WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle control finally

  1. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  2. Vehicle Lateral Control Under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guang; Huang, Jihua; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the research results of Task Order 4204(TO4204), "Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors". This project is a continuing effort of the Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) on the research of passenger vehicles for Automated Highway Systems (AHS).

  3. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  4. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Increase of the Vehicle Mass for 3-Wheeled Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action changes the regulatory definition of a motorcycle to include 3-wheeled vehicles weighing up to 1749 pounds effective for 1998 and later model year motorcycles for which emission standards are in place.

  5. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing more protective tailpipe emissions standards for all passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles (SUVs), minivans, vans and pick-up trucks.

  6. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: State Commitments to National Low Emission Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing a final rule representing the next step in establishing a voluntary nationwide program to make new cars significantly cleaner burning than today’s current cars.

  7. 40 CFR 85.1505 - Final admission of certified vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor... vehicle or engine from the previous test (e.g., adjusting the RPM, timing, air-to-fuel ratio, etc.) other... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final admission of certified vehicles...

  8. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  9. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  10. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  11. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  12. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  13. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  14. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  15. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  16. Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0747 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ayers, Bradley...ANSI Std. Z39.18 CONTROL OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES USING TRANSVERSE JETS Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract N00014-13-1...fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle model using the thrust of the zero-net-mass-flux device. The experiments were conducted in NUWC Newport’ s

  17. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1509 - Final admission of modification and test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test vehicles. 85.1509 Section 85.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1509 Final admission of modification and test vehicles. (a) Except...

  19. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  20. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Evaporative and Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasolineand Methanol-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Technical Amen

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1993 EPA finalized a new test procedure to measure evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The amendments modify several of the test procedure’s tolerances, equipment specifications, and procedural steps.

  1. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  2. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  3. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  4. Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

    2005-08-01

    Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

  5. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Modification of Federal Onboard Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks; Extension of Acceptance of California OBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action finalizes modifications to the federal on-board diagnostics regulations, including: harmonizing the emission levels above which a component or system is considered malfunctioning with those of the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  6. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Forecasts : Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Federal and state fuel taxes account for the largest share of the Texas State Highway Fund at 48 percent and 29 percent, respectively, in Fiscal Year 2015. These taxes are levied on a per-gallon basis, meaning that as vehicles get more fuel efficient...

  7. A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Autonomous Vehicles Joseph DiVita, PhD Robert L. Morris Maria Olinda Rodas SSC Pacific Approved...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 09–2013 Final A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles Joseph...Mission Area: Command and Control, Queueing Model; Supervisory Control; Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles M. O. Rodas U U U U 38 (619)

  8. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  9. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Vehicles in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-14

    COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN ADVERSARIAL ENVIRONMENTS Grant #F49620–01–1–0361 Final Report Jeff Shamma Department of...CONTRACT NUMBER F49620-01-1-0361 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN...single dominant language or a distribution of languages. A relation to multivehicle systems is understanding how highly autonomous vehicles on extended

  10. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  11. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  12. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  13. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  14. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  15. Virtual sensors for advanced vehicle stability control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Schouten, H.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced vehicle control technologies provide a great potential to further improve vehicle handling, ride and safety. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the added value of the TNO Vehicle State Estimation module to integrated active safety. State-of-the-art Electronic Stability Control

  16. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  17. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  18. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  19. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  20. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  1. Different control applications on a vehicle using fuzzy logic control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicle vibrations; active suspensions; fuzzy logic control; vehicle model. 1. .... The general expression of the mathematical model is shown below: .... Figure 5a presents the time history of the control force when the controller exists only under.

  2. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  3. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  4. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  5. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  7. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  8. Contribution to intelligent vehicle platoon control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao , Jin

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis is dedicated to the control strategies for intelligent vehicle platoon in highway with the main aims of alleviating traffic congestion and improving traffic safety. After a review of the different existing automated driving systems, the vehicle longitudinal and lateral dynamic models are derived. Then, the longitudinal control and lateral control strategies are studied respectively. At first, the longitudinal control system is designed to be hierarchical with an upper level co...

  9. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  10. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  11. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  12. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108] Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011- 2013 AGENCY... availability. SUMMARY: This document announces the availability of the Final NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel.... This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2009...

  13. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  14. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  15. Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Section 202 (1)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended (Section 206 of the Clean Air Act Amendments) (CAAA) of 1990 added paragraph (1) to Section 202 of the (CAA), directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complete a study by May 15, 1992 of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under the Act and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1)(1). Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benezene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel particulate matter, gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as certain of the metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is on carcinogenic risk. The study attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue

  16. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  17. A database on electric vehicle use in Sweden. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridstrand, Niklas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA) at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), has taken responsibility for developing and maintaining a database on electric and hybrid road vehicles in Sweden. The Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, (KFB) initiated the development of this database. Information is collected from three major cities in Sweden: Malmoe, Gothenburg and Stockholm, as well as smaller cities such as Skellefteaa and Haernoesand in northern Sweden. This final report summarises the experience gained during the development and maintenance of the database from February 1996 to December 1999. Our aim was to construct a well-functioning database for the evaluation of electric and hybrid road vehicles in Sweden. The database contains detailed information on several years' use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Sweden (for example, 220 million driving records). Two data acquisition systems were used, one less and one more complex with respect to the number of quantities logged. Unfortunately, data collection was not complete, due to malfunctioning of the more complex system, and due to human factors for the less complex system.

  18. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  19. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  20. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  1. Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.

  2. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  3. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  4. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.

    1980-09-01

    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  5. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  6. Velocity Controller for a Class of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Przemyslaw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of velocity tracking control for various fully-actuated robotic vehicles. The presented method, which is based on transformation of equations of motion allows one to use, in the control gain matrix, the dynamical couplings existing in the system. Consequently, the dynamics of the vehicle is incorporated into the control process what leads to fast velocity error convergence. The stability of the system under the controller is derived based on Lyapunov argument. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed controller is shown too. The general approach is valid for 6 DOF models as well as other reduced models of vehicles. Simulation results on a 6 DOF indoor airship validate the described velocity tracking methodology.

  7. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  8. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  9. Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi

    1993-01-01

    The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.

  10. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 degrees in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 degrees.

  11. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 deg. in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 deg.

  12. Virtualized Network Control. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document is the final report for the Virtualized Network Control (VNC) project, which was funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. This project was also informally referred to as Advanced Resource Computation for Hybrid Service and TOpology NEtworks (ARCHSTONE). This report provides a summary of the project's activities, tasks, deliverable, and accomplishments. It also provides a summary of the documents, software, and presentations generated as part of this projects activities. Namely, the Appendix contains an archive of the deliverables, documents, and presentations generated a part of this project.

  13. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  14. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  15. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  16. Canadians' perceptions of electric vehicle technology : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    While Canadians seem to appreciate some of the possible benefits of electric vehicle technology (EVT), they generally lack knowledge or understanding of EVTs, in terms of how they operate and what types of EVT vehicles are currently available. This paper described the challenges associated with the adoption of EVT in Canada. In particular, it described a research program that was designed to assess Canadians' attitudes towards electric vehicle technology, in order to provide input into the development of a technology roadmap and its implementation plan, to provide input into communications plans and strategies to promote greater awareness and acceptance of the technology, and to establish baseline attitudinal indicators that could be tracked over time. Specifically, the objectives of the paper were to measure the Canadian public's levels of awareness, knowledge and comfort with EVTs; determine the motivators to adoption of EVT; determine the barriers to broader acceptance and market diffusion of EVT; and identify key group differences. Topics that were discussed included public awareness and knowledge of electric vehicle technology; and interest in plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery-electric vehicles, including perceived advantages and barriers. A profile of drivers consisted of a review of vehicle type; vehicle use profile; size of vehicle; considerations when choosing a vehicle; personal orientation to vehicle ownership; attitudes about vehicle choice; and attitudes about vehicles and air quality. Descriptions of the quantitative and qualitative methods employed in conducting the research, as well as the survey questionnaire and discussion guide were included as appendices. It was concluded that the small proportion of Canadian drivers who see vehicles as a form of personal expression are more likely to be interested in a future plug-in hybrid electric vehicles purchase or rental. tabs., figs., appendices.

  17. Coordinated Control of Vehicle Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    .... There are three main objectives: (1) to develop a theoretical paradigm for formalizing the concepts of a group, a team, and control of groups, with specified tasks such as exploring, mapping, searching, and transporting objects; (2...

  18. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  19. Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gacovski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combi­nation of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.

  20. Design and analysis of control strategies for vehicle platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, A.; Li, Hong; Goswami, D.; Math, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel vehicle platoon control algorithm using Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications between platoon members. A platoon forms a chain of vehicles (e.g., trucks) for improved traffic and fuel efficiency. Platooning algorithms aim to

  1. Labview Application For A Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Paladine Vieira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction of a vehicle driven by electric motors and that is automated, that is, that can move anywhere without human intervention. The control was done using the software Labview, with data acquisition and generation of control signs. The vehicle has an infrared sensors system that indicates the existence of an obstacle ahead the vehicle, informing it that it should stop and bypass the obstacle. The program is the responsible for the engine control, making it possible for the prototype to run and bypass the objects that block its way. The possibility of remote-controlling a vehicle is very important is risky situations for human beings, for example in radioactive places. The main advantage of this system is the total flexibility for making alterations in the control software, without being necessary to touch the physical part of the prototype. The conclusion of this work is that the system is efficient and able to move in a room with objects without touching them.

  2. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  3. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  4. Hybrid vehicle energy management: singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energymanagement is often studied in simulation as an optimal control problem. Under strict convexity assumptions, a solution can be developed using Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In practice, however, many engineers do not formally check these assumptions resulting in the possible

  5. 77 FR 73039 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Vantage Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Determination Concerning Vantage Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... of Vantage Vehicle electric trucks and vans. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the United States is the country of origin of the Vantage Vehicle EVX1000 and...

  6. Insurance issues and natural gas vehicles. Final report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    GRI has been funding research on natural gas vehicle (NGV) technology since 1986. To support the activity, GRI is evaluating a number of NGV issues including fuel storage, tank inspection, system safety, refueling, U.S. auto and truck use characteristics, and the fleet vehicle infrastructure. In addition, insurance and leasing companies will require new regulations and policies to address clean-fueled vehicle fleets' emergence into the marketplace. These policies may influence and partially determine the structure of the alternatively fueled vehicle industry, and the requirements, if any, imposed upon vehicle technologies. The report asseses the insurance and leasing industries' infrastructure/institutional barriers as they relate to the introduction of natural gas fueled vehicle fleets

  7. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  8. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  9. Neural Adaptive Sliding-Mode Control of a Vehicle Platoon Using Output Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maode Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output feedback control problem of a vehicle platoon with a constant time headway (CTH policy, where each vehicle can communicate with its consecutive vehicles. Firstly, based on the integrated-sliding-mode (ISM technique, a neural adaptive sliding-mode control algorithm is developed to ensure that the vehicle platoon is moving with the CTH policy and full state measurement. Then, to further decrease the measurement complexity and reduce the communication load, an output feedback control protocol is proposed with only position information, in which a higher order sliding-mode observer is designed to estimate the other required information (velocities and accelerations. In order to avoid collisions among the vehicles, the string stability of the whole vehicle platoon is proven through the stability theorem. Finally, numerical simulation results are provided to verify its effectiveness and advantages over the traditional sliding-mode control method in vehicle platoons.

  10. Focus group testing for the vehicle scrappage program : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Canada's national vehicle scrappage program was designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-forming emissions by removing personal vehicles with model years of 1995 and older from Canadian road systems. The program will also promote sustainable transportation alternatives and recycling programs to prevent the release of other toxic substances into the environment. Incentives designed to encourage Canadians to scrap older vehicles may include cash incentives and rebates towards the purchase of a new vehicle, free transit passes, and other options designed to support sustainable transportation. This paper discussed a research program conducted to assess target audience responses to the programs and its proposed incentives. The survey was conducted with a series of 20 focus groups located in major cities across Canada. Sessions were comprised of between 6 to 10 participants from lower-income and higher-income households. All groups responded negatively to both the overall policy as well as to specific program elements. The study showed that most participants were not aware that older vehicles emit significantly higher levels of harmful emissions. The research audience did not understand distinctions between smog-producing emissions and GHG emissions. Participants also believed that personal vehicles had a minor negative impact on the environment compared to trucks, industry, and vehicle fleets. Participants felt a sense of pride in the ways in which they had maintained their older vehicles, and also perceived them as safer than newer vehicles. It was concluded that many participants were resistant to facts presented to them about older vehicles, and felt that the incentives were insufficient to trigger action. The effectiveness of advertising materials designed to promote the program was also assessed. 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Gaze-Based Controlling a Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    ) as an example of a complex gaze-based task in environment. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of how gaze interaction can be performed for controlling vehicles not only using a remote gaze tracker but also in general challenging situations where the user and robot are mobile...... modality if gaze trackers are embedded into the head- mounted devices. The domain of gaze-based interactive applications increases dramatically as interaction is no longer constrained to 2D displays. This paper proposes a general framework for gaze-based controlling a non- stationary robot (vehicle...... and the movements may be governed by several degrees of freedom (e.g. flying). A case study is also introduced where the mobile gaze tracker is used for controlling a Roomba vacuum cleaner....

  12. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Gauss Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control technique of autonomous vehicle is basic theory and one key complex technique which must have the reliability and precision of vehicle controller. The longitudinal control technique is one of the foundations of the safety and stability of autonomous vehicle control. In our paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The longitudinal control algorithm mainly uses cloud model generator to control the acceleration of the autonomous vehicle to achieve the goal that controls the speed of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The proposed longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model is verified by real experiments on Highway driving scene. The experiments results of the acceleration and speed show that the algorithm is validity and stability.

  13. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  14. Computer controlled motor vehicle battery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; McAuiliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent consists of a motor vehicle having a DC motor, a pedal biased to a released position and depressed by the driver to increase speed. An alternate switching means affects the vehicle speed control, a foot switch is operated by the pedal and operative when the pedal is depressed to close a circuit enabling energization of the alternate switching means. A microprocessor includes a program for controlling operation of the alternate switching means, the foot switch is operative when the pedal is released to open the enabling circuit. The program includes a register which is incremented with each passage of the logic and is responsive to the incremented count in the register to instruct a change in position of the alternate switching means.

  15. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  16. Automation and traction control of articulated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Articulated machines such as load-haul-dump machines, wheel loaders and haulers operate in many different environments and driving conditions. In particular they need to be able to perform well with road conditions and loads that can change drastically, setting hard requirements on performances and robustness. The control challenges for off-road vehicles are hence quite different from standard cars or trucks, which mostly drive on regular roads. An important aspect characterising this is the ...

  17. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  18. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  19. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  20. Autonomous control of a locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Senoh, Makoto; Miyata, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    A path planner and an execution system are proposed for autonomous vehicle control. The planner creates a near shortest path avoiding obstacles that are represented by combinations of circles and line segments on a two dimensional map. For realizing real time execution, path search procedures employ a heuristic pruning strategies in selecting a node to expand and in generating successor nodes. Nodes are selected for expansion in order, according to a cost assigned to each node. The cost is mainly evaluated by approximating a path length from the initial node to the goal node. In order to expand a node and to generate successor nodes, a specific search procedure is activated that finds positions avoiding obstacles in the direction of the goal, and creates successor nodes corresponding to the positions. The execution system, utilizing an ultrasonic range finder equipped to the vehicle performs a plan repair against unknown obstacles when echoes from the obstacles are observed. The plan repair is conducted by a map edition and replanning in such a way that new circles representing the echoes are added to the map. Obstacle avoidance tests with a vehicle controlled by microprocessors demonstrate the utility of heuristics just outlined. (author)

  1. The transport control system. Development of a process of measurement for the continuous loading analysis of Diesel engines for underground transport vehicles. Final report; Transportleitsystem. Entwicklung eines Messverfahrens zur kontinuierlichen Belastungsanalyse von Dieselmotoren untertaegiger Transportfahrzeuge. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartenberg, H.J.; Pressburger, W.

    1994-08-01

    For the operation of mines, a complete transport control system approved for mining is to be built up. For economic reasons, high availability must be aimed at for the associated equipment. Transport vehicles should therefore be subjected to continuous diagnosis. By remedying faults in time and preventive maintenance, the frequency of failure of the transport vehicles should be reduced and their service life increased. Other aims are: Complete temporal local monitoring and control related to the work in transport, the existing radio system should transmit speech and data equally, timely and appropriate supply of the operating points by a newly created organisation connected with the transport control room. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Materialwirtschaft von Bergwerken soll ein komplettes bergbauzugelassenes Transportleitsystem aufgebaut werden. Aus wirtschaftlichen Gruenden ist fuer die dazugehoerenden Betriebsmittel eine hohe Verfuegbarkeit anzustreben. Daher sollen insbesondere Transportfahrzeuge einer kontinuierlichen Diagnose unterworfen werden. Durch fruehzeitige Fehlerbeseitigung und vorbeugende Wartungsmassnahmen soll die Ausfallhaeufigkeit der Transportfahrzeuge verringert und ihre Lebensdauer erhoeht werden. Weitere Zielvorgaben sind: lueckenlose zeitliche, oertliche und auftragsbezogene Ueberwachung und Steuerung bei der Transportabwicklung; das vorhandene Lokfunksystem soll Sprache und Daten gleichermassen uebertragen; zeit- und bedarfsgerechte Belieferung der Betriebspunkte durch eine neu zu schaffende Ablauforganisation im Verbund mit der Transportleitwarte. (orig.)

  2. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  3. Vehicle-to-Vehicle crash avoidance technology : public acceptance final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Crash Avoidance Public Acceptance report summarizes data from a survey of the current level of awareness and acceptance of V2V technology. The survey was guided by findings from prior studies and 12 focus groups. A total ...

  4. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  5. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  6. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen; Wu, Zongsheng

    2017-05-30

    The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS), the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative) controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  7. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaining Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS, the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  8. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  9. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  10. Route-Based Signal Preemption Control of Emergency Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of emergency vehicles (EV. A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV based on route can reduce the time delay of EV and improve the evacuation efficiency of the system.

  11. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  12. Tensegrity Models and Shape Control of Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabet, Benjamin; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2009-01-01

    Using dynamic models of tensegrity structures, we derive provable, distributed control laws for stabilizing and changing the shape of a formation of vehicles in the plane. Tensegrity models define the desired, controlled, multi-vehicle system dynamics, where each node in the tensegrity structure maps to a vehicle and each interconnecting strut or cable in the structure maps to a virtual interconnection between vehicles. Our method provides a smooth map from any desired planar formation shape ...

