approach involves novice data aggregation : to satisfy linear regression assumptions; namely error structure normality ...

  10. Characteristics of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertach, Patrizia; Uhr, Andrea; Niemann, Steffen; Cavegn, Mario

    2018-08-01

    In Switzerland, the usage and accident numbers of e-bikes have strongly increased in recent years. According to official statistics, single-vehicle accidents constitute an important crash type. Up to date, very little is known about the mechanisms and causes of these crashes. To gain more insight, a survey was conducted among 3658 e-cyclists in 2016. The crash risk and injury severity were analysed using logistic regression models. 638 (17%) e-cyclists had experienced a single-vehicle accident in road traffic since the beginning of their e-bike use. Risk factors were high riding exposure, male sex, and using the e-bike mainly for the purpose of getting to work or school. There was no effect of age on the crash risk. Skidding, falling while crossing a threshold, getting into or skidding on a tram/railway track and evasive actions were the most important accident mechanisms. The crash causes mentioned most often were a slippery road surface, riding too fast for the situation and inability to keep the balance. Women, elderly people, riders of e-bikes with a pedal support up to 45 km/h and e-cyclists who considered themselves to be less fit in comparison to people of the same age had an increased risk of injury. This study confirms the high relevance of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes. Measures to prevent this type of accident could include the sensitisation of e-cyclists regarding the most common accident mechanisms and causes, a regular maintenance of bicycle pathways, improvements regarding tram and railway tracks and technological advancements of e-bikes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Latent Classes of Polydrug Users as a Predictor of Crash Involvement and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert; Taylor, Eileen

    2018-05-01

    Polydrug users have been shown to be at higher risk for alcohol consumption and crash involvement. However, research has shown that polydrug groups differ in some important ways. It is currently unknown how polydrug-using groups differ in terms of crash involvement and alcohol consumption. The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of polydrug users (n = 384) among a sample of drivers in Virginia Beach, Virginia (N = 10,512). A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between polydrug use categories and crash involvement and alcohol consumption. Four distinct subclasses of users were identified among polydrug-using drivers: Class 1 is the "marijuana-amphetamines class" and accounts for 21.6% of polydrug users. Class 2 is the "benzo-antidepressant class" and accounts for 39.0% of polydrug users. Class 3 is the "opioid-benzo class" and accounts for 32.7% of polydrug users. Finally, Class 4 is the "marijuana-cocaine class" and accounts for 6.7% of the study sample. Drivers in the opioid-benzo class were significantly more likely than those in any other class as well as non-drug users and single-drug users to be involved in a crash and were more likely than those in most other conditions to consume alcohol. No significant difference was found between marijuana-amphetamine users or benzo-antidepressant users and non-drug users on crash risk. Some polydrug users are indeed at greater risk for crash involvement and alcohol consumption; however, not all polydrug users are significantly worse than single-drug users and/or non-drug users, and the practice of lumping polydrug users together when predicting crash risk runs the risk of inaccurately attributing crash involvement to certain drivers.

  12. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  13. Toward an effective long-term strategy for preventing motor vehicle crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Walley, E Kenneth

    2014-08-11

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  14. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  15. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  16. Assessing rear-end crash potential in urban locations based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics and operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Stylianou, Katerina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2018-03-01

    Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes. In this study rear-end crash potential was estimated based on stopping distance between two consecutive vehicles, and four rear-end crash potential cases were developed. The results indicated that 66.4% of the observations were estimated as rear-end crash potentials. It was also shown that rear-end crash potential was presented when traffic flow and speed standard deviation were higher. Also, locational characteristics such as lane of travel and location in the network were found to affect drivers' car following decisions and additionally, it was shown that speeds were lower and headways higher when Heavy Goods Vehicles lead. Finally, a model-based behavioral analysis based on Multinomial Logit regression was conducted to systematically identify the statistically significant variables in explaining rear-end risk potential. The modeling results highlighted the significance of the explanatory variables associated with rear-end crash potential, however it was shown that their effect varied among different model configurations. The outcome of the results can be of significant value for several purposes, such as real-time monitoring of risk potential, allocating enforcement units in urban networks and designing targeted proactive safety policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  18. Measuring a conceptual model of the relationship between compulsive cell phone use, in-vehicle cell phone use, and motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Shain, Lindsey M; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Ebel, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash. Using a structural equation model, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between factors of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale-II (CPOS-II), impulsivity, in-vehicle phone use, and severity and frequency of previous motor vehicle crash. Self-reported miles driven per week and year in college were included as covariates in the model. Our findings suggest that anticipation of incoming communication has a direct association with greater in-vehicle phone use, but was not directly or indirectly associated with increasing risk of previous motor vehicle crash. Of the three latent factors comprising the CPOS-II, only anticipation was significantly associated with elevated cell phone use while driving. Greater impulsivity and use of in-vehicle cell phone use while driving were directly and significantly associated with greater risk of motor vehicle crash. Anticipation of incoming cellular contacts (calls or texts) is associated with greater in-vehicle phone use, while greater in-vehicle cell phone use and impulsive traits are associated with elevated risk of motor vehicle crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of obesity on mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dietrich; Gemme, Seth; Jehle, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes involving at least one fatality. Fatalities were selected from 155,584 drivers included in the 2000-2005 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Drivers were stratified by body mass index, confounders were adjusted for, and multiple logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of death in each body mass index class compared with normal weight. The adjusted risk of death from lowest to highest, reported as the OR of death compared with normal weight with 95% confidence intervals, was as follows: (1) overweight (OR, 0.952; 0.911-0.995; P = .0293), (2) slightly obese (OR, 0.996; 0.966-1.026; P = .7758), (3) normal weight, (4) underweight (OR, 1.115; 1.035-1.201; P = .0043), (5) moderately obese (OR, 1.212; 1.128-1.302; P obese (OR, 1.559; 1.402-1.734; P obese, morbidly obese, and underweight drivers and a decreased risk in overweight drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Crash-related mortality and model year: are newer vehicles safer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether occupants of newer vehicles experience a lower risk of crash-related mortality. The occurrence of death was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age ≥ 16 captured in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between 2000 and 2008. The associations between death and other occupant, vehicular and crash characteristics were also explored. Multiple logistic regression models for the prediction of death were built with model year as the independent variable and other characteristics linked to death as covariates. Imputation was used for missing data; weighted data was used. A total of 70,314 cases representing 30,514,372 weighted cases were available for analysis. Death occurred in 0.6% of the weighted population. Death was linked to age>60, male gender, higher BMI, near lateral direction of impact, high delta v, rollover, ejection and vehicle mismatch, and negatively associated with seatbelt use and rear and far lateral direction of impact. Mortality decreased with later model year groups (MY<94 0.78%, MY 94-97 0.53%, MY 98-04 0.51% and MY 05-08 0.38%, p=<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, MY 94-97, MY 98-04 and MY 05-08 showed decreased odds of death [OR 0.80 (0.69-0.94), 0.82 (0.70-0.97), and 0.67 (0.47-0.96), respectively] when compared to MY <94. Newer vehicles are associated with lower crash-related mortality. Their introduction into the vehicle fleet may explain, at least in part, the decrease in mortality rates in the past two decades.

  2. CRASH SAFETY OF A TYPICAL BAY TABLE IN A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel MATSIKA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, urban and high speed trains are incorporating tables (workstations as common railway vehicle interior furniture because passengers prefer seating by bay tables. Among table design characteristics, the most challenging is meeting crashworthiness requirements. Past accident data and sled test results have shown that in the event of railway vehicle frontal impact, occupants located in the bay seating are exposed to chest and abdominal injuries upon contact with tables resulting from secondary collision. In some cases tables have tended to be structurally weak; they easily detach from the side walls and/or floor mounting. Subsequently these become unguided missiles that strike occupants, resulting in injuries. This paper presents an analysis of the crash performance of a typical bay table. The results provide some understanding of the table’s crash safety, giving an indication of its impact aggression. Table materials are characterised using quasi-static compressive tests. In addition, experimental dynamic (impact tests are conducted using a pendulum representing a body block (mass. The results provide information about the possible loading of the table on the occupant in the event of a crash. Contact forces are compared with chest and abdominal injury tolerance thresholds to infer the collision injury potential. Recommendations are then made on design of bay tables to meet the “functional-strength-and-safety balance”.

  3. A study of at-fault older drivers in light-vehicle crashes in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hoong Chor; Zhou, Mo

    2018-03-01

    A number of studies on motor vehicle crashes have suggested that older drivers are more likely to be at-fault compared to younger drivers. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to older drivers (aged 65 and above) being at fault in light vehicle crashes in Singapore. Based on 3 years of crash data, the calibrated binary logit model shows that older drivers are more likely to be at fault during peak periods and festive seasons between November to February, as well as at gore areas of expressways, intersections. Curb lanes of multi-lane roads and single-lane roads are also found to increase the odds of older drivers being at fault. Furthermore, older drivers appear to have more problems on roads with wet surfaces and speed limits of 60 km/h and 70 km/h. In the light of an aging population in Singapore, it is imperative that more targeted countermeasures be taken from multiple perspectives to lower such risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing fault in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Kim, Sungyop; Booth, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    Crashes between pedestrians and motor vehicles are an important traffic safety concern. This paper explores the assignment of fault in such crashes, where observed factors are associated with pedestrian at fault, driver at fault, or both at fault. The analysis is based on police reported crash data for 1997 through 2000 in North Carolina, U.S.A. The results show that pedestrians are found at fault in 59% of the crashes, drivers in 32%, and both are found at fault in 9%. The results indicate drivers need to take greater notice of pedestrians when drivers are turning, merging, and backing up as these are some of the prime factors associated with the driver being found at fault in a crash. Pedestrians must apply greater caution when crossing streets, waiting to cross, and when walking along roads, as these are correlated with pedestrians being found at fault. The results suggest a need for campaigns focused on positively affecting pedestrian street-crossing behavior in combination with added jaywalking enforcement. The results also indicate that campaigns to increase the use of pedestrian visibility improvements at night can have a significant positive impact on traffic safety. Intoxication is a concern and the results show that it is not only driver intoxication that is affecting safety, but also pedestrian intoxication. The findings show in combination with other research in the field, that results from traffic safety studies are not necessarily transferable between distant geographic locations, and that location-specific safety research needs to take place. It is also important to further study the specific effects of the design of the pedestrian environment on safety, e.g. crosswalk spacing, signal timings, etc., which together may affect pedestrian safety and pedestrian behavior. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  7. Optimized Method for Knee Displacement Measurement in Vehicle Sled Crash Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an optimized method for measuring dummy’s knee displacement in vehicle sled crash test. The proposed method utilizes completely new elements for measurement, which are acceleration and angular velocity of dummy’s pelvis, as well as the rotational angle of its femur. Compared with the traditional measurement only using camera-based high-speed motion image analysis, the optimized one can not only maintain the measuring accuracy, but also avoid the disturbance caused by dummy movement, dashboard blocking and knee deformation during the crash. An experiment is made to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, which eliminates the strong dependence on single target tracing in traditional method. Moreover, it is very appropriate for calculating the penetration depth to the dashboard.

  8. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coronary sinus and atrioventricular groove avulsion after motor vehicle crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous cardiac and pericardial rupture from blunt chest trauma is a highly lethal combination with rarely reported survival. We report of a case of young patient with a right atrioventricular groove injury, pericardial rupture and a unique description of a coronary sinus avulsion following blunt chest trauma. Rapid recognition of this injury is crucial to patient survival, but traditional diagnostic adjuncts such as ultrasound, echocardiography and computed tomography are often unhelpful. Successful repair of these injuries requires high suspicion of injury, early cardiac surgery involvement of and possible even placement of the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2003-2010 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office funds research on development of technologies to improve the fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles, including advanced combustion systems, improved batteries and electric drive systems, and new lightweight materials. Of these approaches to increase fuel economy and reduce fuel consumption, reducing vehicle mass through more extensive use of strong lightweight materials is perhaps the easiest and least expensive method; however, there is a concern that reducing vehicle mass may lead to more fatalities. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted several analyses to better understand the relationship between vehicle mass, size and safety, in order to ameliorate concerns that down-weighting vehicles will inherently lead to more fatalities. These analyses include recreating the regression analyses conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that estimate the relationship between mass reduction and U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile of travel (VMT), while holding vehicle size (i.e. footprint, wheelbase times track width) constant; these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 1 analysis. In addition, LBNL has conducted additional analysis of the relationship between mass and the two components of risk per VMT, crash frequency (crashes per VMT) and risk once a crash has occurred (risk per crash); these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 2 analysis.

  11. Head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Xu, Likang; Faul, Mark

    2017-08-18

    This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (traumatic brain injury, TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated 3 health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to TBI in motor vehicle occupants. Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor vehicle crashes: (1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, (2) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-estimated ED visits for TBI, (3) National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) estimated hospitalizations for TBI, and (4) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) estimated TBI deaths. The 4 databases provide annual national totals for TBI related injury and death in motor vehicle crashes based on differing definitions with TBI coded by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in NASS-CDS and by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the health data. Adults: NASS-CDS had 16,980 ± 2,411 (risk = 0.43 ± 0.06%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 3,930,543 exposed adults in towaway crashes annually. There were 49,881 ± 9,729 (risk = 1.27 ± 0.25%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 6,753 ± 882 (risk = 0.17 ± 0.02%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 89,331 ± 6,870 ED visits, 33,598 ± 1,052 hospitalizations, and 6,682 ± 22 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 48% more hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS occupants hospitalized with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 29% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS occupant TBI deaths but only 1% more deaths with a head injury cause. Children: NASS-CDS had 1,453 ± 318 (risk = 0.32 ± 0.07%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 454,973 exposed

  12. Obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: sex difference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Laud, P W; Pintar, F; Kim, J-E; Shih, A; Shen, W; Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Zhu, S

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is whether there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10,962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1 versus 52.2%), but experienced a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7 versus 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk (logistic coefficients of body mass index (BMI) for moderate, serious and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470 and 0.1792, respectively; all Pobese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies.

  13. Phase 2 : evaluation of the national crash experience : comparison of CARDfile national motor vehicle accident projections with projections from other data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase 2 Study is to compare national motor vehicle accident projections : made from the Crash Avoidance Research Data base (CARDfile) with national motor : vehicle accident projections made from other data bases. For the most part...

  14. Exploring the determinants of pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H M Abdul; Ukkusuri, Satish V; Hasan, Samiul

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian-vehicle crashes remain a major concern in New York City due to high percentage of fatalities. This study develops random parameter logit models for explaining pedestrian injury severity levels of New York City accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in the population and across the boroughs. A log-likelihood ratio test for joint model suitability suggests that separate models for each of the boroughs should be estimated. Among many variables, road characteristics (e.g., number of lanes, grade, light condition, road surface, etc.), traffic attributes (e.g., presence of signal control, type of vehicle, etc.), and land use (e.g., parking facilities, commercial and industrial land use, etc.) are found to be statistically significant in the estimated model. The study also suggests that the set of counter measures should be different for different boroughs in the New York City and the priority ranks of countermeasures should be different as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S. [ORNL; Jones, Donald W. [ORNL; Reuscher, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Schmoyer, Richard S. [ORNL; Truett, Lorena F. [ORNL

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  16. Prediction of vehicle crashes by drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations in Korea using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Ramjan, Lucie M; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    Traffic safety is a significant public health challenge, and vehicle crashes account for the majority of injuries. This study aims to identify whether drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations may predict vehicle crashes in Korea. A total of 500,000 drivers were randomly selected from the 11.6 million driver records of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Records of traffic crashes were obtained from the archives of the Korea Insurance Development Institute. After matching the past violation history for the period 2004-2005 with the number of crashes in year 2006, a total of 488,139 observations were used for the analysis. Zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the incident risk ratio (IRR) of vehicle crashes by past violations of individual drivers. The included covariates were driver's age, gender, district of residence, vehicle choice, and driving experience. Drivers violating (1) a hit-and-run or drunk driving regulation at least once and (2) a signal, central line, or speed regulation more than once had a higher risk of a vehicle crash with respective IRRs of 1.06 and 1.15. Furthermore, female gender, a younger age, fewer years of driving experience, and middle-sized vehicles were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of vehicle crashes. Drivers' demographic characteristics and past traffic violations could predict vehicle crashes in Korea. Greater resources should be assigned to the provision of traffic safety education programs for the high-risk driver groups.

  17. Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An application of random parameters negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Rusdi; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2017-05-01

    Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  19. Injury patterns among obese children involved in motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Griffin, Russell L; Barnhart, Douglas C; Harmon, Carroll M; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare injury patterns among obese children to their nonobese counterparts involved in motor vehicle collisions. A nationwide data collection program containing occupant, collision, and injury details from police-reported tow-away crashes between 1997 and 2006 were used. Risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age, sex, restraint, seat track position, vehicle curb weight, and total velocity change. An estimated 9 million children aged 2 to 17 years (20.2% obese) were involved in motor vehicle collisions during the study period. Among 2-to-5-year-olds, obesity increased the risk of severe head (RR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.03-13.08) and thoracic (2.27; 1.01-5.08) injuries. Among 6-to-9-year-olds, obesity increased risk of thoracic (2.31; 1.08-4.95) and lower extremity (LE) injuries (1.89; 1.03-3.47). Among 10-to-13-year-olds, obesity increased the risk of severe thoracic (1.98; 1.08-3.65) and LE (6.06; 2.23-16.44) injuries. Among 14-to-17-year-olds, obesity increased risk of severe LE injuries (1.44; 1.04-2.00) but decreased risk of abdominal (0.20; 0.07-0.60) and head (0.33; 0.18-0.60) injuries, very similar to the pattern reported in obese adults. The pattern of obesity-associated injuries changes from a higher risk of head and thoracic injuries among young children to a pattern in late teenagers that is similar to obese adults.

  20. The Safety of Transnational Imported Second-Hand Cars: A Case Study on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie Coșciug

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of imported second-hand cars (e.g., age, degree of wear and tear, technical design can increase their likelihood for traffic crashes. Three official datasets which cover an eight year period (2008–2015 are used to test the connection between importation of second-hand cars and different types of traffic crashes. The traffic crashes database was provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD. The car registration database was provided by Driving-License and Vehicles-Registration Direction (DLVRD. Right-hand driving (RHD cars database was provided by the Romanian Automotive Registry (RAR. A spatio-temporal visualization of data was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS while for the statistical analysis we use regression models and Pearson-Correlation-coefficient. The analysis suggests that a significant part of the variation in the volume of traffic accidents can be explained by the volume of imported second-hand cars at the county level. Moreover, an even stronger direct relation exists between the number of imported second-hand cars and Severe Traffic Accidents but also in the case of RHD imported second-hand cars. The overall impact of imported second-hand cars on the traffic safety in Romania is significant but small in comparison to other types of car registration. Study results belong to the category of empirical evidence production which can improve the quality of existing traffic regulations focused both on organizing and ensuring traffic safety, and on the policy of sustainable transport infrastructure development.

  1. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using linked data to evaluate severity and outcome of injury by type of object struck (first object struck only) for motor vehicle crashes in Connecticut : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A deterministic algorithm was developed which allowed data from Department of Transportation motor vehicle crash records, state mortality registry records, and hospital admission and emergency department records to be linked for analysis of the types...

  3. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

    2013-11-01

    Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

  5. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  6. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the ES-2re Dummy in Biofidelity, Component, and Full Vehicle Crash Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterfield, Aleta; Pecoraro, Katie; Rouhana, Stephen W; Xu, Lan; Abramczyk, Joe; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Mertz, Harold J; Nusholtz, Guy; Pietsch, Hollie; Scherer, Risa; Tylko, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This technical paper presents the results from tests conducted with the ES-2re, a version of the ES-2 side impact dummy that was modified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to improve its performance in crash tests. Through the series of biofidelity tests conducted on the ES-2re, described in International Standards Organization (ISO) Technical Report (TR)9790 (1999), the OSRP observed a final overall biofidelity ranking of 4.1 for the ES-2re, which corresponds to an ISO classification of "marginal." The biofidelity of the ES-2re is compared to that of the ES-2 and the WorldSID. Repeatability was also evaluated on the ES-2re based on the biofidelity test data. Additional pendulum tests were performed to assess the response of the dummy in oblique loading conditions, and results indicate that oblique loading from the front leads to significantly reduced rib deflections. To evaluate inconsistencies observed in the response of the ES-2, the OSRP analyzed the shoulder biofidelity via additional sled and drop tests. Due to the shoulder design of the ES-2 and ES-2re, the dummies appear to have significant sensitivity to initial conditions, potentially increasing variability in full vehicle tests. Finally, the responses of the ES-2re in full vehicle tests are compared to those of the ES-2 and the WorldSID.

  8. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...

