WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle bodies engine

  1. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  2. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  3. Internal Combustion Engine Principles with Vehicle Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    The book is an introductory text on the subject of internal combustion engines, intended for use in engineering courses at the senior or introductory graduate student level. The focus in on describing the basic principles of engine operation on a broad basis, to provide a foundation for further...... exchange processes, combustion in different engine types, exhaust emissions, engine control including mean value engine models, pressure charging, fuels and fuel systems, balancing, friction, and heat transfer. In addition, methods to establish the connection between engine characteristics and vehicle...

  4. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  5. Engineering model for body armor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Carton, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an engineering model for flexible body armor, as one of their energy based engineering models that describe the physics of projectile to target interactions (weaves, metals, ceramics). These models form the basis for exploring the possibilities for protection improvement. This

  6. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  7. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  8. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  9. Service engineering for prospective vehicle service processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Alexander; Steinhilper, Rolf; Freiberger, Stefan; Thäter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Garages are - concerning the vehicle service - faced with growing complexity in automotive mechatronics and on-board bus communication technology. Because of the necessity of profound technical knowledge and smart as well as cost efficient diagnostic tools for garages, Bayreuth University and Fraunhofer IPA pick up the challenge and develop innovative service-processes for future requirements by the project "Kfz-Service Engineering 2020". In order to improve established service-processes and ...

  10. Statistical models of petrol engines vehicles dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Alexa, O.; Vilău, R.; Grosu, D.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on studying statistical models of vehicles dynamics. It was design and perform a one year testing program. There were used many same type cars with gasoline engines and different mileage. Experimental data were collected of onboard sensors and those on the engine test stand. A database containing data of 64th tests was created. Several mathematical modelling were developed using database and the system identification method. Each modelling is a SISO or a MISO linear predictive ARMAX (AutoRegressive-Moving-Average with eXogenous inputs) model. It represents a differential equation with constant coefficients. It were made 64th equations for each dependency like engine torque as output and engine’s load and intake manifold pressure, as inputs. There were obtained strings with 64 values for each type of model. The final models were obtained using average values of the coefficients. The accuracy of models was assessed.

  11. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  12. Synthesis of the adaptive continuous system for the multi-axle wheeled vehicle body oscillation damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    In order to meet the growing mobility requirements for the wheeled vehicles on all types of terrain the engineers have to develop a large number of specialized control algorithms for the multi-axle wheeled vehicle (MWV) suspension improving such qualities as ride comfort, handling and stability. The authors have developed an adaptive algorithm of the dynamic damping of the MVW body oscillations. The algorithm provides high ride comfort and high mobility of the vehicle. The article discloses a method for synthesis of an adaptive dynamic continuous algorithm of the MVW body oscillation damping and provides simulation results proving high efficiency of the developed control algorithm.

  13. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  14. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Bunker, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, U.S. Environmental Protection... Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Conversions E. Vehicle/Engine Labels, Packaging Labels, and Marketing F. Compliance 1. Emission Standards a. Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Chassis Certified...

  15. NREL Fuels and Engines Research: Maximizing Vehicle Efficiency and

    Science.gov (United States)

    chemistry, conversion, and combustion to the evaluation of advanced fuels in actual engines and vehicles . With fuel chemistry, our scientific discoveries start out small. We use quantum mechanical modeling to explore how fuels with varying chemistry interact with engine and vehicle design. At our Fuel Combustion

  16. Analysis of Flexible Car Body of Straddle Monorail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanmu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the finite element model of straddle monorail vehicle, a rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model considering vehicle body’s flexibility is established. The influence of vertical stiffness and vertical damping of the running wheel on the modal parameters of the car body is analyzed. The effect of flexible car body on modal parameters and vehicle ride quality is also studied. The results show that when the vertical stiffness of running wheel is less than 1 MN / m, the car body bounce and pitch frequency increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel, when the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1MN / m or more, car body bounce and pitch frequency remained unchanged; When the vertical stiffness of the running wheel is below 1.8 MN / m, the vehicle body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel; When the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1.8MN / m or more, the car body bounce and pitch damping ratio remained unchanged; The running wheel vertical damping on the car body bounce and pitch frequency has no effect; Car body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical damping of the running wheel. The flexibility of the car body has no effect on the modal parameters of the car, which will improve the vehicle ride quality index.

  17. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  18. Drag reduction of a reverse-engineered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecrivain, G.; Slaouti, A.; Kennedy, I. [Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Technology

    2007-08-09

    The aerodynamic performance of a hand-made sports car was numerically assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of various shape modifications. The purpose was to achieve a lower drag design. Reverse-engineering was used to create a virtual model of complex 3D shapes for which no computer-aided drawings (CAD) data existed. From the predicted flow, the body could be redesigned for better performance prior to its remanufacturing. This paper described the multidisciplinary procedure involving reverse-engineering and CAD that was used to recreate a suitable watertight model of the sports car. The different errors embedded in the successive stages leading to the final model were accurately assessed and minimized. The whole vehicle was remodelled for drag reduction. Surface reconstruction was carried out, an an accurate set of high quality Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces was produced over the polygonal mesh resulting in a fine visual surface finish with smooth lines and contours, as required in the automotive industry. Further modifications were implemented for the purpose of drag reduction and to improve its aerodynamic performance. The application described in this paper can be extended to any other similarly intricate vehicle or industrial component. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  19. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  20. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  1. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  2. Topology Optimization of Vehicle Body Structure for Improved Ride & Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Lövgren, Sebastian; Norberg, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Ride and handling are important areas for safety and improved vehicle control during driving. To meet the demands on ride and handling a number of measures can be taken. This master thesis work has focused on the early design phase. At the early phases of design, the level of details is low and the design freedom is big. By introducing a tool to support the early vehicle body design, the potential of finding more efficient structures increases. In this study, topology optimization of a vehicl...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.301 Section 1051.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.301 When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines? (a...

  4. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  5. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  6. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required upgraded suspension, engine, and steering Mattracks or wheels Imbalance in cupola required motorized...liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission, improved suspension and frame for an increased armor capability, 1,800- 4,400 lb payload and GVW 18,000...space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel engine, higher capacity transmission, air induction system and exhaust systems. Lessons

  7. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Performance Analysis of a Lifting-Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Korte, J. J.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) is currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called VentureStar(TM) A team at NASA Langley Research Center participated with LMSW in the screening and evaluation of a number of early VentureStar(TM) configurations. The performance analyses that supported these initial studies were conducted to assess the effect of a lifting body shape, linear aerospike engine and metallic thermal protection system (TPS) on the weight and performance of the vehicle. These performance studies were performed in a multidisciplinary fashion that indirectly linked the trajectory optimization with weight estimation and aerothermal analysis tools. This approach was necessary to develop optimized ascent and entry trajectories that met all vehicle design constraints. Significant improvements in ascent performance were achieved when the vehicle flew a lifting trajectory and varied the engine mixture ratio during flight. Also, a considerable reduction in empty weight was possible by adjusting the total oxidizer-to-fuel and liftoff thrust-to-weight ratios. However, the optimal ascent flight profile had to be altered to ensure that the vehicle could be trimmed in pitch using only the flow diverting capability of the aerospike engine. Likewise, the optimal entry trajectory had to be tailored to meet TPS heating rate and transition constraints while satisfying a crossrange requirement.