  13. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  14. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  15. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  16. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  17. Hybrid vehicle optimal control : Linear interpolation and singular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energy management can be formulated as an optimal control problem. Considering that the fuel consumption is often computed using linear interpolation over lookup table data, a rigorous analysis of the necessary conditions provided by the Pontryagin Minimum Principle is conducted. For

  18. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  19. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Cloud Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Liu, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control method of autonomous is a key technique which has drawn the attention of industry and academe. In this paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. An experiments is applied to test the implementation of the longitudinal control algorithm. Empirical results show that if the longitudinal control algorithm based Gauss cloud model are applied to calculate the acceleration, and the vehicles drive at different speeds, a stable longitudinal control effect is achieved.

  20. Control concepts for vehicle drive line to reduce fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossyra, J.C.

    2005-07-01

    In this work advanced drive line control concepts for off-road vehicles have been developed and investigated to reduce the power losses and finally the fuel consumption of the entire drive system by use of on-line optimization procedure. Two separate closed loop speed controls have been developed for the use on a microcontroller onboard the vehicle: one to control the hydrostatic transmission and the other to control the engine speed. Considering the loss characteristics of the displacement machines in the hydrostatic transmission and the steady state characteristics of the combustion engine by use of pure mathematical approximations of measured curves, a direct optimization strategy is used, which works on-line on a microcontroller. A laboratory hardware-in-the loop test rig has been used to investigate the proposed control concepts. For different typical and desired work cycles of an off-road machine on level ground and uphill a slope the effectiveness of the proposed control concepts have been proven. (orig.)

  1. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging

  2. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  3. Obstacle Avoidance Control Design: An Experimental Evaluation in Vehicle Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed

  4. Near-term electric test vehicle ETV-2. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)

  5. Evolving intelligent vehicle control using multi-objective NEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W.H. van; Haasdijk, E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The research in this paper is inspired by a vision of intelligent vehicles that autonomously move along motorways: they join and leave trains of vehicles (platoons), overtake other vehicles, etc. We propose a multi-objective algorithm based on NEAT and SPEA2 that evolves controllers for such

  6. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  7. The adaptive cruise control vehicles in the cellular automata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Rui; Wu Qingsong

    2006-01-01

    This Letter presented a cellular automata model where the adaptive cruise control vehicles are modelled. In this model, the constant time headway policy is adopted. The fundamental diagram is presented. The simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical ones. The mixture of ACC vehicles with manually driven vehicles is investigated. It is shown that with the introduction of ACC vehicles, the jam can be suppressed

  8. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  9. Fractional Control of An Active Four-wheel-steering Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianting; Tong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    A four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicle model and reference model with a drop filter are constructed. The decoupling of 4WS vehicle model is carried out. And a fractional PIλDμ controller is introduced into the decoupling strategy to reduce the effects of the uncertainty of the vehicle parameters as well as the unmodelled dynamics on the system performance. Based on optimization techniques, the design of fractional controller are obtained to ensure the robustness of 4WS vehicle during the special range of frequencies through proper choice of the constraints. In order to compare with fractional robust controller, an optimal controller for the same vehicle is also designed. The simulations of the two control systems are carried out and it reveals that the decoupling and fractional robust controller is able to make vehicle model trace the reference model very well with better robustness.

  10. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  11. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... revise the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for accelerator control systems (ACS) in two ways. First... Standard (FMVSS) No. 124, Accelerator Control Systems,\\2\\ in two ways. First, we are proposing to update... February 2011 final report ``Technical Assessment of Toyota Electronic Throttle Control Systems,'' the...

  12. Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles Casavola, A.; Garone, E. (2007) Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous ...Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 3.2 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-145 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Control allocation problem (CAP) - Given a virtual input v(t

  13. Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles: Advanced Sensing & Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From To) 7/1/05-12/31708 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles Advanced Sensing...assimilating data from underwater and surface autonomous vehicles in addition to the usual sources of Eulerian and Lagrangian systems into a small scale

  14. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  15. Slip Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time change of tire-road friction coefficient is one of the important factors that influence vehicle safety performance. Besides, the vehicle wheels’ locking up has become an important issue. In order to solve these problems, this paper comes up with a novel slip control of electric vehicle (EV based on tire-road friction coefficient estimation. First and foremost, a novel method is proposed to estimate the tire-road friction coefficient, and then the reference slip ratio is determined based on the estimation results. Finally, with the reference slip ratio, a slip control based on model predictive control (MPC is designed to prevent the vehicle wheels from locking up. In this regard, the proposed controller guarantees the optimal braking torque on each wheel by individually controlling the slip ratio of each tire within the stable zone. Theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed controller is effective for better braking performance.

  16. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  17. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD. In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  18. Multiple-Vehicle Longitudinal Collision Mitigation by Coordinated Brake Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rear-end collision often leads to serious casualties and traffic congestion. The consequences are even worse for multiple-vehicle collision. Many previous works focused on collision warning and avoidance strategies of two consecutive vehicles based on onboard sensor detection only. This paper proposes a centralized control strategy for multiple vehicles to minimize the impact of multiple-vehicle collision based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication technique. The system is defined as a coupled group of vehicles with wireless communication capability and short following distances. The safety relationship can be represented as lower bound limit on deceleration of the first vehicle and upper bound on maximum deceleration of the last vehicle. The objective is to determine the desired deceleration for each vehicle such that the total impact energy is minimized at each time step. The impact energy is defined as the relative kinetic energy between a consecutive pair of vehicles (approaching only. Model predictive control (MPC framework is used to formulate the problem to be constrained quadratic programming. Simulations show its effectiveness on collision mitigation. The developed algorithm has the potential to be used for progressive market penetration of connected vehicles in practice.

  19. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuzzy logic control; active vehicle suspension; suspension space. 1. ... surface unevenness, stability and directional control during handling ..... Burton A W, Truscott A J, Wellstead P E 1995 Analysis, modeling and control of an advanced.

  20. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Final Project Reports. Volume 2; Project Groups 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedam and provide emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing. Special attention is given to spacecraft communications.

  1. Dynamics control of autonomous vehicle at driving limits and experiment on an autonomous formula racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamics controller for autonomous vehicle to simultaneously control it to the driving limits and follow the desired path is proposed. The dynamics controller consists of longitudinal and lateral controllers. In longitudinal controller, the G-G diagram is utilized to describe the driving and handling limits of the vehicle. The accurate G-G diagram is obtained based on phase plane approach and a nonlinear vehicle dynamic model with accurate tyre model. In lateral controller, the tyre cornering stiffness is estimated to improve the robustness of the controller. The stability analysis of the closed-looped error dynamics shows that the controller remains stable against parameters uncertainties in extreme condition such as tyre saturation. Finally, an electric autonomous Formula race car developed by the authors is used to validate the proposed controller. The autonomous driving experiment on an oval race track shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller.

  2. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  3. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  4. Tasking and control of a squad of robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Feddema, John T.; Klarer, Paul

    2001-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories have developed a squad of robotic vehicles as a test-bed for investigating cooperative control strategies. The squad consists of eight RATLER vehicles and a command station. The RATLERs are medium-sized all-electric vehicles containing a PC104 stack for computation, control, and sensing. Three separate RF channels are used for communications; one for video, one for command and control, and one for differential GPS corrections. Using DGPS and IR proximity sensors, the vehicles are capable of autonomously traversing fairly rough terrain. The control station is a PC running Windows NT. A GUI has been developed that allows a single operator to task and monitor all eight vehicles. To date, the following mission capabilities have been demonstrated: 1. Way-Point Navigation, 2. Formation Following, 3. Perimeter Surveillance, 4. Surround and Diversion, and 5. DGPS Leap Frog. This paper describes the system and briefly outlines each mission capability. The DGPS Leap Frog capability is discussed in more detail. This capability is unique in that it demonstrates how cooperation allows the vehicles to accurately navigate beyond the RF communication range. One vehicle stops and uses its corrected GPS position to re-initialize its receiver to become the DGPS correction station for the other vehicles. Error in position accumulates each time a new vehicle takes over the DGPS duties. The accumulation in error is accurately modeled as a random walk phenomenon. This paper demonstrates how useful accuracy can be maintained beyond the vehicle's range.

  5. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  6. AUTOMATED COMPUTER SYSTEM OF VEHICLE VOICE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kravchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cars and foreign analogues are considered. Failings are marked related to absence of the auxiliary electronic system which serves for the increase of safety and comfort of vehicle management. Innovative development of the complex system of vocal management which provides reliability, comfort and simplicity of movement in a vehicle is offered.

  7. Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle ICEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Chaouachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle allows fast gentle quiet and environmentally friendly movements in industrial and urban environments. The automotive industry has seen the opportunity to revive its production by replacing existing vehicles due to the reluctance of oil reserves around the world. In order to greatly reduce countries dependence on oil strategic sectors such as transport must increasingly integrate technologies based primarily on clean and renewable energy. Governments must implement large-scale measures to equip themselves with electric vehicles and build large recharge networks. The traditional system for conversions of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles consists of replacing the internal combustion engine and the gearbox with electrical components engine and gearbox or engine and gearbox retaining the rest of the elements Transmission transmission shafts etc..

  8. Decentralized Receding Horizon Control and Coordination of Autonomous Vehicle Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keviczky, T.; Borelli, F.; Fregene, K.; Godbole, D.; Bals, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel methodology for high-level control and coordination of autonomous vehicle teams and its demonstration on high-fidelity models of the organic air vehicle developed at Honeywell Laboratories. The scheme employs decentralized receding horizon controllers

  9. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  10. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  11. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  12. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  13. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Jincheng; Su, Yongmao; Zhao, Jinghui

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe) regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV). Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simul...

  14. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  15. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  16. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  17. Automatic control of a robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcreynolds, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last several years Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been engaged in a project to develop some of the technology required to build a robotic vehicle for exploring planetary surfaces. An overview of hardware and software being developed for this project is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of the current design for the Vehicle System required for locomotion and the path planning algorithm.

  18. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  19. Marine vehicle path following using inner-outer loop control.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.K.; Agular, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    constraints are imposed on the motion of the vehicle. This is in striking contrast with trajectory tracking, where the reference for the vehicle motion is given explicitly in terms of ”space versus time” coordinates. This strategy is seldom pursued in practice... that its output variables can be tracked infinitely fast by the inner dynamic loop. In practice, this does not hold true. Furthermore, many vehicle suppliers equip their platforms with inner dynamic control loops for which only a general characterization...

  20. Motion modelling and control strategies of over-actuated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Edrén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With the growing concern for environmental change and uncertain oil resources, the development of new vehicle concepts will in many cases include full or partial electric propulsion. The introduction of more advanced powertrains enables vehicles that can be controlled with a variety of electric actuators, such as wheel hub motors and individual steering. With these actuators, the chassis can be enabled to adjust its properties depending on the driving situation. Manoeuvring of the vehicle, us...

  1. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  2. 75 FR 64318 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... H118435 HkP CATEGORY: Marking Mr. Keith Andrews, President Fairplay Electric Cars 743 Horizon Ct., Suite..., requesting a final determination on behalf of Fairplay Electric Cars, LLC (``Fairplay''), pursuant to subpart... Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  3. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  4. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  5. NOISE CONTROL OF VEHICLE DRIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gabbert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall simulation approach to control the noise emission of car engines at a very early stage of the design process where no real prototypes are available. The suggested approach combines different physical models and couples different software tools such as multi-body analysis, fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, magneto-electrodynamics, thermodynamics, acoustics and control as well. The general overall simulation methodology is presented first. Then, this methodology is applied to a combustion engine in order to improve its acoustical behavior by passive means, such as changing the stiffness and the use of damping materials to build acoustic and thermal encapsulations. The active control by applying piezoelectric patch actuators at the oil sump as the noisiest part of the engine is discussed as well. The sound emission is evaluated by hearing tests and a mathematical prediction model of the human perception. Finally, it is shown that the presented approach can be extended to electric engines, which is demonstrated at a newly developed electric wheel hub motor.

  6. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS). PMID:28662053

  7. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  8. Method of controlling innovative articulation for articulated vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumilas Mateusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of an articulated vehicle is dependent on an appropriate damping action taking place in its rotary articulation. In order to analyse an impact of the control of the articulation on the motion of the vehicle a model of the vehicle with a controllable hydraulic damping system has been developed. A 90 degree turn and lane change manoeuvres were simulated using LabVIEW software. Modification of the damping parameters of the articulation, according to the velocity and articulation angle of the vehicle, proved to have a significant impact on the vehicle motion stability. Moreover, the sensor layer necessary for the control algorithm as well as the diagnostic system is described.

  9. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  10. Design of a stable fuzzy controller for an articulated vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Kosaki, T

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a backward movement control of an articulated vehicle via a model-based fuzzy control technique. A nonlinear dynamic model of the articulated vehicle is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The concept of parallel distributed compensation is employed to design a fuzzy controller from the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model of the articulated vehicle. Stability of the designed fuzzy control system is guaranteed via Lyapunov approach. The stability conditions are characterized in terms of linear matrix inequalities since the stability analysis is reduced to a problem of finding a common Lyapunov function for a set of Lyapunov inequalities. Simulation results and experimental results show that the designed fuzzy controller effectively achieves the backward movement control of the articulated vehicle.

  11. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  12. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

  13. Optimal Charge control of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Wu, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Environment constraints, petroleum scarcity, high price on fuel resources and recent advancements in battery technology have led to emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs). As increasing numbers of EVs enter the electricity market, these extra loads may cause peak load and need to be properly...... controlled. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for every individual vehicles to minimize the charging cost while satisfying the vehicle owner’s requirements. The algorithm is based on a given future electricity prices and uses dynamic programming. Optimization aims to find the economically optimal...... solution for each vehicle....

  14. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  15. A Fuzzy Rule-based Controller For Automotive Vehicle Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hessburg, Thomas; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based controller is applied to lateral guidance of a vehicle for an automated highway system. The fuzzy rules, based on human drivers' experiences, are developed to track the center of a lane in the presence of external disturbances and over a range of vehicle operating conditions.

  16. Port-based Modeling and Control of Underactuated Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic model and a controller design for a class of underactuated aerial vehicles, namely for unmanned aerial vehicles whose primary support against gravity is thrust. The approach followed is based on energetic consideration and uses the formalisms of port-Hamiltonian

  17. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost

  18. Robust stabilization control based on guardian maps theory for a longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

    2014-01-01

    A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  20. Wireless Control of Miniaturized Mobile Vehicle for Indoor Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saquib, Syed M Taha; Hameed, Sarmad; Jafri, Raza; Usman Ali, Syed M; Amin, Imran

    2013-01-01

    This work is based upon electronic automation and Smart Control techniques, which constitute the basis of Control Area Network (CAN) and Personal Area Network (PAN). Bluetooth technology has been interfaced with a programmable controller to provide multi-dimensional vehicle control. A network is proposed which contains a remote, mobile host controller and an android operating system based mobile set (Client). The client communicates with a host controller through a Bluetooth device. The system incorporates duplex communication after successful confirmation between the host and the client; the android based mobile unit controls the vehicle through the Bluetooth module

  1. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  3. An investigation of the effects of pneumatic actuator design on slip control for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, little has been published on slip controllers for air-braked heavy vehicles, or the effects of slow pneumatic actuation on their design and performance. This paper introduces a sliding mode slip controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The effects of pneumatic actuator delays and flow rates on stopping performance and air (energy) consumption are presented through vehicle simulations. Finally, the simulations are validated with experiments using a hardware-in-the-loop rig. It is shown that for each wheel, pneumatic valves with delays smaller than 3 ms and orifice diameters around 8 mm provide the best performance.

  4. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...

  5. Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i)...

  6. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  7. Controller synthesis for string stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Shukla, D.P.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) allows for short-distance automatic vehicle following using intervehicle wireless communication in addition to onboard sensors, thereby potentially improving road throughput. In order to fulfill performance, safety, and comfort requirements, a CACC-equipped

  8. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  9. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  10. Flight Vehicle Control and Aerobiological Sampling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Techy, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an exciting research field blending various scientific and engineering disciplines. The biological data collected using UAVs helps to better understand the atmospheric transport of microorganisms. Autopilot-equipped UAVs can accurately sample along pre-defined flight plans and precisely regulated altitudes. They can provide even greater utility when they are networked together in coordinated sampling missions: such measurements ...

  11. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  12. Realistic control considerations for electromagnetically levitated urban transit vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, J R

    1976-04-01

    A discussion is given of realistic control considerations of suspension dynamics and vehicle/guideway interaction for electromagnetically-levitated urban transit vehicles in the context of revenue applications. The emphasis is on safety, reliability, and maintainability rather than performance. An example urban transit system is described, and the following considerations of dynamics and control are examined: stability, magnet force requirements, magnet airgap requirements, vehicle ride, and component failures. It is shown that it is a formidable problem to ensure suspension stability under all conditions; that operation on curves is a critical magnet and control system design case; that operation of the magnets in the non-linear regime is unavoidable and that component failures will be a major problem. However, good vehicle ride is to be expected. It is concluded that magnetic levitation suspension technology requires substantial development effort before it can be considered suitable for revenue operation.

  13. Signal processing and control challenges for smart vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Braun, Simon G.

    2017-03-01

    Smart phones have changed not only the mobile phone market but also our society during the past few years. Could the next potential intelligent device may be the vehicle? Judging by the visibility, in all media, of the numerous attempts to develop autonomous vehicles, this is certainly one of the logical outcomes. Smart vehicles would be equipped with an advanced operating system such that the vehicles could communicate with others, optimize the operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, enhance safety, or even become self-driving. These combined new features of vehicles require instrumentation and hardware developments, fast signal processing/fusion, decision making and online optimization. Meanwhile, the inevitable increasing system complexity would certainly challenges the control unit design.

  14. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  15. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  16. Evolution of an artificial neural network based autonomous land vehicle controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluja, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary method for creating an artificial neural network based autonomous land vehicle controller. The evolved controllers perform better in unseen situations than those trained with an error backpropagation learning algorithm designed for this task. In this paper, an overview of the previous connectionist based approaches to this task is given, and the evolutionary algorithms used in this study are described in detail. Methods for reducing the high computational costs of training artificial neural networks with evolutionary algorithms are explored. Error metrics specific to the task of autonomous vehicle control are introduced; the evolutionary algorithms guided by these error metrics reveal improved performance over those guided by the standard sum-squared error metric. Finally, techniques for integrating evolutionary search and error backpropagation are presented. The evolved networks are designed to control Carnegie Mellon University's NAVLAB vehicles in road following tasks.