  9. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk management of emergency service vehicle crashes in the United States fire service: process, outputs, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, David P; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Griffin, Stephanie; French, Dustin D; Jung, Alesia M; Crothers, Stephen; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2017-11-17

    Emergency service vehicle crashes (ESVCs) are a leading cause of death in the United States fire service. Risk management (RM) is a proactive process for identifying occupational risks and reducing hazards and unwanted events through an iterative process of scoping hazards, risk assessment, and implementing controls. We describe the process, outputs, and lessons learned from the application of a proactive RM process to reduce ESVCs in US fire departments. Three fire departments representative of urban, suburban, and rural geographies, participated in a facilitated RM process delivered through focus groups and stakeholder discussion. Crash reports from department databases were reviewed to characterize the context, circumstances, hazards and risks of ESVCs. Identified risks were ranked using a risk matrix that considered risk likelihood and severity. Department-specific control measures were selected based on group consensus. Interviews, and focus groups were used to assess acceptability and utility of the RM process and perceived facilitators and barriers of implementation. Three to six RM meetings were conducted at each fire department. There were 7.4 crashes per 100 personnel in the urban department and 10.5 per 100 personnel in the suburban department; the rural department experienced zero crashes. All departments identified emergency response, backing, on scene struck by, driver distraction, vehicle/road visibility, and driver training as high or medium concerns. Additional high priority risks varied by department; the urban department prioritized turning and rear ending crashes; the suburban firefighters prioritized inclement weather/road environment and low visibility related crashes; and the rural volunteer fire department prioritized exiting station, vehicle failure, and inclement weather/road environment related incidents. Selected controls included new policies and standard operating procedures to reduce emergency response, cameras to enhance driver

  11. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T

    2017-09-01

    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Census study of real-life near-side crashes with modern side airbag-equipped vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Sui, Bo; Lindkvist, Mats; Krafft, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the crash characteristics, injury distribution, and injury mechanisms for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) 2+ injured belted, near-side occupants in airbag-equipped modern vehicles. Furthermore, differences in injury distribution for senior occupants compared to non-senior occupants was investigated, as well as whether the near-side occupant injury risk to the head and thorax increases or decreases with a neighboring occupant. National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 2000 to 2012 were searched for all side impacts (GAD L&R, all principal direction of force) for belted occupants in modern vehicles (model year > 1999). Rollovers were excluded, and only front seat occupants over the age of 10 were included. Twelve thousand three hundred fifty-four MAIS 2+ injured occupants seated adjacent to the intruding structure (near-side) and protected by at least one deployed side airbag were studied. To evaluate the injury risk influenced by the neighboring occupant, odds ratio with an induced exposure approach was used. The most typical crash occurred either at an intersection or in a left turn where the striking vehicle impacted the target vehicle at a 60 to 70° angle, resulting in a moderate change of velocity (delta-V) and intrusion at the B-pillar. The head, thorax, and pelvis were the most frequent body regions with rib fracture the most frequent specific injury. A majority of the head injuries included brain injuries without skull fracture, and non-senior rather than senior occupants had a higher frequency of head injuries on the whole. In approximately 50% of the cases there was a neighboring occupant influencing injury outcome. Compared to non-senior occupants, the senior occupants sustained a considerably higher rate of thoracic and pelvis injuries, which should be addressed by improved thorax side airbag protection. The influence on near-side occupant injury risk by the neighboring

  13. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  15. Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Reconstruction with PC-Crash®: Sensibility Analysis of Factors Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Gala, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the main findings of a study performed by INSIA-UPM about the improvement of the reconstruction process of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents using PC-Crash® software, aimed to develop a software tool for the estimation of the variability of the collision speed due to the lack of real values of some parameters required during the reconstruction task. The methodology has been based on a sensibility analysis of the factors variation. A total of 9 factors have been analyzed with the objective of identifying which ones were significant. Four of them (pedestrian height, collision angle, hood height and pedestrian-road friction coefficient) were significant and were included in a full factorial experiment with the collision speed as an additional factor in order to obtain a regression model with up to third level interactions. Two different factorial experiments with the same structure have been performed because of pedestrian gender differences. The tool has been created as a collision speed predictor based on the regression models obtained, using the 4 significant factors and the projection distance measured or estimated in the accident site. The tool has been used on the analysis of real-world reconstructed accidents occurred in the city of Madrid (Spain). The results have been adequate in most cases with less than 10% of deviation between the predicted speed and the one estimated in the reconstructions. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of safety ratings of roads based on frontal crashes with known crash pulse and injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, H

    2009-06-01

    The objective in this study, using data from crashed cars fitted with on-board crash pulse recorders, was to present differences in average crash severity, distribution of crash severity, and injury outcomes, based on an independent safety rating of roads, also taking road type and speed limit into consideration. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate differences in injury risk, based on the distribution of crash severity. The investigation included both frontal two-vehicle crashes and single-vehicle crashes with known injury outcome. In total, 209 real-world crashes involving cars fitted with crash pulse recorders were included. For all crashes, average mean acceleration and change of velocity of the vehicle acceleration pulse were measured and calculated. All crash spots were classified according to an independent road safety rating program (European Road Assessment Programme Road Protection Score), where the safety quality of roads is rated in relation to posted speed limits. The crash severity and injury outcome in crashes that occurred on roads with good safety ratings were compared with crashes on roads with poor safety ratings. The data were also divided into subcategories according to posted speed limit and road type, to evaluate whether there was a difference in crash severity and injury outcome within the categories. In total, crash severity was statistically significantly lower in crashes occurring on roads with good safety ratings than in crashes occurring on roads with poor safety ratings. It was found that crash severity and injury risk were lower on roads with good safety ratings with a speed limit of above 90 km/h compared with roads with poor safety ratings, irrespective of speed limit. On the other hand, crash severity was higher on roads with good safety ratings with speed limit of 70 km/h than on roads with poor safety ratings with the same speed limit. Though it was found that a higher speed limit resulted in higher crash severity on roads

  17. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankuan Zhu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation.Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study.Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. Personality of young drivers in Oman: Relationship to risky driving behaviors and crash involvement among Sultan Qaboos University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azri, Mohammed; Al Reesi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al Maniri, Abdullah; Freeman, James

    2017-02-17

    Drivers' behaviors such as violations and errors have been demonstrated to predict crash involvement among young Omani drivers. However, there is a dearth of studies linking risky driving behaviors to the personality of young drivers. The aim of the present study was to assess such traits within a sample of young Omani drivers (as measured through the behavioral inhibition system [BIS] and the behavioral activation system [BAS]) and determine links with aberrant driving behaviors and self-reported crash involvement. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University that targeted all licensed Omani's undergraduate students. A total of 529 randomly selected students completed the self-reported questionnaire that included an assessment of driving behaviors (e.g., Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, DBQ) as well as the BIS/BAS measures. A total of 237 participants (44.8%) reported involvement in at least one crash since being licensed. Young drivers with lower BIS-Anxiety scores and higher BAS-Fun Seeking tendencies as well as male drivers were more likely to report driving violations. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on all BIS and BAS subscales (except for BAS-Fun) and the DBQ subscales, because males reported higher trait scores. Though personality traits were related to aberrant driving behaviors at the bivariate level, the constructs were not predictive of engaging in violations or errors. Furthermore, consistent with previous research, a supplementary multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving experience was predictive of crash involvement. The findings highlight that though personality traits influence self-reported driving styles (and differ between the genders), the relationship with crash involvement is not as clear. This article further outlines the key findings of the study in regards to understanding core psychological constructs that increase crash risk.

  19. Underutilization of occupant restraint systems in motor vehicle injury crashes: A quantitative analysis from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Asim, Mohammad; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Restraint systems (seat belts and airbags) are important tools that improve vehicle occupant safety during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). We aimed to identify the pattern and impact of the utilization of passenger restraint systems on the outcomes of MVC victims in Qatar. A retrospective study was conducted for all admitted patients who sustained MVC-related injuries between March 2011 and March 2014 inclusive. Out of 2,730 road traffic injury cases, 1,830 (67%) sustained MVC-related injuries, of whom 88% were young males, 70% were expatriates, and 53% were drivers. The use of seat belts and airbags was documented in 26 and 2.5% of cases, respectively. Unrestrained passengers had greater injury severity scores, longer hospital stays, and higher rates of pneumonia and mortality compared to restrained passengers (P = .001 for all). There were 311 (17%) ejected cases. Seat belt use was significantly lower and the mortality rate was 3-fold higher in the ejected group compared to the nonejected group (P = .001). The overall mortality was 8.3%. On multivariate regression analysis, predictors of not using a seat belt were being a front seat passenger, driver, or Qatari national and young age. Unrestrained males had a 3-fold increase in mortality in comparison to unrestrained females. The risk of severe injury (relative risk [RR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.26, P = .001) and death (RR = 4.13, 95% CI, 2.31-7.38, P = .001) was significantly greater among unrestrained passengers. The nonuse of seat belts is associated with worse outcomes during MVCs in Qatar. Our study highlights the lower rate of seat belt compliance in young car occupants that results in more severe injuries, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. Therefore, we recommend more effective seat belt awareness and education campaigns, the enforcement of current seat belt laws, their extension to all vehicle occupants, and the adoption of proven interventions that will assure sustained

  20. Pedestrian and bicycle crash data analysis : 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    The safety of pedestrians and bicyclists using the roadway is an increasing concern for the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). This report summarizes data for motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in Michigan from 2005...

  1. The impaired driver: hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsay, E M; Doan-Wiggins, L; Lewis, R; Lucke, R; RamaKrishnan, V

    1994-07-01

    To determine the incidence of drugs of abuse and alcohol use in admitted drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and to determine the rate of police detection of alcohol and drug use in these motorists. Retrospective chart review of hospitalized drivers involved in MVCs and review of corresponding police reports. Two Level I trauma centers in a large metropolitan region. All MVC drivers/motorcycle operators admitted to the trauma service from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1990. The records of 634 injured motorists were reviewed; 200 (32% of the 625 patients with serum alcohol levels) were legally drunk (serum alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more), and 132 (22.6% of the 585 urine drug screens) had positive urine drug screens. Cocaine was the most prevalent drug of abuse, present in 51 patients (8.7%). Two hundred eighty-five patients (45.0%) were considered impaired (alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more and/or positive drug screen), representing almost half of all motorists admitted. The impaired motorists were younger, more often male, less likely to use a seat belt or helmet, and had higher Injury Severity Scores than their unimpaired counterparts. Police reports were available for 446 patients, 139 (31.2%) of whom were legally drunk and 67 (15%) of whom had positive drug screens, yielding an overall impairment rate of 46.2%. Only 34 (16.5%) patients were cited for driving under the influence. An exceedingly high rate of impairment existed in this population of seriously injured motorists in a metropolitan region, the majority of whom were not charged by the police. Although alcohol is the most prevalent source of driver impairment, other drugs of abuse are also important contributors to this problem.

  2. The shift to and from daylight savings time and motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, M; Cummings, P

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the shifts to and from daylight savings time in Sweden have short-term effects on the incidence of traffic crashes. A database maintained by the Swedish National Road Administration was used to examine crashes from 1984 through 1995, that occurred on state roads the Monday preceding, the Monday immediately after (index Monday), and the Monday 1 week after the change to daylight savings time in the spring and for the corresponding three Mondays in the autumn. The Mondays 1 week before and after the time changes were taken as representing the expected incidence of crashes. Crash incidence was calculated per 1000 person-years using population estimates for each year of the study. The association between 1 h of possible sleep loss and crash incidence was estimated by the incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression. The incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.92-1.16) for a Monday on which drivers were expected to have had 1 h less sleep, compared with other Mondays. In the spring, the incidence rate ratio for crashes was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93-1.31) for Mondays after the time change compared to other spring Mondays. The corresponding rate ratio for the fall was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15) It was concluded that the shift to and from daylight savings time did not have measurable important immediate effects on crash incidence in Sweden.

  3. Pedestrian Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  4. Bicycle Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  5. The direct and indirect effects of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Law Teik; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Recent empirical research has found that there is an inverted U-shaped or Kuznets relationship between income and motor vehicle crash (MVC) deaths, such that MVC deaths increase as national income increases and decrease after reaching a critical level. Corruption has been identified as one of the underlying factors that could affect this relationship, primarily by undermining institutional development and effective enforcement schemes. The total effect of corruption can be decomposed into two components, a direct and an indirect effect. The direct effect measures the immediate impact of corruption on MVC deaths by undermining effective enforcement and regulations, while the indirect effect captures the impact of corruption on hindering increases in per capita income and the consequent impact of reduced income on MVC deaths. By influencing economic growth, corruption can lead to an increase or decrease in MVC deaths depending on the income level. Using data from 60 countries between 1982 and 2003, these effects are estimated using linear panel and fixed effects negative binomial models. The estimation results suggest that corruption has different direct effects for less developed and highly developed countries. It has a negative (decreasing) effect on MVC deaths for less developed countries and a positive (increasing) effect on MVC deaths for highly developed countries. For highly developed countries, the total effect is positive at lower per capita income levels, but decreases with per capita income and becomes negative at per capita income levels of about US$ 38,248. For less developed countries, the total effect is negative within the sample range and decreases with increased per capita income. In summary, the results of this study suggest that reduction of corruption is likely a necessary condition to effectively tackle road safety problems. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Problem area descriptions : motor vehicle crashes - data analysis and IVI program analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, the IVI program focuses on the more significant safety problem categories as : indicated by statistical analyses of crash data. However, other factors were considered in setting : program priorities and schedules. For some problem areas, ...

  7. The estimated reduction in the odds of loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles equipped with electronic stability control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul E; Woodrooffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the NASS General Estimates System (GES), the method of induced exposure was used to assess the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles. Sport utility vehicles were classified into crash types generally associated with loss of control and crash types most likely not associated with loss of control. Vehicles were then compared as to whether ESC technology was present or absent in the vehicles. A generalized additive model was fit to assess the effects of ESC, driver age, and driver gender on the odds of loss of control. In addition, the effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were compared to effects on roads that were dry. Overall, the estimated percentage reduction in the odds of a loss-of-control crash for sport utility vehicles equipped with ESC was 70.3%. Both genders and all age groups showed reduced odds of loss-of-control crashes, but there was no significant difference between males and females. With respect to driver age, the maximum percentage reduction of 73.6% occurred at age 27. The positive effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were significantly greater than on roads that were dry.

  8. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  9. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  10. Associations with duration of compensation following whiplash sustained in a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Petrina P; Feyer, Anne Marie; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-09-01

    Continued exposure to compensation systems has been reported as deleterious to the health of participants. Understanding the associations with time to claim closure could allow for targeted interventions aimed at minimising the time participants are exposed to the compensation system. To identify the associations of extended time receiving compensation benefits with the aim of developing a prognostic model that predicts time to claim closure. Prospective cohort study in people with whiplash associated disorder. Time to claim closure, in a privately underwritten fault based third party traffic crash insurance scheme in New South Wales, Australia. Cox proportional hazard regression modelling. Of the 246 participants, 25% remained in the compensation system longer than 24 months with 15% remaining longer than three years. Higher initial disability (Functional Rating Index≥25 at baseline) (HRR: 95% CI, 1.916: 1.324-2.774, p<0.001); and lower initial mental health as measured by SF-36 Mental Component Score (HRR: 95% CI, 0.973: 0.960-0.987, p<0.001) were significantly and independently associated with an increased time-to-claim closure. Shorter time to claim closure was associated with having no legal involvement (HRR: 95% CI, 1.911: 1.169-3.123, p=0.009); and, not having a prior claim for compensation (HRR: 95% CI, 1.523: 1.062-2.198, p=0.022). Health and insurance related factors are independently associated with time to claim closure. Both factors need to be considered by insurers in their assessment of complexity of claims. Interventions aimed at minimising the impact of these factors could reduce claimants' exposure to the compensation system. In turn insurers can potentially reduce claims duration and cost, while improving the health outcomes of claimants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-Bike Involved Crash and E-Bike License Plate Use in China Using a Bivariate Probit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyong Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate factors affecting e-bike involved crash and license plate use in China. E-bike crashes data were collected from police database and completed through a telephone interview. Noncrash samples were collected by a questionnaire survey. A bivariate probit (BP model was developed to simultaneously examine the significant factors associated with e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate and to account for the correlations between them. Marginal effects for contributory factors were calculated to quantify their impacts on the outcomes. The results show that several contributory factors, including gender, age, education level, driver license, car in household, experiences in using e-bike, law compliance, and aggressive driving behaviors, are found to have significant impacts on both e-bike involved crash and license plate use. Moreover, type of e-bike, frequency of using e-bike, impulse behavior, degree of riding experience, and risk perception scale are found to be associated with e-bike involved crash. It is also found that e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use are strongly correlated and are negative in direction. The result enhanced our comprehension of the factors related to e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use.

  12. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  13. Trends in teen driver licensure, driving patterns and crash involvement in the United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2017-09-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Factors related to serious injury in post-NCAP European cars involved in frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Richard; Williams, Owen; Thomas, Pete

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the relationship between EuroNCAP ratings for body region protection and real world injury risk for 653 belted drivers in frontal crashes. It was also able to comment on further improvements in crash protection for post-EuroNCAP cars. Protection for the head and lower leg appeared good. In terms of life threatening injury, results showed a need to prioritise chest protection, whilst for impairment, protection for the upper leg and ankle/foot should be considered. The EuroNCAP body region scoring system reflects trends in real crash injury risks to all body regions, except for the chest, where there is no clear trend. More generally, further development in the testing regime could usefully concentrate on a restraint system test and the use of smaller dummies seated appropriately, rather than an increase of the test speed.

  15. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  16. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  17. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  18. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  19. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating impacts of different longitudinal driver assistance systems on reducing multi-vehicle rear-end crashes during small-scale inclement weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xing, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hao; Dong, Changyin; Liu, Shanwen

    2017-10-01

    Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Simulation experiments were designed and a large number of simulations were then conducted to evaluate safety effects of different LDAS. Results indicate that the FCW and ACC system have poor performance on reducing MVRE crashes during SSI weather. The slight improvement of sight distance of FCW and the limitation of perception-reaction time of ACC lead the failure of avoiding MVRE crashes in most scenarios. The AEB system has the better effect due to automatic perception and reaction, as well as performing the full brake when encountering SSI weather. The CACC system has the best performance because wireless communication provides a larger sight distance and a shorter time delay at the sub-second level. Sensitivity analyses also indicated that the larger number of vehicles and speed changes after encountering SSI weather have negative impacts on safety performances. Results of this study provide useful information for accident prevention during SSI weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling Vehicle Collision Angle in Traffic Crashes Based on Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In road traffic accidents, the analysis of a vehicle’s collision angle plays a key role in identifying a traffic accident’s form and cause. However, because accurate estimation of vehicle collision angle involves many factors, it is difficult to accurately determine it in cases in which less physical evidence is available and there is a lack of monitoring. This paper establishes the mathematical relation model between collision angle, deformation, and normal vector in the collision region according to the equations of particle deformation and force in Hooke’s law of classical mechanics. At the same time, the surface reconstruction method suitable for a normal vector solution is studied. Finally, the estimation model of vehicle collision angle is presented. In order to verify the correctness of the model, verification of multi-angle collision experiments and sensitivity analysis of laser scanning precision for the angle have been carried out using three-dimensional (3D data obtained by a 3D laser scanner in the collision deformation zone. Under the conditions with which the model has been defined, validation results show that the collision angle is a result of the weighted synthesis of the normal vector of the collision point and the weight value is the deformation of the collision point corresponding to normal vectors. These conclusions prove the applicability of the model. The collision angle model proposed in this paper can be used as the theoretical basis for traffic accident identification and cause analysis. It can also be used as a theoretical reference for the study of the impact deformation of elastic materials.

  2. Evaluation of the extent and distribution of diffuse axonal injury from real world motor vehicle crashes - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Lynch, Sarah K; Whitlow, Christopher T; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common traumatic brain injury (TBI) often seen as a result of motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Twelve (12) cases of DAI were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to determine the extent and distribution of injury with respect to the head contact location. Head computed tomography (CT) scans were collected for each subject and segmented using semi-automated methods to establish the volumes of DAI. The impacted area on the subject's head was approximated from evidence of a soft tissue scalp contusion on the CT scan. This was used in conjunction with subject images and identified internal vehicle contact locations to ascertain a label map of the contact location. A point cloud was developed from the contact location label map and the centroid of the point cloud was calculated as the subject's head impact location. The injury and contact location were evaluated in spherical coordinates and grouped into 0.2 by 0.2 radial increments of azimuth and elevation. The radial increments containing DAI were projected onto a meshed sphere to evaluate the radial distance from the impact location to primary location of DAI and approximate anatomical location. Of the 170 injuries observed, 123 were identified in the frontal lobe and 36 in the parietal lobe. The distribution of the DAI in relation to the change in azimuth from the contact loca y correlated with contact to the head superficial to this lobe. Results from this study provide further insight into the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and can be used in future work as an aid to validate finite element models of the head.

  3. Identification of characteristics and frequent scenarios of single-vehicle rollover crashes during pre-ballistic phase; part 1 - A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewung; Bose, Dipan; Foster, Jon; Bollapragada, Varun; Crandall, Jeff R; Clauser, Mark; Kerrigan, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes. Most case vehicles departed the road due to a loss of control/traction (LOC) (61%). The road departure with LOC was found to be 13.4 times more likely to occur with slippery road conditions compared to dry conditions. The vehicle was typically laterally skidding with yawing prior to a rollover (66%). Most case vehicles tripped over (82%) mostly at roadside/median (69%). The tripping force was applied to the wheels/tires (82%) from the ground (79%). The combination of these six most frequent attributes resulted in the most common scenario, which accounted for 26% of the entire cases. Large proportion of road departure with LOC (61%) implies electronic stability control (ESC) systems being an effective countermeasure for preventing single-vehicle rollover crashes. Furthermore, the correlation between the road departure with LOC and the reduced friction limit suggests the necessity of the performance evaluation of ESC under compromised road surface condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What do autonomous vehicles mean to traffic congestion and crash? : Network traffic flow modeling and simulation for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is quickly moving towards revolutionary changes to : accommodate the deployment of AVs. On the other hand, the transition to new : vehicle technologies will be shaped in large part by changes in performance of : roadway ...

  5. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of a random effects negative binomial model to examine tram-involved crash frequency on route sections in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a key concern in the design, operation and development of light rail systems including trams or streetcars as they impose crash risks on road users in terms of crash frequency and severity. The aim of this study is to identify key traffic, transit and route factors that influence tram-involved crash frequencies along tram route sections in Melbourne. A random effects negative binomial (RENB) regression model was developed to analyze crash frequency data obtained from Yarra Trams, the tram operator in Melbourne. The RENB modelling approach can account for spatial and temporal variations within observation groups in panel count data structures by assuming that group specific effects are randomly distributed across locations. The results identify many significant factors effecting tram-involved crash frequency including tram service frequency (2.71), tram stop spacing (-0.42), tram route section length (0.31), tram signal priority (-0.25), general traffic volume (0.18), tram lane priority (-0.15) and ratio of platform tram stops (-0.09). Findings provide useful insights on route section level tram-involved crashes in an urban tram or streetcar operating environment. The method described represents a useful planning tool for transit agencies hoping to improve safety performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal vehicle crash mitigation using advanced technology phase I : review, design, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Animal-vehicle collisions affect human safety, property and wildlife. The number of these types of collisions has increased : substantially over the last decades. This report describes the results of a project that explored the prospects for a relati...