  9. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  10. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium and Partners | Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric -Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric

  11. Dual throat engine design for a SSTO launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salmon, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of a dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle application was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data are presented to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined. Dual throat engine performance, envelope, and weight parametric data were generated over the parametric range of thrust from 890 to 8896 KN (200K to 2M lb-force), chamber pressure from 6.89 million to 34.5 million N/sq m (1000 to 5000 psia) thrust ratio from 1.2 to 5, and a range of mixture ratios for the two tripropellant combinations: LO2/RP-1 + LH2 and LO2/LCH4 + LH2. The results of the study indicate that the dual fuel dual throat engine is a viable single stage to orbit candidate.

  12. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    payload, 10,300 lb gross vehicle weight. The Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV, 1993-present) has a 6.5 liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required...installed by the maintenance unit. A proposed ECV2 (not currently in production) has an improved 6.5 liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission...frame (3 piece welded), integral “A” armor with attachment points for “B” armor kit, increased cab space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel

  13. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  14. A Thermoelectric Generator Replacing Radiator for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and developed a low temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG using engine water coolant of light-duty vehicles. Experimental results from test vehicle, of which engine size is about 2.0 liters, show that fabricated prototype Thermoelectric Generator generates more than 75W for driving condition of 80 km/hour, and output power is about 28W during idle condition. The proposed TEG can replace conventional radiator without additional water pumps or mechanical devices except for basic components of legacy water cooling system of radiator.

  15. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  16. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  17. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Production AMA Durability Program, the engine families covered by an application for...) Method of carburetor sealing. (iii) Method of air cleaner sealing. (iv) Vapor storage working capacity... and light-duty trucks, but does not apply to the production vehicles selected under paragraph (h) of...

  18. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  19. Application of an engineering inviscid-boundary layer method to slender three-dimensional vehicle forebodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    An engineering inviscid-boundary layer method has been modified for application to slender three-dimensional (3-D) forebodies which are characteristic of transatmospheric vehicles. An improved shock description in the nose region has been added to the inviscid technique which allows the calculation of a wider range of body geometries. The modified engineering method is applied to the perfect gas solution over a slender 3-D configuration at angle of attack. The method predicts surface pressures and laminar heating rates on the windward side of the vehicle that compare favorably with numerical solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. These improvements extend the 3-D capabilities of the engineering method and significantly increase its design applications.

  20. 40 CFR 85.1506 - Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles and engines. 85.1506 Section 85.1506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1506 Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and...

  1. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and vehicles with certain electronic equipment when transported by aircraft or vessel. When an... vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.220 Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical...

  2. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  3. 40 CFR 1051.501 - What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.501 Section 1051.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Test Procedures § 1051.501 What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines? This section describes test...

  4. Engineering flesh : towards professional responsibility for 'lived bodies' in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Flesh. Towards professional responsibility for ‘lived bodies’ in Tissue Engineering This study analyses the work of biomedical engineers as normative work that affects people’s daily lives as bodies. In biomedical engineering, engineers study bodies as machine-like objects and develop

  5. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  6. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  7. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  8. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M.; Husnawan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  9. Remotely detected vehicle mass from engine torque-induced frame twisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Sweeney, Glenn D.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the mass of a vehicle from ground-based passive sensor data is important for many traffic safety requirements. This work presents a method for calculating the mass of a vehicle using ground-based video and acoustic measurements. By assuming that no energy is lost in the conversion, the mass of a vehicle can be calculated from the rotational energy generated by the vehicle's engine and the linear acceleration of the vehicle over a period of time. The amount of rotational energy being output by the vehicle's engine can be calculated from its torque and angular velocity. This model relates remotely observed, engine torque-induced frame twist to engine torque output using the vehicle's suspension parameters and engine geometry. The angular velocity of the engine is extracted from the acoustic emission of the engine, and the linear acceleration of the vehicle is calculated by remotely observing the position of the vehicle over time. This method combines these three dynamic signals; engine induced-frame twist, engine angular velocity, and the vehicle's linear acceleration, and three vehicle specific scalar parameters, into an expression that describes the mass of the vehicle. This method was tested on a semitrailer truck, and the results demonstrate a correlation of 97.7% between calculated and true vehicle mass.

  10. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  11. 40 CFR 1051.1 - Does this part apply for my vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1051.1 Does this part apply for my vehicles or engines? (a) The regulations in this part 1051... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this part apply for my vehicles...

  12. Hybrid Wing Body Planform Design with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.; Olson, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide an update on NASA s current tools for design and analysis of hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with an emphasis on Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). NASA started HWB analysis using the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). That capability is enhanced using Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter(Registered TradeMark). Model Center enables multifidelity analysis tools to be linked as an integrated structure. Two major components are linked to FLOPS as an example; a planform discretization tool and VSP. The planform discretization tool ensures the planform is smooth and continuous. VSP is used to display the output geometry. This example shows that a smooth & continuous HWB planform can be displayed as a three-dimensional model and rapidly sized and analyzed.

  13. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-01

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO(x). Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today's gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  14. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight with Scramjet Engine Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  15. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  16. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  17. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  18. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  19. Influence of flowfield and vehicle parameters on engineering aerothermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The reliability and flexibility of three engineering codes used in the aerosphace industry (AEROHEAT, INCHES, and MINIVER) were investigated by comparing the results of these codes with Reentry F flight data and ground-test heat-transfer data for a range of cone angles, and with the predictions obtained using the detailed VSL3D code; the engineering solutions were also compared. In particular, the impact of several vehicle and flow-field parameters on the heat transfer and the capability of the engineering codes to predict these results were determined. It was found that entropy, pressure gradient, nose bluntness, gas chemistry, and angle of attack all affect heating levels. A comparison of the results of the three engineering codes with Reentry F flight data and with the predictions obtained of the VSL3D code showed a very good agreement in the regions of the applicability of the codes. It is emphasized that the parameters used in this study can significantly influence the actual heating levels and the prediction capability of a code.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  1. 40 CFR 1051.330 - May I sell vehicles from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.330 May I sell vehicles from an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell vehicles from an engine...