  17. H∞ control of a remotely operated underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, G.; Serrani, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of H∞ control techniques to the design of a control system for a remotely operated underwater vehicle. As the main problem in defining a control strategy for such vehicles is the nonlinear and uncertain nature of the modeled dynamics, the robustness properties of H∞ controllers can in principle be used to provide stability and nominal performances for the closed loop system. Therefore, a control strategy based on a scheduling of such controllers has been proposed, and the overall performance of the closed loop system have been evaluated by means of nonlinear simulation in a broad range of working conditions, with particular attention to the effects of the underwater current that acts on the vehicle

  18. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  19. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  1. Vibrations control of light rail transportation vehicle via PID type fuzzy controller using parameters adaptive method

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Muzaffer; GÜÇLÜ, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conventional PID type fuzzy controller and parameter adaptive fuzzy controller are designed to control vibrations actively of a light rail transport vehicle which modeled as 6 degree-of-freedom system and compared performances of these two controllers. Rail vehicle model consists of a passenger seat and its suspension system, vehicle body, bogie, primary and secondary suspensions and wheels. The similarity between mathematical model and real system is shown by compar...

  2. The control of vehicles used in transport of sensitive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, O.; Larrignon, D.; Autrusson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Most sensitive nuclear materials are usually shipped in specific vehicles with a reinforced protection; such vehicles are generally escorted, tracked and watched over from a distant control centre. Among the various publications made by the IAEA in relation with the CPPNM, the INFCIRC/225 introduces major recommendations for physical protection of nuclear materials in general and particularly during transport. For instance, the text recommends - for the terrestrial shipment of most sensitive material - the use of vehicles specially designed to resist attack and equipped with a vehicle disabling device. Applying such a recommendation at a state level requires the intervention of a competent authority; the competent authority defines the framework of a validation process starting with the design of the vehicle and ending with the vehicle protection approval. The validation process needs articulating responsibilities between the three major actors who are: the operator in charge of the design, a technical support body in charge of technical evaluation, and the competent authority who is responsible for the final approval of the protection. This paper focuses on the approval process of reinforced protection vehicles in France; it aims at showing how such a process may contribute to the security of nuclear material shipments. The paper notably focuses on the responsibilities of the operators, the competent authority and the technical support organization. This approval process of the protection of a vehicle allows the authority to ensure that the protection setup is effective and operational in order to protect the cargo from a malicious threat. In such a process, the authority defines the threat and the objectives of protection; the authority may choose, in certain case, to recommend protection devices or solutions; the need for recommendation versus objective definition mostly depends on the environment of the vehicle and the constraints induced. The authority may

  3. Optimization of an Intelligent Controller for an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi Nor Shah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater environment poses a difficult challenge for autonomous underwater navigation. A standard problem of underwater vehicles is to maintain it position at a certain depth in order to perform desired operations. An effective controller is required for this purpose and hence the design of a depth controller for an unmanned underwater vehicle is described in this paper. The control algorithm is simulated by using the marine guidance navigation and control simulator. The project shows a radial basis function metamodel can be used to tune the scaling factors of a fuzzy logic controller. By using offline optimization approach, a comparison between genetic algorithm and metamodeling has been done to minimize the integral square error between the set point and the measured depth of the underwater vehicle. The results showed that it is possible to obtain a reasonably good error using metamodeling approach in much a shorter time compared to the genetic algorithm approach.

  4. A new controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.; Stone, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the development, under a NASA/DOE contract, of a new concept for efficient and reliable control of battery-powered vehicles. It avoids the detrimental effects of pulsed-power controllers like the SCR 'chopper' by using rotating machines to meter continuous currents to the traction motor. The concept is validated in a proof-of-principle demonstration system and a complete vehicle is simulated on an analog computer. Test results show exceptional promise for a full-scale system. Optimum control strategies to minimize controller weight are developed by means of the simulated vehicle. The design for an Engineering Model is then prepared in the form of a practical, compact two-bearing package with forced air cooling. Predicted performance is outstanding, with controller efficiency of over 90% at high speed.

  5. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  6. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  7. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  8. Intelligent Traffic Control System Implementation for Traffic Violation Control, Congestion Control and Stolen Vehicle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Suresh Kulkarni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.

  9. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Iep S 2 lep K R 2 ) T ( S 2 K R2 ) We + + lgp (R+S) + lvp (R+S) = e Igp (R+S) + Ivp (R+S) - CR STg KRTm ---+ (2) Ivp... Iep = Ic + Ie B = 4Rbatt Cbatt C = T + 1\\1! R. . f + 0.5 Cd Rtire3 apw/ fb t1re r 9 K 2 and the vehicle constants are defined as: Unclass·ified...3_ + lvpRWr + 2IvpSwr +. IvpS2 wr + IvpS2 w,.] lep K Iep K Iep I< R lgp K R Iep K Iep I< Iep K R Igp I< R b = R W + S W + C R + Iep S 2 we + Iep K

  10. Autonomous health management for PMSM rail vehicles through demagnetization monitoring and prognosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Jiang, Junjie; Youn, Byeng D; Pecht, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are playing an increasingly importance in support of a wide variety of critical events. This paper presents a novel autonomous health management scheme on rail vehicles driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the PMSMs are modeled based on first principle to deduce the initial profile of pneumatic braking (p-braking) force, then which is utilized for real-time demagnetization monitoring and degradation prognosis through similarity-based theory and generate prognosis-enhanced p-braking force strategy for final optimal control. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of using the real-time prognostics and health management (PHM) information in vehicle 'drive-brake' control automatically. The results show that accurate demagnetization monitoring, degradation prognosis, and real-time capability for control optimization can be obtained, which can effectively relieve brake shoe wear. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic tensegrity based cooperative control of uninhabited vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Sook Yen; Naeem, Wasif [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2013-07-01

    A new formation control methodology is presented in this paper. The proposed technique is modelled by using the concept of cross-tensegrity structures. The main task is to regulate the desired formation of a group of vehicles and to perform point-to-point manoeuvring in the plane. The position of the controlled vehicles in the formation changes with respect to the admissible tendon forces by varying the lengths of bars in the dynamic tensegrity structure modelling. This change of bars' dimensions for geometric transformation is not possible in the application of tensegrity concept in the physical structural engineering. It has been demonstrated that this control method allows more flexibility over a wide range of different shape switching tasks using the predictable tendon control forces under the limited communication's range. The proposed approach is also scalable to any number of pairs of autonomous vehicles in the formation.

  12. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  13. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  14. Reduced Attitude Control of a Robotic Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bláha Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with stabilization and reduced attitude control of a robotic underwater vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be able to perform a full stable rotations around all axes in underwater space, that is why the standard bottom-heavy structure is not used. The system preferably uses a vectored-thrust arrangement and is built as an overactuated system, which enables to gain a better robustness and guarantees a stable controlled motion even if some thruster suddenly stop working. Because the heading angle cannot be measured, the reduced attitude control strategy is designed and the stability of reduced state of the system is proved using perturbation method.

  15. Adaptive Command Filtered Integrated Guidance and Control for Hypersonic Vehicle with Magnitude, Rate and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated guidance and control (IGC method for hypersonic vehicle in terminal phase. Firstly, the system model is developed with a second order actuator dynamics. Then the back-stepping controller is designed hierarchically with command filters, where the first order command filters are implemented to construct the virtual control input with ideal states predicted by an adaptive estimator, and the nonlinear command filter is designed to produce magnitude, rate and bandwidth limited control surface deflection finally tracked by a terminal sliding mode controller with finite convergence time. Through a series of 6-DOF numerical simulations, it’s indicated that the proposed method successfully cancels out the large aerodynamics coefficient uncertainties and disturbances in hypersonic flight under limited control surface deflection. The contribution of this paper lies in the application and determination of nonlinear integrated design of guidance and control system for hypersonic vehicle.

  16. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. SMART VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE DETECTION AND TRAFFIC FLOW CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. SHAFIE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS. This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle coming. Similarly, it is also observed that long queues of vehicles are waiting even though the road is empty due to traffic signal light selection without proper investigation on vehicle flow. This can be handled by adjusting the vehicle passing time implementing by our developed SVSS. A number of experiment results of vehicle flows are discussed in this research graphically in order to test the feasibility of the developed system. Finally, adoptive background model is proposed in SVSS in order to successfully detect target objects such as motor bike, car, bus, etc.

  18. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  19. Learning feedforward controller for a mobile robot vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, J.G.; Starrenburg, J.G.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; Oelen, W.; Oelen, W.; van Amerongen, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design and realisation of an on-line learning posetracking controller for a three-wheeled mobile robot vehicle. The controller consists of two components. The first is a constant-gain feedback component, designed on the basis of a second-order model. The second is a learning

  20. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Model Predictive Control for Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model predictive control system for connected hybrid electric vehicles to improve fuel economy. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the battery charge and discharge profile and the driving velocity profile are simultaneously optimized. One is energy management for HEV for Pbatt; the other is for the energy consumption minimizing problem of acc control of two vehicles. Second, a system for connected hybrid electric vehicles has been developed considering varying drag coefficients and the road gradients. Third, the fuel model of a typical hybrid electric vehicle is developed using the maps of the engine efficiency characteristics. Fourth, simulations and analysis (under different parameters, i.e., road conditions, vehicle state of charge, etc. are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method to achieve higher fuel efficiency. The model predictive control problem is solved using numerical computation method: continuation and generalized minimum residual method. Computer simulation results reveal improvements in fuel economy using the proposed control method.

  2. Feedback control for a train-like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback nonlinear control law for a train-like vehicle (TLV) used in nuclear power-station maintenance. The front cart is either manual or automated guided. The rear carts are feedback controlled. The control objective is to ensure that the rear carts track the path produced (on-line) by the front cart. This controller was experimentally tested on the TLV-prototype. (authors). 4 figs., 4 refs

  3. A Review of Control Strategy of the Large-scale of Electric Vehicles Charging and Discharging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyu; Han, Jiming; Xiong, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Large scale access of electric vehicles will bring huge challenges to the safe operation of the power grid, and it’s important to control the charging and discharging of the electric vehicle. First of all, from the electric quality and network loss, this paper points out the influence on the grid caused by electric vehicle charging behaviour. Besides, control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging has carried on the induction and the summary from the direct and indirect control. Direct control strategy means control the electric charging behaviour by controlling its electric vehicle charging and discharging power while the indirect control strategy by means of controlling the price of charging and discharging. Finally, for the convenience of the reader, this paper also proposed a complete idea of the research methods about how to study the control strategy, taking the adaptability and possibility of failure of electric vehicle control strategy into consideration. Finally, suggestions on the key areas for future research are put up.

  4. 75 FR 38168 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of... light-duty truck lines subject to the requirements of the Federal motor vehicle theft prevention... exemption from the parts marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard for the Jaguar XJ vehicle...

  5. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  6. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Anh, Tuan; Koster, René

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resolution. We discuss and classify important models and results from key publications in literature on automated guided vehicle systems, including often-neglected areas, such as idle-vehicle positionin...

  7. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  8. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  9. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  10. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  11. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  12. Determination of an Optimal Control Strategy for a Generic Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    TERMS Autonomous Vehicles Boundary Value Problem Dynamic Programming Surface Vehicles Optimal Control Path Planning 16...to follow prescribed motion trajectories. In particular, for autonomous vehicles , this motion trajectory is given by the determination of the

  13. Design of a Tele-Control Electrical Vehicle System Using a Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boukhnifer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic design of a tele-control electrical vehicle system. We showed that the application of fuzzy logic control allows the stability of tele-vehicle system in spite of communication delays between the operator and the vehicle. A robust bilateral controller design using fuzzy logic frameworks was proposed. This approach allows a convenient means to trade off robustness and stability for a pre-specified time-delay margin. Both the performance and robustness of the proposed method were demonstrated by simulation results for a constant time delay between the operator and the electrical vehicle system.

  14. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  15. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict

  16. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  17. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  18. Attitude control of an orbiting space vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherlin, D. W.; Boland, J. S. , III; Borelli, M. T.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the normal and clamped modes of operation and dynamic response characteristics of the gimbaled control moment gyro (CMG) designed to fulfill the stringent pointing requirements of the Skylab telescope mount when the spacecraft is under the influence of both external and internal torques. The results indicate that the clamped mode of operation provides a feasible approach for significantly improving the system characteristics.

  19. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  20. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  1. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  2. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  3. Cooperative control of a squad of mobile vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.; Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Tasks such as the localization of chemical sources, demining, perimeter control, surveillance and search and rescue missions are usually performed by teams of people. At least conceptually, large groups of relatively cheap mobile vehicles outfitted with sensors should be able to automatically accomplish some of these tasks. Sandia National Labs is currently developing a swarm of semi-autonomous all terrain vehicles for remote cooperative sensing applications. This paper will describe the capabilities of this system and outline some of its possible applications. Cooperative control and sensing strategies will also be described. Eight Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers (RATLERs) have been built at Sandia as a test platform for cooperative control and sensing applications. This paper will first describe the hardware capabilities of the RATLER system. Then it will describe the basic control algorithm for GPS based navigation and obstacle avoidance. A higher level cooperative control task will then be described

  4. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  5. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei

    stability under mal-function of the roll control system. The roll motion of the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle under nominal flight conditions is actively stabilized by its roll control system employing thrusters. This dissertation describes the ascent flight control design problem of Ares-I in the event of disabled or failed roll control. A simple pitch/yaw control logic is developed for such a technically challenging problem by exploiting the inherent versatility of a quaternion-based attitude control system. The proposed scheme requires only the desired inertial attitude quaternion to be re-computed using the actual uncontrolled roll angle information to achieve an ascent flight trajectory identical to the nominal flight case with active roll control. Another approach that utilizes a simple adjustment of the proportional-derivative gains of the quaternion-based flight control system without active roll control is also presented. This approach doesn't require the re-computation of desired inertial attitude quaternion. A linear stability criterion is developed for proper adjustments of attitude and rate gains. The linear stability analysis results are validated by nonlinear simulations of the ascent flight phase. However, the first approach, requiring a simple modification of the desired attitude quaternion, is recommended for the Ares-I as well as other launch vehicles in the event of no active roll control. Finally, the method derived to stabilize a large flexible launch vehicle in the event of uncontrolled roll drift is generalized as a modified attitude quaternion feedback law. It is used to stabilize an axisymmetric rigid body by two independent control torques.

  6. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  7. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  8. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  9. Dynamic Surface Adaptive Robust Control of Unmanned Marine Vehicles with Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengchao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic surface adaptive robust control method with disturbance observer for unmanned marine vehicles (UMV. It uses adaptive law to estimate and compensate the disturbance observer error. Dynamic surface is introduced to solve the “differential explosion” caused by the virtual control derivation in traditional backstepping method. The final controlled system is proved to be globally uniformly bounded based on Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller, which can realize the three-dimensional trajectory tracking for UMV with the systematic uncertainty and time-varying disturbances.

  10. Semi-active H∞ control of high-speed railway vehicle suspension with magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lu-Hang; Gong, Xing-Long; Xuan, Shou-Hu; Guo, Chao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, semi-active H∞ control with magnetorheological (MR) dampers for railway vehicle suspension systems to improve the lateral ride quality is investigated. The proposed semi-active controller is composed of a H∞ controller as the system controller and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) inverse MR damper model as the damper controller. First, a 17-degree-of-freedom model for a full-scale railway vehicle is developed and the random track irregularities are modelled. Then a modified Bouc-Wen model is built to characterise the forward dynamic characteristics of the MR damper and an inverse MR damper model is built with the ANFIS technique. Furthermore, a H∞ controller composed of a yaw motion controller and a rolling pendulum motion (lateral motion+roll motion) controller is established. By integrating the H∞ controller with the ANFIS inverse model, a semi-active H∞ controller for the railway vehicle is finally proposed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed semi-active suspension system possesses better attenuation ability for the vibrations of the car body than the passive suspension system.

  11. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  12. Reentry Vehicle Flight Controls Design Guidelines: Dynamic Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daigoro; Georgie, Jennifer; Valasek, John; Ward, Donald T.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses issues in developing a flight control design for vehicles operating across a broad flight regime and with highly nonlinear physical descriptions of motion. Specifically it addresses the need for reentry vehicles that could operate through reentry from space to controlled touchdown on Earth. The latter part of controlled descent is achieved by parachute or paraglider - or by all automatic or a human-controlled landing similar to that of the Orbiter. Since this report addresses the specific needs of human-carrying (not necessarily piloted) reentry vehicles, it deals with highly nonlinear equations of motion, and then-generated control systems must be robust across a very wide range of physics. Thus, this report deals almost exclusively with some form of dynamic inversion (DI). Two vital aspects of control theory - noninteracting control laws and the transformation of nonlinear systems into equivalent linear systems - are embodied in DI. Though there is no doubt that the mathematical tools and underlying theory are widely available, there are open issues as to the practicality of using DI as the only or primary design approach for reentry articles. This report provides a set of guidelines that can be used to determine the practical usefulness of the technique.

  13. Slip Ratio Estimation and Regenerative Brake Control for Decelerating Electric Vehicles without Detection of Vehicle Velocity and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toru; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    In slip ratio control systems, it is necessary to detect the vehicle velocity in order to obtain the slip ratio. However, it is very difficult to measure this velocity directly. We have proposed slip ratio estimation and control methods that do not require the vehicle velocity with acceleration. In this paper, the slip ratio estimation and control methods are proposed without detecting the vehicle velocity and acceleration when it is decelerating. We carried out simulations and experiments by using an electric vehicle to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  15. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  16. Model-predictive control based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model for electrical vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) play a significant role in different applications, such as commuter vehicles and short distance transport applications. This study presents a new structure of model-predictive control based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, linear matrix inequalities, and a non......-quadratic Lyapunov function for the speed control of EVs including time-delay states and parameter uncertainty. Experimental data, using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75), is applied to test the performance and robustness of the suggested controller in the presence of time-varying parameters. Besides, a comparison...... is made between the results of the suggested robust strategy and those obtained from some of the most recent studies on the same topic, to assess the efficiency of the suggested controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are performed on a direct current motor. Simulation...