  8. The perceptions and experiences of people injured in motor vehicle crashes in a compensation scheme setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Darnel; Lockwood, Keri; Garth, Belinda; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-04-25

    The evidence that compensation related factors are associated with poor recovery is substantial but these measures are generic and do not consider the complexity of scheme design. The objectives of this study were to understand people's perceptions and experiences of the claims process after sustaining a compensable injury in a motor vehicle crash (including why people seek legal representation); and to explore ways to assist people following a compensable injury and improve their experience with the claims process. A qualitative study in a Compulsory Third Party (CTP) personal injury scheme covering the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A series of five focus groups, with a total of 32 participants who had sustained mild to moderate injuries in a motor vehicle crash, were conducted from May to June 2011 with four to eight attendees in each group. These were audio-recorded and transcribed. The methodology was based on a grounded theory approach using thematic analysis and constant comparison to generate coding categories for themes. Data saturation was reached. Analyst triangulation was used to ensure credibility of the results. Five primary themes were identified: complexity of the claims process; requirement of legal representation; injury recovery expectations; importance of timely healthcare decision making; and improvements for injury recovery. Some participants struggled, finding the claims process stressful and subsequently sought legal advice; whilst others reported a straight forward recovery, helpful insurer interactions and no legal representation. Most participants were influenced by injury recovery expectations, and timely healthcare decision making. To assist with injury recovery, access to objective information about the claims process using online technology and social media was considered paramount. Participants had contrasting injury recovery experiences and their perceptions of the claims process differed and were influenced by injury

  9. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... single event, due in part to the high occupancy rate of the vehicles, the speed at which they travel, and..., ``NHTSA's Approach to Motorcoach Safety.'' \\2\\ In the plan, the term ``motorcoach'' referred to intercity... the first priority area of the NHTSA plan, to minimize intercity bus passenger and driver ejection by...

  10. Signal treatments to reduce heavy vehicle crash-risk at metropolitan highway intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Jeffery; Young, William

    2009-05-01

    Heavy vehicle red-light running at intersections is a common safety problem that has severe consequences. This paper investigates alternative signal treatments that address this issue. A micro-simulation analysis approach was adopted as a precursor to a field trial. The simulation model emulated traffic conditions at a known problem intersection and provided a baseline measure to compare the effects of: an extension of amber time; an extension of green for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone at the onset of amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of vehicles considered likely to run the red light at two detector locations during amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of potential red-light runners during amber or red; and a combination of the second and fourth alternatives. Results suggested safety improvements for all treatments. An extension of amber provided the best safety effect but is known to be prone to behavioural adaptation effects and wastes traffic movement time unnecessarily. A green extension for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone and an all-red extension for potential red-light runners were deemed to provide a sustainable safety improvement and operational efficiency.

  11. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...). On January 25, 2005, we received a request for interpretation from Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (Toyota) concerning S4.5.1(e).\\5\\ Toyota's concern was that S4.5.1(e)(1) makes an exception for S4.5.1(e... vehicles certified to meet certain advanced air bag requirements on or after December 1, 2003. Toyota...

  12. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... ``on'' position (49 U.S.C. 30124). \\2\\ We note that the statutory prohibition restricting the use of... fuel efficient with lower emissions. The petitioner estimated that a 7 pound vehicle weight reduction (by removing knee bolsters) would result in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) savings between 274-406 metric tons...

  13. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2011-04-01

    Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology.

  14. Analysis of delta velocity and PDOF by means of collision partner and structural involvement in real-life crash pulses with modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraeus, Johan; Lindquist, Mats

    2014-01-01

    In the widely used National Automotive Sampling System (NASS)-Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) database, summary metrics that describe crashes are available. Crash angle or principal direction of force (PDOF) is estimated by the crash examiner and velocity changes (ΔV) in the x- and y-directions are calculated by the WinSMASH computer program using PDOF and results from rigid barrier crash testing combined with deformations of the crashed car. In recent years, results from event data recorders (EDRs) have been added to the database. The aim of this study is to compare both PDOF and ΔV between EDR measurements and WinSMASH calculations. NASS-CDS inclusion criteria were model-year 2000 through 2010 automobiles, frontal crashes with ΔV higher than 16 km/h, and the pulse entirely recorded in the EDR module. This resulted in 649 cases. The subject vehicles were further examined and characterized with regard to frontal structure engagement (large or small overlap) as well as collision properties of the partner (impact location; front, side, or back) or object. The EDR crash angle was calculated as the angle between the lateral and longitudinal ΔV at the time of peak longitudinal ΔV. This angle was compared to the NASS-CDS investigator's estimated PDOF with regard to structural engagement and the collision partner or object. Multiple linear regression was used to establish adjustment factors on ΔV and crash angle between the results calculated based on EDR recorded data and that estimated in NASS-CDS. According to this study, simulation in the newest WinSMASH version (2008) underestimates EDR ΔV by 11 percent for large overlap crashes and 17 percent for small overlap impacts. The older WinSMASH version, used prior to 2008, underestimated each one of these two groups by an additional 7 percentage points. Another significant variable to enhance the prediction was whether the crash examiner had reported the WinSMASH estimated ΔV as low or high. In this study, none

  15. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  16. Does obesity increase the risk of injury or mortality in motor vehicle crashes? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Giulia, Scime; Subzwari, Sayed; Peiris, Dinithi C; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian; Sasges, Deborah; Hewapathirane, D Sesath

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the risk of obesity in injuries and fatalities resulting from motor vehicle crash (MVC), as compared with individuals with a normal-range body mass index. A systematic review of the literature was conducted yielding 824 potential studies. Nine of these studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses examining obesity as a risk factor for various injury types and risk of fatality were conducted using data from these studies. Obesity was associated with higher fatality risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.37, P = .0001; pooled estimate from 6 studies), and increased risk of lower extremity fractures (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.65, P = .0001; pooled estimate from 2 studies). No significant differences were observed when considering abdominal injuries or pelvic fractures. Interestingly, for head injuries obesity was a protective factor (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97, P = .0001; pooled data from 3 studies). Evidence strongly supports the association of obesity with higher fatality and fractures of the lower extremities in MVCs. Contrary to our hypothesis, 3 studies showed that obesity was a protective factor in reducing head injuries. Furthermore, the review shows that obesity was not a risk factor of MVC-related pelvic fractures and abdominal injuries. © 2011 APJPH.

  17. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several decades; however, the effect of a vehicles : color on its visibility to drivers has not been studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has...

  18. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several : decades; however, the effect of vehicle color on its visibility to drivers has not been : studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has bee...

  19. Obesity and trauma mortality: Sizing up the risks in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Hadeed, Steven; Haider, Ansab A; Ditillo, Michael; Joseph, Aly; Pandit, Viraj; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Latifi, Rifat; Rhee, Peter

    Protective effects of safety devices in obese motorists in motor vehicle collisions (MVC) remain unclear. Aim of our study is to assess the association between morbid obesity and mortality in MVC, and to determine the efficacy of protective devices. We hypothesised that patients with morbid obesity will be at greater risk of death after MVC. A retrospective analysis of MVC patients (age ≥16 y.o.) was performed using the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2010. Patients with recorded comorbidity of morbid obesity (BMI≥40) were identified. Patients dead on arrival, with isolated traumatic brain injury, or incomplete data were excluded. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Our sample of 214,306 MVC occupants included 10,260 (4.8%) morbidly obese patients. Mortality risk was greatest among occupants with morbid obesity (OR crude 1.74 [1.54-1.98]). After adjusting for patient demographics, safety device and physiological severity, odds of death was 1.52 [1.33-1.74] times greater in motorists with morbid obesity. Motorists with morbid obesity were at greater risk of death if no restraint (OR 1.84 [1.47-2.31]), seatbelt only (OR 1.48 [1.17-1.86]), or both seatbelt and airbag were present (OR 1.49 [1.13-1.97]). No significant differences in the odds of death exist between drivers with morbid obesity and non-morbidly obese drivers with only airbag deployment (OR 0.99 [0.65-1.51]). Motorists with morbid obesity are at greater risk of MVC. Regardless of safety device use, occupants with morbid obesity remained at greater risk of death. Further research examining the effectiveness of vehicle restraints in drivers with morbid obesity is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association of weight percentile and motor vehicle crash injury among 3 to 8 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Nelson, Kyle A; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3-8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3-8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98-11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3-8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines.

  2. Crashes and near-crashes on horizontal curves along rural two-lane highways: Analysis of naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hallmark, Shauna; Savolainen, Peter; Dong, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events. This study utilizes high-resolution behavioral data from the NDS to identify factors associated with 108 safety critical events (i.e., crashes or near-crashes) on rural two-lane curves. A case-control approach is utilized wherein these events are compared to 216 normal, baseline-driving events. The variables examined in this study include driver demographic characteristics, details of the traffic environment and roadway geometry, as well as driver behaviors such as in-vehicle distractions. Logistic regression models are estimated to discern those factors affecting the likelihood of a driver being crash-involved. These factors include high-risk behaviors, such as speeding and visual distractions, as well as curve design elements and other roadway characteristics such as pavement surface conditions. This paper successfully integrated driver behavior, vehicle characteristics, and roadway environments into the same model. Logistic regression model was found to be an effective way to investigate crash risks using naturalistic driving data. This paper revealed a number of contributing factors to crashes on rural two-lane curves, which has important implications in traffic safety policy and curve geometry design. This paper also discussed limitations and lessons learned from working with the SHRP 2 NDS data. It will benefit

  3. Cell phone use and traffic crash risk: a culpability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chan, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.

  4. Driver sleepiness, fatigue, careless behavior and risk of motor vehicle crash and injury: Population based case and control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The current study confirmed that drivers with chronic fatigue, acute sleepiness, and careless driver behavior may significantly increases the risk of road crash which can be lead to serious injury.

  5. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed logit model that represents the selection among 5 emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers (i.e., "no avoidance maneuvers," "braking," "steering," "braking and steering," and "other maneuvers) while accommodating correlations across maneuvers and heteroscedasticity. Data for the analysis were retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the year 2009 by considering drivers for which crash avoidance maneuvers are known. The results show that (1) the nature of the critical event that made the crash imminent greatly influences the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers, (2) women and elderly have a relatively lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance maneuvers, (3) drowsiness and fatigue have a greater negative marginal effect on the tendency to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers than alcohol and drug consumption, (4) difficult road conditions increase the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing

  6. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers' age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were

  7. Analysis and Modeling of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    go to Annette R. Robb, the Director of the International Student Office at AFIT, and to my host family in the United States. I should not forget...and units as well as X-ray departments, rehabilitation and 57 physiotherapy services. (WHO, 2004: 48-49) Regrettably, the physical and emotional... Students /alcoholEffects/index.htm Wikipedia/Automobile Safety, 18 August 2008. 19 August 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile_safety

  8. Relationship between areas of cognitive functioning on the Mini-Mental State Examination and crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisingh, Carrie; Wadley, Virginia G; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the pattern of cognitive impairment in crash involved older drivers is different from non-crash involved older drivers. This study assessed the relationship between seven areas of cognitive functioning (orientation to time, orientation to place, registration, attention and calculation, recall, language, and visual construction) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) collected at baseline and rates of future crash involvement in a prospective population-based sample of older drivers. Motor vehicle collision involvement was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR). Older drivers having difficulties in place orientation were more than 6 times (95% CI 1.90-19.86) more likely to be involved in a future crash (adjusted RR = 6.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-19.86) and at-fault crash (adjusted RR=6.39, 95% CI 1.51-27.10). Impairment in the other cognitive areas was not associated with higher rates of crash or at-fault crash involvement. The findings were validated in an independent sample of high-risk older drivers and a similar pattern of results was observed. Spatial orientation impairment can help identify older drivers who are more likely to crash in the future.

  9. Analysing the Severity and Frequency of Traffic Crashes in Riyadh City Using Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Altwaijri

    2012-12-01

    the results from the random parameters model seem more reasonable. Age and nationality of the driver, excessive speed, wet road surface and dark lighting conditions and single vehicle crashes are associated with increased probability of fatal crashes. More specifically, the probability of having a fatal crash increases with the age of the driver and Saudi drivers (relative to non-Saudi drivers are associated with the probability of fatal crashes (relative to serious injury crashes. A crash involving a single vehicle is found to be more severe than a crash involving a multiple vehicles. The results from the frequency models suggest that percentage of non-Saudi found positively associated with serious injury crashes; percentage of illiterate people and the income per capita found to be positively significant with the frequency of fatal and serious injury crashes; and the increased residential, transport, and educational areas of land use is associated with the decreased level of fatal and serious injury crashes occurrences. Based on the findings, a range of countermeasures are proposed to reduce the severity and frequency of traffic crashes in Riyadh city.

  10. Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Kokkolaras, Michael; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2012-06-01

    In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called "crash dummy", is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model capable of simulating and predicting submarining was developed using MADYMO (TNO Automotive Safety Solutions). The model incorporated improved pelvis and abdomen geometry and properties previously tested in a modified physical dummy. The model was calibrated and validated against four sled tests under two test conditions with and without submarining using a multi-objective optimization method. A sensitivity analysis using this validated child dummy model showed that dummy knee excursion, torso rotation angle, and the difference between head and knee excursions were good predictors for submarining status. It was also shown that restraint system design variables, such as lap belt angle, D-ring height, and seat coefficient of friction (COF), may have opposite effects on head and abdomen injury risks; therefore child dummies and dummy models capable of simulating submarining are crucial for future restraint system design optimization for young school-aged children. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  12. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  13. The effects of roadway characteristics on farm equipment crashes: A GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenan, Mitchell Joseph

    Tractors and other self-propelled farm equipment, such as combines, sprayers, and towed grain carts, are often used on public roadways as the primary means for traveling from homestead to homestead or from homestead to a distributer. Increased roadway exposure has led to a growing concern for crashes involving farm equipment on the public roadway. A handful of studies exist examining public roadway crashes involving farm equipment using crash data, but none thus far have evaluated road segment data to identify road-specific risk factors. The objective of this study is to identify if roadway characteristics (traffic density, speed limit, road type, surface type, road width, and shoulder width) affect the risk of a crash involving farm equipment on Iowa public roadways. A retrospective cohort study of Iowa roads was conducted to identify the types of roads that are at an increased risk of having a farm-equipment crash on them. Crash data from the Iowa Department of Transportation (to identify crashes) were spatial linked to Iowa roadway data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CL. Out of 319,705 road segments in Iowa, 0.4% segments (n=1,337) had a farm equipment crash from 2005-2011. The odds of having a farm equipment crash were significantly higher for road segments with increased traffic density and speed limit. Roads with an average daily traffic volume of at least 1,251 vehicles were at a 5.53 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a daily traffic volume between 0-30 vehicles. (CI: 3.90-7.83). Roads with a posted speed limit between 50mph and 60mph were at a 4.88 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a posted speed limit of 30mph or less. (CI: 3.85-6.20). Specific roadway characteristics such as roadway and shoulder width were also associated with the risk of a crash. For every 5 foot increase in road width, the odds for a crash decreased by 6 percent (CI: 0.89-0.99) and

  14. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    across severity levels were estimated to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity. The sample used for estimation consisted of data for single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System crash database for the period from 2005 to 2009. Results showed the correlation between...... of lower crash severity. These trends suggest that efforts to understand the mechanisms of reactions to different critical events should be made to improve in-vehicle warning systems, promote responsible driving behavior, and design forgiving infrastructures....

  15. Crash fatality risk and unibody versus body-on-frame structure in SUVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    In crashes between cars and SUVs, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. An increasing proportion of SUVs are built with unibody, rather than truck-like body-on-frame construction. Unibody SUVs are generally lighter, less stiff, and less likely to roll over than body-on-frame SUVs, but whether unibody structure affects risk of death in crashes is unknown. To determine whether unibody SUVs differ from body-on-frame SUVs in the danger they pose to occupants of other vehicles and in the self-protection they offer to their own occupants. Case-control study of crashes between one compact SUV and one other passenger vehicle in the US during 1995-2008, in which the SUV was model year 1996-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes, one control was selected from each non-fatal crash. Occupants of passenger vehicles that crashed with compact unibody SUVs were at 18% lower risk of death compared to those that crashed with compact body-on-frame SUVs (adjusted odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.94)). Occupants of compact unibody SUVs were also at lower risk of death compared to occupants of body-on-frame SUVs (0.86 (0.72-1.02)). In two-vehicle collisions involving compact SUVs, unibody structure was associated with lower risk of death both in occupants of other vehicles in the crash, and in SUVs' own occupants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  17. Patterns of severe injury in pediatric car crash victims: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Kristine; Jing, Yuezhou; Wang, Stewart; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) account for 50% of pediatric trauma. Safety improvements are typically tested with child crash dummies using an in vitro model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) provides an in vivo validation process. Previous research suggest that children in lateral crashes or front-seat locations have higher Injury Severity Scale scores and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores than those in frontal-impact crashes. However, specific injury patterns and crash characteristics have not been characterized. Data were collected from the CIREN multidisciplinary crash reconstruction network (10 pediatric trauma centers). Injuries were examined with regard to crash direction (frontal/lateral), restraint use, seat location, and change in velocity at impact (DeltaV). Injuries were limited to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 3 or higher and included head, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, spine, and long bone (orthopedic) injuries. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) were used. Statistical analyses used Fisher's Exact test and multiple logistic regressions. Four hundred seventeen MVCs with 2500 injuries were analyzed (males = 219, females = 198). Controlling for DeltaV and age, children in lateral-impact crashes (n = 232) were significantly more likely to suffer severe injuries to the head and thorax as compared with children in frontal crashes (n = 185), who were more likely to suffer severe spine and orthopedic injuries. Children in a front-seat (n = 236) vs those in a back-seat (n = 169) position had more injuries to the thoracic (27% vs 17%), abdominal (21% vs 13%), pelvic (11% vs 1%), and orthopedic (28% vs 10%) regions (P < .05 for all). Seat belts were protective for pelvic (5% vs 12% unbelted) and orthopedic (15% vs 40%) injuries (odds ratio = 3, P < .01 for both). A reproducible pattern of injury is noted for children involved in lateral-impact crashes characterized by head and chest injuries. The Injury Severity

  18. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage due to motor vehicle crash versus fall from height: a 4-year epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchani, Ashok; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is difficult to estimate the real incidence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH). Although TSAH after trauma is associated with poor prognoses, the impact of mechanism of injury (MOI) and the pathophysiology remains unknown. We hypothesized that outcome of TSAH caused by motor vehicle crash (MVC) or fall from height (FFH) varies based on the MOI. Data were collected retrospectively from a prospectively created database registry in the section of Trauma Surgery at Hamad General Hospital between January 2008 and July 2012. All patients presented with head trauma and TSAH were included. Patient data included age, gender, nationality, mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), types of head injuries, and associated injuries. Ventilator days, intensive care unit length of stay, pneumonia, and mortality were also studied. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were identified, of them 403 had TSAH with a mean age of 35 ± 15 years. Of them 93% were male patients and 86% were expatriates. MVC (53%) and FFH (35%) were the major mechanisms of injury. The overall mean ISS and head abbreviated injury score were 19 ± 10.6 and 3.4 ± 0.96, respectively. Patients in MVC group sustained severe TSAH, had significantly greater head abbreviated injury score (3.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.009) and ISS (21.6 ± 10.6 vs. 15.9 ± 9.5; P = 0.001), and lower scene Glasgow coma scale (10.8 ± 4.8 vs. 13.2 ± 3.4; P = 0.001) compared with the FFH group. In addition, the MVC group sustained more intraventricular hemorrhage (4.7 vs. 0.7; P = 0.001) and diffuse axonal injury (4.2 vs. 2.9; P = 0.001). In contrast, extradural hemorrhage (14.3% vs. 11.6%; P = 0.008) was higher in the FFH group. Lower extremities (14% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.004) injury was mainly associated with the MVC group. The overall mortality was 19 % among patients with TSAH. The mortality rate was higher in the MVC group when

  19. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.

  20. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  1. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Injury risks for on-road farm equipment and horse and buggy crashes in Pennsylvania: 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorucu, Serap; Murphy, Dennis J; Kassab, Cathy

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics associated with farm equipment and horse and buggy roadway crashes in relation to person, incident, and injury characteristics to identify appropriate points for injury incident prevention. Information on crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed. There were 344 farm equipment and 246 horse and buggy crashes during the 4-year study period. These crashes involved 666 and 504 vehicles and 780 and 838 people, respectively. In incidents with farm equipment, the non-farm equipment drivers had an almost 2 times greater injury risk than farm equipment operators. Horse and buggy crashes were almost 3 times more injurious to the horse and buggy drivers than the drivers of the other vehicles. The average crash rate for farm equipment was 198.4 crashes per 100,000 farm population and for horse and buggy the crash rate was calculated as 89.4 crashes per 100,000 Amish population per year. This study suggests that road safety and public health programs should focus not only on farm equipment operators and horse and buggy drivers but on other motorists sharing the roadway with them.