  2. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vehicle engine id one of the main sources of noise which its level is influenced by various parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motor oils quality before and after oil change on the variability of vehicle engine induced noise level. In this study it is tried to follow-up the efficacy of motor oil quality on engines sound level. Material and Method: First, engine noise of 94 vehicles were recorded for 30 seconds before and after oil change and all the vehicles technical information including mileage, type of motor oil, and type of vehicle were registered. Following, the recorded noises were calibrated in semi-anechoic chamber and the sound pressure levels were measured with A and C-weighting network and main octav bands, using a sound level meters. The obtained results analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: The effects of motor oil quality on different noise levels of engines were determined and a significant reduction in noise level of vehicles engine was observed. Investigation of the relationship between mileage and motor oil quality on various engines sound level manifested that vehicles with mileage ranged 100000-150000 miles had significant reduction in their sound pressure levels in comparison with other vehicles. Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  3. Application of the advanced engineering environment for optimization energy consumption in designed vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Z.; Sękala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays a key issue is to reduce the energy consumption of road vehicles. In particular solution one could find different strategies of energy optimization. The most popular but not sophisticated is so called eco-driving. In this strategy emphasized is particular behavior of drivers. In more sophisticated solution behavior of drivers is supported by control system measuring driving parameters and suggesting proper operation of the driver. The other strategy is concerned with application of different engineering solutions that aid optimization the process of energy consumption. Such systems take into consideration different parameters measured in real time and next take proper action according to procedures loaded to the control computer of a vehicle. The third strategy bases on optimization of the designed vehicle taking into account especially main sub-systems of a technical mean. In this approach the optimal level of energy consumption by a vehicle is obtained by synergetic results of individual optimization of particular constructional sub-systems of a vehicle. It is possible to distinguish three main sub-systems: the structural one the drive one and the control one. In the case of the structural sub-system optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the optimization or the weight parameter and optimization the aerodynamic parameter. The result is optimized body of a vehicle. Regarding the drive sub-system the optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the fuel or power consumption using the previously elaborated physical models. Finally the optimization of the control sub-system consists in determining optimal control parameters.

  4. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Graphic of a 24-cell (bottom). Images: Courtesy of EC Power NREL's work on the U.S. Department of Energy Computer-Aided

  5. 40 CFR 85.1805 - Notification to vehicle or engine owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of air pollution.” (2) A statement that the nonconformity of any such vehicles or engines which have... general statement of the measures to be taken to correct the nonconformity. (5) A statement that such nonconformity if not repaired may cause the vehicle or engine to fail an emission inspection test when such...

  6. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  7. Proper body mechanics from an engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Edward G

    2010-04-01

    The economic viability of the manual therapy practitioner depends on the number of massages/treatments that can be given in a day or week. Fatigue or injuries can have a major impact on the income potential and could ultimately reach the point which causes the practitioner to quit the profession, and seek other, less physically demanding, employment. Manual therapy practitioners in general, and massage therapists in particular, can utilize a large variety of body postures while giving treatment to a client. The hypothesis of this paper is that there is an optimal method for applying force to the client, which maximizes the benefit to the client, and at the same time minimizes the strain and effort required by the practitioner. Two methods were used to quantifiably determine the effect of using "poor" body mechanics (Improper method) and "best" body mechanics (Proper/correct method). The first approach uses computer modeling to compare the two methods. Both postures were modeled, such that the biomechanical effects on the practitioner's elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints could be calculated. The force applied to the client, along with the height and angle of application of the force, was held constant for the comparison. The second approach was a field study of massage practitioners (n=18) to determine their maximal force capability, again comparing methods using "Improper and Proper body mechanics". Five application methods were tested at three different application heights, using a digital palm force gauge. Results showed that there was a definite difference between the two methods, and that the use of correct body mechanics can have a large impact on the health and well being of the massage practitioner over both the short and long term. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  9. Marine spark-ignition engine and off-road recreational vehicle emission regulations : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In February 2001, the Minister of Environment Canada outlined a series of measures to reduce emissions from vehicles and engines, including off-road engines. This report describes proposed regulations to control emissions form outboard engines, personal watercraft engines, snowmobiles, off-highway motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles and utility vehicles. Since most marine engines and recreational vehicles sold in Canada are imported, the agenda includes the development of new regulations under Division 5 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) to align Canada's emission standards for off-road vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A harmonized approach on emissions standards is expected to result in fewer transition and implementation problems. This report describes which vehicles and engines will be subjected to the planned regulations along with those that will be exempted. Planned emission standard swill apply to vehicles and engines of the 2007 and later model years. Persons affected by the planned regulations were also identified. tabs., figs

  10. 40 CFR 1051.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line vehicles or engines? 1051.305 Section 1051.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.305 How must I prepare and test my production...

  11. Experimental investigation of biodynamic human body models subjected to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Yener; Hacioglu, Yuksel; Ortes, Faruk; Karabulut, Derya; Arslan, Yunus Ziya

    2018-02-06

    In this study, responses of biodynamic human body models to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride were investigated. Accelerations were acquired from three different body parts, such as the head, upper torso and lower torso, of 10 seated passengers during a car ride while two different road conditions were considered. The same multipurpose vehicle was used during all experiments. Additionally, by two widely used biodynamic models in the literature, a set of simulations were run to obtain theoretical accelerations of the models and were compared with those obtained experimentally. To sustain a quantified comparison between experimental and theoretical approaches, the root mean square acceleration and acceleration spectral density were calculated. Time and frequency responses of the models demonstrated that neither of the models showed the best prediction performance of the human body behaviour in all cases, indicating that further models are required for better prediction of the human body responses.

  12. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  13. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  14. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  15. Research prototype of remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Keisuke; Naruse, Masahiro; Shigematsu, Kosuke; Morishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    This research was triggered by the nuclear accident that successively happened after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The project focuses on the Remote Controlled Engineering Vehicle System that can be used for multi purposes such as debris/obstacle clearing operation, various reconnaissance operation, under CBRN threat. In this report, we describe research prototype of remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat (phase 2). (author)

  16. Unifying Rigid and Soft Bodies Representation: The Sulfur Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maggiorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are (also real-time interactive graphic simulations: hence, providing a convincing physics simulation for each specific game environment is of paramount importance in the process of achieving a satisfying player experience. While the existing game engines appropriately address many aspects of physics simulation, some others are still in need of improvements. In particular, several specific physics properties of bodies not usually involved in the main game mechanics (e.g., properties useful to represent systems composed by soft bodies, are often poorly rendered by general-purpose engines. This issue may limit game designers when imagining innovative and compelling video games and game mechanics. For this reason, we dug into the problem of appropriately representing soft bodies. Subsequently, we have extended the approach developed for soft bodies to rigid ones, proposing and developing a unified approach in a game engine: Sulfur. To test the engine, we have also designed and developed “Escape from Quaoar,” a prototypal video game whose main game mechanic exploits an elastic rope, and a level editor for the game.