  17. Observer-based linear parameter varying H∞ tracking control for hypersonic vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop observer-based linear parameter varying output feedback H∞ tracking controller for hypersonic vehicles. Due to the complexity of an original nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle dynamics, a slow–fast loop linear parameter varying polytopic model is introduced for system stability analysis and controller design. Then, a state observer is developed by linear parameter varying technique in order to estimate the unmeasured attitude angular for slow loop system. Also, based on the designed linear parameter varying state observer, a kind of attitude tracking controller is presented to reduce tracking errors for all bounded reference attitude angular inputs. The closed-loop linear parameter varying system is proved to be quadratically stable by Lypapunov function technique. Finally, simulation results show that the developed linear parameter varying H∞ controller has good tracking capability for reference commands.

  18. A Lateral Control Method of Intelligent Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lateral control method is proposed for intelligent vehicle to track the desired trajectory. Firstly, a lateral control model is established based on the visual preview and dynamic characteristics of intelligent vehicle. Then, the lateral error and orientation error are melded into an integrated error. Considering the system parameter perturbation and the external interference, a sliding model control is introduced in this paper. In order to design a sliding surface, the integrated error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function. The sliding mode switching function and its derivative are selected as two inputs of the controller, and the front wheel angle is selected as the output. Next, a fuzzy neural network is established, and the self-learning functions of neural network is utilized to construct the fuzzy rules. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  20. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  1. Neuro-fuzzy controller to navigate an unmanned vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira

    2013-12-01

    A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

  2. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  3. Simulation methods supporting homologation of Electronic Stability Control in vehicle variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Albert; Schick, Bernhard; Holzmann, Henning; Kochem, Michael; Meyer-Tuve, Harald; Lange, Olav; Mao, Yiqin; Tosolin, Guido

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle simulation has a long tradition in the automotive industry as a powerful supplement to physical vehicle testing. In the field of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system, the simulation process has been well established to support the ESC development and application by suppliers and Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). The latest regulation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UN/ECE-R 13 allows also for simulation-based homologation. This extends the usage of simulation from ESC development to homologation. This paper gives an overview of simulation methods, as well as processes and tools used for the homologation of ESC in vehicle variants. The paper first describes the generic homologation process according to the European Regulation (UN/ECE-R 13H, UN/ECE-R 13/11) and U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS 126). Subsequently the ESC system is explained as well as the generic application and release process at the supplier and OEM side. Coming up with the simulation methods, the ESC development and application process needs to be adapted for the virtual vehicles. The simulation environment, consisting of vehicle model, ESC model and simulation platform, is explained in detail with some exemplary use-cases. In the final section, examples of simulation-based ESC homologation in vehicle variants are shown for passenger cars, light trucks, heavy trucks and trailers. This paper is targeted to give a state-of-the-art account of the simulation methods supporting the homologation of ESC systems in vehicle variants. However, the described approach and the lessons learned can be used as reference in future for an extended usage of simulation-supported releases of the ESC system up to the development and release of driver assistance systems.

  4. Information Fusion-Based Optimal Attitude Control for an Alterable Thrust Direction Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control is the inner-loop and the most important part of the automatic flight control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The information fusion-based optimal control method is applied in a UAV flight control system in this work. Firstly, a nonlinear model of alterable thrust direction UAV (ATD-UAV is established and linearized for controller design. The longitudinal controller and lateral controller are respectively designed based on information fusion-based optimal control, and then the information fusion flight control system is built up. Finally, the simulation of a nonlinear model described as ATD-UAV is carried out, the results of which show the superiority of the information fusion-based control strategy when compared to the single-loop design method. We also show that the ATD technique improves the anti-disturbance capacity of the UAV.

  5. Reusable Launch Vehicle Attitude Control Using a Time-Varying Sliding Mode Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Zhu, J. Jim; Daniels, Dan; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TVSMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC ascent and descent designs are currently being tested with high fidelity, 6-DOF dispersion simulations. The test results will be presented in the final version of this paper.

  6. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  7. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  8. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarrah, M.; Adiansyah, S.; Marji, Z. M.; Chowdhury, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  9. Designing neuro-fuzzy controller for electromagnetic anti-lock braking system (ABS) on electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudijanto, Josaphat; Ashfahani, Andri; Lukito, Rian

    2018-03-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is used on vehicles to keep the wheels unlocked in sudden break (inside braking) and minimalize the stop distance of the vehicle. The problem of it when sudden break is the wheels locked so the vehicle steering couldn’t be controlled. The designed ABS system will be applied on ABS simulator using the electromagnetic braking. In normal condition or in condition without braking, longitudinal velocity of the vehicle will be equal with the velocity of wheel rotation, so the slip ratio will be 0 (0%) and if the velocity of wheel rotation is 0 (in locked condition) then the wheels will be slip 1 (100%). ABS system will keep the value of slip ratio so it will be 0.2 (20%). In this final assignment, the method that is used is Neuro-Fuzzy method to control the slip value on the wheels. The input is the expectable slip and the output is slip from plant. The learning algorithm which is used is Backpropagation that will work by feedforward to get actual output and work by feedback to get error value with target output. The network that was made based on fuzzy mechanism which are fuzzification, inference and defuzzification, Neuro-fuzzy controller can reduce overshoot plant respond to 43.2% compared to plant respond without controller by open loop.

  10. Control Strategy for Vehicle Inductive Wireless Charging Based on Load Adaptive and Frequency Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging system for electric vehicles is a hot research issue in the world today. Since the existing research on wireless charging is mostly forward-looking aimed at low-power appliances like household appliances, while electric vehicles need a high-power, high-efficiency, and strong coupling wireless charging system. In this paper, we have specifically designed a 6.6 KW wireless charging system for electric vehicles and have proposed a control strategy suitable for electric vehicles according to its power charging characteristics and existing common wired charging protocol. Firstly, the influence of the equivalent load and frequency bifurcation on a wireless charging system is analyzed in this paper. Secondly, an adaptive load control strategy matching the characteristics of the battery, and the charging pile is put forward to meet the constant current and constant voltage charging requirements to improve the system efficiency. In addition, the frequency adjustment control strategy is designed to realize the real-time dynamic optimization of the entire system. It utilizes the improved methods of rapid judgment, variable step length matching and frequency splitting recognition, which are not adopted in early related researches. Finally, the results of 6.6 kW test show that the control strategy works perfectly since system response time can be reduced to less than 1 s, and the overall efficiency of the wireless charging system and the grid power supply module can reach up to 91%.

  11. Integrated guidance and control design of a flight vehicle with side-window detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu ZHENG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guidance and control problem of a flight vehicle with side-window detection. In order to guarantee the target remaining in the seeker's sight of view, the line of sight and the attitude of the flight vehicle should be under some constraints caused by the side-window, which leads to coupling between the guidance and the attitude dynamics model. To deal with the side-window constraints and the coupling, a novel Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC design approach is proposed. Firstly, the relative motion equations are derived in the body-Line of Sight (LOS coordinate system. And the guidance and control problem of the flight vehicle is formulated into an IGC problem with state constraints. Then, based on the singular perturbation method, the IGC problem is decomposed into the control design of the quasi-steady-state subsystem and the boundary-layer subsystem which can be designed separately. Finally, the receding horizon control is applied to the control design for the two subsystems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: Integrated guidance and control, Receding horizon control, Side-window detection, Singular perturbation, Terminal guidance

  12. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; Mccallum, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  13. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

  14. A model predictive control approach combined unscented Kalman filter vehicle state estimation in intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiao Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking and state estimation are significant in the motion planning and intelligent vehicle control. This article focuses on the model predictive control approach for the trajectory tracking of the intelligent vehicles and state estimation of the nonlinear vehicle system. The constraints of the system states are considered when applying the model predictive control method to the practical problem, while 4-degree-of-freedom vehicle model and unscented Kalman filter are proposed to estimate the vehicle states. The estimated states of the vehicle are used to provide model predictive control with real-time control and judge vehicle stability. Furthermore, in order to decrease the cost of solving the nonlinear optimization, the linear time-varying model predictive control is used at each time step. The effectiveness of the proposed vehicle state estimation and model predictive control method is tested by driving simulator. The results of simulations and experiments show that great and robust performance is achieved for trajectory tracking and state estimation in different scenarios.

  15. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  16. Nonlinear analysis of vehicle control actuations based on controlled invariant sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Balázs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an analysis method is applied to the lateral stabilization problem of vehicle systems. The aim is to find the largest state-space region in which the lateral stability of the vehicle can be guaranteed by the peak-bounded control input. In the analysis, the nonlinear polynomial sum-of-squares programming method is applied. A practical computation technique is developed to calculate the maximum controlled invariant set of the system. The method calculates the maximum controlled invariant sets of the steering and braking control systems at various velocities and road conditions. Illustration examples show that, depending on the environments, different vehicle dynamic regions can be reached and stabilized by these controllers. The results can be applied to the theoretical basis of their interventions into the vehicle control system.

  17. U29: commercial vehicle secure network for safety and mobility applications final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop a secure, reliable, high throughput and integrated wireless network for Vehicle-To-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-To-Infrastructure (V2I) and intra-vehicle communications. Novel techniques and communication pr...

  18. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  19. Modelling and Simulation of Cooperative Control for Bus Rapid Transit Vehicle Platoon in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a cooperative control model for improving the operational efficiency of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT vehicles. The model takes advantage of the emerging connected vehicle technology. A connected vehicle centre is established to assign a specific reservation time interval and transmit the corresponding dynamic speed guidance to each BRT vehicle. Furthermore, a set of constraints have been set up to avoid bus queuing and waiting phenomena in downstream BRT stations. Therefore, many BRT vehicles are strategically guided to form a platoon, which can pass through an intersection with no impedance. An actual signalized intersection along the Guangzhou BRT corridor is employed to verify and assess the cooperative control model in various traffic conditions. The simulation-based evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can reduce delays, decrease the number of stops, and improve the sustainability of the BRT vehicles.

  20. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  1. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  2. Study on Adaptive Slid Mode Controller for Improving Handling Stability of Motorized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQiang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.

  3. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  4. Development of wireless vehicle remote control for fuel lid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, N.; Jadin, M. S.; Najib, M. S.; Mustafa, M.; Azmi, S. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of the vehicle technology had made the vehicle especially car to be equipped with a remote control to control the operation of the locking and unlocking system of the car’s door and rear’s bonnet. However, for the fuel or petrol lid, it merely can be opened from inside the car’s cabin by handling the fuel level inside the car’s cabin to open the fuel lid. The petrol lid can be closed by pushing the lid by hand. Due to the high usage of using fuel lever to open the fuel lid when refilling the fuel, the car driver might encounter the malfunction of fuel lid (fail to open) when pushing or pulling the fuel lever. Thus, the main aim of the research is to enhance the operation of an existing car remote control where the car fuel lid can be controlled using two techniques; remote control-based and smartphone-based. The remote control is constructed using Arduino microcontroller, wireless sensors and XCTU software to set the transmitting and receiving parameters. Meanwhile, the smartphone can control the operation of the fuel lid by communicating with Arduino microcontroller which is attached to the fuel lid using Bluetooth sensor to open the petrol lid. In order to avoid the conflict of instruction between wireless systems with the existing mechanical-based system, the servo motor will be employed to release the fuel lid merely after receiving the instruction from Arduino microcontroller and smartphone. As a conclusion, the prototype of the multipurpose vehicle remote control is successfully invented, constructed and tested. The car fuel lid can be opened either using remote control or smartphone in a sequential manner. Therefore, the outcome of the project can be used to serve as an alternative solution to solve the car fuel lid problem even though the problem rarely occurred.

  5. Method and system for control of upstream flowfields of vehicle in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.

  6. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  7. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  8. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  9. Robust Design of H-infinity Controller for a Launch Vehicle Autopilot against Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Graells, Antonio; Carrabina, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle is utilized to evaluate the performance of an H-infinity controller in the presence of disturbances. Dynamics of the vehicle is linearly modeled using time-varying parameters. An operating point was found to design a robust command tracker using H-infinity control theory that guarantees a stable maneuver. At the end, the controller was employed on the launch vehicle to assess the capability of control design on the linearized aerospace vehicle. Exp...

  10. Coordinated path-following and direct yaw-moment control of autonomous electric vehicles with sideslip angle estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinghua; Luo, Yugong; Li, Keqiang; Dai, Yifan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel coordinated path following system (PFS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) of autonomous electric vehicles via hierarchical control technique. In the high-level control law design, a new fuzzy factor is introduced based on the magnitude of longitudinal velocity of vehicle, a linear time varying (LTV)-based model predictive controller (MPC) is proposed to acquire the wheel steering angle and external yaw moment. Then, a pseudo inverse (PI) low-level control allocation law is designed to realize the tracking of desired external moment torque and management of the redundant tire actuators. Furthermore, the vehicle sideslip angle is estimated by the data fusion of low-cost GPS and INS, which can be obtained by the integral of modified INS signals with GPS signals as initial value. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control system is validated by the simulation and experimental tests.

  11. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

    2011-04-01

    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  12. The problem of the driverless vehicle specified path stability control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, S. E.; Endachev, D. V.; Elkin, D. S.; Strukov, V. O.

    2018-02-01

    Currently the effort of many leading foreign companies is focused on creation of driverless transport for transportation of cargo and passengers. Among many practical problems arising while creating driverless vehicles, the problem of the specified path stability control occupies a central place. The purpose of this paper is formalization of the problem in question in terms of the quadratic functional of the control quality, the comparative analysis of the possible solutions and justification of the choice of the optimum technical solution. As square value of the integral of the deviation from the specified path is proposed as the quadratic functional of the control quality. For generation of the set of software and hardware solution variants the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used within the hardware and software environments. The heading control algorithms use the wheel steering angle data and the deviation from the lane centerline (specified path) calculated based on the navigation data and the data from the video system. Where the video system does not detect the road marking, the control is carried out based on the wheel navigation system data and where recognizable road marking exits - based on to the video system data. The analysis of the test results allows making the conclusion that the application of the combined navigation system algorithms that provide quasi-optimum solution of the problem while meeting the strict functional limits for the technical and economic indicators of the driverless vehicle control system under development is effective.

  13. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Bradley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical system (CPS is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  14. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M; Atkins, Ella M

    2015-09-11

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  16. Converted vehicle for battery electric drive. Aspects on the design of the software-driven vehicle control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessler, Martin; Paul, Jens; Gauterin, Frank [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugsystemtechnik (FAST); Fritz, Alexander; Sander, Oliver; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technik der Informationsverarbeitung (ITIV)

    2012-11-01

    At the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) a vehicle was converted for full battery electric drive within a cooperation of several faculties under the direction of the chair of vehicle technology. Within this paper the developed software to control the main functions of the vehicle will be presented and potentials to increase the energy efficiency will be discussed. The software based vehicle control unit is the central control unit to realize drivers command with respect to the system parameters, which are important for safety, dynamics, range and comfort of the vehicle. The structure of the software architecture, the interaction with the main electric vehicle specific control units and components and the main implemented functions will be described within this paper. The converted vehicle consists mainly of one electric motor with water cooled power electronics that drives the front axle, 21 battery modules controlled and managed by the battery management system, one on board charging device and an universal control unit. Not only strategies for power recovery while braking, but also strategies for driving and operation can help increase the energy efficiency. Select measures to recover and safe energy are also shown. (orig.)

  17. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accounting for electric vehicles in air quality conformity \\0x2012 final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) obtain at least a part of the energy required for their propulsion from electricity. The : market for EVs, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles continues to grow, as many : new and affordable models ...

  19. Optimal charging scheduler for electric vehicles on the Florida turnpike : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This project developed a methodology to simulate and analyze roadway traffic patterns : and expected penetration and timing of electric vehicles (EVs) with application directed : toward the requirements for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) si...

  20. A control-oriented simulation model of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipek, Mihael; Pavković, Danijel; Petrić, Joško

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simulation model of a two mode power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. ► Modeling the energy losses in the HEV transmission components are presented. ► The control optimization model implementation aspects are discussed. -- Abstract: A simulation model of a two mode power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed in this paper for the purpose of HEV dynamics analysis and control system design. The bond graph methodology is used to model dominant dynamic effects of the mechanical part of the HEV transmission. Simple quasi-static battery model, the environment model, the tire and the power losses model of a vehicle are included, as well. A low-level electric generator speed control loop is designed, which includes a PI controller tuned according to the symmetrical optimum tuning procedure. Finally, off-line optimization by conjugate gradient-based BPTT-like optimal control algorithm, which is based on the presented mathematical model, is also given in the paper.

  1. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  2. A new robust control for minirotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new robust control based on finite-time Lyapunov stability controller and proved with backstepping method for the position and the attitude of a small rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle subjected to bounded uncertainties and disturbances. The dynamical motion equations are obtained by the Newton-Euler formalism. The proposed controller combines the advantage of the backstepping approach with finite-time convergence techniques to generate a control laws to guarantee the faster convergence of the state variables to their desired values in short time and compensate for the bounded disturbances. A formal proof of the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking errors is derived using the Lyapunov function technique. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PWM Inverter control and the application thereof within electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Steven

    1982-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  4. Aggregation of Single-phase Electric Vehicles for Frequency Control Provision Based on Unidirectional Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæmundsson, Valgeir Thor; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    As the use of electric vehicles grows there is a greater possibility of using aggregated sets of electric vehicles as a large flexible unit to assist with the control of the power system. In this paper, the possibility of using electric vehicles as a flexible load for frequency control...... is investigated. The investigations are performed in a Pan-European interconnected grid with varying wind power penetration and different operational scenarios. Within this grid, the paper focuses on primary frequency control provision from electric vehicles and how the system behaves as the vehicles are being...... controlled within their respective areas. The investigations show that electric vehicles can be used for primary frequency control with different wind power penetration. By controlling the vehicles, the steady state frequency is improved and, since the vehicles react fast enough to the frequency changes...

  5. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  6. Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles Vincent Nguyen, Doctor of...relates to the dynamics of non-smooth vehicle systems, and in particular, supercavitating vehicles. These high-speed under- water vehicles are...Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  7. Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Road Vehicles Equipped with Adaptive Cruise Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automotive vehicle following systems are essential for the design of automated highway system. The problem associated with the automatic vehicle following system is the string stability of the platoon of vehicles, i.e. the problem of uniform velocity and spacing errors propagation. Different control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon are discussed based on different spacing policies, communication link among the vehicles of a platoon, and the performance of a platoon have been analysed in the presence of disturbance (noise and parametric uncertainties. This paper presented the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative feedback control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon in the presence of noise signal and investigates the performance of platoon under the influence of sudden acceleration and braking in severe conditions. This model has been applied on 6 vehicles moving in a platoon. The platoon has been analysed to retain the uniform velocity and safe spacing among the vehicles. The limitations of PID control algorithm have been discussed and the alternate methods have been suggested. Model simulations, in comparison with the literature, are also presented.