  4. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A system methodology for optimization design of the structural crashworthiness of a vehicle subjected to a high-speed frontal crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liang; Liu, Weiguo; Lv, Xiaojiang; Gu, Xianguang

    2018-04-01

    The structural crashworthiness design of vehicles has become an important research direction to ensure the safety of the occupants. To effectively improve the structural safety of a vehicle in a frontal crash, a system methodology is presented in this study. The surrogate model of Online support vector regression (Online-SVR) is adopted to approximate crashworthiness criteria and different kernel functions are selected to enhance the accuracy of the model. The Online-SVR model is demonstrated to have the advantages of solving highly nonlinear problems and saving training costs, and can effectively be applied for vehicle structural crashworthiness design. By combining the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and Monte Carlo simulation, both deterministic optimization and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are conducted. The optimization solutions are further validated by finite element analysis, which shows the effectiveness of the RBDO solution in the structural crashworthiness design process. The results demonstrate the advantages of using RBDO, resulting in not only increased energy absorption and decreased structural weight from a baseline design, but also a significant improvement in the reliability of the design.

  6. Assessing the roll stability of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade, R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available of these crashes involve heavy vehicle rollover. The regulations in the National Road Traffic Act of South Africa that govern heavy vehicle design do not directly address the roll stability of heavy vehicles. The internationally accepted method of regulating roll...

  7. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  8. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  9. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, modera...

  10. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  11. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  12. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  13. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  14. Road traffic crashes in South Africa: the burden of injury to a regional trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2013-09-30

    Globally, 90% of road traffic crash (RTC) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. To document the mortality and morbidity associated with RTCs managed at a busy regional hospital in South Africa and investigate potentially preventable factors associated with RTCs. This was a prospective study of all patients presenting to Edendale Hospital following a RTC over a 10-week period from late 2011 to early 2012. All fatalities recorded at the police mortuary for the same period were included. Medical records were reviewed and all admitted patients were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. We calculated an injury pyramid to compare our data with European data. A total of 305 patients were seen over the study period, 100 required admission and there were 45 deaths due to RTCs in the area. Of the patients admitted, 41 were pedestrians involved in pedestrian vehicle crashes (PVCs) and 59 motor vehicle occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). The majority (n=58) of crashes involved a private vehicle. Only 17% of MVC patients were wearing a seatbelt and 8 were allegedly under the influence of alcohol. On average, RTC patients spent 19 days in hospital and 62 patients required at least 1 operation. According to our injury pyramid, the number of severe and fatal injuries was higher than in Europe. Our results demonstrate a high incidence of RTCs associated with a high injury score and significant morbidity. Most crashes were associated with a number of high-risk behaviours.

  15. Head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads: a public health concern in road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Marta; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Novoa, Ana M; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    To describe the magnitude and characteristics of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads in Spain between 2007 and 2012, and to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of head-on crashes on these roads compared with other types of crash. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Crash Register. The dependent variables were head-on crashes with injury (yes/no) and drivers involved in head-on crashes (yes/no). Factors associated with head-on crashes and with being a driver involved in a head-on crash versus other types of crash were studied using a multivariate robust Poisson regression model to estimate proportion ratios (PR) and confidence intervals (95% CI). There were 9,192 head-on crashes on two-way Spanish interurban roads. A total of 15,412 men and 3,862 women drivers were involved. Compared with other types of crash, head-on collisions were more likely on roads 7 m or more wide, on road sections with curves, narrowings or drop changes, on wet or snowy surfaces, and in twilight conditions. Transgressions committed by drivers involved in head-on crashes were driving in the opposite direction and incorrectly overtaking another vehicle. Factors associated with a lower probability of head-on crashes were the existence of medians (PR=0.57; 95%CI: 0.48-0.68) and a paved shoulder of less than 1.5 meters (PR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.77-0.86) or from 1.5 to 2.45 meters (PR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.84-0.96). This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Braking News: the Link between Crash Severity and Crash Avoidance Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    the ordered-response nature of severity while allowing for changes in effects across severity levels. The data sample for estimation consists of single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the period 2005-2009. Results show the correlation between crash...... severity. These trends suggest that effort should be posed toward understanding the reaction mechanisms to different critical events, improving in-vehicle warning systems, promoting responsible driving behavior, and designing forgiving infrastructures....

  17. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  19. Using emergency department-based inception cohorts to determine genetic characteristics associated with long term patient outcomes after motor vehicle collision: Methodology of the CRASH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peak David A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent musculoskeletal pain and psychological sequelae following minor motor vehicle collision (MVC are common problems with a large economic cost. Prospective studies of pain following MVC have demonstrated that demographic characteristics, including female gender and low education level, and psychological characteristics, including high pre-collision anxiety, are independent predictors of persistent pain. These results have contributed to the psychological and social components of a biopsychosocial model of post-MVC pain pathogenesis, but the biological contributors to the model remain poorly defined. Recent experimental studies indicate that genetic variations in adrenergic system function influence the vulnerability to post-traumatic pain, but no studies have examined the contribution of genetic factors to existing predictive models of vulnerability to persistent pain. Methods/Design The Project CRASH study is a federally supported, multicenter, prospective study designed to determine whether variations in genes affecting synaptic catecholamine levels and alpha and beta adrenergic receptor function augment social and psychological factors in a predictive model of persistent musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following minor MVC. The Project CRASH study will assess pain, pain interference and PTSD symptoms at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year in approximately 1,000 patients enrolled from 8 Emergency Departments in four states with no-fault accident laws. Discussion The results from this study will provide insights into the pathophysiology of persistent pain and PTSD following MVC and may serve to improve the ability of clinicians and researchers to identify individuals at high risk for adverse outcomes following minor MVC.

  20. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  2. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  3. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  4. Creating pedestrian crash scenarios in a driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Susan T; Ahmad, Omar; Schwarz, Chris W

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 in the United States, pedestrian injuries accounted for 3.3% of all traffic injuries but, disproportionately, pedestrian fatalities accounted for roughly 14% of traffic-related deaths (NHTSA 2014 ). In many other countries, pedestrians make up more than 50% of those injured and killed in crashes. This research project examined driver response to crash-imminent situations involving pedestrians in a high-fidelity, full-motion driving simulator. This article presents a scenario development method and discusses experimental design and control issues in conducting pedestrian crash research in a simulation environment. Driving simulators offer a safe environment in which to test driver response and offer the advantage of having virtual pedestrian models that move realistically, unlike test track studies, which by nature must use pedestrian dummies on some moving track. An analysis of pedestrian crash trajectories, speeds, roadside features, and pedestrian behavior was used to create 18 unique crash scenarios representative of the most frequent and most costly crash types. For the study reported here, we only considered scenarios where the car is traveling straight because these represent the majority of fatalities. We manipulated driver expectation of a pedestrian both by presenting intersection and mid-block crossing as well as by using features in the scene to direct the driver's visual attention toward or away from the crossing pedestrian. Three visual environments for the scenarios were used to provide a variety of roadside environments and speed: a 20-30 mph residential area, a 55 mph rural undivided highway, and a 40 mph urban area. Many variables of crash situations were considered in selecting and developing the scenarios, including vehicle and pedestrian movements; roadway and roadside features; environmental conditions; and characteristics of the pedestrian, driver, and vehicle. The driving simulator scenarios were subjected to iterative testing to

  5. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  6. Glass half-full: On-road glance metrics differentiate crashes from near-crashes in the 100-Car data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Bobbie D; Seaman, Sean; Lee, Joonbum; Angell, Linda S; Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement. This paper looks at the role of driver expectation in influencing drivers' decisions about when and for how long to remove their eyes from the forward roadway in an analysis that consider the combined role of on- and off-road glances. Using glance data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), near-crashes were examined separately from crashes to examine how momentary differences in glance allocation over the 25-s prior to a precipitating event can differentiate between these two distinct outcomes. Individual glance metrics of mean single glance duration (MSGD), total glance time (TGT), and glance count for off-road and on-road glance locations were analyzed. Output from the AttenD algorithm (Kircher and Ahlström, 2009) was also analyzed as a hybrid measure; in threading together on- and off-road glances over time, its output produces a pattern of glance behavior meaningful for examining attentional effects. Individual glance metrics calculated at the epoch-level and binned by 10-s units of time across the available epoch lengths revealed that drivers in near-crashes have significantly longer on-road glances, and look less frequently between on- and off- road locations in the moments preceding a precipitating event as compared to crashes. During on-road glances, drivers in near-crashes were found to more frequently sample peripheral regions of the roadway than drivers in crashes. Output from the AttenD algorithm affirmed the cumulative net benefit of longer on

  7. Effectiveness of forward collision warning and autonomous emergency braking systems in reducing front-to-rear crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forward collision warning (FCW) alone, a low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system operational at speeds up to 19mph that does not warn the driver prior to braking, and FCW with AEB that operates at higher speeds in reducing front-to-rear crashes and injuries. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of police-reported crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2010-2014 between passenger vehicle models with FCW alone or with AEB and the same models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk. Similar analyses compared rates between Volvo 2011-2012 model S60 and 2010-2012 model XC60 vehicles with a standard low-speed AEB system to those of other luxury midsize cars and SUVs, respectively, without the system. FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB reduced rear-end striking crash involvement rates by 27%, 43%, and 50%, respectively. Rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with injuries were reduced by 20%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, by FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB, and rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with third-party injuries were reduced by 18%, 44%, and 59%, respectively. Reductions in rear-end striking crashes with third-party injuries were marginally significant for FCW alone, and all other reductions were statistically significant. FCW alone and low-speed AEB reduced rates of being rear struck in rear-end crashes by 13% and 12%, respectively, but FCW with AEB increased rates of rear-end struck crash involvements by 20%. Almost 1 million U.S. police-reported rear-end crashes in 2014 and more than 400,000 injuries in such crashes could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with FCW and AEB that perform similarly as systems did for study vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  10. Community-based education and public awareness for all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and side-by-side (SxS) safety to reduce roadway deaths and injuries : preventing roadway deaths and injuries from off-road vehicle crashes : research report summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    ATVs and SxSs are designed for off-road use only. Vehicle design, lack of operator training, and other factors, like roadway speeds, all contribute to the risk of a crash. In fact, more than half of all ATV and SxS fatalities occur on public roads. A...

  11. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-crash system validation with PRESCAN and VEHIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Verburg, D.J.; Labibes, K.; Oostendorp, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the tools for design and validation of Pre-Crash Systems: the software tool PRE-crash SCenario ANalyzer (PRESCAN) and the VEhicle-Hardware-In-the-Loop (VEHIL) facility. PRESCAN allows to investigate a pre-crash scenario in simulation. This scenario can then be compared with tests

  13. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road...

  15. Integrated traffic conflict model for estimating crash modification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdah, Usama; Saccomanno, Frank; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-10-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are usually obtained through observational models based on reported crashes. Observational Bayesian before-and-after methods have been applied to obtain more precise estimates of CMFs by accounting for the regression-to-the-mean bias inherent in naive methods. However, sufficient crash data reported over an extended period of time are needed to provide reliable estimates of treatment effects, a requirement that can be a challenge for certain types of treatment. In addition, these studies require that sites analyzed actually receive the treatment to which the CMF pertains. Another key issue with observational approaches is that they are not causal in nature, and as such, cannot provide a sound "behavioral" rationale for the treatment effect. Surrogate safety measures based on high risk vehicle interactions and traffic conflicts have been proposed to address this issue by providing a more "causal perspective" on lack of safety for different road and traffic conditions. The traffic conflict approach has been criticized, however, for lacking a formal link to observed and verified crashes, a difficulty that this paper attempts to resolve by presenting and investigating an alternative approach for estimating CMFs using simulated conflicts that are linked formally to observed crashes. The integrated CMF estimates are compared to estimates from an empirical Bayes (EB) crash-based before-and-after analysis for the same sample of treatment sites. The treatment considered involves changing left turn signal priority at Toronto signalized intersections from permissive to protected-permissive. The results are promising in that the proposed integrated method yields CMFs that closely match those obtained from the crash-based EB before-and-after analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  17. Economic Cost of Crashes in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Idaho Transportation Departments Office of Highway Safety contracted with Cambridge Systematics (CS) for an assessment of the feasibility of calculating the Idaho-specific economic and comprehensive costs associated with vehicle crashes. Resea...

  18. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  19. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of brief-CBT for patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress following a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kitty K; Li, Frendi W; Cho, Valda W

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are leading contributors to the global burden of disease. Patients attending accident and emergency (A&E) after an MVC may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that brief cognitive behavioural therapy (B-CBT) can be effective in treating PTSD; however, there are few studies of the use of B-CBT to treat PTSD in MVC survivors. This study examined the effects of B-CBT and a self-help program on the severity of psychological symptoms in MVC survivors at risk of developing PTSD. Sixty participants who attended A&E after a MVC were screened for PTSD symptoms and randomized to a 4-weekly session B-CBT or a 4-week self-help program (SHP) booklet treatment conditions. Psychological assessments were completed at baseline (1-month post-MVC) and posttreatment (3- and 6-month follow-ups) by utilizing Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). There were significant improvements in the measures of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms over time. Participants treated with B-CBT showed greater reductions in anxiety at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups, and in depression at 6-month follow-up. A comparison of effect size favoured B-CBT for the reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms measured by HADS. A high level of pretreatment anxiety and depression were predictive of negative outcome at 6-month follow-up in the SHP condition. There was no differential effect on PTSD symptoms measured by IES-R. This trial supports the efficacy of providing B-CBT as a preventive strategy to improve psychological symptoms after an MVC.

  20. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  1. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se legal limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B; Camp, Bayliss

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol. This effort addresses this gap in knowledge. We took advantage of a unique database that merged fatal crashes in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which allows for a precise identification of crash responsibility. To account for recent increase in lab testing, we restricted our sample to cover only the years 1993-2009. A total of 4294 drivers were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were run to model the contribution of alcohol and drugs to the likelihood of being responsible in a fatal crash. We found evidence that compared with drivers negative for alcohol and cannabis, the presence of cannabis elevates crash responsibility in fatal crashes among drivers at zero BACs (OR=1.89) and with 0cannabis on fatal crashes, in particular in the absence of alcohol, are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reporting on cyclist crashes in Australian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Aboss, Ahmad; Montgomery, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    To assess information on cyclist crashes reported in Australian newspapers. The Factiva news archive was searched for articles on cyclist crashes published in major Australian newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Information on the circumstances of cyclist crashes were extracted and coded. A total of 160 cyclist crashes were covered by 198 newspaper articles, with 44% of crashes resulting in cyclist fatalities. Crashes reported by more than one newspaper were more likely to involve public figures or protracted court cases. Individual characteristics of cyclists as well as the location of the crash were reported for more than 80% of crashes. The road user at fault was reported for more than half of crashes. In contrast, information on helmet use, alcohol and cycling lanes was mentioned for only about 10% of crashes. Fewer than one in five articles mentioned prevention strategies including education campaigns, legislative and infrastructure changes. Australian newspapers tend to focus on the most dramatic and more 'newsworthy' aspects of cyclist crashes. Cycling advocates need to work with journalists to improve the quality of this coverage. Better communication between cycling advocates and journalists is likely to have a positive impact on the safety and the uptake of cycling in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    studies on road crashes forecasted road traffic fatalities to be the second ... Ethiopia's capital city – shares 60% out of the total number of vehicles in the ... network density and vehicle ownership, the country (Ethiopia) has been cited as ... crash related injury case confirmation. ..... to thank you in advance for your cooperation!

  5. Analysis of Driver Evasive Maneuvering Prior to Intersection Crashes Using Event Data Recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Intersection crashes account for over 4,500 fatalities in the United States each year. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that have the potential to help drivers safely navigate across intersections and prevent intersection crashes and injuries. The performance of an I-ADAS is expected to be highly dependent upon driver evasive maneuvering prior to an intersection crash. Little has been published, however, on the detailed evasive kinematics followed by drivers prior to real-world intersection crashes. The objective of this study was to characterize the frequency, timing, and kinematics of driver evasive maneuvers prior to intersection crashes. Event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from vehicles involved in intersection crashes were investigated as part of NASS-CDS years 2001 to 2013. A total of 135 EDRs with precrash vehicle speed and braking application were downloaded to investigate evasive braking. A smaller subset of 59 EDRs that collected vehicle yaw rate was additionally analyzed to investigate evasive steering. Each vehicle was assigned to one of 3 precrash movement classifiers (traveling through the intersection, completely stopped, or rolling stop) based on the vehicle's calculated acceleration and observed velocity profile. To ensure that any significant steering input observed was an attempted evasive maneuver, the analysis excluded vehicles at intersections that were turning, driving on a curved road, or performing a lane change. Braking application at the last EDR-recorded time point was assumed to indicate evasive braking. A vehicle yaw rate greater than 4° per second was assumed to indicate an evasive steering maneuver. Drivers executed crash avoidance maneuvers in four-fifths of intersection crashes. A more detailed analysis of evasive braking frequency by precrash maneuver revealed that drivers performing complete or rolling stops (61.3%) braked less often than drivers

  6. Investigation on occupant injury severity in rear-end crashes involving trucks as the front vehicle in Beijing area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: All the abovementioned significant factors should be improved, such as the conditions of lighting and the layout of lanes on roads. Two of the most common driver factors are drivers' age and drivers' original residence. Young drivers and outsiders have a higher injury severity. Therefore it is imperative to enhance the safety education and management on the young drivers who steer heavy duty truck from other cities to Beijing on weekdays.

  7. Major Cost Drivers of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Military Personnel and the Influence of the Military Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    hypertensive heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (WHO, 2008:29-30). In 1949, Smeed was the first to establish the relationship between...projected to increase from 0.99 to 2.34 million yearly (WHO, 2004:12). Furthermore, it is forecasted that traffic fatalities in low income countries will...U.S. Department of Transportation (NHTSA, The Economic Impact of MVCs 2000,May 2002) http://www.cita- vehicleinspection.org/ Portals /cita

  8. Taxonomy of Older Driver Behaviors and Crash Risk : Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This projects objectives were to identify risky behaviors, driving habits, and exposure patterns that have been shown to increase the likelihood of crash involvement among older drivers; and to classify these crash-contributing factors according t...

  9. Development of requirements and functional specifications for crash event data recorders : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. DOT has conducted research on the requirements for a Crash Event Data Recorder to facilitate the reconstruction of commercial motor vehicle crashes. This report documents the work performed on the Development of Requirements and Functiona...

  10. Pre-licensed driving experience and car crash involvement during the learner and restricted, licence stages of graduated driver licensing: Findings from the New Zealand drivers study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy J; Langley, John D; Brookland, Rebecca L; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gulliver, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-licence driving experiences, that is driving before beginning the licensing process, increased or decreased crash risk as a car driver, during the learner or the restricted licence stages of the graduated driver licensing system (GDLS). Study participants were 15-24 year old members of the New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) - a prospective cohort study of newly licensed car drivers. The interview stages of the NZDS are linked to, the three licensing stages of the GDLS: learner, restricted and full. Baseline demographic (age, ethnicity, residential location, deprivation), personality (impulsivity, sensation seeking, aggression) and, behavioural data, (including pre-licensed driving behaviour), were obtained at the learner licence interview. Data on distance driven and crashes that occurred at the learner licence and restricted licence stages, were reported at the restricted and full licence interviews, respectively. Crash data were also obtained from police traffic crash report files and this was combined with the self-reported crash data. The analysis of the learner licence stage crashes, when only supervised driving is allowed, was based on the participants who had passed the restricted licence test and undertaken the NZDS, restricted licence interview (n=2358). The analysis of the restricted licence stage crashes, when unsupervised driving is first allowed, was based on those who had passed the full licence test and completed the full licence interview (n=1428). After controlling for a range of demographic, personality, behavioural variables and distance driven, Poisson regression showed that the only pre-licence driving behaviour that showed a consistent relationship with subsequent crashes was on-road car driving which was associated with an increased risk of being the driver in a car crash during the learner licence period. This research showed that pre-licensed driving did not reduce crash risk among learner or

  11. A test-based method for the assessment of pre-crash warning and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, András; Fagerlind, Helen; Kullgren, Anders

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a test-based assessment method for pre-crash warning and braking systems is presented where the effectiveness of a system is measured by its ability to reduce the number of injuries of a given type or severity in car-to-car rear-end collisions. Injuries with whiplash symptoms lasting longer than 1 month and MAIS2+ injuries in both vehicles involved in the crash are considered in the assessment. The injury reduction resulting from the impact speed reduction due to a pre-crash system is estimated using a method which has its roots in the dose-response model. Human-machine interaction is also taken into account in the assessment. The results reflect the self-protection as well as the partner-protection performance of a pre-crash system in the striking vehicle in rear-end collisions and enable a comparison between two or more systems. It is also shown how the method may be used to assess the importance of warning as part of a pre-crash system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, David; Owen, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    General Aviation (GA) cross-country crashes, particularly those involving weather, continue to be a major source of fatalities, with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA crashes in general. There has been much speculation and little solid evidence on the causes of these crashes. We have designed a program of laboratory and database research into the causes of cross-country weather-related crashes including an analysis of air crashes in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000. There were 1308 reported occurrences in this period. We examined in detail 77 crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. In our first analysis we compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred in response to externally driven failures with crashes where the aircraft continued to be flown at the pilot's discretion up until the point of the crash. Clear differences were found for visibility, altitude, crash severity, and for several pilot characteristics. These differences are highly consistent with those found for previous research on pilot characteristics and crash involvement. In the second analysis we made comparisons between the weather-related and nonweather-related crashes in the discretionary control group and between subcategories of weather-related crashes. These data show that weather-related crashes occur further into the flight and closer to the planned destination than other kinds of cross-country crashes in GA. Pilots involved in these crashes are younger and have more recent flight time than pilots involved in other crashes. Their increased involvement cannot be explained simply by exposure (flight-time) but must be due to other factors.

  13. Sobrevivência após acidentes de trânsito: impacto das variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares Sobrevida después de accidentes de tránsito: impacto de las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias Survival after motor vehicle crash: impact of clinical and prehospital variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-08-01

    interventions or thoracic compressions. Brain lesions were associated with late death. CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of variables involved in the survival of motor vehicle crash victims may help to determine protocols and to make decisions in order to perform pre- and in-hospital interventions and, consequently, maximize survival.