  17. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  18. SWEBOS – The Software Engineering Body of Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sedelmaier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex software systems requires a mixture of various technical and non-technical competencies. While some guidelines exist which technical knowledge is required to make a good software engineer, there is a lack of insight as to which non-technical or soft skills are necessary to master complex software projects. This paper proposes a body of skills (SWEBOS for soft-ware engineering. The collection of necessary skills is developed on the basis of a clear, data-driven research design. The resulting required soft skills for software engineering are described precisely and semantically rich in a three-level structure. This approach guarantees that skills are not just characterized in a broad and general manner, but rather they are specifically adapted to the domain of software engineering.

  19. Lightweight Vehicle and Driver’s Whole-Body Models for Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MdSah, Jamali; Taha, Zahari; Azwan Ismail, Khairul

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle vibration is a main factor for driving fatigue, discomfort and health problems. The ability to simulate the vibration characteristics in the vehicle and its effects on driver’s whole-body vibration will give significant advantages to designers especially on the vehicle development time and cost. However, it is difficult to achieve optimal condition of ride comfort and handling when using passive suspension system. This paper presents mathematical equations that can be used to describe the vibration characteristics of a lightweight electric vehicle that had been developed. The vehicle’s model was combined with the lumped-parameter model of driver to determine the whole-body vibration level when the vehicle is passing over a road hump using Matlab Simulink. The models were simulated at a constant speed and the results were compared with the experimental data. The simulated vibration level at the vehicle floor and seat were almost similar to the experimental vibration results. The suspension systems that are being used for the solar vehicle are able to reduce the vibration level due to the road hump. The models can be used to simulate and choose the optimal parameters for the suspensions.

  20. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  1. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  2. Test and development of a solar-hybrid vehicle prototype and turbo-compressor model for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Naddeo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.... [edited by author] XIV n.s.

  3. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  4. Effects of Gas Turbine Component Performance on Engine and Rotary Wing Vehicle Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, further gas turbine engine studies have been performed to quantify the effects of advanced gas turbine technologies on engine weight and fuel efficiency and the subsequent effects on a civilian rotary wing vehicle size and mission fuel. The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) vehicle and mission and a previous gas turbine engine study will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. Methodology used to assess effects of different compressor and turbine component performance on engine size, weight and fuel efficiency will be presented. A process to relate engine performance to overall LCTR vehicle size and fuel use will also be given. Technology assumptions and levels of performance used in this analysis for the compressor and turbine components performances will be discussed. Optimum cycles (in terms of power specific fuel consumption) will be determined with subsequent engine weight analysis. The combination of engine weight and specific fuel consumption will be used to estimate their effect on the overall LCTR vehicle size and mission fuel usage. All results will be summarized to help suggest which component performance areas have the most effect on the overall mission.

  5. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  6. Study of hydrogen engine for a hybrid electric vehicle. 1; Hybrid denki jidoshayo suiso engine ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T.; Numata, T. Hiruma, M.; Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Furuhama, S. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    Study was made on application of a hydrogen engine to series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). Power of 20kW (for steady driving of a vehicle of 1t in total weight on flat road surface at 100km/h), and NOx emission concentration equivalent to that of EZEV (equivalent zero emission vehicle) were used as target performance. One of the merits of using a hydrogen engine for HEV is that conventional high-reliability gasoline engines can be used as hydrogen engines only by a bit of modification. A modified conventional 4-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine was used for this study. Hydrogen gas was continuously supplied through an intake manifold for premixed combustion by spark ignition. Brake thermal efficiency was improved from 30.5% to 35.5% by use of a high compression ratio and reduction of friction loss. NOx emission concentration could be controlled within 10ppm by ultra-lean combustion even at excess air ratios over 2.5. Both high efficiency and low emission were achieved at the same time around 3000rpm in engine revolution. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  8. Powertrain sizing of electrically supercharged internal combustion engine vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murgovski, N.; Marinkov, S.; Hilgersom, D.; de Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.; Sjöberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the concept of electrically supercharged internal combustion engines, where the supercharger, consisting of a compressor and an electric motor, draws electric power from a buffer (a battery or a supercapacitor). In particular, we investigate the scenario of downsizing the engine, while

  9. Intelligent design of mechanical parameters of the joint in vehicle body concept design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-bin; Zhang, Hong-zhe; Hou, Da-jun; Hu, Ping

    2013-05-01

    In order to estimate the mechanical properties of the overall structure of the body accurately and quickly in conceptual design phase of the body, the beam and shell mixing elements was used to build simplified finite element model of the body. Through the BP neural network algorithm, the parameters of the mechanical property of joints element which had more affection on calculation accuracy were calculated and the joint finite element model based on the parameters was also constructed. The case shown that the method can improve the accuracy of the vehicle simulation results, while not too many design details were needed, which was fit to the demand in the vehicle body conceptual design phase.

  10. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  11. Vehicle response-based track geometry assessment using multi-body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Sönke; Causse, Julien; Coudert, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    The assessment of the geometry of railway tracks is an indispensable requirement for safe rail traffic. Defects which represent a risk for the safety of the train have to be identified and the necessary measures taken. According to current standards, amplitude thresholds are applied to the track geometry parameters measured by recording cars. This geometry-based assessment has proved its value but suffers from the low correlation between the geometry parameters and the vehicle reactions. Experience shows that some defects leading to critical vehicle reactions are underestimated by this approach. The use of vehicle responses in the track geometry assessment process allows identifying critical defects and improving the maintenance operations. This work presents a vehicle response-based assessment method using multi-body simulation. The choice of the relevant operation conditions and the estimation of the simulation uncertainty are outlined. The defects are identified from exceedances of track geometry and vehicle response parameters. They are then classified using clustering methods and the correlation with vehicle response is analysed. The use of vehicle responses allows the detection of critical defects which are not identified from geometry parameters.

  12. A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2017-01-01

    This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...