  8. Performance of Personal Workspace Controls Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila; Loffeld, John; Pettler,Pete; Snook, Joel

    2004-12-01

    One of the key deliverables for the DOE-funded controls research at LBNL for FY04 was the development of a prototype Personal Workspace Control system. The successful development of this system is a critical milestone for the LBNL Lighting Controls Research effort because this system demonstrates how IBECS can add value to today's Task Ambient lighting systems. LBNL has argued that by providing both the occupant and the facilities manager with the ability to precisely control the operation of overhead lighting and all task lighting in a coordinated manner, that task ambient lighting can optimize energy performance and occupant comfort simultaneously [Reference Task Ambient Foundation Document]. The Personal Workspace Control system is the application of IBECS to this important lighting problem. This report discusses the development of the Personal Workspace Control to date including descriptions of the different fixture types that have been converted to IBECS operation and a detailed description of the operation of PWC Scene Controller, which provides the end user with precise control of his task ambient lighting system. The objective, from the Annual Plan, is to demonstrate improvements in efficiency, lighting quality and occupant comfort realized using Personal Workspace Controls (PWC) designed to optimize the delivery of lighting to the individual's workstation regardless of which task-ambient lighting solution is chosen. The PWC will be capable of controlling floor-mounted, desk lamps, furniture-mounted and overhead lighting fixtures from a personal computer and handheld remote. The PWC will use an environmental sensor to automatically monitor illuminance, temperature and occupancy and to appropriately modulate ambient lighting according to daylight availability and to switch off task lighting according to local occupancy. [Adding occupancy control to the system would blunt the historical criticism of occupant-controlled lighting - the tendency of the

  9. Cooperative vehicle control, feature tracking and ocean sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Edward A.

    This dissertation concerns the development of a feedback control framework for coordinating multiple, sensor-equipped, autonomous vehicles into mobile sensing arrays to perform adaptive sampling of observed fields. The use of feedback is central; it maintains the array, i.e. regulates formation position, orientation, and shape, and directs the array to perform its sampling mission in response to measurements taken by each vehicle. Specifically, we address how to perform autonomous gradient tracking and feature detection in an unknown field such as temperature or salinity in the ocean. Artificial potentials and virtual bodies are used to coordinate the autonomous vehicles, modelled as point masses (with unit mass). The virtual bodies consist of linked, moving reference points called virtual leaders. Artificial potentials couple the dynamics of the vehicles and the virtual bodies. The dynamics of the virtual body are then prescribed allowing the virtual body, and thus the vehicle group, to perform maneuvers that include translation, rotation and contraction/expansion, while ensuring that the formation error remains bounded. This methodology is called the Virtual Body and Artificial Potential (VBAP) methodology. We then propose how to utilize these arrays to perform autonomous gradient climbing and front tracking in the presence of both correlated and uncorrelated noise. We implement various techniques for estimation of gradients (first-order and higher), including finite differencing, least squares error minimization, averaging, and Kalman filtering. Furthermore, we illustrate how the estimation error can be used to optimally choose the formation size. To complement our theoretical work, we present an account of sea trials performed with a fleet of autonomous underwater gliders in Monterey Bay during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) II project in August 2003. During these trials, Slocum autonomous underwater gliders were coordinated into triangle

  10. Vehicle handling and stability control by the cooperative control of 4WS and DYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huan; Tan, Yun-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes an integrated control system that cooperates with the four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC) to improve the vehicle handling and stability. The design works of the four-wheel steering and DYC control are based on sliding mode control. The integration control system produces the suitable 4WS angle and corrective yaw moment so that the vehicle tracks the desired yaw rate and sideslip angle. Considering the change of the vehicle longitudinal velocity that means the comfort of driving conditions, both the driving torque and braking torque are used to generate the corrective yaw moment. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.

  11. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible while rejecting the effects of wind gusts. We compared the controller based on both simple and complex bicycle models without and with the roll vehicle dynamics for different types of model predictive control manoeuvres. The simulation result showed that the model predictive control gave a better performance in terms of robustness for both forward speeds and road surface variation in autonomous path-following control. It also demonstrated that model predictive control is useful to maintain vehicle stability along the desired path and has an ability to eliminate the crosswind effect.

  12. Nonlinear Robust Control of a Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a novel tracking controller design for a hypersonic flight vehicle in complex and volatile environment. The attitude control model is challengingly constructed with multivariate uncertainties and external disturbances, such as structure dynamic and stochastic wind disturbance. In order to resist the influence of uncertainties and disturbances on the flight control system, nonlinear disturbance observer is introduced to estimate them. Moreover, for the sake of high accuracy and sensitivity, fuzzy theory is adopted to improve the performance of the nonlinear disturbance observer. After the total disturbance is eliminated by dynamic inversion method, a cascade system is obtained and then stabilized by a sliding-mode controller. Finally, simulation results show that the strong robust controller achieves excellent performance when the closed-loop control system is influenced by mass uncertainties and external disturbances.

  13. Modifications of Control Loop to Improve the Depth Response of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During a constant depth maneuver of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV, its pitch attitude and stern plane deflections create forces and moments to achieve equilibrium in the vertical plane. If an AUV has a proportional controller only in its depth control loop, then different weights or centers of gravity will cause different steady-state depth errors at trimmed conditions. In general, a steady-state depth error can be eliminated by adding an integral controller in the depth control loop. However, an improper integrator may lead to a bad transient response, even though the steady-state depth error can finally be eliminated. To remove the steady-state depth error, this study proposes methods that adjust the depth command and add a switching integral controller in the depth control loop. Simulation results demonstrate that the steady-state depth error can be eliminated and the transient response can be improved.

  14. Concise Neural Nonaffine Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles Subject to Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Bu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel simplified neural control strategy is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV directly using nonaffine models instead of affine ones. For the velocity dynamics, an adaptive neural controller is devised based on a minimal-learning parameter (MLP technique for the sake of decreasing computational loads. The altitude dynamics is rewritten as a pure feedback nonaffine formulation, for which a novel concise neural control approach is achieved without backstepping. The special contributions are that the control architecture is concise and the computational cost is low. Moreover, the exploited controller possesses good practicability since there is no need for affine models. The semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals is guaranteed via Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the investigated control methodology in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

  15. Final report on the FMIT Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The computer control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) prototype accelerator was designed using distributed intelligence driven by a distributed database. The system consists of two minicomputers in the central control room and four microcomputers residing in CAMAC crates located near appropriate subsystems of the accelerator. The system uses single vendor hardware as much as practical in an attempt to minimize the maintenance problems. Local control consoles are an integral part of each node computer to provide subsystem check-out. The main console is located in the central control room and permits one-point operation of the complete control system. Automatic surveillance is provided for each data channel by the node computer with out-of-bounds alarms sent to the main console. Report by exception is used for data logging. This control system has been operational for two years. The computers are too heavily loaded and the operator response is slower than desired. A system upgrade to a faster local-area network has been undertaken and is scheduled to be operational by conference time

  16. Fuzzy Traffic Control with Vehicle-to-Everything Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muntaser A; Ozdemir, Suat; Celebi, Fatih V

    2018-01-27

    Traffic signal control (TSC) with vehicle-to everything (V2X) communication can be a very efficient solution to traffic congestion problem. Ratio of vehicles equipped with V2X communication capability in the traffic to the total number of vehicles (called penetration rate PR) is still low, thus V2X based TSC systems need to be supported by some other mechanisms. PR is the major factor that affects the quality of TSC process along with the evaluation interval. Quality of the TSC in each direction is a function of overall TSC quality of an intersection. Hence, quality evaluation of each direction should follow the evaluation of the overall intersection. Computational intelligence, more specifically swarm algorithm, has been recently used in this field in a European Framework Program FP7 supported project called COLOMBO. In this paper, using COLOMBO framework, further investigations have been done and two new methodologies using simple and fuzzy logic have been proposed. To evaluate the performance of our proposed methods, a comparison with COLOMBOs approach has been realized. The results reveal that TSC problem can be solved as a logical problem rather than an optimization problem. Performance of the proposed approaches is good enough to be suggested for future work under realistic scenarios even under low PR.

  17. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  18. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodes, C.; Sheldon, L.; Whitaker, D.; Clayton, A.; Fitzgerald, K.

    1999-01-01

    This project measured 2-hour integrated concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, metals and a number of organic chemicals including benzene and MTBE inside vehicles on California roadways. Using continuous samplers, particle counts, black carbon, and CO were also measured. In addition to measuring in-vehicle levels, the investigators measured pollutant levels just outside the vehicle, at roadside stations, and ambient air monitoring stations. Different driving scenarios were designed to assess the effects of a number of factors on in-vehicle pollutant levels. These factors included roadway type, carpool lanes, traffic conditions, geographical locations, vehicle type, and vehicle ventilation conditions. The statewide average in-vehicle concentrations of benzene, MTBE, and formaldehyde ranged from 3--22 microg/m 3 , 3--90 microg/m 3 , and 0---22 microg/m 3 , respectively. The ranges of mean PM10 and PM2.5 in-vehicle levels in Sacramento were 20--40 microg/m 3 and 6--22 microg/m 3 , respectively. In general, pollutant levels inside or just outside the vehicles were higher than those measured at the roadside stations or the ambient air stations. In-vehicle pollutant levels were consistently higher in Los Angeles than Sacramento. Pollutant levels measured inside vehicles traveling in a carpool lane were much lower than those in the right-hand, slower lanes. Under the study conditions, factors such as vehicle type and ventilation and little effect on in-vehicle pollutant levels. Other factors, such as roadway type, freeway congestion level, and time-of-day had some influence on in-vehicle pollution levels

  19. 75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... management under alternative B would be to enable visitor participation in a wide variety of outdoor... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2031-A046-409] General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Big Cypress National...

  20. Adaptive Augmenting Control and Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control Flight Experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at NASA Armstrong are working to further the development of an adaptive augmenting control algorithm (AAC). The AAC was developed to improve the...

  1. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  2. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  3. Inter-vehicle gap statistics on signal-controlled crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krbalek, Milan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a microscopical structure in a chain of cars waiting at a red signal on signal-controlled crossroads. A one-dimensional space-continuous thermodynamical model leading to an excellent agreement with the data measured is presented. Moreover, we demonstrate that an inter-vehicle spacing distribution disclosed in relevant traffic data agrees with the thermal-balance distribution of particles in the thermodynamical traffic gas (discussed in [1]) with a high inverse temperature (corresponding to a strong traffic congestion). Therefore, as we affirm, such a system of stationary cars can be understood as a specific state of the traffic sample operating inside a congested traffic stream

  4. Determination on Damage Mechanism of the Planet Gear of Heavy Vehicle Final Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdan, RD; Setiawan, R.; Sasmita, F.; Suratman, R.; Taufiqulloh

    2018-02-01

    The works focus on the investigation of damage mechanism of fractured in the form of spalling of the planet gears from the final drive assembly of 160-ton heavy vehicles. The objective of this work is to clearly understand the mechanism of damage. The work is the first stage of the on-going research on the remaining life estimation of such gears. The understanding of the damage mechanism is critical in order to provide accurate estimate of the gear’s remaining life with observed initial damage. The analysis was performed based on the metallurgy laboratory works, including visual observation, macro-micro fractography by optical stereo and optical microscope and micro-vickers hardness test. From visual observation it was observed pitting that form lining defect at common position, which is at gear flank position. From spalling sample it was observed ratchet mark at the boundary between macro pitting and the edge of fractured parts. Further observation on the cross-section of the samples by optical microscope confirm that initial micro pitting occur without spalling of the case hardened surface. Spalling occur when pitting achieve certain critical size, and occur at multiple initiation site of crack propagation. From the present research it was concluded that pitting was resulted due to repeated contact fatigue. In addition, development of micro to macro pitting as well as spalling occur at certain direction towards the top of the gear teeth.

  5. A control-oriented cycle-life model for hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Girish; Onori, Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-empirical Lithium-iron phosphate-graphite battery aging model is identified over data mimicking actual cycling conditions that a hybrid electric vehicle battery encounters under real driving scenarios. The aging model is then used to construct the severity factor map, used to characterize relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. This is used as a battery degradation criterion within a multi-objective optimization problem where battery aging minimization is to be achieved along with fuel consumption minimization. The method proposed is general and can be applied to other battery chemistry as well as different vehicular applications. Finally, simulations conducted using a hybrid electric vehicle simulator show how the two modeling tools developed in this paper, i.e., the severity factor map and the aging model, can be effectively used in a multi-objective optimization problem to predict and control battery degradation. - Highlights: • Battery aging model for hybrid electric vehicles using real driving conditions data. • Development of a modeling tool to assess battery degradation for real time optimization. • "3"1P NMR analysis of an enzyme-treated extract showed expected hydrolysis of P forms. • Development of an energy management strategy to minimize battery degradation. • Simulation results from hybrid electric vehicle simulator.

  6. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  7. Subjective and objective assessment of manual, supported, and automated vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Godthelp, J.; Käppler, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper subjective and objective assessments of vehicle control are illustrated by means of ex-periments concerning manipulation of vehicle dynamics, driver support, and automated driving. Subjective ratings are discussed in relation to objective performance measures.

  8. Learning Mobility: Adaptive Control Algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Mobility is a serious limiting factor in the usefulness of unmanned ground vehicles, This paper contains a description of our approach to develop control algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV...

  9. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Situational Awareness Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebalj, Derek

    2008-01-01

    ... > 1. The ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1...

  10. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  11. Electric vehicle charge planning using Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels K.; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide...... grid services, both for peak reduction and for ancillary services, by absorbing short term variations in the electricity production. In this paper the Economic MPC minimizes the cost of electricity consumption for a single EV. Simulations show savings of 50–60% of the electricity costs compared...... to uncontrolled charging from load shifting based on driving pattern predictions. The future energy system in Denmark will most likely be based on renewable energy sources e.g. wind and solar power. These green energy sources introduce stochastic fluctuations in the electricity production. Therefore, energy...

  12. Concept development of control system for perspective unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryanov Vsevolod V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented actual aspects of the development of the control system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the example of perspective. Because the current and future UAV oriented to implementation of a wide range of tasks, taking into account the use of several types of payload, in this paper discusses the general principles of construction of onboard control complex, in turn, a hardware implementation of the automatic control system has been implemented in the microcontroller Arduino platform and the Raspberry Pi. In addition, in the paper presents the most common and promising way to ensure the smooth and reliable communication of the command post with the UAV as well as to the ways of parry considered and abnormal situations.

  13. Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance.

  14. Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Attitude Tracking of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a predictive sliding mode control (PSMC scheme for attitude control of hypersonic vehicle (HV with system uncertainties and external disturbances based on an improved fuzzy disturbance observer (IFDO. First, for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems with system uncertainties and external disturbances, we propose a predictive sliding mode control based on fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO-PSMC, which is used to estimate the composite disturbances containing system uncertainties and external disturbances. Afterward, to enhance the composite disturbances rejection performance, an improved FDO-PSMC (IFDO-PSMC is proposed by incorporating a hyperbolic tangent function with FDO to compensate for the approximate error of FDO. Finally, considering the actuator dynamics, the proposed IFDO-PSMC is applied to attitude control system design for HV to track the guidance commands with high precision and strong robustness. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude control scheme.

  15. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  16. Traffic Control Models Based on Cellular Automata for At-Grade Intersections in Autonomous Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Yang Liu; Yue Xu; Quanlun Wei; Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle is able to facilitate road safety and traffic efficiency and has become a promising trend of future development. With a focus on highways, existing literatures studied the feasibility of autonomous vehicle in continuous traffic flows and the controllability of cooperative driving. However, rare efforts have been made to investigate the traffic control strategies in autonomous vehicle environment on urban roads, especially in urban intersections. In autonomous vehicle enviro...

  17. The efficiency of direct torque control for electric vehicle behavior improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the electric vehicle motorization control takes a great interest of industrials for commercialized electric vehicles. This paper is one example of the proposed control methods that ensure both safety and stability the electric vehicle by the means of Direct Torque Control (DTC. For motion of the vehicle the electric drive consists of four wheels: two front ones for steering and two rear ones for propulsion equipped with two induction motors, due to their lightweight simplicity and high performance. Acceleration and steering are ensured by the electronic differential, permitting safe and reliable steering at any curve. The direct torque control ensures efficiently controlled vehicle. Electric vehicle direct torque control is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. Electric vehicle (EV demonstrated satisfactory results in all type of roads constraints: straight, ramp, downhill and bends.

  18. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  19. Autonomous Reconfigurable Control Allocation (ARCA) for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronnie; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector delta(sub c) may govern the behavior of, e.g., acrosurfaces, reaction thrusters, engine gimbals and/or thrust vectoring. Typically, the individual moments generated in response to each of the n(sub a) commands does not lie strictly in the roll, pitch, or yaw axes, and so a common practice is to group or gang actuators so that a one-to-one mapping from torque commands tau(sub c) actuator commands delta(sub c) may be achieved in an off-line computed CA function.

  20. Velocity and Motion Control of a Self-Balancing Vehicle Based on a Cascade Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Velazquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents balancing, velocity and motion control of a self-balancing vehicle. A cascade controller is implemented for both balancing control and angular velocity control. This controller is tested in simulations using a proposed mathematical model of the system. Motion control is achieved based on the kinematics of the robot. Control hardware is designed and integrated to implement the proposed controllers. Pitch is kept under 1° from the equilibrium position with no external disturbances. The linear cascade control is able to handle slight changes in the system dynamics, such as in the centre of mass and the slope on an inclined surface.

  1. Precision control of biogas plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, Anders M.; Ward, A.J.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the project has been to improve design and process stability in biogas plants. The results can be divided within the following main categories: 1) Pre-treatment, serial coupling of digesters and post digestion 2) Process inhibition 3) Process control Ad 1) This work has shown that extreme thermophilic pre-treatment of cattle manure and pig manure mixed with silage has a considerable effect on methane yield in a subsequent methanogenic reactor. Ad 2) The effect of ammonia inhibition was studied in a series of continuously stirred tank reactors co-digesting pig manure (40%) with the addition of solid fractions (60%) and increasing concentrations of ammonia caused by addition of NH{sub 4}Cl pulses. Ad 3) Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict liquid phase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in three experiments treating three different materials: pig slurry with maize silage, chicken manure and cattle slurry.