  14. 2010 traffic crash facts annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The death rate on Nebraska roadways during 2010 was .97 persons killed per 100 million vehicle miles traveled. This is the lowest death rate recorded since the state first began keeping motor vehicle crash statistics in 1936. The trend of declining d...

  15. The real-world safety potential of connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Sam; Grant, Alex; Anderson, Robert W G

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the safety potential of a current commercially available connected vehicle technology in real-world crashes. Data from the Centre for Automotive Safety Research's at-scene in-depth crash investigations in South Australia were used to simulate the circumstances of real-world crashes. A total of 89 crashes were selected for inclusion in the study. The crashes were selected as representative of the most prevalent crash types for injury or fatal crashes and had potential to be mitigated by connected vehicle technology. The trajectory, speeds, braking, and impact configuration of the selected in-depth cases were replicated in a software package and converted to a file format allowing "replay" of the scenario in real time as input to 2 Cohda Wireless MK2 onboard units. The Cohda Wireless onboard units are a mature connected vehicle technology that has been used in both the German simTD field trial and the U.S. Department of Transport's Safety Pilot project and have been tuned for low false alarm rates when used in the real world. The crash replay was achieved by replacing each of the onboard unit Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs with the simulated data of each of the involved vehicles. The time at which the Cohda Wireless threat detection software issued an elevated warning was used to calculate a new impact speed using 3 different reaction scenarios and 2 levels of braking. It was found that between 37 and 86% of the simulated crashes could be avoided, with highest percentage due a fully autonomous system braking at 0.7 g. The same system also reduced the impact speed relative to the actual crash in all cases. Even when a human reaction time of 1.2 s and moderate braking of 0.4 g was assumed, the impact speed was reduced in 78% of the crashes. Crash types that proved difficult for the threat detection engine were head-on crashes where the approach angle was low and right turn-opposite crashes. These results indicate that connected vehicle

  16. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical,

  17. Teen drivers' awareness of vehicle instrumentation in naturalistic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, J P; Haynie, D; Ouimet, M C; Zhu, C; Guillaume, C; Klauer, S G; Dingus, T; Simons-Morton, B G

    2017-12-01

    Naturalistic driving methods require the installation of instruments and cameras in vehicles to record driving behavior. A critical, yet unexamined issue in naturalistic driving research is the extent to which the vehicle instruments and cameras used for naturalistic methods change human behavior. We sought to describe the degree to which teenage participants' self-reported awareness of vehicle instrumentation changes over time, and whether that awareness was associated with driving behaviors. Forty-two newly-licensed teenage drivers participated in an 18-month naturalistic driving study. Data on driving behaviors including crash/near-crashes and elevated gravitational force (g-force) events rates were collected over the study period. At the end of the study, participants were asked to rate the extent to which they were aware of instruments in the vehicle at four time points. They were also asked to describe their own and their passengers' perceptions of the instrumentation in the vehicle during an in-depth interview. The number of critical event button presses was used as a secondary measure of camera awareness. The association between self-reported awareness of the instrumentation and objectively measured driving behaviors was tested using correlations and linear mixed models. Most participants' reported that their awareness of vehicle instrumentation declined across the duration of the 18-month study. Their awareness increased in response to their passengers' concerns about the cameras or if they were involved in a crash. The number of the critical event button presses was initially high and declined rapidly. There was no correlation between driver's awareness of instrumentation and their crash and near-crash rate or elevated g-force events rate. Awareness was not associated with crash and near-crash rates or elevated g-force event rates, consistent with having no effect on this measure of driving performance. Naturalistic driving studies are likely to yield

  18. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  19. Periodic vehicle inspection (MOT). [previously: Periodic Vehicle Inspection of cars (MOT).

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s the periodic vehicle inspection (MOT) of various categories of vehicles was introduced in the Netherlands. This fact sheet will discuss the legal framework of this measure and the research carried out into its effects on road safety, also in an international context. For instance, the technical conditions of cars at inspection as well as that of cars involved in crashes were studied. Tyre pressure will also be discussed in this fact sheet.

  20. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  1. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5...

  2. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  3. Roof strength and injury risk in rollover crashes of passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Teoh, Eric R

    2009-12-01

    A 2009 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety found that midsize SUVs with stronger roofs, as measured in quasi-static tests, had lower risk of ejection and lower risk of injury for nonejected drivers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a similar association exists for other vehicle groups. Twelve small passenger cars were evaluated according to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 test conditions. Crash databases in 14 states provided more than 20,000 single-vehicle rollover crashes involving these vehicles. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of roof strength on the rate of driver injury while assessing and controlling for the effects of driver age, vehicle stability, state, and other factors where necessary. Small cars with stronger roofs had lower overall rates of serious injury, lower rates of ejection, and lower rates of injury for nonejected drivers. Although the effect on ejection was somewhat smaller for cars than for SUVs, the overall pattern of injury results was consistent. For roof strength-to-weight ratio measured within 5 in. (SWR(5)), a one-unit increase (e.g., from 2.0 to 3.0) was associated with a 22 percent reduction in risk of incapacitating or fatal driver injury in single-vehicle rollovers. This compares with a 24 percent reduction estimated for a similar change in roof strength among midsize SUVs. The association between vehicle roof strength and occupant injury risk in rollover crashes appears robust across different vehicle groups and across roof SWR(5) values, varying from just more than 1.5 to just less than 4.0. If roofs were to increase in strength by one SWR(5), a 20-25 percent reduction in risk of serious injury in rollovers would be expected. Still, even if all vehicle roofs were as strong as the strongest roof measured, many rollover injuries still would occur, indicating the need for additional research and countermeasures.

  4. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O' Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  5. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a

  6. Direct medical costs of motorcycle crashes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Daniel; Wasserstein, David; Nathens, Avery B; Bai, Yu Qing; Redelmeier, Donald A; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-11-20

    There is no reliable estimate of costs incurred by motorcycle crashes. Our objective was to calculate the direct costs of all publicly funded medical care provided to individuals after motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes. We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study of adults in Ontario who presented to hospital because of a motorcycle or automobile crash from 2007 through 2013. For each case, we identified 1 control absent a motor vehicle crash during the study period. Direct costs for each case and control were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars from the payer perspective using methodology that links health care use to individuals over time. We calculated costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes within 2 years using a difference-in-differences approach. We identified 26 831 patients injured in motorcycle crashes and 281 826 injured in automobile crashes. Mean costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes were $5825 and $2995, respectively ( p motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes (2194 injured annually/100 000 registered motorcycles v. 718 injured annually/100 000 registered automobiles; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 3.3, p motorcycles v. 12 severe injuries annually/100 000 registered automobiles; IRR 10.4, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.1, p motorcycle in Ontario costs the public health care system 6 times the amount of each registered automobile. Medical costs may provide an additional incentive to improve motorcycle safety. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  7. 78 FR 52605 - Announcing the Twenty First Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... large numbers of people injured in motor vehicle crashes. These teams are led by trauma surgeons and... in Frontal Impacts; Rib Fractures in Older Occupants; Changes Over Time in Injury and Crash...

  8. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016 [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO, and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies.

  9. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  10. Preliminary plan for case-control crash risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-31

    The goal of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce commercial vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. This is achieved through a thorough understanding of crash characteristics, precursors, and risk factors. This will h...

  11. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  12. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. Methods: The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed...... about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing a forgiving infrastructure within a sustainable safety systems......Objective: The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives...

  13. Development of a prediction model for crash occurrence by analyzing traffic crash and citation data : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    It is commonly acknowledged that factors such as human factors, vehicle characteristics, road design and environmental factors highly contribute to the occurrence of traffic crashes (WHO, 2004). Since human factors usually have the most significant i...

  14. Crash probability estimation via quantifying driver hazard perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Jianqiang; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2018-07-01

    Crash probability estimation is an important method to predict the potential reduction of crash probability contributed by forward collision avoidance technologies (FCATs). In this study, we propose a practical approach to estimate crash probability, which combines a field operational test and numerical simulations of a typical rear-end crash model. To consider driver hazard perception characteristics, we define a novel hazard perception measure, called as driver risk response time, by considering both time-to-collision (TTC) and driver braking response to impending collision risk in a near-crash scenario. Also, we establish a driving database under mixed Chinese traffic conditions based on a CMBS (Collision Mitigation Braking Systems)-equipped vehicle. Applying the crash probability estimation in this database, we estimate the potential decrease in crash probability owing to use of CMBS. A comparison of the results with CMBS on and off shows a 13.7% reduction of crash probability in a typical rear-end near-crash scenario with a one-second delay of driver's braking response. These results indicate that CMBS is positive in collision prevention, especially in the case of inattentive drivers or ole drivers. The proposed crash probability estimation offers a practical way for evaluating the safety benefits in the design and testing of FCATs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Prati

    Full Text Available The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type, road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist's maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist, vehicle (type of opponent vehicle, and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather. To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types.

  16. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  17. Man-systems evaluation of moving base vehicle simulation motion cues. [human acceleration perception involving visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Brye, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A motion cue investigation program is reported that deals with human factor aspects of high fidelity vehicle simulation. General data on non-visual motion thresholds and specific threshold values are established for use as washout parameters in vehicle simulation. A general purpose similator is used to test the contradictory cue hypothesis that acceleration sensitivity is reduced during a vehicle control task involving visual feedback. The simulator provides varying acceleration levels. The method of forced choice is based on the theory of signal detect ability.

  18. Exploring cycle crash characteristics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the cycle road crash trend, characteristics and injuries in Malaysia. It analyses the in-depth road crash investigation data collected by the Royal Malaysian Police which was made available to MIROS crash database. Fatality data was utilized due to its consistency. Cycle casualties reflected a continual downward pattern for year 2009 to 2014 in which the number of cycle crash involvement reduced by 49% and fatalities dropped by 42%. Among the prevalent factors of cycle fatalities are >60 age group, federal and state roads and straight road sections, rural and small towns, evening peak hours, and mainly involving cars and motorcycles. It is hoped that all these information would spark interests to improve cycle safety in Malaysia.

  19. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  20. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data.

  1. Real-World Rib Fracture Patterns in Frontal Crashes in Different Restraint Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Craig, Matthew; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the detailed medical injury information in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to evaluate patterns of rib fractures in real-world crash occupants in both belted and unbelted restraint conditions. Fracture patterns binned into rib regional levels were examined to determine normative trends associated with belt use and other possible contributing factors. Front row adult occupants with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ rib fractures, in frontal crashes with a deployed frontal airbag, were selected from the CIREN database. The circumferential location of each rib fracture (with respect to the sternum) was documented using a previously published method (Ritchie et al. 2006) and digital computed tomography scans. Fracture patterns for different crash and occupant parameters (restraint use, involved physical component, occupant kinematics, crash principal direction of force, and occupant age) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 158 belted and 44 unbelted occupants included in this study. For belted occupants, fractures were mainly located near the path of the shoulder belt, with the majority of fractures occurring on the inboard (with respect to the vehicle) side of the thorax. For unbelted occupants, fractures were approximately symmetric and distributed across both sides of the thorax. There were negligible differences in fracture patterns between occupants with frontal (0°) and near side (330° to 350° for drivers; 10° to 30° for passengers) crash principal directions of force but substantial differences between groups when occupant kinematics (and contacts within the vehicle) were considered. Age also affected fracture pattern, with fractures tending to occur more anteriorly in older occupants and more laterally in younger occupants (both belted and unbelted). Results of this study confirmed with real-world data that rib fracture patterns in unbelted occupants were more distributed

  2. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  3. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  4. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  5. Taxonomy of Older Driver Behaviors and Crash Risk : with Appendices A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This projects objectives were to identify risky behaviors, driving habits, and exposure patterns that have been shown to increase the likelihood of crash involvement among older drivers; and to classify these crash-contributing factors according t...

  6. Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelotte, Jayson D; Brown, Lawrence H; Luftman, Kevin M; Mardock, Alexandra L; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Coopwood, Ben; Brown, Carlos V R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics. Pre-recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post-recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = -0.4, +0.9). Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.

  7. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-‘whiplash’ diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation. PMID:19026229

  8. Minor crashes and 'whiplash' in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Gilbertson, Lars G; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R; Wiechel, John F

    2008-10-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define 'whiplash' injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4 g (s.d. = 0.5 g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-'whiplash' diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation.

  9. Accidents in The Netherlands involving heavy motor vehicles : an analysis concerning underrun protection of rear ends, compared to the sides and the front ends. On behalf of RDW Vehicle Technology & Information Centre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1998-01-01

    In this report accident data concerning heavy vehicles (all motor vehicles with a total weight of more than 3500 kg) are studied. Special attention is given to the question whether accidents involving heavy motor vehicles gave specific reason for concern regarding other road users with respect to

  10. Optical illusions and life-threatening traffic crashes: A perspective on aerial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Raza, Sheharyar

    2018-05-01

    Aerial perspective illusion is a feature of visual perception where landscapes appear relatively close in clear light and distant in dim light. We hypothesized that bright sunlight might cause drivers to perceive distant terrain as relatively close and misinterpret the approach speed of surrounding landscape as unduly slow. This hypothesis would mean, in turn, that drivers in bright sunlight may underestimate their progress on the road, compensate by traveling at a faster baseline speed, and ultimately increase the prevailing risk of a life-threatening traffic crash. We conducted three pilot studies to illustrate how the illusion might contribute to a life- threatening traffic crash. The first illustration used a questionnaire to demonstrate that most respondents were mistaken when judging the distance between simple balls in different positions. The second illustration involved an experimental manipulation to assess whether aerial perspective influenced judgments about the relative positions of vehicles in traffic. The third illustration analyzed a segment of high-volume fast-speed traffic and found an increased frequency of speeding under bright sunlight. Together with past work based on the visual arts, these examples illustrate how an aerial perspective illusion can affect distance perception, may appear in realistic traffic situations, and could potentially contribute to the risk of a life-threatening traffic crash. An awareness of this hypothesis might lead to applications on how optical illusions could extend to everyday traffic and might potentially inform safety warnings to prevent life- threatening crashes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  12. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  13. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  14. Age, period, and cohort effects in motor vehicle mortality in the United States, 1980-2010: the role of sex, alcohol involvement, and position in vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Bae, Jin Yung

    2015-02-01

    Although substantive declines in motor vehicle fatalities in 1980-2010 have been observed, declines by position in the vehicle and alcohol involvement have not been well elucidated. Analyses of FARS data use the Intrinsic Estimator (IE) to produce estimates of all age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously by position in the car and by alcohol involvement. Declines in MVC deaths by position in the car vary for men and women by age and cohort over time. Cohorts born before 1970 had higher risks than those born later. Analyses using proxy indicators of alcohol involvement found the highest risks for those aged 16-24. By period, these risks declined more rapidly than non- alcohol related traffic fatalities. Changes in risk patterns are consistent with evidence regarding the contributions of new technologies and public policy efforts to reduce fatalities, but gains have not been shared evenly by sex or position in the car. Greater attention is needed in reducing deaths among older drivers and pedestrians. Gender differences should be addressed in prevention efforts aimed at reducing MVCs due to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the potential benefits of the motorcycle autonomous emergency braking using detailed crash reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Giovannini, Federico; Baldanzini, Niccolò; Pierini, Marco; Rizzi, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and quantitative potential benefits of a motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) system in fatal rear-end crashes. A further aim was to identify possible criticalities of this safety system in the field of powered 2-wheelers (PTWs; e.g., any additional risk introduced by the system itself). Seven relevant cases from the Swedish national in-depth fatal crash database were selected. All crashes involved car-following in which a non-anti-lock braking system (ABS)-equipped motorcycle was the bullet vehicle. Those crashes were reconstructed in a virtual environment with Prescan, simulating the road scenario, the vehicles involved, their precrash trajectories, ABS, and, alternatively, MAEB. The MAEB chosen as reference for the investigation was developed within the European Commission-funded Powered Two-Wheeler Integrated Safety (PISa) project and further detailed in later studies, with the addition of the ABS functionality. The boundary conditions of each simulation varied within a range compatible with the uncertainty of the in-depth data and also included a range of possible rider behaviors including the actual one. The benefits of the MAEB were evaluated by comparing the simulated impact speed in each configuration (no ABS/MAEB, ABS only, MAEB). The MAEB proved to be beneficial in a large number of cases. When applicable, the benefits of the system were in line with the expected values. When not applicable, there was no clear evidence of an increased risk for the rider due to the system. MAEB represents an innovative safety device in the field of PTWs, and the feasibility of such a system was investigated with promising results. Nevertheless, this technology is not mature yet for PTW application. Research in the field of passenger cars does not directly apply to PTWs because the activation logic of a braking system is more challenging on PTWs. The deployment of an autonomous deceleration would affect the

  17. A Hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm for a Real-World Open Vehicle Routing Problem Involving Fuel Consumption Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics operation to third-party logistics has attracted more attention in the past several years. However, very few papers analyzed fuel consumption model in the context of outsourcing logistics. This problem involves more complexity than traditional open vehicle routing problem (OVRP, because the calculation of fuel emissions depends on many factors, such as the speed of vehicles, the road angle, the total load, the engine friction, and the engine displacement. Our paper proposed a green open vehicle routing problem (GOVRP model with fuel consumption constraints for outsourcing logistics operations. Moreover, a hybrid tabu search algorithm was presented to deal with this problem. Experiments were conducted on instances based on realistic road data of Beijing, China, considering that outsourcing logistics plays an increasingly important role in China’s freight transportation. Open routes were compared with closed routes through statistical analysis of the cost components. Compared with closed routes, open routes reduce the total cost by 18.5% with the fuel emissions cost down by nearly 29.1% and the diver cost down by 13.8%. The effect of different vehicle types was also studied. Over all the 60- and 120-node instances, the mean total cost by using the light-duty vehicles is the lowest.

  18. A Partial Proportional Odds Model for Pedestrian Crashes at Mid-Blocks in Melbourne Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toran Pour Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes account for 11% of all reported traffic crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area between 2004 and 2013. There are very limited studies on pedestrian accidents at mid-blocks. Mid-block crashes account for about 46% of the total pedestrian crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area. Meanwhile, about 50% of all pedestrian fatalities occur at mid-blocks. In this research, Partial Proportional Odds (PPO model is applied to examine vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks in Melbourne metropolitan area. The PPO model is a logistic regression model that allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. In this research vehicle-pedestrian crashes at mid-blocks are analysed for first time. In addition, some factors such as distance of crashes to public transport stops, average road slope and some social characteristics are considered to develop the model in this research for first time. Results of PPO model show that speed limit, light condition, pedestrian age and gender, and vehicle type are the most significant factors that influence vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks.

  19. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  20. A multinomial-logit ordered-probit model for jointly analyzing crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    ' propensity to engage in various corrective maneuvers in the case of the critical event of vehicle travelling. Five lateral and speed control maneuvers are considered: “braking”, “steering”, “braking & steering”, and “other maneuvers”, in addition to a “no action” option. The analyzed data are retrieved from...... the United States National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the years 2005-2009. Results show (i) the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, and (ii) the link between drivers' attributes, risky driving behavior, road characteristics...

  1. Crash-Tech 2001. Conference; Crash-Tech 2001. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Improved active and passive safety of motor vehicles has resulted in a very much improved accident statistics. This conference discussed further optimisations in motor car safety. The harmonisation of test specifications world-wide was gone into, with particular interest in compatibility. Safety specifications resulting from current accident research and new legislation were gone into, and the current state of measuring and technology in crash testing was outlined. [German] Aufgrund der Verbesserungen in der aktiven und passiven Sicherheit von Fahrzeugen weisen die Unfallstatistiken in vielen europaeischen Laendern eine erfreuliche Tendenz auf. Die Tagung wird sich mit den Moeglichkeiten der weiteren Optimierung der Verkehrssicherheit befassen. Die 'Crash-Tech 2001' will sich mit dem Motto 'Sind wir auf dem Weg zum World NCAP?' der Harmonisierung der Testvorschriften unter Einbeziehung der Kompatibilitaet widmen. Dazu werden Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugsicherheit diskutiert, die sich sowohl aus der aktuellen Unfallforschung als auch aus den Vorschriften ergeben. Weiterhin wird der aktuelle Stand der Mess- und Versuchstechnik im Unfallversuch vorgestellt. (orig.)

  2. Factors influencing pediatric Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale in pediatric automobile crashes: results from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Brown, J Kristine; Sochor, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C; Eichelberger, Martin E

    2006-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for more than 50% of pediatric injuries. Triage of pediatric patients to appropriate centers can be based on the crash/injury characteristics. Pediatric motor vehicle crash/injury characteristics can be determined from an in vitro laboratory using child crash dummies. However, to date, no detailed data with respect to outcomes and crash mechanism have been presented with a pediatric in vivo model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is comprised of 10 level 1 trauma centers. Crashes were examined with regard to age, crash severity (DeltaV), crash direction, restraint use, and airbag deployment. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as outcomes. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18) were used. The database is biases toward a survivor population with few fatalities. Four hundred sixty-one motor vehicle crashes with 2500 injuries were analyzed (242 boys, 219 girls). Irrespective of age, DeltaV > 30 mph resulted in increased ISS and decreased GCS (eg, for 0-4 years, DeltaV 30: ISS = 19.5, GCS = 10.6; P 15) injuries than did backseat passengers (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.4). A trend was noted for children younger than 12 years sitting in the front seat to have increased ISS and decreased GCS with airbag deployment but was limited by case number. A reproducible pattern of increased ISS and lower GCS characterized by high severity, lateral crashes in children was noted. Further analysis of the specific injuries as a function and the crash characteristic can help guide management and prevention strategies.

  3. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  4. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2016. Fields include injury severity,...

  5. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2017. Fields include injury severity,...

  6. Supporting involvement of electric vehicles in distribution grids: Lowering the barriers for a proactive integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns are driving an evolution of the energy system in which electric vehicles (EVs) play an important role. Still, as the EV number increases, the adverse impact of charging is observed more widely, especially at the low-voltage level where high EV concentrations cause...