  13. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Luhai Wong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...distance of 100m in the model , which is reasonable due to the constrained nature of an urban environment. This thesis also uses the key parameters...ENGINEERING APPROACH TO GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS by Luhai Wong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Christopher A

  14. Design and Development of the Engine Unit for a Twin-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Avanzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computer-aided technologies played a crucial role in the design of an unconventional Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV, developed at the Turin Technical University and the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. The engine unit of the vehicle is made of a complex system of three two stroke piston engines coupled with two counter-rotating three-bladed rotors, controlled by rotary PWM servos. The focus of the present paper lies on the enabling technologies exploited in the framework of activities aimed at designing a suitable and reliable engine system, capable of performing the complex tasks required for operating the proposed rotorcraft. The synergic use of advanced computational tools for estimating the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, solid modeling for mechanical components design, and rapid prototyping techniques for control system logic synthesis and implementation will be presented. 

  15. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  16. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  17. Fast reconstruction of an unmanned engineering vehicle and its application to carrying rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering vehicle is widely used as a huge moving platform for transporting heavy goods. However, traditional human operations have a great influence on the steady movement of the vehicle. In this Letter, a fast reconstruction process of an unmanned engineering vehicle is carried out. By adding a higher-level controller and two two-dimensional laser scanners on the moving platform, the vehicle could perceive the surrounding environment and locate its pose according to extended Kalman filter. Then, a closed-loop control system is formed by communicating with the on-board lower-level controller. To verify the performance of automatic control system, the unmanned vehicle is automatically navigated when carrying a rocket towards a launcher in a launch site. The experimental results show that the vehicle could align with the launcher smoothly and safely within a small lateral deviation of 1 cm. This fast reconstruction presents an efficient way of rebuilding low-cost unmanned special vehicles and other automatic moving platforms.

  18. Numerical and Engine Cycle Analyses of a Pulse Laser Ramjet Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurayama, Hiroshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Momozawa, Ai; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    A preliminary feasibility study of a laser ramjet SSTO has been conducted using engine cycle analysis. Although a large amount of laser energy is lost due to chemically frozen flow at high altitudes, the laser ramjet SSTO was found to be feasible with 100 MW laser power for 100 kg vehicle mass and 1 m2 vehicle cross-section area. Obtained momentum coupling coefficient, Cm, was validated by means of CFD. As a result, the engine cycle analysis was under-estimating Cm. This would be because of the strong unsteady energy input in the actual heating process and the spatially localized pressure on the afterbody.

  19. Free-piston engine-and-hydraulic pump for railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Golovchuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the free-piston diesel engine-and-hydraulic pump for the continuously variable hydrostatical transmission of mobile power vehicles. Methodology. For a long time engine builders have been interesting in the problem of developing free piston engines, which have much bigger coefficient of efficiency (40…80%. Such engines don’t have the conversion of reciprocating motion for inner combustion engine piston into rotating motion of crankshaft, from which the engine torque is transferred to the power machine transmission. Free-piston engines of inner combustion don’t have the crank mechanism (CM that significantly reduces mechanical losses for friction. Such engines can be used as compressors. Free-piston engine compressor (FPEC – is a free-piston machine in which energy received from engine’s cylinder is being transferred direct to compressor’s pistons connected with operational pistons of engine without crank mechanism. Part of the pressed air is being consumed for engine cylinder drain and the other part is going to the consumer. Findings. The use of free-piston engines-and-hydraulic pumps as power-transmission plants of power vehicles (diesel locomotives, combine harvester, tractors, cars and other mobile and stationary power installations with the continuously variable transmissions allows cost effectiveness improvement and metal consumption reduction of these vehicles, since the cost effectiveness of FPE is higher by 25-30%, and the metal consumption is lower by 40-50%. Originality. One of the important advantages of the free-piston engines is their simplicity and engine balance. As a result of the crank mechanism absence their construction is much simplified and the vibrations, peculiar to the ordinary engines are eliminated. In such installation the engine pistons are directly connected through the rod to compressor pistons and therefore there are no losses in the bearing bushes. Practical value. The free

  20. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... diesel engines (through the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)) to develop ``data driven'' emission... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  1. Engine-start Control Strategy of P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyang, Xu; Siqi, Zhao; Peng, Dong

    2017-12-01

    A smooth and fast engine-start process is important to parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an electric motor mounted in front of the transmission. However, there are some challenges during the engine-start control. Firstly, the electric motor must simultaneously provide a stable driving torque to ensure the drivability and a compensative torque to drag the engine before ignition. Secondly, engine-start time is a trade-off control objective because both fast start and smooth start have to be considered. To solve these problems, this paper first analyzed the resistance of the engine start process, and established a physic model in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a model-based coordinated control strategy among engine, motor and clutch was developed. Two basic control strategy during fast start and smooth start process were studied. Simulation results showed that the control objectives were realized by applying given control strategies, which can meet different requirement from the driver.

  2. Developing an Ontology-Based Rollover Monitoring and Decision Support System for Engineering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiang Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of rollover accidents of engineering vehicles has attracted close attention; however, most researchers focus on the analysis and monitoring of rollover stability indexes and seldom the assessment and decision support for the rollover risk of engineering vehicles. In this context, an ontology-based rollover monitoring and decision support system for engineering vehicles is proposed. The ontology model is built for representing monitored rollover stability data with semantic properties and for constructing semantic relevance among the various concepts involved in the rollover domain. On the basis of this, ontology querying and reasoning methods based on the Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL rules are utilized to realize the rollover risk assessment and to obtain suggested measures. PC and mobile applications (APPs have also been developed to implement the above methods. In addition, five sets of rollover stability data for an articulated off-road engineering vehicle under different working conditions were analyzed to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  4. Vehicle engine sound design based on an active noise control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M. [Siemens VDO Automotive, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A study has been carried out to identify the types of vehicle engine sounds that drivers prefer while driving at different locations and under different driving conditions. An active noise control system controlled the sound at the air intake orifice of a vehicle engine's first sixteen orders and half orders. The active noise control system was used to change the engine sound to quiet, harmonic, high harmonic, spectral shaped and growl. Videos were made of the roads traversed, binaural recording of vehicle interior sounds, and vibrations of the vehicle floor pan. Jury tapes were made up for day driving, nighttime driving and driving in the rain during the day for each of the sites. Jurors used paired comparisons to evaluate the vehicle interior sounds while sitting in a vehicle simulator developed by Siemens VDO that replicated videos of the road traversed, binaural recording of the vehicle interior sounds and vibrations of the floor pan and seat. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Studie wurden Typen von Motorgeraeuschen identifiziert, die von Fahrern unter verschiedenen Fahrbedingungen als angenehm empfunden werden. Ein System zur aktiven Geraeuschbeeinflussung am Ansauglufteinlass im Bereich des Luftfilters modifizierte den Klang des Motors bis zur 16,5ten Motorordnung, und zwar durch Bedaempfung, Verstaerkung und Filterung der Signalfrequenzen. Waehrend der Fahrt wurden Videoaufnahmen der befahrenen Strassen, Stereoaufnahmen der Fahrzeuginnengeraeusche und Aufnahmen der Vibrationsamplituden des Fahrzeugbodens erstellt; dies bei Tag- und Nachtfahrten und bei Tagfahrten im Regen. Zur Beurteilung der aufgezeichneten Geraeusche durch Versuchspersonen wurde ein Fahrzeug-Laborsimulator mit Fahrersitz, Bildschirm, Lautsprecher und mechanischer Erregung der Bodenplatte aufgebaut, um die aufgenommenen Signale moeglichst wirklichkeitsgetreu wiederzugeben. (orig.)