  2. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  3. Flight Control Laws for NASA's Hyper-X Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Lallman, F.; McMinn, J. D.; Martin, J.; Pahle, J.; Stephenson, M.; Selmon, J.; Bose, D.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the Hyper-X program is to demonstrate and validate technology for design and performance predictions of hypersonic aircraft with an airframe-integrated supersonic-combustion ramjet propulsion system. Accomplishing this goal requires flight demonstration of a hydrogen-fueled scramjet powered hypersonic aircraft. A key enabling technology for this flight demonstration is flight controls. Closed-loop flight control is required to enable a successful stage separation, to achieve and maintain the design condition during the engine test, and to provide a controlled descent. Before the contract award, NASA developed preliminary flight control laws for the Hyper-X to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed scramjet test sequence and descent trajectory. After the contract award, a Boeing/NASA partnership worked to develop the current control laws. This paper presents a description of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle control law architectures with performance and robustness analyses. Assessments of simulated flight trajectories and stability margin analyses demonstrate that these control laws meet the flight test requirements.

  4. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  5. 77 FR 70538 - Final Decision That Certain Canadian-Certified Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    .... 126 for all passenger cars and all multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4... vehicles, U.S. Standard Canadian standard Passenger cars trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000... Protection. CMVSS 214--Side Door X X Strength. FMVSS 222--School Bus Passenger CMVSS 222--School Bus School...

  6. Advancing eco-driving strategies for drivers and automated vehicles traveling within intersection vicinities : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle emissions occupy a considerable share of emission inventories in the United States. One of the approaches taken to minimize vehicle emissions is eco-driving. Supported by advanced ITS technologies, it is available to provide the real-time eco...

  7. 77 FR 39253 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on the Denali Park Road Vehicle Management Plan, Denali...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... online at the NPS Planning, Environmental and Public Comment Web site at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/dena... served well as a way to manage vehicle use, while providing high quality visitor opportunities to see... framework for vehicle use based on indicators and standards for visitor experiences and resource protection...

  8. Motion Control of Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles considering Tire Force Saturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle stability control approach for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA electric vehicles is presented. The proposed control method consists of a higher-level controller and a lower-level controller. An adaptive control-based higher-level controller is designed to yield the vehicle virtual control efforts to track the desired vehicle motions due to the possible modeling inaccuracies and parametric uncertainties. The lower-level controller considering tire force saturation is given to allocate the required control efforts to the four in-wheel motors for providing the desired tire forces. An analytic method is given to distribute the high-level control efforts, without using the numerical-optimization-based control allocation algorithms. Simulations based on a high-fidelity, CarSim, and full-vehicle model show the effectiveness of the control approach.

  9. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  10. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  11. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  12. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  13. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  14. Tracking error constrained robust adaptive neural prescribed performance control for flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.

  15. Novel adaptive neural control of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles based on sliding mode differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive neural control strategy is exploited for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV. By utilizing functional decomposition method, the dynamics of FAHV is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. For each subsystem, only one neural network is employed for the unknown function approximation. To further reduce the computational burden, minimal-learning parameter (MLP technology is used to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements. By introducing sliding mode differentiator (SMD to estimate the newly defined variables, there is no need for the strict-feedback form and virtual controller. Hence the developed control law is considerably simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping scheme. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties and varying disturbances.

  16. Adaptive Neural Back-Stepping Control with Constrains for a Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive neural back-stepping control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV in the presence of input constraint and aerodynamic uncertainty is discussed. Based on functional decomposition, the dynamics can be decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. To guarantee the exploited controller’s robustness with respect to parametric uncertainties, neural network (NN is applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of AHV model. The exceptional contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are introduced to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the actuators are saturated. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties, and varying disturbances.

  17. Adaptive compensation control for attitude adjustment of quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2017-07-01

    A compensation control strategy based on adaptive back-stepping technique is presented to address the problem of attitude adjustment for a quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (QR- UAV) with inertia parameter uncertainties, the limited airflow disturbance and the partial loss of rotation speed effectiveness. In the design process of control system, adaptive estimation technique is introduced into the closed loop system in order to compensate the lumped disturbance term. More specifically, the designed controller utilizes "prescribed performance bounds" method, and therefore guarantees the transient performance of tracking errors, even in the presence of the lumped disturbance. Adaptive compensation algorithms under the proposed closed loop system structure are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability analysis such that the attitude tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  19. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  1. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah A. Hassan; Hesham A. Rakha

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is ques...

  2. Robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode flight control for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control for the longitudinal model of an air-breathing vehicle under system uncertainties and actuator failures. Firstly, a fast finite-time control law is designed for a chain of integrators. Secondly, based on the input/output feedback linearization technique, the system uncertainty and external disturbances are modeled as additive certainty and the actuator failures are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. By using the proposed fast finite-time control law, a robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control is designed for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures. Finally, adaptive laws are proposed for the adaptation of the parameters in the robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control. Thus, the bounds of the uncertainties are not needed in the control system design. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO(sub 2) from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO(sub 2) to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO(sub 2) from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO(sub 2) concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO(sub 2) levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  4. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  5. Control and state estimation for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, P.; Lidberg, M.; Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Iersel, S. van

    2011-01-01

    Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles is mainly limited by the requirement to preserve vehicle stability but it is also dependent on the brake system design and the ability of the control system. The boundaries of vehicle stability are difficult to assess, and must be approached with care,

  6. On distributed model predictive control for vehicle platooning with a recursive feasibility guarantee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Shengling; Lazar, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed model predictive control algorithm for vehicle platooning and more generally networked systems in a chain structure. The distributed models of the vehicle platoon are coupled through the input of the preceding vehicles. Using the principles of robust model

  7. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  8. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  9. Designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller to Enhance Directional Stability of Vehicles under Difficult Maneuvers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad N. Khajavi; Golamhassan Paygane; Ali Hakima

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is ca...

  10. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  11. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  12. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  13. A Novel Extreme Learning Control Framework of Unmanned Surface Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Jing-Chao; Er, Meng Joo; Liu, Yan-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an extreme learning control (ELC) framework using the single-hidden-layer feedforward network (SLFN) with random hidden nodes for tracking an unmanned surface vehicle suffering from unknown dynamics and external disturbances is proposed. By combining tracking errors with derivatives, an error surface and transformed states are defined to encapsulate unknown dynamics and disturbances into a lumped vector field of transformed states. The lumped nonlinearity is further identified accurately by an extreme-learning-machine-based SLFN approximator which does not require a priori system knowledge nor tuning input weights. Only output weights of the SLFN need to be updated by adaptive projection-based laws derived from the Lyapunov approach. Moreover, an error compensator is incorporated to suppress approximation residuals, and thereby contributing to the robustness and global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop ELC system. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons demonstrate that the ELC framework achieves high accuracy in both tracking and approximation.

  14. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified : hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities in this research : are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) solutions ...

  15. Benefits Estimation Model for Automated Vehicle Operations: Phase 2 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Automated vehicles have the potential to bring about transformative safety, mobility, energy, and environmental benefits to the surface transportation system. They are also being introduced into a complex transportation system, where second-order imp...

  16. An assessment of autonomous vehicles : traffic impacts and infrastructure needs : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The project began by understanding the current state of practice and trends. NHTSAs four-level taxonomy for automated vehicles was used to classify smart driving technologies and infrastructure needs. The project used surveys to analyze and gain a...

  17. U27 : real-time commercial vehicle safety & security monitoring final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Accurate real-time vehicle tracking has a wide range of applications including fleet management, drug/speed/law enforcement, transportation planning, traffic safety, air quality, electronic tolling, and national security. While many alternative track...

  18. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program phase 1 : security management operating concept : New York City : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    This document describes the Security Management Operating Concept (SMOC) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This SMOC outlines the security mechanisms that will be used to pr...

  19. Proving autonomous vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems safety : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The main objective of this project was to provide technology for answering : crucial safety and correctness questions about verification of autonomous : vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems based on logic. : In synergistic activities, we ha...

  20. Performance measures to characterize directional corridor travel time delay based on probe vehicle data : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Anonymous probe vehicle data are currently being collected on roadways throughout the United States. These data are being incorporated into local and statewide mobility reports to measure the performance of freeways and arterial systems. Predefined s...

  1. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-01-01

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials

  2. An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate urban traffic congestions to achieve desirable objectives (e.g., delay minimization. Connected vehicle technology, as an emerging technology, is a mobile data platform that enables the real-time data exchange among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure. Although several reviews about traffic signal control or connected vehicles have been written, a systemic review of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has not been made. Twenty-six eligible studies searched from six databases constitute the review. A quality evaluation was established based on previous research instruments and applied to the current review. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing methods of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment and to compare the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. Further, a systematic framework on connected vehicle based adaptive traffic signal control is summarized to support the future research. Future research is needed to develop more efficient and generic adaptive traffic signal control methods in a connected vehicle environment.

  3. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  4. Adaptive Finite-Time Control for a Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle with Actuator Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust fault-tolerant tracking control is investigated. Simulation on the longitudinal model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV with actuator faults and uncertainties is conducted. In order to guarantee that the velocity and altitude track their desired commands in finite time with the partial loss of actuator effectiveness, an adaptive fault-tolerant control strategy is presented based on practical finite-time sliding mode method. The adaptive update laws are used to estimate the upper bound of uncertainties and the minimum value of actuator efficiency factor. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is effective in rejecting uncertainties even in the presence of actuator faults.

  5. Efficient adaptive constrained control with time-varying predefined performance for a hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisheng Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel low-complexity adaptive control method, capable of guaranteeing the transient and steady-state tracking performance in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and actuator saturation, is investigated for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle. In order to attenuate the negative effects of classical predefined performance function for unknown initial tracking errors, a modified predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is presented. Under the newly developed predefined performance function, two novel adaptive controllers with low-complexity computation are proposed for velocity and altitude subsystems of the hypersonic flight vehicle, respectively. Wherein, different from neural network-based approximation, a least square support vector machine with only two design parameters is utilized to approximate the unknown hypersonic dynamics. And the relevant ideal weights are obtained by solving a linear system without resorting to specialized optimization algorithms. Based on the approximation by least square support vector machine, only two adaptive scalars are required to be updated online in the parameter projection method. Besides, a new finite-time-convergent differentiator, with a quite simple structure, is proposed to estimate the unknown generated state variables in the newly established normal output-feedback formulation of altitude subsystem. Moreover, it is also employed to obtain accurate estimations for the derivatives of virtual controllers in a recursive design. This avoids the inherent drawback of backstepping — “explosion of terms” and makes the proposed control method achievable for the hypersonic flight vehicle. Further, the compensation design is employed when the saturations of the actuator occur. Finally, the numerical simulations validate the efficiency of the proposed finite-time-convergent differentiator and control method.

  6. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  7. Control of an Autonomous Vehicle for Registration of Weed and Crop in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an autonomous electrical vehicle to be used for weed mapping in precision agriculture with special focus on the conceptual framework of the control system. The lowest layer of the control system is the propulsion and steering control, the second layer...... coordinates the movements of the wheel units, the third layer is path execution and perception and the upper layer performs planning and reasoning. The control system is implemented on an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle has been tested for path following and position accuracy. Based on the results a new...... vehicle is under construction....

  8. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and rescue, surveillance, and electronic warfare, but almost all UAVs are controlled remotely by humans...

  9. Optimal control of mode transition for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle with dry dual-clutch transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Lei, Dan; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Hangyu

    2018-05-01

    When the four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with a dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) is in the mode transition process from pure electrical rear wheel drive to front wheel drive with engine or hybrid drive, the problem of vehicle longitudinal jerk is prominent. A mode transition robust control algorithm which resists external disturbance and model parameter fluctuation has been developed, by taking full advantage of fast and accurate torque (or speed) response of three electrical power sources and getting the clutch of DCT fully involved in the mode transition process. Firstly, models of key components of driveline system have been established, and the model of five-degrees-of-freedom vehicle longitudinal dynamics has been built by using a Uni-Tire model. Next, a multistage optimal control method has been produced to realize the decision of engine torque and clutch-transmitted torque. The sliding-mode control strategy for measurable disturbance has been proposed at the stage of engine speed dragged up. Meanwhile, the double tracking control architecture that integrates the model calculating feedforward control with H∞ robust feedback control has been presented at the stage of speed synchronization. Finally, the results from Matlab/Simulink software and hardware-in-the-loop test both demonstrate that the proposed control strategy for mode transition can not only coordinate the torque among different power sources and clutch while minimizing vehicle longitudinal jerk, but also provide strong robustness to model uncertainties and external disturbance.

  10. Neural-Network-Based Fuzzy Logic Navigation Control for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahcene Farah

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Neural-Network-Based Fuzzy logic system for navigation control of intelligent vehicles. First, the use of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic to provide intelligent vehicles  with more autonomy and intelligence is discussed. Second, the system  for the obstacle avoidance behavior is developed. Fuzzy Logic improves Neural Networks (NN obstacle avoidance approach by handling imprecision and rule-based approximate reasoning. This system must make the vehicle able, after supervised learning, to achieve two tasks: 1- to make one’s way towards its target by a NN, and 2- to avoid static or dynamic obstacles by a Fuzzy NN capturing the behavior of a human expert. Afterwards, two association phases between each task and the appropriate actions are carried out by Trial and Error learning and their coordination allows to decide the appropriate action. Finally, the simulation results display the generalization and adaptation abilities of the system by testing it in new unexplored environments.

  11. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  12. Solving Algebraic Riccati Equation Real Time for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, A; Corno, M.; Bonsen, B.; Holweg, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison study of different computational methods to implement State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) based control in real time for a vehicle dynamics control application. Vehicles are mechatronic systems with nonlinear dynamics. One of the promising nonlinear control

  13. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  14. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  15. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  16. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

  17. Recycling end-of-life vehicles of the future. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Daniels, E.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (the Contractor) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the following Participants: Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC (VRP, which consists of General Motors [GM], Ford, and Chrysler), and the American Chemistry Council - Plastics Division (ACC-PD). The purpose of this CRADA is to provide for the effective recycling of automotive materials. The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use of advanced lightweighting materials or systems in future vehicles. The issues, technical requirements, and cost and institutional considerations in achieving that goal are complex and will require a concerted, focused, and systematic analysis, together with a technology development program. The scope and tasks of this program are derived from 'A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future,' prepared in May 2001 for the DOE Office of Energy, Efficiency, and Renewable Energy (EERE)-Vehicle Technologies Program. The objective of this research program is to enable the maximum recycling of automotive materials and obsolete vehicles through the development and commercialization of technologies for the separation and recovery of materials from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use

  18. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  19. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  20. Frequency and time domain characteristics of digital control of electric vehicle in-wheel drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzebowicz Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel electric drives are promising as actuators in active safety systems of electric and hybrid vehicles. This new function requires dedicated control algorithms, making it essential to deliver models that reflect better the wheel-torque control dynamics of electric drives. The timing of digital control events, whose importance is stressed in current research, still lacks an analytical description allowing for modeling its influence on control system dynamics. In this paper, authors investigate and compare approaches to the analog and discrete analytical modeling of torque control loop in digitally controlled electric drive. Five different analytical models of stator current torque component control are compared to judge their accuracy in representing drive control dynamics related to the timing of digital control events. The Bode characteristics and stepresponse characteristics of the analytical models are then compared with those of a reference model for three commonly used cases of motor discrete control schemes. Finally, the applicability of the presented models is discussed.

  1. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is questionable. Consequently, in this paper a fully distributed algorithm is proposed where vehicles in the vicinity of an intersection continuously cooperate with each other to develop a schedule that allows them to safely proceed through the intersection while incurring minimum delay. Unlike other distributed approaches described in the literature, the wireless communication constraints are considered in the design of the control algorithm. Specifically, the proposed algorithm requires vehicles heading to an intersection to communicate only with neighboring vehicles, while the lead vehicles on each approach lane share information to develop a complete intersection utilization schedule. The scheduling rotates between vehicles to identify higher traffic volumes and favor vehicles coming from heavier lanes to minimize the overall intersection delay. The simulated experiments show significant reductions in the average delay using the proposed approach compared to other methods reported in the literature and reduction in the maximum delay experienced by a vehicle especially in cases of heavy traffic demand levels.

  2. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  3. Fuzzy-Skyhook Control for Active Suspension Systems Applied to a Full Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M.A. Soliman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most modern vehicles are equipped with controlled suspension systems for improving the vehicle ride comfort. Therefore, this paper is concerned with a theoretical study for the ride comfort performance of the vehicle. The theoretical investigation includes a suggestion of an active suspension system controller using fuzzy-skyhook control theory, which offers new opportunities for the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The ride comfort of the active suspension system has been evaluated using a 7 degree of freedom full vehicle mathematical model. The simulation results are presented in the time and frequency domain, also in terms of RMS values, and it’s shown that the proposed active suspension system with fuzzy-skyhook control improved the vehicle ride quality in terms of body acceleration, suspension working space and dynamic tyre load in comparison with the passive and skyhook suspension systems.

  4. Sliding mode-based lateral vehicle dynamics control using tyre force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Anil; Corno, Matteo; Holweg, Edward

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a lateral vehicle dynamics control based on tyre force measurements is proposed. Most of the lateral vehicle dynamics control schemes are based on yaw rate whereas tyre forces are the most important variables in vehicle dynamics as tyres are the only contact points between the vehicle and road. In the proposed method, active front steering is employed to uniformly distribute the required lateral force among the front left and right tyres. The force distribution is quantified through the tyre utilisation coefficients. In order to address the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the vehicle model, a gain scheduling sliding-mode control technique is used. In addition to stabilising the lateral dynamics, the proposed controller is able to maintain maximum lateral acceleration. The proposed method is tested and validated on a multi-body vehicle simulator.

  5. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  6. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  7. LMI-Based H¥ Anti-Rollover Control Algorithm of Vehicle Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Cong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the anti-rollover ability for vehicles, a 4 DOF vehicle rollover dynamics model is established, base on which we have designed an active suspension anti-rollover controller and proposed the H¥ control strategy. Simulations were carried out using Matlab/Simulink, and results show that the proposed control scheme can not only reduce the roll angle and roll angular velocity, but also improve the rollover stability of the vehicle and reduce the probability of vehicle rollover accidents.