  7. Antilock braking system effectiveness in prevention of road traffic crashes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Shoar, Saeed; Saadat, Soheil

    2013-05-04

    Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) helps the equipped vehicles to stop under heavy braking, in a shorter distance and with a better control of direction. It was expected that this technology will reduce the rate of fatal road traffic crashes (RTC); however, the outcome is controversial in the real world. The aim of this study is to compare the claimed annual incidence rate and financial losses due to RTCs in ABS vs. non-ABS personal vehicles in Iran. A telephone survey among drivers of two similar models of personal vehicles was arranged. The studied vehicles were of the same brand and type; but only one of them was equipped with ABS. The number of RTCs, subsequent financial loss, and drivers' knowledge and perception about ABS were sought. The sample consisted of drivers of 1232 ABS and 3123 non-ABS vehicles. The annual incidence rate of RTC involving another vehicle was 145.1 (134.8-155.9) per 1000 vehicle-years and there was not a statistically significant difference between study groups.The incidence of RTC with another vehicle due to brake failure was 50.3 (42.9-58.5) for 1000 non ABS vehicle-years and 30.0 (21.2-41.2) for 1000 ABS equipped vehicle-years. The difference was statistically significant after adjustment for the driver and vehicle's age and the daily driving time. The attributable risk of RTC for non-ABS vehicles was 20/1000 vehicles and the excess fraction was 39.8%. The mean financial loss due to reported RTCs was $987.9 ± $1547.3 US Dollars and there was not a statistically significant difference between study groups. While 61.1% of ABS vehicle drivers reported situations in which they believed the ABS had prevented a crash, 44.1% of them however, they did not know how to use ABS efficiently. Law enforcement to maintain safe distance and adhere to speed limit while driving, is needed to raise the effectiveness of ABS. This is as necessary as considering mandatory outfitting of ABS. Safety authorities should first consider the global experience

  8. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    2013-01-01

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with ...

  9. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  10. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  11. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  12. Critical market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  13. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  14. Alcohol and illicit drugs in drivers involved in road traffic crashes in the Milan area. A comparison with normal traffic reveals the possible inadequacy of current cut-off limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Davide; Manca, Monica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community. Our data from RTC-involved drivers show that alcohol abuse is not age-related whereas illicit drugs are more common in young people. Cannabinoids are frequent among younger drivers (median age 27) whereas cocaine is more often detected in adults (median age 34). The calculated odds ratio after comparison with the DRUID survey shows that a blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit does not represent a risk factor in having a car accident whereas concentrations of cocaine and cannabinoids within the legal limits are associated with being involved in a car accident. Despite authority efforts, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs is still common in young drivers. We suspect that the cut-off limits for cannabinoids and cocaine and/or the pre-analytical procedures for these substances are inadequate. We suggest a better standardization of the procedure by shortening the time interval between the request for investigation and blood collection and propose the adoption of more stringent cut-off limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire scores and crashes for riders in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A N; Brown, J; de Rome, L; Baldock, M R J; Fernandes, R; Fitzharris, M

    2017-05-01

    Motorcycle riders are over-represented in road fatalities in Australia. While riders represent 18% of the road users killed each year, motorcycle registrations constitute only 4.5% of the registered vehicle fleet. The Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed with a view toward understanding behaviours likely to be associated with crash risk. These include behaviours that are either intentional (such as violations of road and speed regulations and stunts) or unintentional (such as errors relating to traffic or control of the motorcycle), as well as protective behaviours related to use of safety equipment. The dual aims of the current study were, first, to determine the appropriate structure of a modified version of the MRBQ for use in a representative sample of riders in Australia and, second, to understand which MRBQ factors are associated with crash involvement. A stratified sampling procedure was undertaken to ensure the socio-economic status of local government area, age and gender of the sample was representative of the broader population of riders in New South Wales, Australia. The sample consisted of 470 riders (males=89%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 29-item, five factor structure was suitable on the Australian data encompassing traffic errors, speed violations, protective gear, control errors and stunts. Overall, riders reported relatively safe behaviours, with frequent use of protective gear and infrequent aberrant behaviours. However, even though infrequent, violations of speed and errors related to control of the motorcycle increased the odds of near-crash involvement, whilst stunt behaviours were associated with increased odds of crash involvement. Interventions and countermeasures need to target these specific behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  17. A motor vehicle accident fatality involving the inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Timothy; Avella, Joseph; Lehrer, Michael

    2006-10-01

    A 24-year-old female driver with a history of substance abuse was pronounced dead following a single car motor vehicle accident. A surviving front seat passenger witnessed the decedent inhaling "Dust Off" cleaner just prior to losing control of the vehicle. The propellant compound used in this product is the halogenated hydrocarbon 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE). Sealed autopsy specimens were examined for the presence and subsequent quantitation of DFE utilizing an Agilent 6850 gas chromatograph (GC)-flame-ionization detector. The levels of DFE obtained were as follows: 29.8 mg/L in femoral blood, 40.3 mg/L in pulmonary arterial blood, 85.6 mg/L in aortic blood, 79.9 mg/L in chest cavity blood, 21.2 mg/L in vitreous, 11.7 mg/kg in brain, 27.9 mg/kg in liver, 71.0 mg/L in urine, and 51.8 mg/total gastric contents. The presence of DFE was confirmed in the decedent's urine by injection on an Agilent 6890/5973 GC-mass spectrometer in full scan mode. This case presents a uniquely witnessed observation of the apparent impairing effects and consequences of the acute inhalation of halogenated hydrocarbons such as DFE and the operation of a motor vehicle. The proximity of time of death to inhalant use may also provide insight to postmortem distribution patterns of DFE in relation to normal physiologic blood flow. With further investigations, estimating the time of final use of an inhalant prior to death may be deciphered from such patterns, although a degree of caution should be applied in deaths resulting from severe trauma in which normal tissue structure is compromised because postmortem redistribution may result.

  18. Analysis of near crashes among teen, young adult, and experienced adult drivers using the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacrist, Thomas; Douglas, Ethan C; Huang, Elaine; Megariotis, James; Prabahar, Abhiti; Kashem, Abyaad; Elzarka, Ayya; Haber, Leora; MacKinney, Taryn; Loeb, Helen

    2018-02-28

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among young drivers. Though previous research has focused on crash events, near crashes offer additional data to help identify driver errors that could potentially lead to crashes as well as evasive maneuvers used to avoid them. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) contains extensive data on real-world driving and offers a reliable methodology to quantify and study near crashes. This article presents findings on near crashes and how they compare to crash events among teen, young adult, and experienced adult drivers. A subset from the SHRP2 database consisting of 1,653 near crashes for teen (16-19 years, n = 550), young adult (20-24 years, n = 748), and experienced adult (35-54 years, n = 591) drivers was used. Onboard instrumentation including scene cameras, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System logged time series data at 10 Hz. Scene videos were reviewed for all events to classify near crashes based on 7 types: rear-end, road departure, intersection, head-on, side-swipe, pedestrian/cyclist, and animal. Near crash rates, incident type, secondary tasks, and evasive maneuvers were compared across age groups and between crashes and near crashes. For rear-end near crashes, vehicle dynamic variables including near crash severity, headway distance, time headway, and time to collision at the time of braking were compared across age groups. Crashes and near crashes were combined to compare the frequency of critical events across age. Teen drivers exhibited a significantly higher (P systems based on the most common driving errors for vulnerable road users.

  19. Intelligent Vehicle Initiative : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Ongoing and recently completed research and development indicate that collision avoidance systems offer the potential for significantly reducing motor vehicle crashes. Preliminary estimates by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...

  20. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  1. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with remaining cases in relation to crash and vehicular characteristics. TAI cases of later crash year (CY) (2004-2012) were compared to those in earlier CY (1996-2003) in relation to TAI severity (minor, moderate, severe and non-survivable). TAI cases in newer model year (MY) vehicles (1999-2012) were compared to those in older vehicles (1988-98) in relation to injury source (steering wheel, front, left, seat belt, air bag and other or unknown). Analysis was stratified by direction of impact (frontal and near-side) and the use of restraints. The similar TAI severity of earlier and later CY among frontal crashes suggests that the observed changes in the adjusted odds of injury seen in NASS-CDS are not due to an increase in injury detection. The decrease in TAI severity among newer vehicles in near-side crashes of later CY is consistent with a beneficial effect of crashworthiness improvements for this crash configuration. A shift of injury source in frontal crashes from the steering wheel in older vehicles to "front of vehicle structures", "seat belts" and "unknown and other" in newer vehicles should suggest potential sites for crashworthiness improvements.

  2. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  3. The TUeV Bayern's ECV crash system. Das ECV-Crashsystem des TUeV Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, P.; Richter, R.; Wech, L.

    1992-05-01

    In order to obtain more realistic crash test results, TUeV Bayern has developed the ECV Crash Technology (Eletronically Controlled Vehicle), in which the vehicle is driven by its own engine and automatically steered. Further advantages of this system are the high precision and flexibility of the crash configuration and its mobility. The driverless operation of the vehicle is realized by a microprocessor-equiped control unit, which activates steering system, throttle, brake and clutch. The desired course of the vehicle is predetermined by the pilot cable. Through this cable low frequency alternating current is flowing. (orig./HW).

  4. Prevalence and psychometric screening for the detection of major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults injured in a motor vehicle crash who are engaged in compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley

    2018-02-21

    Physical injury and psychological disorder following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is a public health concern. The objective of this research was to determine rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation, and to determine the capacity (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of two psychometric scales for estimating the presence of MDD and PTSD. Participants included 109 adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation during 2015 to 2017, in Sydney, Australia. The mean time from MVC to baseline assessment was 11 weeks. Comprehensive assessment was conducted at baseline, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered to determine probable MDD and PTSD. An online psychiatric interview, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), was used to diagnose actual MDD and PTSD, acknowledged as gold standard diagnostic criteria. One-way multivariate analyses of variance established criterion validity of the DASS-21 and IES-R, and sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted to determine the most sensitive cut-off points for detecting probable MDD and PTSD. Substantial rates of MDD (53.2%) and PTSD (19.3%) were found. The DASS-21 and IES-R were shown to have excellent criterion validity for detecting MDD and PTSD in injured participants. A range of cut-off points were investigated and shown to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detecting MDD and PTSD in an injured population engaged in compensation. The preferred cut-off points based on this study are: to detect MDD, a DASS-21 total score of 30 and/or a DASS-21 depression score of 10; to detect PTSD, IES-R scores of 33-40 and/or a DASS-21 anxiety score of 7-8. Major psychological disorder is prevalent following a MVC. Results suggest the DASS-21 and IES-R are suitable for use in clinical/compensation settings to

  5. U08 : finite element analysis crash model of tractor-trailers (Phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Improved understanding of truck-infrastructure crashes will enable the highway community to improve barrier design, to further reduce : the likelihood of vehicle-infrastructure fatalities and injuries, and to reduce highway congestion resulting from ...

  6. Demographic factors and traffic crashes. Part 1, descriptive statistics and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This research analyzes the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicle's (DHSMV) 1993 to 1995 crash data. There are four demographic variables investigated throughout the research, which are age, gender, race, and residency. To show general trends...

  7. Safety and Cost Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-29

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports that ten percent of all fatal crashes and seventeen percent of injury crashes in 2011 were a result of...

  8. Comprehensive target populations for current active safety systems using national crash databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of active safety systems is to prevent or mitigate collisions. A critical component in the design of active safety systems is the identification of the target population for a proposed system. The target population for an active safety system is that set of crashes that a proposed system could prevent or mitigate. Target crashes have scenarios in which the sensors and algorithms would likely activate. For example, the rear-end crash scenario, where the front of one vehicle contacts another vehicle traveling in the same direction and in the same lane as the striking vehicle, is one scenario for which forward collision warning (FCW) would be most effective in mitigating or preventing. This article presents a novel set of precrash scenarios based on coded variables from NHTSA's nationally representative crash databases in the United States. Using 4 databases (National Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System [NASS-GES], NASS Crashworthiness Data System [NASS-CDS], Fatality Analysis Reporting System [FARS], and National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey [NMVCCS]) the scenarios developed in this study can be used to quantify the number of police-reported crashes, seriously injured occupants, and fatalities that are applicable to proposed active safety systems. In this article, we use the precrash scenarios to identify the target populations for FCW, pedestrian crash avoidance systems (PCAS), lane departure warning (LDW), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. Crash scenarios were derived using precrash variables (critical event, accident type, precrash movement) present in all 4 data sources. This study found that these active safety systems could potentially mitigate approximately 1 in 5 of all severity and serious injury crashes in the United States and 26 percent of fatal crashes. Annually, this corresponds to 1.2 million all severity, 14,353 serious injury (MAIS 3+), and 7412 fatal crashes. In addition

  9. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Phantom crash confirms models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  11. Elastodynamics of vehicles and crash simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, F.

    1994-01-01

    Accidents of free-rolling cars against walls with friction are special cases of the general problem of the dynamic behavior (elastic or plastic) of car motion. Using particle modeling of the car body it is shown that large rotations, contact friction and plastic deformations can be computed. Because of the limitations of FEM it is necessary to model the car as a system of mass points connected by central force systems which are non-linear. The wall is formulated as a rigid body producing constraints for the contacting particles, while the contact force is given by the defined force system. Every contacting particle produces a plastic impact on the wall. The friction force is proportional to the contact force and lies in the direction of the sliding velocity on the wall. Time integration is carried out using a second order Gear method. ((orig.))

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ireland, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Problem Motor ... 0.02-0.05%). Use advanced engineering and technology, such as: Ignition interlocks for all people convicted ...

  13. Impact of the 1994 alcohol production and sales deregulation policy on traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Dutt, Namrata; Arason, Neil; Pike, Ian

    2012-09-01

    . Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on the Japanese population by comparing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash rates before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Participants and method. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in the population. To control for potential confounders, per capita alcohol consumption, unemployment rate, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) were also added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to the IRRs. . Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities and other traffic crashes in Japan. In the overall study results, nighttime fatalities were reduced statistically significantly by 6% since the implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Discussion. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation. Further well-designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  14. Modeling crash injury severity by road feature to improve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-01-02

    The objective of this research is 2-fold: to (a) model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency and (b) model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. Crash data from 2011 to 2013 were obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed, and compared with each other as well as no road feature. A multinomial logit (MNL) model was developed and odds ratios were estimated to investigate the effect of road features on crash injury severity. Among the many road features, underpass, end or beginning of a divided highway, and on-ramp terminal on crossroad are the top 3 critical road features. Intersection crashes are frequent but are not highly likely to result in severe injuries compared to critical road features. Roundabouts are least likely to result in both severe and moderate injuries. Female drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at intersections (4-way and T) compared to male drivers. Adult drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at underpasses. Older drivers are 1.6 times more likely to be involved in a crash at the end or beginning of a divided highway. The findings from this research help to identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behaviors on the road.

  15. Real time control of restraint systems in frontal crashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griotto, G.; Lemmen, P.P.M.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den; Leijsen, A.C.P. van; Schie, C. van; Cooper, J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the targets for fatality reduction in car accidents set by Governments in Europe, USA and Japan can only be met by using advanced technologies that will include a broad range of sensors to monitor the crash likelihood and severity, vehicle condition, occupant type and

  16. Feedback control of occupant motion during a crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, R.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Klisch, T.

    2006-01-01

    Passive in-vehicle safety systems such as the air bag and the belt restrain the occupant during a crash. However, often their behavior is not optimal in terms of occupant injuries. This paper discusses an approach to design an ideal restraint system. The problem is formulated as a feedback tracking

  17. Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: a comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren C; McKinnon, Brian J; Hughes, C Anthony

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Case series with chart review. Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). ATVs and golf carts are often exempt

  18. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  19. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  20. In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Road safety in Italy: epidemiology of two-wheeled motor vehicles accidents. National statistics 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anna; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Marinoni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    to describe road accidents occurred in Italy focusing, in particular, on two-wheeled motor vehicles. Analysis of road accidents based on current data referring to year 2000. Italy. In Italy, 67,127 two-wheeled motor vehicle accidents occurred in 2000. Two crash types account for 75% of the accidents: side impact and front-side impact. Per one million kilometres travelled 0.4 cars and 1.3 two-wheeled vehicles are involved (0.7 motorcycles and 2.2 mopeds). In 2000 there were 1,229 deaths and 69,543 injured riders. Males up to forty years old are the most represented. The masculinity ratio presents a decreasing trend from motorcycles to mopeds and to cars both for killed people and for injured people. The lethality rate increases with age for all types of vehicles but for mopeds this trend is much more evident. Most of the accident occur in urban road while most of the deaths happen in extra-urban road. Mopeds and motorcycles, which are a small subset of all motor vehicles (approximately 20%), are greatly overrepresented in crashes. Considering the kilometres travelled, the risk to be involved in a crash for mopeds is estimated to be 32.6 times higher than the comparable risk for cars and for motorcycles it is 17 times higher. The risk of death for riders is two times the risk for cars.

  2. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  3. Assessing the role of pavement macrotexture in preventing crashes on highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Kusam, Prasanna R; Patel, Kuvleshay J

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the role of pavement macrotexture in preventing crashes on highways in the State of North Carolina. Laser profilometer data obtained from the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) for highways comprising four corridors are processed to calculate pavement macrotexture at 100-m (approximately 330-ft) sections according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Crash data collected over the same lengths of the corridors were integrated with the calculated pavement macrotexture for each section. Scatterplots were generated to assess the role of pavement macrotexture on crashes and logarithm of crashes. Regression analyses were conducted by considering predictor variables such as million vehicle miles of travel (as a function of traffic volume and length), the number of interchanges, the number of at-grade intersections, the number of grade-separated interchanges, and the number of bridges, culverts, and overhead signs along with pavement macrotexture to study the statistical significance of relationship between pavement macrotexture and crashes (both linear and log-linear) when compared to other predictor variables. Scatterplots and regression analysis conducted indicate a more statistically significant relationship between pavement macrotexture and logarithm of crashes than between pavement macrotexture and crashes. The coefficient for pavement macrotexture, in general, is negative, indicating that the number of crashes or logarithm of crashes decreases as it increases. The relation between pavement macrotexture and logarithm of crashes is generally stronger than between most other predictor variables and crashes or logarithm of crashes. Based on results obtained, it can be concluded that maintaining pavement macrotexture greater than or equal to 1.524 mm (0.06 in.) as a threshold limit would possibly reduce crashes and provide safe transportation to road users on highways.

  4. Comparison of four statistical and machine learning methods for crash severity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranitalab, Amirfarrokh; Khattak, Aemal

    2017-11-01

    Crash severity prediction models enable different agencies to predict the severity of a reported crash with unknown severity or the severity of crashes that may be expected to occur sometime in the future. This paper had three main objectives: comparison of the performance of four statistical and machine learning methods including Multinomial Logit (MNL), Nearest Neighbor Classification (NNC), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), in predicting traffic crash severity; developing a crash costs-based approach for comparison of crash severity prediction methods; and investigating the effects of data clustering methods comprising K-means Clustering (KC) and Latent Class Clustering (LCC), on the performance of crash severity prediction models. The 2012-2015 reported crash data from Nebraska, United States was obtained and two-vehicle crashes were extracted as the analysis data. The dataset was split into training/estimation (2012-2014) and validation (2015) subsets. The four prediction methods were trained/estimated using the training/estimation dataset and the correct prediction rates for each crash severity level, overall correct prediction rate and a proposed crash costs-based accuracy measure were obtained for the validation dataset. The correct prediction rates and the proposed approach showed NNC had the best prediction performance in overall and in more severe crashes. RF and SVM had the next two sufficient performances and MNL was the weakest method. Data clustering did not affect the prediction results of SVM, but KC improved the prediction performance of MNL, NNC and RF, while LCC caused improvement in MNL and RF but weakened the performance of NNC. Overall correct prediction rate had almost the exact opposite results compared to the proposed approach, showing that neglecting the crash costs can lead to misjudgment in choosing the right prediction method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased inequality in mortality from road crashes among Arabs and Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Avi; Leibovitch-Zur, Shalhevet; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in several countries have shown that the economically disadvantaged seem to have a greater risk of being involved in a car crash. The aim of the present study was to compare rates and trends in mortality and injury from road crashes by age among the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel. Data on road crashes with casualties (2003-2011) from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics were analyzed. Age-adjusted road crash injury rates and mortality rates for 2003 to 2011 were calculated and time trends for each age group and population group are presented. Time trend significance was evaluated by linear regression models. Arabs in Israel are at increased risk of injury and mortality from road crashes compared to Jews. Road crash injury rates have significantly decreased in both populations over the last decade, although the rates have been persistently higher among Arabs. Road crash mortality rates have also decreased significantly in the Jewish population but not in the Arab population. This implies an increase in the disparity in mortality between Jews and Arabs. The most prominent differences in road crash injury and mortality rates between Arabs and Jews can be observed in young adults and young children. The reduction in road crashes in the last decade is a positive achievement. However, the reductions are not equal among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Therefore, an increase in the disparities in mortality from road crashes is apparent. Public health efforts need to focus specifically on decreasing road crashes in the Arab community.

  6. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  7. Perbandingan Stock Market Crash 1987 : Dan Stock Market Crash 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Indridewi Atmadjaja, Yovita Vivianty

    1999-01-01

    Stock market crash refers to the condition, which is marked with the large dropping of stock Market price index. Historically, stock market crash has happened three times, namely in 1929, 1987 and 1997. This paper will discuss the causes of 1987's and 1997's stock market Crash and the similarities and the differences between 1987's and 1997's stock market crash. The structure of the paper is as follows. The paper starts with the introduction. The second Section briefly explains the causes of ...