  5. Effort to increase an engine performance using electrical ignition system for motor vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Bandem Adnyana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing engine performances using electrical ignition system on motor vehicle. In accordance with the development oftechnology, improvisation of automotive is created in order to increase the performance of engine. The method to increase thisperformance has been done by modify the ignition system, where the conventional method of ignition system which uses contactbreaker substituted by using capacitor. The improvisation of ignition system has been tested by increasing the speed and load onstationary condition. Results show that the improvisation of ignition system by using capacitor increases the effective power andreduce the specific fuel consumption of engine and reduce the gas emission of CO.

  6. Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duanis, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method

  7. Modeling vehicle interior noise exposure dose on freeways: Considering weaving segment designs and engine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a laboratory environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic and road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex because of its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters and to improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning-based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone-based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their out-of-bag-permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments was quantified to hazard quotient, NED, and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable; the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness and is subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model shows high predictive

  8. On-Orbit Engineering and Vehicle Integration Poster Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerdinger, Madison

    2014-01-01

    One of the duties of the MER Managers is getting the consoles to review and sign Electronic Flight Notes (EFN) and Mission Action Requests (Chit) before they are due. Chits and EFNs and are accessible through the Mission Control Center - Houston (MCC-H) Gateway. Chits are the official means of documenting questions and answers, technical direction, real-time changes to Flight Rules (FR) and procedures, request for analysis, etc. between various consoles concerning on-orbit operations. EFNs are documents used by the Flight Control Team (FCT) to communicate precise details between console positions and manage real time changes to FR and Systems Operation Data File (SODF) procedures. On GMT 2013/345 the External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) on the Columbus (COL) Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) Interface Heat Exchanger (IFHX) shut down due to low temperatures. Over the next couple of days, the core temperature of COL MT IFHX dropped due to the failure of the Flow Control Valve (FCV). After the temperature drop was discovered, heaters were turned on to bring the temperatures back to nominal. After the incident occurred, a possible freeze threat was discovered that could have ruptured the heat exchanger. The COL MT IFHX rupturing would be considered a catastrophic failure and potentially result in a loss of the vehicle and/or the lives of the International Space Station (ISS) crew members

  9. A study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine for motor vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Ryoji; Okazaki, Syunki; Somyo, Nobuhiro; Akagi, Yuji

    1993-03-01

    A study of a direct-injection stratified-charge system (DISC), as applied to a rotary engine (RE) for motor vehicle usage, was undertaken. The goals of this study were improved fuel consumption and reduced exhaust emissions. These goals were thought feasible due to the high thermal efficiency associated with the DISC-RE. This was the first application of this technology to a motor vehicle engine. Stable ignition and ideal stratification systems were developed by means of numerical calculations, air-fuel mixture measurements, and actual engine tests. The use of DISC resulted in significantly improved fuel consumption and reduced exhaust emissions. The use of an exhaust gas recirculating system was studied and found to be beneficial in NOx reduction.

  10. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 3: Engine data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine operating characteristics were examined. Inlet pressure effects, tank pressurization effects, steady-state specific impulse, and the steady-state cycle were studied. The propellant flow schematic and operating sequence are presented. Engine hardware drawings are included.

  11. Study of wear in piston ring of the vehicle engine using thin layer activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Ghiyas-ud-Din; Gul, S.; Qureshi, R.M.; Jin Joon Ha; Wallace, G.

    2004-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique was used to investigate piston ring wear of a six cylinders vehicle engine at various engine speeds and load conditions. The activated ring was installed in cylinder no.5 of the engine at middle position (compression ring). Monitoring was carried out on-line (extremely on the engine block) using 'Thin Layer Difference Method'. The calibration curve of the activity profile was prepared with the help of activation parameters determined at the time of ring activation in particle accelerator. The results show that the piston ring wear varies from 0.309 micron/hour to 0.404 micron/hour at given engine speed and load conditions. (author)

  12. Project, Aerodynamic, Thermal and Ballistic Analysis of a Lifting-Body Reentry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to assess the prospects for an increasingly maneuverable reentry vehicle (RV of class "lifting body". In this regard, a project aerodynamic thermal and ballistic analysis has been conducted and the results have been compared with some well-known projects of the RV of the same class, made both in our country and abroad.The project analysis begins with finding a position of the "lifting body" vehicle in the classification system. Said classification distribution allows correct formulation of requirements for the conceptual structure of an aerospace vehicle at the initial stage of design in terms of system positions, since just the initial phase of the design often determines the success of the whole program.Then the paper compares design characteristics of the RV of class "lifting body" with vehicles such as X-15 rocket plane, the orbiter "Space Shuttle», M2-F2, HL-10, SV-5, and NASP "Hermes". It also gives a comparative estimate of the "lifting body" RV mass in a wide range of dimensions. The paper shows the sustainability of various landing complexes with reference to the Russian experience in developing the RV " Soyuz", and the conditions for using the vehicles of class "lifting body" in space programs.The aerodynamic analysis uses method for the approximate Newtonian theory to calculate aerodynamic characteristics of the perspective RV of class "lifting body" in the hypersonic descent phase. To obtain the desired aerodynamic performance and reduce balancing weight is contemplated a possibility to provide balance by introducing additional boards. The ballistic analysis considers four modes of descent:1. zero roll descent;2. maximum cross-range descent without restriction;3. maximum cross-range descent with restriction of maximum overload and maximum temperature;4. ballistic descent.To calculate the RV ballistic characteristics a system of equations of the vehicle motion in the atmosphere is used. The vehicle

  13. Evaluation of commercially available seat suspensions to reduce whole body vibration exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Marin, Luz S; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2018-09-01

    As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures. The results showed that the active vertical suspension more effectively reduced the vertical vibration (∼50%; p's suspension (10%; p's suspension systems did not attenuate the corresponding axis vibration (p's > 0.06) and sometimes amplified the floor vibration, especially when the non-vertical vibration was predominant (p's suspensions to address non-vertical WBV exposures, especially because these non-vertical WBV exposures can increase risks for adverse health effects including musculoskeletal loading, discomfort, and impaired visual acuity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Otto-cycle HDE. (d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the standards prescribed... production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008, except as explicitly allowed...