  8. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  9. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  10. Robust two degree of freedom vehicle steering control satisfying mixed sensitivity constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Aksun-Güvenc, B.; Güvenc, L.; Odenthal, D.; Bünte, T.

    2001-01-01

    Robust steering control is used here for improving the yaw dynamics of a passenger car. A specific two degree of freedom control structure is adapted to the vehicle yaw dynamics problem and shown to robustly improve performance. The design study is based on six operating conditions for vehicle speed and the coefficient of friction between the tires and the road representing the operating domain of the vehicle. The relevant design specifications are formulated as attaining Hurwitz stability a...

  11. Active disturbance rejection based trajectory linearization control for hypersonic reentry vehicle with bounded uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Wang, Honglun

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel compound control scheme combined with the advantages of trajectory linearization control (TLC) and alternative active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking system with bounded uncertainties. Firstly, in order to overcome actuator saturation problem, nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) is applied in the attitude loop to achieve fewer control consumption. Then, linear extended state observers (LESO) are constructed to estimate the uncertainties acting on the LTV system in the attitude and angular rate loop. In addition, feedback linearization (FL) based controllers are designed using estimates of uncertainties generated by LESO in each loop, which enable the tracking error for closed-loop system in the presence of large uncertainties to converge to the residual set of the origin asymptotically. Finally, the compound controllers are derived by integrating with the nominal controller for open-loop nonlinear system and FL based controller. Also, comparisons and simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling and control of an electric vehicle; Modelisation et controle d`un vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwartnik, J

    1995-11-28

    The work described in this report provides to engineers or researchers a tool for electric vehicle simulation. The different components included in the system are described with in particular the choppers, the pedal accelerator and the vehicle dynamic represented by the different constraints applied to the vehicle (efforts of drag, of lift, of rolling and slope resistance). This study has been realized by considering nonlinear phenomenons such as the armature magnetic reaction or the resistance change due to temperature increasing. The complexity of the system leads to use several of control. The theory of linear systems made possible the synthesis of PID controllers after few hypothesis. An on line adaptation technique completed this synthesis by considering nonlinear effects. For the cruise control we have used a control based on fuzzy set theory. We showed through two examples, the cruise control and the motor control using a strategy which minimize the Joule effect looses, the interest and the possibilities of the model evolution. (author) 21 refs.

  13. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  14. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  15. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  16. H∞ control of railway vehicle suspension with MR damper using scaled roller rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; You, Won-Hee; Hur, Hyun-Moo; Park, Joon-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper was applied to the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of a car body. The control performance of the MR damper was verified by numerical analysis with a 1/5 scale railway vehicle model in accordance with the similarity law. The analysis results were then validated in tests. In particular, the objective of the study was to understand how the control performance affected the dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle and to systematically analyze the relationship between control performance and dynamic characteristics depending on various running speeds. To achieve this, experimental results for the dynamic characteristics of the scaled MR damper designed for the 1/5 scale railway vehicle model were applied to the railway vehicle model. The H ∞ control method was applied to the controller. The means of designing the railway vehicle body vibration controller and the effectiveness of its results were studied. (paper)

  17. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  18. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This study provided the data needed to characterize in-transit exposures to air pollutants for California drivers. It also demonstrated a number of in-situ monitoring techniques in moving vehicles and provided findings that shed new light on particle...

  19. Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

    1999-01-01

    This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures

  20. Consumer acceptance and travel behavior : impacts of automated vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a glimpse into the not-too-distant future by asking people in the general population how they would respond to the availability of self-driving vehicles, which might be on Texas roadways within a few years. Some elements of the te...

  1. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  2. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  3. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  4. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    , efficient, and robust to changes in the environment. Most of the existing techniques that carry performance guarantees are not scalable or robust to changes. The scalable techniques are often heuristic in nature, resulting in lack of reliability and performance. Our policies are tested in a multi-UAV simulation environment developed for this problem, and shown to be near-optimal in spite of being completely reactive in nature. We explicitly account for the coupling between aircraft dynamics and control policies as well, and suggest modifications to improve performance under dynamic constraints. A smart refueling policy is also developed to account for limited endurance, and large performance benefits are observed. The method is based on the solution of a linear program that can be efficiently solved online in a distributed setting, unlike previous work. The Vehicle Swarm Technology Laboratory (VSTL), a hardware testbed developed at Boeing Research and Technology for evaluating swarm of UAVs, is described next and used to test the control strategy in a real-world scenario. The simplicity and robustness of the strategy allows easy implementation and near replication of the performance observed in simulation. Finally, an architecture for system-of-systems design based on Collaborative Optimization (CO) is presented. Earlier work coupling operations and design has used frameworks that make certain assumptions not valid for this problem. The efficacy of our approach is illustrated through preliminary design results, and extension to more realistic settings is also demonstrated.

  5. Battery- and aging-aware embedded control systems for electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.; Probstl, A.; Goswami, D.; Zamani, M.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, we propose a battery- and aging-aware optimization framework for embedded control systems design in electric vehicles (EVs). Performance and reliability of an EV are influenced by feedback control loops implemented into in-vehicle electrical/electronic (E/E)

  6. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  7. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV. In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the torque of the generator. Engine speed and generator torque were decoupled. An improved proportional resonant (PR controller is adopted to achieve fast output power regulation. In order to ensure the response characteristics of the control system and to improve the robustness, the impacts on system’s characteristics and stability caused by PR controller and parameters in the inner-current loop were analyzed via frequency response characteristics. A pre-Tustin with deviation compensation is proposed for PR controller’s discretization. A stable and robust power following control method is obtained for the range extender control system. Finally, simulation and experiment of the proposed control strategy illustrated its feasibility and correctness.

  8. Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Stability Control Based on a New Multimachine Nonlinear Model Predictive Direct Torque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Sekour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the driving performance and the stability of electric vehicles (EVs, a new multimachine robust control, which realizes the acceleration slip regulation (ASR and antilock braking system (ABS functions, based on nonlinear model predictive (NMP direct torque control (DTC, is proposed for four permanent magnet synchronous in-wheel motors. The in-wheel motor provides more possibilities of wheel control. One of its advantages is that it has low response time and almost instantaneous torque generation. Moreover, it can be independently controlled, enhancing the limits of vehicular control. For an EV equipped with four in-wheel electric motors, an advanced control may be envisaged. Taking advantage of the fast and accurate torque of in-wheel electric motors which is directly transmitted to the wheels, a new approach for longitudinal control realized by ASR and ABS is presented in this paper. In order to achieve a high-performance torque control for EVs, the NMP-DTC strategy is proposed. It uses the fuzzy logic control technique that determines online the accurate values of the weighting factors and generates the optimal switching states that optimize the EV drives’ decision. The simulation results built in Matlab/Simulink indicate that the EV can achieve high-performance vehicle longitudinal stability control.

  9. The Role of Guidance, Navigation, and Control in Hypersonic Vehicle Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Soloway, Donald I.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Wolpert, David H.; Benavides, Jose Victor

    2009-01-01

    Airbreathing hypersonic systems offer distinct performance advantages over rocket-based systems for space access vehicles. However, these performance advantages are dependent upon advances in current state-of-the-art technologies in many areas such as ram/scramjet propulsion integration, high temperature materials, aero-elastic structures, thermal protection systems, transition to hypersonics and hypersonic control elements within the framework of complex physics and new design methods. The complex interactions between elements of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle represent a new paradigm in vehicle design to achieve the optimal performance necessary to meet space access mission objectives. In the past, guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) analysis often follows completion of the vehicle conceptual design process. Individual component groups design subsystems which are then integrated into a vehicle configuration. GNC is presented the task of developing control approaches to meet vehicle performance objectives given that configuration. This approach may be sufficient for vehicles where significant performance margins exist. However, for higher performance vehicles engaging the GNC discipline too late in the design cycle has been costly. For example, the X-29 experimental flight vehicle was built as a technology demonstrator. One of the many technologies to be demonstrated was the use of light-weight material composites for structural components. The use of light-weight materials increased the flexibility of the X- 29 beyond that of conventional metal alloy constructed aircraft. This effect was not considered when the vehicle control system was designed and built. The impact of this is that the control system did not have enough control authority to compensate for the effects of the first fundamental structural mode of the vehicle. As a result, the resulting pitch rate response of the vehicle was below specification and no post-design changes could recover the

  10. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  11. FINAL IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LHC COLLIMATOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Masi, A; Losito, R

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 collimation system of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) included 80 movable collimators for a total of 316 degrees of freedom. Before beam operation, the final controls implementation was deployed and commissioned. The control system enabled remote control and appropriate diagnostics of the relevant parameters. The collimator motion is driven with time-functions, synchronized with other accelerator systems, which allows controlling the collimator jaw positions with a micrometer accuracy during all machine phases. The machine protection functionality of the system, which also relies on function-based tolerance windows, was also fully validated. The collimator control challenges are reviewed and the final system architecture is presented. The results of the remote system commissioning and the overall performance are discussed.

  12. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  13. Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and micron-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis is discussed. Airbreathing SSTO vehicles has a mutli-faceted mission that includes orbital operations, as well as re-entry and descent culminating in horizontal landing. However, the most challenging part of the operations is the ascent to orbit. The airbreathing propulsion requires lengthy atmospheric flight that may last as long as 30 minutes and take the vehicle half way around the globe. The vehicles's ascent is characterized by tight payload to orbit margins which translate into minimum fuel orbit as the performance criteria. Issues discussed include: SSTO airbreathing vehicle issues; control system performance requirements; robust control law framework; H(infinity) controller frequency analysis; and mu controller frequency analysis.

  14. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  15. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge. [for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests on an electric vehicle battery, using a simulated electric vehicle chopper-speed controller, show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average current of 100 A. However, an energy output increase of 22 percent is noticed at the 200 A average level and 44 percent increase at the 300 A level using pulse discharging. Because of these complex results, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interactions must be considered in vehicle design.

  16. Modular space vehicle boards, control software, reprogramming, and failure recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Delapp, Jerry; Prichard, Dean; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Stein, Paul; Michel, John; Tripp, Justin; Palmer, Joseph; Storms, Steven

    2017-09-12

    A space vehicle may have a modular board configuration that commonly uses some or all components and a common operating system for at least some of the boards. Each modular board may have its own dedicated processing, and processing loads may be distributed. The space vehicle may be reprogrammable, and may be launched without code that enables all functionality and/or components. Code errors may be detected and the space vehicle may be reset to a working code version to prevent system failure.

  17. COMPLETE VEHICLE PROTECTION USING AT MEGA MICRO CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Satheeshkumar; S. Vimalnath; G. Nandhakumar

    2017-01-01

    The Primary aim of this Project is to design the project for a Complete Vehicle Protection with Embedded Technology. In this project there are two sections, one is a vehicle unit another one is a monitoring unit. In a vehicle unit Accident is measured with the help of vibration sensor. Temperature is measured with the help of temperature sensor. Fuel Level measurement using Float. Those sensor’s output is given to the amplifier unit. After the amplification this output is given to the ATMEGA ...

  18. Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for automotive vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-30

    Work accomplished between July 1974 and October 1978 in a program directed toward the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) for an automotive vehicle is reported. The following major accomplishments were achieved: the laboratory and mathematical projections establishing the viability of the program and the predicted attainment of the primary goal of fuel economy were verified; the proposed Concept Demonstration prototype hydromechanical transmission (HMT) was completed from design to operation; the HMT was thoroughly tested in the laboratory and on the road and its in-vehicle performance was verified by independent testing laboratories; and design of a second generation Pre-Production HMT has proceeded to the point of confirming the practicality of the automotive HMT size and weight; most of the necessary information has been generated which could permit its production cost/competitiveness to be evaluated. (LCL)

  19. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  20. A Mixed Logical Dynamical-Model Predictive Control (MLD-MPC Energy Management Control Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs can be considered as a hybrid system (HS which includes the continuous state variable, discrete event, and operation constraint. Thus, a model predictive control (MPC strategy for PHEVs based on the mixed logical dynamical (MLD model and short-term vehicle speed prediction is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of the controlled PHEV is set-up to evaluate the energy consumption using the linearized models of core power components. Then, based on the recognition of driving intention and the past vehicle speed data, a nonlinear auto-regressive (NAR neural network structure is designed to predict the vehicle speed for known driving profiles of city buses and the predicted vehicle speed is used to calculate the total required torque. Next, a MLD model is established with appropriate constraints for six possible driving modes. By solving the objective function with the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP algorithm, the optimal motor torque and the corresponding driving mode sequence within the speed prediction horizon can be obtained. Finally, the proposed energy control strategy shows substantial improvement in fuel economy in the simulation results.

  1. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  2. T-S Fuzzy Modelling and H∞ Attitude Control for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.

  3. Anti-Windup Control for an Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, Kevin P; Serrani, Andrea; Yurkovich, Stephen; Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B

    2005-01-01

    .... Anti-windup control allows the input constraints to be considered explicitly in the design of linear controllers to track a reference trajectory for the vehicle velocity, altitude, and angle of attack...

  4. Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable wind power generation units and electricity consumption in power systems demands additional ancillary services for its reliable operation. The battery storages of electric vehicles are one of the substitute solutions for replacing conventional fossil......-fuelled generators to supply future grid support functions. The quick start and fast response characteristics of battery storages enable the electric vehicles to provide most of the power system auxiliary tasks. This chapter discusses key ancillary services that could be supplied by electric vehicles to maintain...... the system balance in power systems with high volumes of wind power generation. To analyse the applications and performance of electric vehicles in supplying active power balancing services, the case studies simulated in wind-power-dominated Danish power systems are also presented....

  5. Perception, Planning, Control, and Coordination for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Drew Pendleton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are expected to play a key role in the future of urban transportation systems, as they offer potential for additional safety, increased productivity, greater accessibility, better road efficiency, and positive impact on the environment. Research in autonomous systems has seen dramatic advances in recent years, due to the increases in available computing power and reduced cost in sensing and computing technologies, resulting in maturing technological readiness level of fully autonomous vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of the recent developments in the realm of autonomous vehicle software systems. Fundamental components of autonomous vehicle software are reviewed, and recent developments in each area are discussed.

  6. Optimal Control of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Roundabouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liuhui [University of Delaware; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity and automation in vehicles provide the most intriguing opportunity for enabling users to better monitor transportation network conditions and make better operating decisions to improve safety and reduce pollution, energy consumption, and travel delays. This study investigates the implications of optimally coordinating vehicles that are wirelessly connected to each other and to an infrastructure in roundabouts to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We apply an optimization framework and an analytical solution that allows optimal coordination of vehicles for merging in such traffic scenario. The effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed approach is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of vehicles can reduce total travel time by 3~49% and fuel consumption by 2~27% with respect to different traffic levels. In addition, network throughput is improved by up to 25% due to elimination of stop-and-go driving behavior.

  7. A path-following driver/vehicle model with optimized lateral dynamic controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Mashadi

    Full Text Available Reduction in traffic congestion and overall number of accidents, especially within the last decade, can be attributed to the enormous progress in active safety. Vehicle path following control with the presence of driver commands can be regarded as one of the important issues in vehicle active safety systems development and more realistic explanation of vehicle path tracking problem. In this paper, an integrated driver/DYC control system is presented that regulates the steering angle and yaw moment, considering driver previewed path. Thus, the driver previewed distance, the heading error and the lateral deviation between the vehicle and desired path are used as inputs. Then, the controller determines and applies a corrective steering angle and a direct yaw moment to make the vehicle follow the desired path. A PID controller with optimized gains is used for the control of integrated driver/DYC system. Genetic Algorithm as an intelligent optimization method is utilized to adapt PID controller gains for various working situations. Proposed integrated driver/DYC controller is examined on lane change manuvers andthe sensitivity of the control system is investigated through the changes in the driver model and vehicle parameters. Simulation results show the pronounced effectiveness of the controller in vehicle path following and stability.

  8. Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jihua; Lu, Guang; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the findings of research performed under TO4204, "Vehicle Lateral Control under Fault in Front and/or Rear Sensors" during the year 2000- 2001. The research goal of TO4204 is to develop vehicle lateral control strategies under faulty operation of the magnetometers. The main objectives of the project are: (1) to design controllers that use the output from only one set of magnetometers, and (2) to develop an autonomous lateral control scheme that uses no magnetometers. New...

  9. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  10. Direct Yaw Control of Vehicle using State Dependent Riccati Equation with Integral Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDHU, F.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct yaw control of four-wheel vehicles using optimal controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and the sliding mode controller (SMC either considers only certain parameters constant in the nonlinear equations of vehicle model or totally neglect their effects to obtain simplified models, resulting in loss of states for the system. In this paper, a modified state-dependent Ricatti equation method obtained by the simplification of the vehicle model is proposed. This method overcomes the problem of the lost states by including state integrals. The results of the proposed system are compared with the sliding mode slip controller and state-dependent Ricatti equation method using high fidelity vehicle model in the vehicle simulation software package, Carsim. Results show 38% reduction in the lateral velocity, 34% reduction in roll and 16% reduction in excessive yaw by only increasing the fuel consumption by 6.07%.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Control System for Testing an Experimental Electrical Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bermejo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Vehicle Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart is developing an experimental electric vehicle. With that vehicle different research topics in the scope of e-mobility will be investigated. Some of these topics are range prediction and optimization issues, adapted control of inverter and electric motor, as well as, different battery charging techniques. The aim of this master thesis is to design and to implement the contr...

  12. A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    AD-A282 787 " A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly CMU-RI-TR-94-17 The Robotics...follow, or a direction to prefer, it cannot generate its own strategic goals. Therefore, it solves the local planning problem for autonomous vehicles . The... autonomous vehicles . It is intelligent because it uses range images that are generated from either a laser rangefinder or a stereo triangulation

  13. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  14. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  15. Nonlinear output feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers using feedback form estimated axial flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T. I.; Blanke, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... compensates for variations in thrust due to time variations in advance speed. This is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems, The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. The simulations demonstrate that the axial water...