  8. Volvo and Infiniti drivers' experiences with select crash avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Keli A; McCartt, Anne T; Zuby, David S; Singer, Jeremiah

    2010-06-01

    Vehicle-based crash avoidance systems can potentially reduce crashes, but success depends on driver acceptance and understanding. This study gauged driver use, experience, and acceptance among early adopters of select technologies. Telephone interviews were conducted in early 2009 with 380 owners of Volvo vehicles equipped with forward collision warning with autobrake, lane departure warning, side-view assist, and/or active bi-xenon headlights and 485 owners of Infiniti vehicles with lane departure warning/prevention. Most owners kept systems turned on most of the time, especially forward collision warning with autobrake and side-view assist. The exception was lane departure prevention; many owners were unaware they had it, and the system must be activated each time the vehicle is started. Most owners reported being safer with the technologies and would want them again on their next vehicles. Perceived false or unnecessary warnings were fairly common, particularly with side-view assist. Some systems were annoying, especially lane departure warning. Many owners reported safer driving behaviors such as greater use of turn signals (lane departure warning), increased following distance (forward collision warning), and checking side mirrors more frequently (side-view assist), but some reported driving faster at night (active headlights). Despite some unnecessary or annoying warnings, most Volvo and Infiniti owners use crash avoidance systems most of the time. Among early adopters, the first requirement of effective warning systems (that owners use the technology) seems largely met. Systems requiring activation by drivers for each trip are used less often. Owner experience with the latest technologies from other automobile manufacturers should be studied, as well as for vehicles on which technologies are standard (versus optional) equipment. The effectiveness of technologies in preventing and mitigating crashes and injuries, and user acceptance of interfaces, should be

  9. Influences of pre-crash braking induced dummy - forward displacements on dummy behaviour during EuroNCAP frontal crashtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitsch, Gernot; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Combination of active and passive safety systems is a future key to further improvement in vehicle safety. Autonomous braking systems are able to reduce collision speeds, and therefore severity levels significantly. Passengers change their position due to pre-impact vehicle motion, a fact, which has not yet been considered in common crash tests. For this paper, finite elements simulations of crash tests were performed to show that forward displacements due to pre-crash braking do not necessarily increase dummy load levels. So the influence of different pre-crash scenarios, all leading to equal closing speeds in the crash phase, are considered in terms of vehicle motion (pitching, deceleration) and restraint system configurations (belt load limiter, pretensioner). The influence is evaluated by dummy loads as well as contact risk between the dummy and the interior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compatibility of cars in The Netherlands : statistical analysis of frontal collisions in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 2a, project funded by the European Commission DGVII under the Transport RTD Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T. van

    2000-01-01

    In this study, compatibility is defined as the capability of vehicles to protect both their own occupants and occupants of opponent vehicles during crashes. Vehicles are called compatible when they offer equal amounts of protection to both their own occupants and to occupants of crash-opponent

  11. Omitted variable bias in crash reduction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transportation planners and traffic engineers are increasingly turning to crash reduction factors to evaluate changes in road : geometric and design features in order to reduce crashes. Crash reduction factors are typically estimated based on segment...

  12. Does obesity affect the position of seat belt loading in occupants involved in real-world motor vehicle collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartka, Thomas R; Carr, Hannah M; Smith, Brittany R; Melmer, Monica; Sochor, Mark R

    2018-02-28

    Previous work has shown that the lap belt moves superior and forward compared to the bony pelvis as body mass index (BMI) increases. The goal of this project was to determine whether the location of lap belt loading is related to BMI for occupants who sustained real-world motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). A national MVC database was queried for vehicle occupants over a 10-year period (2003-2012) who were at least 16 years old, restrained by a 3-point seat belt, sitting in the front row, and involved in a front-end collision with a change in velocity of at least 56 km/h. Cases were excluded if there was not an available computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen. CT scans were then analyzed using adipose enhancement of 3-dimensional reconstructions. Scans were assessed for the presence a radiographic seat belt sign (rSBS), or subcutaneous fat stranding due to seat belt loading. In scans in which the rSBS was present, anterior and superior displacement of rSBS from the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) was measured bilaterally. This displacement was correlated with BMI and injury severity. The inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 151 cases for analysis. An rSBS could definitively be identified in 55 cases. Cases in which occupants were older and had higher BMI were more likely to display an rSBS. There was a correlation between increasing BMI and anterior rSBS displacement (P obesity may worsen horizontal position but not the vertical position of the lap belt loading during real-world frontal MVCs.

  13. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes.

  14. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  15. Investigating methods for determining mismatch in near side vehicle impacts - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Kathryn; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne; Stitzel, Joel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates vehicle mismatch in severe side-impact motor vehicle collisions. Research conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has determined that vehicle mismatch often leads to very severe injuries for occupants in the struck vehicle, because the larger striking vehicle does not engage the lower sill upon impact, resulting in severe intrusions into the occupant compartment. Previous studies have analyzed mismatched collisions according to vehicle type, not by the difference in vehicle height and weight. It is hypothesized that the combination of a heavier striking vehicle at a taller height results in more intrusion for the struck vehicle and severe injury for the near side occupant. By analyzing Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) data and occupant injury severity, it is possible to study intrusion and injuries that occur due to vehicle mismatch. CIREN enrolls seriously injured occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) across the United States. From the Toyota-Wake Forest University CIREN center, 23 near side impact cases involving two vehicles were recorded. Only 3 of these seriously injured occupant cases were not considered mismatched according to vehicle curb weight, and only 2 were not considered vehicle mismatched according to height differences. The mismatched CIREN cases had an average difference in vehicle curb weight of 737.0 kg (standard deviation of 646.8) and an average difference in vehicle height of 16.38 cm (standard deviation of 7.186). There were 13 occupants with rib fractures, 12 occupants with pelvic fractures, 9 occupants with pulmonary contusion, and 5 occupants with head injuries, among other multiple injuries. The average Injury Severity Score (ISS) for these occupants was 27, with a standard deviation of 16. The most serious injuries resulted in an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 5, which included 3 occupants. Each of these AIS 5 injuries were to different body regions on different

  16. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  17. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  18. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

  19. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0078] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... integration of electrical signals from vehicle crash sensors would work with the requested mechanical seat... (350,000) of the vehicles were stopped in the traffic lane prior to the crash event (pg. 22, Table 7...

  20. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Aviation Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B

    2015-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA's General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board's data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes.

  1. Camera systems for crash and hyge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppers, Frederik

    1995-05-01

    Since the beginning of the use of high speed cameras for crash and hyge- testing substantial changements have taken place. Both the high speed cameras and the electronic control equipment are more sophisticated nowadays. With regard to high speed equipment, a short historical retrospective view will show that concerning high speed cameras, the improvements are mainly concentrated in design details, where as the electronic control equipment has taken full advantage of the rapid progress in electronic and computer technology in the course of the last decades. Nowadays many companies and institutes involved in crash and hyge-testing wish to perform this testing, as far as possible, as an automatic computer controlled routine in order to maintain and improve security and quality. By means of several in practice realize solutions, it will be shown how their requirements could be met.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the injury severity of large-truck crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of trucking to the economic well being of a country and the safety concerns posed by the trucks, a study of large-truck crashes is critical. This paper contributes by undertaking an extensive analysis of the empirical factors affecting injury severity of large-truck crashes. Data from a recent, nationally representative sample of large-truck crashes are examined to determine the factors affecting the overall injury severity of these crashes. The explanatory factors include the characteristics of the crash, vehicle(s), and the driver(s). The injury severity was modeled using two measures. Several similarities and some differences were observed across the two models which underscore the need for improved accuracy in the assessment of injury severity of crashes. The estimated models capture the marginal effects of a variety of explanatory factors simultaneously. In particular, the models indicate the impacts of several driver behavior variables on the severity of the crashes, after controlling for a variety of other factors. For example, driver distraction (truck drivers), alcohol use (car drivers), and emotional factors (car drivers) are found to be associated with higher severity crashes. A further interesting finding is the strong statistical significance of several dummy variables that indicate missing data - these reflect how the nature of the crash itself could affect the completeness of the data. Future efforts should seek to collect such data more comprehensively so that the true effects of these aspects on the crash severity can be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  4. A simulator-based analysis of engineering treatments for right-hook bicycle crashes at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer; Hurwitz, David S; Monsere, Christopher M; Fleskes, Kayla

    2017-07-01

    A right-hook crash is a crash between a right-turning motor vehicle and an adjacent through-moving bicycle. At signalized intersections, these crashes can occur during any portion of the green interval when conflicting bicycles and vehicles are moving concurrently. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of four types of engineering countermeasures - regulatory signage, intersection pavement marking, smaller curb radius, and protected intersection design - at modifying driver behaviors that are known contributing factors in these crashes. This research focused on right-hook crashes that occur during the latter stage of the circular green indication at signalized intersections with a shared right-turn and through lane. Changes in driver performance in response to treatments were measured in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Twenty-eight participants each completed 22 right-turn maneuvers. A partially counterbalanced experimental design exposed drivers to critical scenarios, which had been determined in a previous experiment. For each turn, driver performance measures, including visual attention, crash avoidance, and potential crash severity, were collected. A total of 75 incidents (47 near-collisions and 28 collisions) were observed during the 616 right turns. All treatments had some positive effect on measured driver performance with respect to the right-turn vehicle conflicts. Further work is required to map the magnitude of these changes in driver performance to crash-based outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crash Injury Risk Behavior in Adolescent Latino Males: The Power of Friends and Relational Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Vaca, Federico E.; Anderson, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections...

  6. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  7. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  8. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  9. Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles' advanced driver assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lishengsa; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Yina; Wang, Ling

    2018-04-11

    The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005-2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles' crashes and heavy trucks' crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Aircraft crash survivability from viscous injury in vertical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated viscous injury from vertical impact loading to determine if it is critical to survivability of aircraft accidents. A unique database was built from autopsy reports and accident investigations combining injury data with the vehicle impact data. Computer models were created and used to assess injury potential. Common design limits and actual crash data from full scale research experiments were used as inputs. The results were analyzed according to publi...

  12. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  13. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  14. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  15. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Intersection crashes between cars and vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, often result in injuries and fatalities. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) can prevent, or mitigate, these crashes. To derive functional requirements for such systems, an understanding of the underlying contributing factors and the context in which the crashes occur is essential. The aim of this study is to use microscopic and macroscopic crash data to explore the potential of information and warning providing ADASs, and then to derive functional sensor, collision detection, and human-machine interface (HMI) requirements. The microscopic data were obtained from the European project SafetyNet. Causation charts describing contributing factors for 60 car-to-VRU crashes had been compiled and were then also aggregated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). The macroscopic data were obtained from the Swedish national crash database, STRADA. A total of 9702 crashes were analyzed. The results show that the most frequent contributing factor to the crashes was the drivers' failure to observe VRUs due to reduced visibility, reduced awareness, and/or insufficient comprehension. An ADAS should therefore help drivers to observe the VRUs in time and to enhance their ability to interpret the development of events in the near future. The system should include a combination of imminent and cautionary collision warnings, with additional support in the form of information about intersection geometry and traffic regulations. The warnings should be deployed via an in-vehicle HMI and according to the likelihood of crash risk. The system should be able to operate under a variety of weather and light conditions. It should have the capacity to support drivers when their view is obstructed by physical objects. To address problems that vehicle-based sensors may face in this regard, the use of cooperative systems is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  19. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  20. Alcohol-related predictors of adolescent driving: gender differences in crashes and offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, J T; Waller, P F; Lang, S W

    1996-11-01

    Demographic and alcohol-related data collected from eight-grade students (age 13 years) were used in logistic regression to predict subsequent first-year driving crashes and offenses (age 17 years). For young men's crashes and offenses, good-fitting models used living situation (both parents or not), parents' attitude about teen drinking (negative or neutral), and the interaction term. Young men who lived with both parents and reported negative parental attitudes regarding teen drinking were less likely to have crashes and offenses. For young women's crashes, a good-fitting model included friends' involvement with alcohol. Young women who reported that their friends were not involved with alcohol were least likely to have crashes. No model predicting young women's offenses emerged.

  1. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  2. Evaluation of the crash mitigation effect of low-speed automated emergency braking systems based on insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crash mitigation performance of low-speed automated emergency braking collision avoidance technologies by examining crash rates, car damage, and personal injuries. Insurance claims data were used to identify rear-end frontal collisions, the specific situations where the low-speed automated emergency braking system intervenes. We compared cars of the same model (Volvo V70) with and without the low-speed automated emergency braking system (AEB and no AEB, respectively). Distributions of spare parts required for car repair were analyzed to identify car damage, and crash severity was estimated by comparing the results with laboratory crash tests. Repair costs and occupant injuries were investigated for both the striking and the struck vehicle. Rear-end frontal collisions were reduced by 27% for cars with low-speed AEB compared to cars without the system. Those of low severity were reduced by 37%, though more severe crashes were not reduced. Accordingly, the number of injured occupants in vehicles struck by low-speed AEB cars was reduced in low-severity crashes. In offset crash configurations, the system was found to be less effective. This study adds important information about the safety performance of collision avoidance technologies, beyond the number of crashes avoided. By combining insurance claims data and information from spare parts used, the study demonstrates a mitigating effect of low-speed AEB in real-world traffic.

  3. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  5. Contributory factors to traffic crashes at signalized intersections in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S C; Sze, N N; Li, Y C

    2007-11-01

    Efficient geometric design and signal timing not only improve operational performance at signalized intersections by expanding capacity and reducing traffic delays, but also result in an appreciable reduction in traffic conflicts, and thus better road safety. Information on the incidence of crashes, traffic flow, geometric design, road environment, and traffic control at 262 signalized intersections in Hong Kong during 2002 and 2003 are incorporated into a crash prediction model. Poisson regression and negative binomial regression are used to quantify the influence of possible contributory factors on the incidence of killed and severe injury (KSI) crashes and slight injury crashes, respectively, while possible interventions by traffic flow are controlled. The results for the incidence of slight injury crashes reveal that the road environment, degree of curvature, and presence of tram stops are significant factors, and that traffic volume has a diminishing effect on the crash risk. The presence of tram stops, number of pedestrian streams, road environment, proportion of commercial vehicles, average lane width, and degree of curvature increase the risk of KSI crashes, but the effect of traffic volume is negligible.

  6. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  7. Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Du, Gang; Li, Dan; Yu, Yao

    2018-08-01

    This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  9. Bayesian log-periodic model for financial crashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Knapik, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bayesian approach in econophysics literature about financial bubbles in order to estimate the most probable time for a financial crash to occur. To this end, we propose using noninformative prior distributions to obtain posterior distributions. Since these distributions...... cannot be performed analytically, we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to draw from posterior distributions. We consider three Bayesian models that involve normal and Student’s t-distributions in the disturbances and an AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) structure only within the first case. In the empirical...... part of the study, we analyze a well-known example of financial bubble – the S&P 500 1987 crash – to show the usefulness of the three methods under consideration and crashes of Merval-94, Bovespa-97, IPCMX-94, Hang Seng-97 using the simplest method. The novelty of this research is that the Bayesian...

  10. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Research Program 2 SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TEORT Total Eyes-Off-Road Time TGT Total Glance Time to Task... Critical Incidents, Driver Restart Period, Sleep Quantity, and Crash Countermeasures in Commercial Vehicle...

  11. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  12. Statewide analysis of bicycle crashes : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to locate existing studies in four areas: (1) risk factors that affect the frequency and severity of bicycle crashes; (2) bicycle crash causes, patterns, and contributing factors; (3) network screening met...

  13. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  14. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  15. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method: Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes...

  16. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  17. Changes in crash risk following re-timing of traffic signal change intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retting, Richard A; Chapline, Janella F; Williams, Allan F

    2002-03-01

    More than I million motor vehicle crashes occur annually at signalized intersections in the USA. The principal method used to prevent crashes associated with routine changes in signal indications is employment of a traffic signal change interval--a brief yellow and all-red period that follows the green indication. No universal practice exists for selecting the duration of change intervals, and little is known about the influence of the duration of the change interval on crash risk. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential crash effects of modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with a proposed recommended practice published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. A sample of 122 intersections was identified and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Of 51 eligible experimental sites, 40 (78%) needed signal timing changes. For the 3-year period following implementation of signal timing changes, there was an 8% reduction in reportable crashes at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites (P = 0.08). For injury crashes, a 12% reduction at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites was found (P = 0.03). Pedestrian and bicycle crashes at experimental sites decreased 37% (P = 0.03) relative to controls. Given these results and the relatively low cost of re-timing traffic signals, modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with the Institute of Transportation Engineers' proposed recommended practice should be strongly considered by transportation agencies to reduce the frequency of urban motor vehicle crashes.

  18. Volvo drivers' experiences with advanced crash avoidance and related technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Crash avoidance technologies can potentially prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. Owners of 2010-2012 model Volvo vehicles with several technologies were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were conducted in summer 2012 with 155 owners of vehicles with City Safety as a standard feature; 145 owners with an optional technology package that included adaptive cruise control, distance alert, collision warning with full auto brake (and pedestrian detection on certain models), driver alert control, and lane departure warning; and 172 owners with both City Safety and the technology package. The survey response rates were 21 percent for owners with City Safety, 30 percent for owners with the technology package, and 27 percent for owners with both. Ten percent of owners opted out before the telephone survey began, and 18 percent declined to participate when called. Despite some annoyance, most respondents always leave the systems on, although fewer do so for lane departure warning (59%). For each of the systems, at least 80 percent of respondents with the system would want it on their next vehicle. Many respondents reported safer driving habits with the systems (e.g., following less closely with adaptive cruise control, using turn signals more often with lane departure warning). Fewer respondents reported potentially unsafe behavior, such as allowing the vehicle to brake for them at least some of the time. About one third of respondents experienced autonomous braking when they believed they were at risk of crashing, and about one fifth of respondents thought it had prevented a crash. About one fifth of respondents with the technology package reported that they were confused or misunderstood which safety system had activated in their vehicle. Consistent with the results for early adopters in the previous survey of Volvo and Infiniti owners, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies

  19. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Simons‐Morton, B; Ouimet, M C

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain elevated among novice teen drivers for at least several years after licensure. Licensing policies and driver education are the two primary countermeasures employed to decrease young driver crash risks. Graduated driver licensing policies have proved to be effective in reducing crash rates where evaluated. Driver education is an essential part of teaching teens the rules of the road and operating a vehicle, but requires few hours of professional driver training, re...

  20. Predicting Crashes Using Traffic Offences. A Meta-Analysis that Examines Potential Bias between Self-Report and Archival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Wåhlberg, Anders; Freeman, James; Watson, Barry; Watson, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Traffic offences have been considered an important predictor of crash involvement, and have often been used as a proxy safety variable for crashes. However the association between crashes and offences has never been meta-analysed and the population effect size never established. Research is yet to determine the extent to which this relationship may be spuriously inflated through systematic measurement error, with obvious implications for researchers endeavouring to accurately identify salient factors predictive of crashes. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies yielding a correlation between crashes and traffic offences were collated and a meta-analysis of 144 effects drawn from 99 road safety studies conducted. Potential impact of factors such as age, time period, crash and offence rates, crash severity and data type, sourced from either self-report surveys or archival records, were considered and discussed. After weighting for sample size, an average correlation of r = .18 was observed over the mean time period of 3.2 years. Evidence emerged suggesting the strength of this correlation is decreasing over time. Stronger correlations between crashes and offences were generally found in studies involving younger drivers. Consistent with common method variance effects, a within country analysis found stronger effect sizes in self-reported data even controlling for crash mean. Significance The effectiveness of traffic offences as a proxy for crashes may be limited. Inclusion of elements such as independently validated crash and offence histories or accurate measures of exposure to the road would facilitate a better understanding of the factors that influence crash involvement. PMID:27128093

  1. An epidemiological survey on road traffic crashes in Iran: application of the two logistic regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Mirbagheri, Babak; Hariri, Gholam Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Soori, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors of human-related traffic crashes are the most important and preventable challenges for community health due to their noteworthy burden in developing countries in particular. The present study aims to investigate the role of human risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran. Through a cross-sectional study using the COM 114 data collection forms, the police records of almost 600,000 crashes occurred in 2010 are investigated. The binary logistic regression and proportional odds regression models are used. The odds ratio for each risk factor is calculated. These models are adjusted for known confounding factors including age, sex and driving time. The traffic crash reports of 537,688 men (90.8%) and 54,480 women (9.2%) are analysed. The mean age is 34.1 ± 14 years. Not maintaining eyes on the road (53.7%) and losing control of the vehicle (21.4%) are the main causes of drivers' deaths in traffic crashes within cities. Not maintaining eyes on the road is also the most frequent human risk factor for road traffic crashes out of cities. Sudden lane excursion (OR = 9.9, 95% CI: 8.2-11.9) and seat belt non-compliance (OR = 8.7, CI: 6.7-10.1), exceeding authorised speed (OR = 17.9, CI: 12.7-25.1) and exceeding safe speed (OR = 9.7, CI: 7.2-13.2) are the most significant human risk factors for traffic crashes in Iran. The high mortality rate of 39 people for every 100,000 population emphasises on the importance of traffic crashes in Iran. Considering the important role of human risk factors in traffic crashes, struggling efforts are required to control dangerous driving behaviours such as exceeding speed, illegal overtaking and not maintaining eyes on the road.