  15. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? 1051.320 Section 1051.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one...

  17. Cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric and internal combustion engine vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qinyu; Zhao, Fuquan; Liu, Zongwei; Jiang, Shuhua; Hao, Han

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions of internal combustion engine and battery electric vehicles are compared. •Greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric vehicles are 50% higher than internal combustion engine vehicles. •Traction battery production causes about 20% greenhouse gas emissions increase. •10% variations of curb weight, electricity and Li-ion battery production affect the results by 7%, 4% and 2%. •Manufacturing technique improvement, vehicle recycling and energy structure optimization are major mitigation opportunities. -- Abstract: Electric drive vehicles are equipped with totally different propulsion systems compared with conventional vehicles, for which the energy consumption and cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions associated with vehicle production could substantially change. In this study, the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle production are compared between battery electric and internal combustion engine vehicles in China’s context. The results reveal that the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a battery electric vehicle production range from 92.4 to 94.3 GJ and 15.0 to 15.2 t CO 2 eq, which are about 50% higher than those of an internal combustion engine vehicle, 63.5 GJ and 10.0 t CO 2 eq. This substantial change can be mainly attributed to the production of traction batteries, the essential components for battery electric vehicles. Moreover, the larger weight and different weight distribution of materials used in battery electric vehicles also contribute to the larger environmental impact. This situation can be improved through the development of new traction battery production techniques, vehicle recycling and a low-carbon energy structure.

  18. Performance test of remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat. Countermeasure performance for CBRN-environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Masahiro; Uemura, Keisuke; Morishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A research of 'remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat' was triggered by the nuclear accident that successively happened after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This project focuses on the remote controlled engineering system that can be used for multi purposes such as debris/obstacle clearing operation or various reconnaissance operation, under CBRN threat. For the remote-controlled engineering vehicle, we conducted a series of validation tests for countermeasure performance for CBRN-environment. As a result, it is proved that the vehicle possess required performances for CBRN threat. (author)

  19. A multi-body vehicle for moving inside cluttered nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmann, F.; Chameaud, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the result of the TALOS (Technologies for Advanced locomotion Systems) programme. The general aim of the TALOS was to prove the feasibility of multi-body articulated vehicles for intervention missions in nuclear plant were high payload volume and mass are required, combined with great geometrical and obstacles constraints. This programme was based on one hand on the TLV (Train Like Vehicle) concept, developed by CEA ( Atomic Energy Commission) and on the other hand on the KfK experience on locomotion. The main difficulties of this programme were to find the mechanical linkage concept and the locomotion concept, and also to build an integrated mockup with linkage and locomotion concepts. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. A multi-body vehicle for moving inside cluttered nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, F.; Chameaud, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Dorn, J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents the result of the TALOS (Technologies for Advanced locomotion Systems) programme. The general aim of the TALOS was to prove the feasibility of multi-body articulated vehicles for intervention missions in nuclear plant were high payload volume and mass are required, combined with great geometrical and obstacles constraints. This programme was based on one hand on the TLV (Train Like Vehicle) concept, developed by CEA ( Atomic Energy Commission) and on the other hand on the KfK experience on locomotion. The main difficulties of this programme were to find the mechanical linkage concept and the locomotion concept, and also to build an integrated mockup with linkage and locomotion concepts. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  2. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

  4. Design and vibration control of vehicle engine mount activated by MR fluid and piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Park, Y. K.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, H. G.

    2009-07-01

    An engine is one of the most dominant noise and vibration sources in vehicle systems. Therefore, in order to resolve noise and vibration problems due to engine, various types of engine mounts have been proposed. This work presents a new type of active engine mount system featuring a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid and a piezostack actuator. As a first step, six degrees-of freedom dynamic model of an in-line four-cylinder engine which has three points mounting system is derived by considering the dynamic behaviors of MR mount and piezostack mount. In the configuration of engine mount system, two MR mounts are installed for vibration control of roll mode motion whose energy is very high in low frequency range, while one piezostack mount is installed for vibration control of bounce and pitch mode motion whose energy is relatively high in high frequency range. As a second step, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is synthesized to actively control the imposed vibration. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed active engine mount, vibration control performances are evaluated under various engine operating speeds (wide frequency range).

  5. Vehicle driving cycle performance of the spark-less di-ji hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Alberto A. [School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, PO Box663, Ballarat, VIC 3353 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The paper describes coupled CFD combustion simulations and CAE engine performance computations to describe the operation over the full range of load and speed of an always lean burn, Direct Injection Jet Ignition (DI-JI) hydrogen engine. Jet ignition pre-chambers and direct injection are enablers of high efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected. Towards the end of the compression stroke, a small quantity of hydrogen is injected within the spark-less pre-chamber of the DI-JI engine, where it mixes with the air entering from the main chamber and auto-ignites because of the high temperature of the hot glow plug. Then, jets of partially combusted hot gases enter the main chamber igniting there in the bulk, over multiple ignition points, lean stratified mixtures of air and fuel. Engine maps of brake specific fuel consumption vs. speed and brake mean effective pressure are computed first. CAE vehicle simulations are finally performed evaluating the fuel consumption over emission cycles of a vehicle equipped with this engine. (author)

  6. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graves, Ronald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orban, John [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Theiss, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  7. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  8. Modeling Main Body of Overcrossing Bridge Based on Vehicle-Borne Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, M.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS) is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  9. MODELING MAIN BODY OF OVERCROSSING BRIDGE BASED ON VEHICLE-BORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  10. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Advanced expander cycle engine optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The performance optimization of expander cycle engines at vacuum thrust levels of 10K, 15K, and 20K lb is discussed. The optimization is conducted for a maximum engine length with an extendible nozzle in the retracted position of 60 inches and an engine mixture ratio of 6.0:1. The thrust chamber geometry and cycle analyses are documented. In addition, the sensitivity of a recommended baseline expander cycle to component performance variations is determined and chilldown/start propellant consumptions are estimated.