  16. Stability Assessment and Tuning of an Adaptively Augmented Classical Controller for Launch Vehicle Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Zhu, J. Jim; Adami, Tony; Berry, Kyle; Grammar, Alex; Orr, Jeb S.; Best, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a robust and practical adaptive control scheme for launch vehicles [ [1] has been introduced. It augments a classical controller with a real-time loop-gain adaptation, and it is therefore called Adaptive Augmentation Control (AAC). The loop-gain will be increased from the nominal design when the tracking error between the (filtered) output and the (filtered) command trajectory is large; whereas it will be decreased when excitation of flex or sloshing modes are detected. There is a need to determine the range and rate of the loop-gain adaptation in order to retain (exponential) stability, which is critical in vehicle operation, and to develop some theoretically based heuristic tuning methods for the adaptive law gain parameters. The classical launch vehicle flight controller design technics are based on gain-scheduling, whereby the launch vehicle dynamics model is linearized at selected operating points along the nominal tracking command trajectory, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) controller design techniques are employed to ensure asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics, typically by meeting some prescribed Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) specifications. The controller gains at the design points are then scheduled, tuned and sometimes interpolated to achieve good performance and stability robustness under external disturbances (e.g. winds) and structural perturbations (e.g. vehicle modeling errors). While the GM does give a bound for loop-gain variation without losing stability, it is for constant dispersions of the loop-gain because the GM is based on frequency-domain analysis, which is applicable only for LTI systems. The real-time adaptive loop-gain variation of the AAC effectively renders the closed-loop system a time-varying system, for which it is well-known that the LTI system stability criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient when applying to a Linear Time-Varying (LTV) system in a frozen-time fashion. Therefore, a

  17. Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a 3 kW wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles. First, the LCL-LCL topology and LC-LC series topology are analyzed, and their transfer efficiencies under the same transfer power are compared. The LC-LC series topology is validated to be more efficient than the LCL-LCL topology and thus is more suitable for the system design. Then a novel q-Zsource-based online power regulation method which employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source is proposed. By controlling the shoot-through state of the H Bridge, the charging current can be adjusted, and hence, transfer power. Finally, a prototype is implemented, which can transfer 3 kW wirelessly with ~95% efficiency over a 20 cm transfer distance.

  18. Adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator constraints is discussed. Based on functional decomposition methodology, velocity and altitude controllers are designed. Fuzzy logic systems are applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. Every controllers contain only one adaptive parameter that needs to be updated online with a minimal-learning-parameter scheme. The back-stepping design is not demanded by converting the altitude subsystem into the normal output-feedback formulation, which predigests the design of a controller. The special contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are developed to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the inputs are saturated. Finally, reference trajectory tracking simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in its application to air-breathing hypersonic vehicle control.

  19. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  20. Analysis of the dynamics of movement of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device on the final trajectory under the influence of wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Harri, A.-M.; Heilimo, J.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    This research work is devoted to analysis of angular motion of the landing vehicle (LV) with an inflatable braking device (IBD), taking into account the influence of the wind load on the final stage of the movement. Using methods to perform a calculation of parameters of angular motion of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device based on the availability of small asymmetries, which are capable of complex dynamic phenomena, analyzes motion of the landing vehicle at the final stage of motion in the atmosphere.

  1. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  2. Intelligent Hybrid Vehicle Power Control - Part 1: Machine Learning of Optimal Vehicle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    the motor or both can provide the traction power to the drivetrain. During vehicle deceleration, the regenerative braking power is captured to charge...and Amax is the maximum acceleration. The 11 drive cycles are divided into four categories of roadway types and traffic congestion levels, freeway...freeway ramp, arterial, and local. Two of the categories , freeway and arterial, are further divided into subcategories based on a qualitative measure

  3. A Path Tracking Algorithm Using Future Prediction Control with Spike Detection for an Autonomous Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking is an important aspect of autonomous vehicles. The idea behind trajectory tracking is the ability of the vehicle to follow a predefined path with zero steady state error. The difficulty arises due to the nonlinearity of vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper proposes a stable tracking control for an autonomous vehicle. An approach that consists of steering wheel control and lateral control is introduced. This control algorithm is used for a non-holonomic navigation problem, namely tracking a reference trajectory in a closed loop form. A proposed future prediction point control algorithm is used to calculate the vehicle's lateral error in order to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking. A feedback sensor signal from the steering wheel angle and yaw rate sensor is used as feedback information for the controller. The controller consists of a relationship between the future point lateral error, the linear velocity, the heading error and the reference yaw rate. This paper also introduces a spike detection algorithm to track the spike error that occurs during GPS reading. The proposed idea is to take the advantage of the derivative of the steering rate. This paper aims to tackle the lateral error problem by applying the steering control law to the vehicle, and proposes a new path tracking control method by considering the future coordinate of the vehicle and the future estimated lateral error. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by a simulation and a GPS experiment with noisy data. The approach used in this paper is not limited to autonomous vehicles alone since the concept of autonomous vehicle tracking can be used in mobile robot platforms, as the kinematic model of these two platforms is similar.

  4. Control-oriented modeling and adaptive backstepping control for a nonminimum phase hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linqi; Zong, Qun; Tian, Bailing; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the nonminimum phase problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is investigated. The main challenge of nonminimum phase is the prevention of dynamic inversion methods to nonlinear control design. To solve this problem, we make research on the relationship between nonminimum phase and backstepping control, finding that a stable nonlinear controller can be obtained by changing the control loop on the basis of backstepping control. By extending the control loop to cover the internal dynamics in it, the internal states are directly controlled by the inputs and simultaneously serve as virtual control for the external states, making it possible to guarantee output tracking as well as internal stability. Then, based on the extended control loop, a simplified control-oriented model is developed to enable the applicability of adaptive backstepping method. It simplifies the design process and releases some limitations caused by direct use of the no simplified control-oriented model. Next, under proper assumptions, asymptotic stability is proved for constant commands, while bounded stability is proved for varying commands. The proposed method is compared with approximate backstepping control and dynamic surface control and is shown to have superior tracking accuracy as well as robustness from the simulation results. This paper may also provide a beneficial guidance for control design of other complex systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  6. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohner, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed

  7. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  8. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed.

  9. Environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-16

    This environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries is intended to identify principal environmental impacts resulting directly or indirectly from the development of electric vehicle batteries. Thus, the result of this study could be used to determine the appropriate following step in the U.S. DOE's EIA process. The environmental impacts considered in this document are the incremental impacts generated during the various phases in the battery life cycle. The processes investigated include mining, milling, smelting, and refining of metallic materials for electrode components; manufacturing processes of inorganic chemicals and other materials for electrolytes and other hardware components; battery assembly processes; operation and maintenance of batteries; and recycling and disposal of used batteries. The severity of the incremental impacts is quantified to the extent consistent with the state-of-knowledge. Many of the industrial processes involve proprietary or patent information; thus, in many cases, the associated environmental impacts could not be determined. In addition, most candidate battery systems are still in the development phase. Thus, the manufacturing and recycling processes for most battery systems either have not been developed by industry, or the information is not available. For these cases, the associated environmental impact evaluations could only be qualitative, and the need for further investigations is indicated. 26 figures, 27 tables. (RWR)

  10. Human Power Vehicle Program. Final report, June 15, 1993--June 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowell, J.; Graves, P.

    1995-11-01

    The Human Power Vehicle Program was an intensive, five day a week, four week program designed to give middle school students the opportunity to ``be engineers``. During the month of July, Delta College, the Macro Michigan Multicultural Pre-Technical Education Partnership (M3PEP), and the United States Department of Energy sponsored a four-week learning experience in human-powered vehicles. This unique experience introduced students to the physiology of exercise, the mechanics of the bicycle, and the physics and mathematics of the bicycle. Students also participated in a three day bike tour. The Program used the Bike Lab facility at Delta College`s International Centre in Saginaw, Michigan. Students had the opportunity to explore the development and refinement of the bicycle design and to investigate it`s power machine-the human body. Interactive instruction was conducted in groups to assure that all students experienced the satisfaction of understanding the bicycle. The purpose of the Program was to increase minority students` awareness and appreciation of mathematics and science. The premise behind the Program was that engineers and scientists are made, not born. The Program was open to all minority youth, grades 8 and 9, and was limited to 25 students. Students were selected to participate based upon their interest, desire, maturity, and attitude.

  11. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  12. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-01-01

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 2030, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of$24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  13. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation

  14. Nonlinear model predictive control of a passenger vehicle for automated lane changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, A.F.; Marquez-Ruiz, A.; Espinosa, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) for lane changes, based on a simplified Single Track Model (STM) of the vehicle. The STM includes the position of the vehicle in global coordinates as a state so that the position of the target lane can be specified to the MPC for

  15. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  16. Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadkhast, S.

    2017-01-01

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they

  17. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  18. A control strategy for steering an autonomous surface sailing vehicle in a tacking maneuver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Sailing vessels such as sailboats but also landyachts are vehicles representing a real challenge for automation. However, the control aspects of such vehicles were hitherto very little studied. This paper presents a simplied dynamic model of a so-called landyacht allowing to capture the main...

  19. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EV's) represents an important challenge, because vapor-compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline-powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. The authors' work has two major parts: a cooling and heating load calculation for EV's, and an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. Four cases are studied: short-range and full-range EV's are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat-reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Results indicate that for the batteries currently available for EV propulsion, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor-compression air conditioners have the minimum for battery storage capacities above 270 kJ/kg

  20. Profit maximization with customer satisfaction control for electric vehicle charging in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market of electric vehicles is gaining popularity, large-scale commercialized or privately-operated charging stations are expected to play a key role as a technology enabler. In this paper, we study the problem of charging electric vehicles at stations with limited charging machines and power resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel profit maximization framework for station operation in both offline and online charging scenarios, under certain customer satisfaction constraints. The main goal is to maximize the profit obtained by the station owner and provide a satisfactory charging service to the customers. The framework includes not only the vehicle scheduling and charging power control, but also the managing of user satisfaction factors, which are defined as the percentages of finished charging targets. The profit maximization problem is proved to be NPcomplete in both scenarios (NP refers to “nondeterministic polynomial time”, for which two-stage charging strategies are proposed to obtain efficient suboptimal solutions. Competitive analysis is also provided to analyze the performance of the proposed online two-stage charging algorithm against the offline counterpart under non-congested and congested charging scenarios. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed two-stage charging strategies achieve performance close to that with exhaustive search. Also, the proposed algorithms provide remarkable performance gains compared to the other conventional charging strategies with respect to not only the unified profit, but also other practical interests, such as the computational time, the user satisfaction factor, the power consumption, and the competitive ratio.

  1. Active flywheel control for hybrid vehicle; Compensation active des pulsations de couple dans un vehicule hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tnani, S.; Coirault, P.; Champenois, G. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs, Lab. d' Automatique et d' Informatique Industrielle, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose a novel control strategy of torque ripple on hybrid vehicle. The combustion engine ripple's are reduced by using an active filter and an AC machine which is mounted on the crank-shaft to generate on inverse torque sequence. The control strategy is based on a multi-objectives state feedback synthesis. A complete modelling of the hybrid propulsion of the vehicle is achieved. Simulation results highlight the interest of the control scheme. (authors)

  2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  3. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the tw...

  4. Modeling and Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for a Novel Six-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and trajectory tracking control of a novel six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is concerned to solve problems such as smaller payload capacity and lack of both hardware redundancy and anticrosswind capability for quad-rotor. The mathematical modeling for the six-rotor UAV is developed on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism, and a second-order sliding-mode disturbance observer (SOSMDO is proposed to reconstruct the disturbances of the rotational dynamics. In consideration of the under-actuated and strong coupling properties of the six-rotor UAV, a nested double loops trajectory tracking control strategy is adopted. In the outer loop, a position error PID controller is designed, of which the task is to compare the desired trajectory with real position of the six-rotor UAV and export the desired attitude angles to the inner loop. In the inner loop, a rapid-convergent nonlinear differentiator (RCND is proposed to calculate the derivatives of the virtual control signal, instead of using the analytical differentiation, to avoid “differential expansion” in the procedure of the attitude controller design. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  5. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  6. On-road vehicle emissions and their control in China: A review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Jingnan; Walsh, Michael P; Wallington, Timothy J; Zhang, K Max; Stevanovic, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The large (26-fold over the past 25years) increase in the on-road vehicle fleet in China has raised sustainability concerns regarding air pollution prevention, energy conservation, and climate change mitigation. China has established integrated emission control policies and measures since the 1990s, including implementation of emission standards for new vehicles, inspection and maintenance programs for in-use vehicles, improvement in fuel quality, promotion of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel vehicles, and traffic management programs. As a result, emissions of major air pollutants from on-road vehicles in China have peaked and are now declining despite increasing vehicle population. As might be expected, progress in addressing vehicle emissions has not always been smooth and challenges such as the lack of low sulfur fuels, frauds over production conformity and in-use inspection tests, and unreliable retrofit programs have been encountered. Considering the high emission density from vehicles in East China, enhanced vehicle, fuel and transportation strategies will be required to address vehicle emissions in China. We project the total vehicle population in China to reach 400-500 million by 2030. Serious air pollution problems in many cities of China, in particular high ambient PM 2.5 concentration, have led to pressure to accelerate the progress on vehicle emission reduction. A notable example is the draft China 6 emission standard released in May 2016, which contains more stringent emission limits than those in the Euro 6 regulations, and adds a real world emission testing protocol and a 48-h evaporation testing procedure including diurnal and hot soak emissions. A scenario (PC[1]) considered in this study suggests that increasingly stringent standards for vehicle emissions could mitigate total vehicle emissions of HC, CO, NO X and PM 2.5 in 2030 by approximately 39%, 57%, 59% and 79%, respectively, compared with 2013 levels. With additional actions

  7. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and

  8. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  9. Model predictive controller-based multi-model control system for longitudinal stability of distributed drive electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ke; Yuan, Xiaofang; Liu, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Distributed drive electric vehicle(DDEV) has been widely researched recently, its longitudinal stability is a very important research topic. Conventional wheel slip ratio control strategies are usually designed for one special operating mode and the optimal performance cannot be obtained as DDEV works under various operating modes. In this paper, a novel model predictive controller-based multi-model control system (MPC-MMCS) is proposed to solve the longitudinal stability problem of DDEV. Firstly, the operation state of DDEV is summarized as three kinds of typical operating modes. A submodel set is established to accurately represent the state value of the corresponding operating mode. Secondly, the matching degree between the state of actual DDEV and each submodel is analyzed. The matching degree is expressed as the weight coefficient and calculated by a modified recursive Bayes theorem. Thirdly, a nonlinear MPC is designed to achieve the optimal wheel slip ratio for each submodel. The optimal design of MPC is realized by parallel chaos optimization algorithm(PCOA)with computational accuracy and efficiency. Finally, the control output of MPC-MMCS is computed by the weighted output of each MPC to achieve smooth switching between operating modes. The proposed MPC-MMCS is evaluated on eight degrees of freedom(8DOF)DDEV model simulation platform and simulation results of different condition show the benefits of the proposed control system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The final word. OSHA's final ruling offers firm deadlines for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, K

    1992-03-01

    Departments that have put off program development while waiting for the final ruling to be published have a lot of work to do. Many departments have been cited and fined by OSHA in the past year for failure to begin infection-control programs or provide hepatitis-B vaccines to personnel. Under the new budget, OSHA was granted permission to up its fine structure sevenfold--thus, a small fine is $7,000, and the highest fine for a single violation is $70,000. Fines can have a greater impact on a department's budget than implementation of the program over time. A key point to remember is that a strong infection-control program will reduce exposure follow-up costs and worker-compensation claims. Infection control is a win-win situation.

  11. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  12. Energy management control concepts with preview for hybrid commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeven, van V.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Pesgens, M.F.M.; Koffrie, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), the main task of an Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is to determine the power-split of the total power demand into a power requests to the internal combustion engine and the electro motor. In this work, real-time implementable previewing strategies (utilizing

  13. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  14. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  15. Port-based Telemanipulation Control of Underactuated Flying Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the interest in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing due to the existence of diverse potential applications in civilian sector. These applications often require high level reasoning, which, in some cases, need specialist in the led. The step forward towards achieving

  16. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  17. Control Relevant Modeling and Design of Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickeson, Jeffrey James

    This report provides an overview of scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicle modeling and control challenges. Such vehicles are characterized by unstable non-minimum phase dynamics with significant coupling and low thrust margins. Recent trends in hypersonic vehicle research are summarized. To illustrate control relevant design issues and tradeoffs, a generic nonlinear 3DOF longitudinal dynamics model capturing aero-elastic-propulsive interactions for wedge-shaped vehicle is used. Limitations of the model are discussed and numerous modifications have been made to address control relevant needs. Two different baseline configurations are examined over a two-stage to orbit ascent trajectory. The report highlights how vehicle level-flight static (trim) and dynamic properties change over the trajectory. Thermal choking constraints are imposed on control system design as a direct consequence of having a finite FER margin. The implication of this state-dependent nonlinear FER margin constraint, the right half plane (RHP) zero, and lightly damped flexible modes, on control system bandwidth (BW) and FPA tracking has been discussed. A control methodology has been proposed that addresses the above dynamics while providing some robustness to modeling uncertainty. Vehicle closure (the ability to fly a trajectory segment subject to constraints) is provided through a proposed vehicle design methodology. The design method attempts to use open loop metrics whenever possible to design the vehicle. The design method is applied to a vehicle/control law closed loop nonlinear simulation for validation. The 3DOF longitudinal modeling results are validated against a newly released NASA 6DOF code.

  18. Integration of virtual control units in the total vehicle simulation; Integration virtueller Steuergeraete in die Gesamtfahrzeugsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Andreas; Lund, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this article the simulation of information and energetics of vehicles with model-integration of electronic control units (ECU) in a simulation, based on the coupling of physical and control components of the total vehicle are investigated. For that simplified models of ECU's, simulating the functionally of the real ECU's, were used. The integration of virtual EUC's in models of full vehicles makes it possible to simulate the energetics for different driving cycles in a realistic way. By better simulation results an evaluation of physical components and the amount of functions are possible. In the area of the thermal management of vehicles by this analyses and optimizations of functions become possible. This article shows the advantages of embedding virtual ECU's in simulations of full vehicles. (orig.)

  19. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  20. 76 FR 2598 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... the Toyota Matrix. NHTSA is correcting the final theft data to include the thefts and production volumes for the Toyota Matrix. As a result of this correction, the Toyota Matrix, previously not listed........... 219 99,176 2.2082 47 TOYOTA COROLLA 374 170,360 2.1954 48 AUDI AUDI S6 2 928 2.1552 49 GENERAL MOTORS...