  2. Crash simulation: an immersive learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenham, John; Bennett, Paul; Gleeson, Wendy

    2017-12-26

    Far West New South Wales Local Emergency Management Committee runs an annual crash simulation exercise to assess the operational readiness of all local emergency services to coordinate and manage a multi-casualty exercise. Since 2009, the Broken Hill University Department of Rural Health (BHUDRH) has collaborated with the committee, enabling the inclusion of health students in this exercise. It is an immersive interprofessional learning experience that evaluates teamwork, communication and safe effective clinical trauma management outside the hospital setting. After 7 years of modifying and developing the exercise, we set out to evaluate its impact on the students' learning, and sought ethics approval from the University of Sydney for this study. At the start of this year's crash simulation, students were given information sheets and consent forms with regards to the research. Once formal debriefing had finished, the researchers conducted a semi-structured focus-group interview with the health students to gain insight into their experience and their perceived value of the training. Students also completed short-answer questionnaires, and the anonymised responses were analysed. Crash simulation … evaluates teamwork, communication and safe effective clinical trauma management IMPLICATIONS: Participants identified that this multidisciplinary learning opportunity in a pre-hospital mass casualty situation was of value to them. It has taken them outside of their usually protected hospital or primary care setting and tested their critical thinking and communication skills. We recommend this learning concept to other educational institutions. Further research will assess the learning value of the simulated event to the other agencies involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  3. Using linked data to evaluate collisions with fixed objects in Pennsylvania : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report uses police-reported motor vehicle crash data linked to Emergency Medical Services data and hospital discharge data to evaluate the relative risk of injury posed by specific roadside objects in Pennsylvania. The report focuses primarily o...

  4. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  5. Macro-level vulnerable road users crash analysis: A Bayesian joint modeling approach of frequency and proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers. To accommodate for the potentially different impact of exogenous factors we convert the non-motorist crash counts as the product of total crash counts and proportion of non-motorist crashes and formulate a joint model of the negative binomial (NB) model and the logit model to deal with the two parts, respectively. The formulated joint model is estimated using non-motorist crash data based on the Traffic Analysis Districts (TADs) in Florida. Meanwhile, the traditional NB model is also estimated and compared with the joint model. The result indicates that the joint model provides better data fit and can identify more significant variables. Subsequently, a novel joint screening method is suggested based on the proposed model to identify hot zones for non-motorist crashes. The hot zones of non-motorist crashes are identified and divided into three types: hot zones with more dangerous driving environment only, hot zones with more hazardous walking and cycling conditions only, and hot zones with both. It is expected that the joint model and screening method can help decision makers, transportation officials, and community planners to make more efficient treatments to proactively improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From “Crash!” to Crash: Adapting the Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Matek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on J.G. Ballard’s various adaptations of his own material related to the issue of the sexual and sensual nature of an automobile crash, and suggests that adaptation is one of the key methods in art and literature which can be used as a means of contemplating and developing various aesthetic and political ideas. Ballard’s short story “Crash!” was first published in the ICA’s (Institute of Contemporary Arts Eventsheet in February 1969, and later became a chapter of his experimental novel The Atrocity Exhibition (1970. At the same time, Ballard adapts the idea into the “Crashed Cars” exhibition (1970 in London. The short story was then adapted into a short film, Crash!, directed by Harley Cokeliss (1971 and starring Ballard himself, to be finally adapted into the novel Crash (1973. Ballard’s adaptation of his initial ideas across literary forms and media testifies to the importance of adaptation as a process and method of creating art. Thus, rather than suggesting that adaptations merely “breathe life” into the written word, the paper points to the conclusion that the form and content are mutually influential and that, in this case, the novel itself is an adaptation, rather than a hypotext (which it becomes in 1996 to David Cronenberg as he adapts it to film. The complexity of the relationship between the source text and its many adaptations has already contributed to the deconstruction, in Derrida’s terms, of the hierarchy (opposition between the original and the copy. Rather, Ballard’s crossmedial and transmedial adaptations of his own ideas show how, as Ray would suggest, an adaptation cites the source and grafts it into a new context, giving it a new function, both aesthetic and political.

  8. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Definition of run-off-road crash clusters-For safety benefit estimation and driver assistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Lindman, Magdalena; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Single-vehicle run-off-road crashes are a major traffic safety concern, as they are associated with a high proportion of fatal outcomes. In addressing run-off-road crashes, the development and evaluation of advanced driver assistance systems requires test scenarios that are representative of the variability found in real-world crashes. We apply hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to define similarities in a set of crash data variables, these clusters can then be used as the basis in test scenario development. Out of 13 clusters, nine test scenarios are derived, corresponding to crashes characterised by: drivers drifting off the road in daytime and night-time, high speed departures, high-angle departures on narrow roads, highways, snowy roads, loss-of-control on wet roadways, sharp curves, and high speeds on roads with severe road surface conditions. In addition, each cluster was analysed with respect to crash variables related to the crash cause and reason for the unintended lane departure. The study shows that cluster analysis of representative data provides a statistically based method to identify relevant properties for run-off-road test scenarios. This was done to support development of vehicle-based run-off-road countermeasures and driver behaviour models used in virtual testing. Future studies should use driver behaviour from naturalistic driving data to further define how test-scenarios and behavioural causation mechanisms should be included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technostress: Surviving a Database Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobb, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of technostress in libraries focuses on a database crash at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Steps taken to restore the data are explained, strategies for handling technological accidents are suggested, the impact on library staff is discussed, and a 10-item annotated bibliography on technostress is provided.…

  11. Crash simulations for interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading

  12. 2008 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2008 were down to 980, a 9.6 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 7.5 percent to 74,568 and total crashes dropped 2.5 percent to 316,057. Most : no...

  13. 2009 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2009 were down to 871, a 11.1 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 4.9 percent to 70,931 and total crashes dropped 7.9 percent to 290,978. Most : n...

  14. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  15. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR... school bus occupants against structures within the vehicle during crashes and sudden driving maneuvers... removable without tools or to flip up must have a self-latching mechanism that is activated when a 22-kg (48...

  16. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K

    2017-09-22

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. 2014. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash

  17. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  18. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  19. Decreasing adhesions and avoiding further surgery in a pediatric patient involved in a severe pedestrian versus motor vehicle accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rice

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, we report the use of manual physical therapy in a pediatric patient experiencing complications from a life-threatening motor vehicle accident that necessitated 19 surgeries over the course of 12 months. Post-surgical adhesions decreased the patient’s quality of life. He developed multiple medical conditions including recurrent partial bowel obstructions and an ascending testicle. In an effort to avoid further surgery for bowel obstruction and the ascending testicle, the patient was effectively treated with a manual physical therapy regimen focused on decreasing adhesions. The therapy allowed return to an improved quality of life, significant decrease in subjective reports of pain and dysfunction, and apparent decreases in adhesive processes without further surgery, which are important goals for all patients, but especially for pediatric patients.

  20. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    KAUST Repository

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolò ; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain

  1. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  2. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  3. Rupture of the aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992-1999. The results of the co-operative crash injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, D; Kotidis, K; Neale, M; Oakley, C; Fails, A

    2003-02-01

    The true incidence and survivability of blunt traumatic aortic rupture following road traffic accidents in the UK is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in the UK after road traffic accidents and the conditions under which it occurs. Data for the study was obtained from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database. Road traffic accidents that happened between 1992 and 1999 and included in the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database were retrospectively investigated. A total of 8285 vehicles carrying 14,435 occupants were involved in 7067 accidents. There were 132 cases of blunt traumatic aortic rupture, of which the scene survival was 9% and the overall mortality was 98%. Twenty-one percent of all fatalities had blunt traumatic aortic rupture (130/613). Twenty-nine percent were due to frontal impacts and 44% were due to side impacts. Twelve percent of the blunt traumatic aortic rupture cases in frontal vehicle impacts were wearing seat belts and had airbag protection and 19% had no restraint mechanism. The Equivalent Test Speed of the accident vehicles, (where equivalent test speed provides an estimate of the vehicle impact severity and not an estimate of the vehicle speed at the time of the accident), ranged from 30 to 110 km/h in frontal impacts and from 15 to 82 km/h in side impacts. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture carries a high mortality and occurred in 21% of car occupant deaths in this sample of road traffic accidents. Impact scenarios varied but were most common from the side. The use of an airbag or seat belt does not eliminate risk. The injury can occur at low severity impacts particularly in side impact. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Injury mitigation estimates for an intersection driver assistance system in straight crossing path crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2017-05-29

    Accounting for one fifth of all crashes and one sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States, intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection advanced driver assistance systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS. This study retrospectively simulated 448 U.S. SCP crashes as if one of the vehicles had been equipped with I-ADAS. Crashes were reconstructed to determine the path and speeds traveled by the vehicles. Cases were then simulated with I-ADAS. A total of 30 variations of I-ADAS were considered in this study. These variations consisted of 5 separate activation timing thresholds, 3 separate computational latency times, and 2 different I-ADAS response modalities (i.e., a warning or autonomous braking). The likelihood of a serious driver injury was computed for every vehicle in every crash using impact delta-V. The results were then compiled across all crashes in order to estimate system effectiveness. The model predicted that an I-ADAS that delivers an alert to the driver has the potential to prevent 0-23% of SCP crashes and 0-25% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. Conversely, an I-ADAS that autonomously brakes was found to have the potential to prevent 25-59% of crashes and 38-79% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. I-ADAS effectiveness is a strong function of design. Increasing computational latency time from 0 to 0.5 s was found to reduce crash and injury prevention estimates by approximately one third. For an I-ADAS that delivers an alert, crash/injury prevention effectiveness was found to be very sensitive to

  5. An assessment of commercial motor vehicle driver distraction using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jeffrey S; Hanowski, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed naturalistic driving data from commercial trucks (3-axle and tractor-trailer/tanker) and buses (transit and motorcoach) during a 3-month period. The data set contained 183 commercial truck and bus fleets comprising 13,306 vehicles and included 1085 crashes, 8375 near crashes, 30,661 crash-relevant conflicts, and 211,171 baseline events. Study results documented the prevalence of tertiary tasks and the risks associated with performing these tasks while driving. Results indicated the odds of involvement in a safety-critical event differed as a function of performing different cell phone-related subtasks while driving. Although the odds ratio for talking/listening on a cell phone while driving was found to not significantly increase the likelihood of involvement in a safety-critical event, other cell phone subtasks (e.g., texting, dialing, reaching) were found to significantly increase the odds of involvement in a safety-critical event. The results suggest that cell phone use while driving should not be considered a simple dichotomous task (yes/no). Consideration should instead be made for a set of discrete cell phone subtasks that are each associated with varying levels of risk. Several hypotheses are presented to explain why cell phone use while driving was found to not increase the likelihood of involvement in a safety-critical event.

  6. Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: a French registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Orriols

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction.We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]. We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40] and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40] prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27].The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.

  7. Commercial truck crash injury severity analysis using gradient boosting data mining model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zijian; Lu, Pan; Lantz, Brenda

    2018-06-01

    Truck crashes contribute to a large number of injuries and fatalities. This study seeks to identify the contributing factors affecting truck crash severity using 2010 to 2016 North Dakota and Colorado crash data provided by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. To fulfill a gap of previous studies, broad considerations of company and driver characteristics, such as company size and driver's license class, along with vehicle types and crash characteristics are researched. Gradient boosting, a data mining technique, is applied to comprehensively analyze the relationship between crash severities and a set of heterogeneous risk factors. Twenty five variables were tested and 22 of them are identified as significant variables contributing to injury severities, however, top 11 variables account for more than 80% of injury forecasting. The relative variable importance analysis is conducted and furthermore marginal effects of all contributing factors are also illustrated in this research. Several factors such as trucking company attributes (e.g., company size), safety inspection values, trucking company commerce status (e.g., interstate or intrastate), time of day, driver's age, first harmful events, and registration condition are found to be significantly associated with crash injury severity. Even though most of the identified contributing factors are significant for all four levels of crash severity, their relative importance and marginal effect are all different. For the first time, trucking company and driver characteristics are proved to have significant impact on truck crash injury severity. Some of the results in this study reinforce previous studies' conclusions. Findings in this study can be helpful for transportation agencies to reduce injury severity, and develop efficient strategies to improve safety. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene M; Jennissen, Charles A

    2016-05-18

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for off-highway use only, and many of their features create increased risk with roadway travel. Over half of all ATV-related fatalities occur on roadways, and nonfatal roadway crashes result in more serious injuries than those off the road. A number of jurisdictions have passed or have considered legislation allowing ATVs on public roadways, sometimes limiting them to those unpaved, arguing that they are safe for ATVs. However, no studies have determined the epidemiology of ATV-related fatalities on different road surface types. The objective of the study was to compare ATV-related deaths on paved versus unpaved roads and to contrast them with off-road fatalities. Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed using U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data from 1982 through 2012. After 1998, ATV-related deaths increased at twice the rate on paved versus unpaved roads. Still, 42% of all roadway deaths during the study period occurred on unpaved surfaces. States varied considerably, ranging from 18% to 79% of their ATV-related roadway deaths occurring on unpaved roads. Paved road crashes were more likely than those on unpaved surfaces to involve males, adolescents and younger adults, passengers, and collisions with other vehicles. Both the pattern of other vehicles involved in collisions and which vehicle hit the other were different for the 2 road types. Alcohol use was higher, helmet use was lower, and head injuries were more likely in paved versus unpaved roadway crashes. However, head injuries still occurred in 76% of fatalities on unpaved roads. Helmets were associated with lower proportions of head injuries among riders, regardless of road surface type. Relative to off-road crashes, both paved and unpaved roads were more likely to involve collisions with another vehicle. The vast majority of roadway crashes, however, did not involve a traffic collision on either paved or unpaved roads

  9. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  10. Incidence and mechanism of neurological deficit after thoracolumbar fractures sustained in motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sourabh; Beck, Chad; Yoganandan, Narayan; Rao, Raj D

    2015-10-09

    OBJECT To determine the incidence of and assess the risk factors associated with neurological injury in motor vehicle occupants who sustain fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. METHODS In this study, the authors queried medical, vehicle, and crash data elements from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), a prospectively gathered multicenter database compiled from Level I trauma centers. Subjects had fractures involving the T1-L5 vertebral segments, an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of ≥ 3, or injury to 2 body regions with an AIS score of ≥ 2 in each region. Demographic parameters obtained for all subjects included age, sex, height, body weight, and body mass index. Clinical parameters obtained included the level of the injured vertebra and the level and type of spinal cord injury. Vehicular crash data included vehicle make, seatbelt type, and usage and appropriate use of the seatbelt. Crash data parameters included the principal direction of force, change in velocity on impact (ΔV), airbag deployment, and vehicle rollover. The authors performed a univariate analysis of the incidence and the odds of sustaining spinal neurological injury associated with major thoracolumbar fractures with respect to the demographic, clinical, and crash parameters. RESULTS Neurological deficit associated with thoracolumbar fracture was most frequent at extremes of age; the highest rates were in the 0- to 10-year (26.7% [4 of 15]) and 70- to 80-year (18.4% [7 of 38]) age groups. Underweight occupants (OR 3.52 [CI 1.055-11.7]) and obese occupants (OR 3.27 [CI 1.28-8.31]) both had higher odds of sustaining spinal cord injury than occupants with a normal body mass index. The highest risk of neurological injury existed in crashes in which airbags deployed and the occupant was not restrained by a seatbelt (OR 2.35 [CI 0.087-1.62]). Reduction in the risk of neurological injuries occurred when 3-point seatbelts were used correctly in conjunction with the

  11. Illiquidity Contagion and Liquidity Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Thierry Foucault

    2014-01-01

    Liquidity providers often learn information about an asset from prices of other assets. We show that this generates a self-reinforcing positive relationship between price informativeness and liquidity. This relationship causes liquidity spillovers and is a source of fragility: a small drop in the liquidity of one asset can, through a feedback loop, result in a very large drop in market liquidity and price informativeness (a liquidity crash). This feedback loop provides a new explanation for c...

  12. Observed and unobserved correlation between crash avoidance manoeuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding drivers’ responses to critical events, analyzing drivers’ abilities to perform corrective manoeuvers, and investigating the correlation between these manoeuvers and crash severity provide the opportunity of increasing the knowledge about how to avoid crash occurrence or at least mit...

  13. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Monica M

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003 to 2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell phone users, reported crash risk, unsafe driving behaviors and dispositions: a survey of motorists in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Fang; Wang, Min Qi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify risky driving behaviors and dispositions that distinguish drivers who use a cell phone while operating a motor vehicle from non-cell phone using drivers. Annual telephone surveys were used to identify drivers who reported using a cell phone while driving in the last month (n=1803) and were compared to those who said they did not use cell phones while driving (n=1578). Cell phone using drivers were more likely to report driving while drowsy, going 20 mph over the speed limit, driving aggressively, running a stop sign or red light, and driving after having had several drinks. They were also more likely to have had a prior history of citation and crash involvement than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers also reported they were less careful and more in a hurry when they drive than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers report engaging in many behaviors that place them at risk for a traffic crash, independent of the specific driving impairments that cell phone usage may produce. Strategies that combine coordinated and sustained enforcement activities along with widespread public awareness campaigns hold promise as effective countermeasures for these drivers, who resemble aggressive drivers in many respects.

  15. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  16. Understanding traffic crash under-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Hels, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aligns to the body of research dedicated to estimating the underreporting of road crash injuries and adds the perspective of understanding individual and crash factors contributing to the decision to report a crash to the police, the hospital, or both. Method: This study foc...... policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend)....

  17. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  18. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  19. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  20. A comprehensive engineering analysis of motorcycle crashes in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify recurring or common road characteristics of motorcycle crashes : in Maryland from 1998 to 2007. Motorcycle crash data was obtained from the National Highway : Traffic Safety Administrations Crash Outcome Data...

  1. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  2. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    KAUST Repository

    Delaine, David A.

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student participation in engineering education (EE). SPEED is a global, non-profit student organisation that functions as an interdisciplinary network to diversify dialogue, stimulate change and impact the development of EE and its effect on society. SPEED is directly attracting young people to engineering in various ways: the organisation of its keynote event, the Global Student Forum; facilitating interactions between globally minded, socially inclined engineers with aspirations to change the world; and through the global dissemination of SPEED\\'s work and practices through broad and relevant channels. Short-term outcomes are highlighted here. This case study can serve as a model for student engagement and involvement in other disciplines. © 2010 SEFI.

  3. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, B; Ouimet, M C

    2006-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain elevated among novice teen drivers for at least several years after licensure. Licensing policies and driver education are the two primary countermeasures employed to decrease young driver crash risks. Graduated driver licensing policies have proved to be effective in reducing crash rates where evaluated. Driver education is an essential part of teaching teens the rules of the road and operating a vehicle, but requires few hours of professional driver training, relying mainly on parents to provide most of the supervised practice driving teens obtain before independent driving licensure. The few studies that have been conducted to increase parent supervised practice driving have not shown positive results. Moreover, it is unclear that increases in practice would improve independent driving safety. Recent research has shown that parent management of the early independent driving experience of novice teens improves safety outcomes, and other research has shown that it is possible to increase parent management practices. This paper provides a review of the literature on parent involvement in supervised practice and independent driving, and efforts to increase parental management.

  4. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  5. Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.

  6. Predicting severe injury using vehicle telemetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Bulger, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration standardized collision data collected by event data recorders, which may help determine appropriate emergency medical service (EMS) response. Previous models (e.g., General Motors ) predict severe injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 15) using occupant demographics and collision data. Occupant information is not automatically available, and 12% of calls from advanced automatic collision notification providers are unanswered. To better inform EMS triage, our goal was to create a predictive model only using vehicle collision data. Using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System data set, we included front-seat occupants in late-model vehicles (2000 and later) in nonrollover and rollover crashes in years 2000 to 2010. Telematic (change in velocity, direction of force, seat belt use, vehicle type and curb weight, as well as multiple impact) and nontelematic variables (maximum intrusion, narrow impact, and passenger ejection) were included. Missing data were multiply imputed. The University of Washington model was tested to predict severe injury before application of guidelines (Step 0) and for occupants who did not meet Steps 1 and 2 criteria (Step 3) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Field Triage Guidelines. A probability threshold of 20% was chosen in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. There were 28,633 crashes, involving 33,956 vehicles and 52,033 occupants, of whom 9.9% had severe injury. At Step 0, the University of Washington model sensitivity was 40.0% and positive predictive value (PPV) was 20.7%. At Step 3, the sensitivity was 32.3 % and PPV was 10.1%. Model analysis excluding nontelematic variables decreased sensitivity and PPV. The sensitivity of the re-created General Motors model was 38.5% at Step 0 and 28.1% at Step 3. We designed a model using only vehicle collision data that was predictive of severe injury at

  7. A trial of retrofitted advisory collision avoidance technology in government fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James P; Mackenzie, Jamie R R; Dutschke, Jeffrey K; Baldock, Matthew R J; Raftery, Simon J; Wall, John

    2018-06-01

    In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety. The evaluation consisted of three components: (1) analysis of objective data to examine effects of the technology on driving behaviour, (2) analysis of video footage taken from a sample of the vehicles to examine driving circumstances that trigger headway monitoring and forward collision warnings, and (3) a survey completed by 122 of the 199 individuals who drove the trial vehicles to examine experiences with, and attitudes to, the technology. Analysis of the objective data found that the system resulted in changes in behaviour with increased headway and improved lane keeping, but that these improvements dissipated once the warning alerts were switched off. Therefore, the system is capable of altering behaviour but only when it is actively providing alerts. In-vehicle video footage revealed that over a quarter of forward collision warnings were false alarms, in which a warning event was triggered despite there being no vehicle travelling ahead. The surveyed drivers recognised that the system could improve safety but most did not wish to use it themselves as they found it to be distracting and felt that it would not prevent them from having a crash. The results demonstrate that collision avoidance technology can improve driving behaviour but drivers may need to be educated about the potential benefits for their driving in order to accept the technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  9. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  10. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when

  11. System crash as dynamics of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yubo; Wang, Zhen; Kurths, Jürgen; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-10-18

    Complex systems, from animal herds to human nations, sometimes crash drastically. Although the growth and evolution of systems have been extensively studied, our understanding of how systems crash is still limited. It remains rather puzzling why some systems, appearing to be doomed to fail, manage to survive for a long time whereas some other systems, which seem to be too big or too strong to fail, crash rapidly. In this contribution, we propose a network-based system dynamics model, where individual actions based on the local information accessible in their respective system structures may lead to the "peculiar" dynamics of system crash mentioned above. Extens