  11. Exergy analysis of a turbofan engine for an unmanned aerial vehicle during a surveillance mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şöhret, Yasin; Dinç, Ali; Karakoç, T. Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an exergy analysis of a turbofan engine, being the main power unit of an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) over the course of a surveillance mission flight, is presented. In this framework, an engine model is firstly developed, based upon engine design parameters and conditions using a genuine code. Next, the exergy analysis is performed according to thermodynamic laws. At the end of the study, the combustion chamber is identified as the most irreversible component of the engine, while the high pressure turbine and compressor are identified as the most efficient components throughout the flight. The minimum exergy efficiency is 58.24% for the combustion chamber at the end of the ingress flight phase, while the maximum exergy efficiency is found to be 99.09% for the high pressure turbine at the start of the ingress flight phase and landing loiter. The highest exergy destruction within the engine occurs at landing loiter, take-off and start of climb, with rates of 16998.768 kW, 16820.317 kW and 16564.378 kW respectively. - Highlights: • This study reveals the exergy parameters of a turbofan engine for an UAV. • Exergy analysis is conducted for a complete surveillance mission flight. • Variation of exergy parameters of engine components during the flight is presented. • The impact of the environment conditions on exergy parameters is proven.

  12. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for Hypersonic Engine Using High-Altitude Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.

  13. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for a Hypersonic Engine Using a High-Altitude Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.

  14. 77 FR 488 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... (e.g., dump trucks, concrete mixers, refuse trucks, and other centrally-fueled vehicles) were... intervals for DEF-based SCR. For vocational vehicles such as dump trucks, concrete mixers, refuse trucks and... Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance for Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies AGENCY...

  15. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  16. An image-based method to measure all-terrain vehicle dimensions for engineering safety purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Miller, Nathan S; Tang, Kaiyang; Denning, Gerene M

    2014-04-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a serious public health and safety concern. Engineering approaches that address ATV injury prevention are critically needed. Avenues to pursue include evidence-based seat design that decreases risky behaviours, such as carrying passengers and operation of adult-size vehicles by children. The goal of this study was to create and validate an image-based method to measure ATV seat length and placement. Publicly available ATV images were downloaded. Adobe Photoshop was then used to generate a vertical grid through the centre of the vehicle, to define the grid scale using the manufacturer's reported wheelbase, and to determine seat length and placement relative to the front and rear axles using this scale. Images that yielded a difference greater than 5% between the calculated and the manufacturer's reported ATV lengths were excluded from further analysis. For the 77 images that met inclusion criteria, the mean±SD for the difference in calculated versus reported vehicle length was 1.8%±1.2%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for comparing image-based seat lengths determined by two independent measurers (20 models) and image-based lengths versus lengths measured at dealerships (12 models) were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The image-based method provides accurate and reproducible results for determining ATV measurements, including seat length and placement. This method greatly expands the number of ATV models that can be studied, and may be generalisable to other motor vehicle types. These measurements can be used to guide engineering approaches that improve ATV safety design.

  17. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Natasha Maria; Ng, Tsz Wai; Ma, Kwok Keung; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-03-27

    Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM 0.3 and PM 2.5 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM 0.3 , PM 2.5 , TVOCs, CO, and CO₂ during engine idling. In general, during driving PM 2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM 0.3 . For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO₂ level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  18. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maria Barnes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM0.3 and PM2.5, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM0.3, PM2.5, TVOCs, CO, and CO2 during engine idling. In general, during driving PM2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM0.3. For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO2 level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  19. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  20. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  1. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Tremaine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Automated guided vehicles (AGVs are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication were successfully accomplished and tested in the real industrial environment. The developed AGV is capable of towing trolleys with a weight of up to 200kg at walking speed. The AGV can be incorporated into an intelligent material-handling system with multiple autonomous vehicles and work stations, thus providing flexibility and reconfigurability for the whole manufacturing system. Ergonomic and safety aspects were also considered in the design of the AGV. A comprehensive safety system that is compliant with industrial standards was implemented.

  2. Engineering the future of military tactical vehicles and systems with modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Matthew; Watters, Brock

    2005-05-01

    Stewart & Stevenson has developed a Modeling and Simulation approach based on Systems Engineering principles for the development of future military vehicles and systems. This approach starts with a requirements analysis phase that captures and distills the design requirements into a list of parameterized values. A series of executable engineering models are constructed to allow the requirements to be transformed into systems with definable architectures with increasing levels of fidelity. Required performance parameters are available for importation into a variety of modeling and simulation tools including PTC Pro/ENGINEER (for initial engineering models, mechanisms, packaging, and detailed 3-Dimensional solid models), LMS International Virtual.Lab Motion (for vehicle dynamics and ride analysis) and AVL Cruise (Powertrain simulations). Structural analysis and optimization (performed in ANSYS, Pro/MECHANICA, and Altair OptiStruct) is based on the initial geometry from Pro/ENGINEER. Spreadsheets are used for requirements analysis, design documentation and first-order studies. Collectively, these models serve as templates for all design activities. Design variables initially studied within a simplified system model can be cascaded down as the new requirements for a sub-system model. By utilizing this approach premature decisions on systems architectures can be avoided. Ultimately, the systems that are developed are optimally able to meet the requirements by utilizing this top-down approach. Additionally, this M&S approach is seen as a life-cycle tool useful in initially assisting with project management activities through the initial and detail design phases and serves as a template for testing and validation/verification activities. Furthermore, because of the multi-tiered approach, there is natural re-use possible with the models as well.

  3. Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations in commercial diesel engines and other areas. This analysis covers the period from 1974 through 2008 (and in some cases to early 2009).

  4. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools

  5. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  6. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  7. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  8. Free-piston engine linear generator for hybrid vehicles modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, T. J.; Ingram, S. K.

    1995-05-01

    Development of a free piston engine linear generator was investigated for use as an auxiliary power unit for a hybrid electric vehicle. The main focus of the program was to develop an efficient linear generator concept to convert the piston motion directly into electrical power. Computer modeling techniques were used to evaluate five different designs for linear generators. These designs included permanent magnet generators, reluctance generators, linear DC generators, and two and three-coil induction generators. The efficiency of the linear generator was highly dependent on the design concept. The two-coil induction generator was determined to be the best design, with an efficiency of approximately 90 percent.

  9. Big data scalability for high throughput processing and analysis of vehicle engineering data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    "Sympathy for Data" is a platform that is utilized for Big Data automation analytics. It is based on visual interface and workflow configurations. The main purpose of the platform is to reuse parts of code for structured analysis of vehicle engineering data. However, there are some performance issues on a single machine for processing a large amount of data in Sympathy for Data. There are also disk and CPU IO intensive issues when the data is oversized and the platform need fits comfortably i...

  10. Temperature monitoring of vehicle engine exhaust gases under vibration condition using optical fibre temperature sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W Z; Suna, T; Grattana, K T V; Shen, Y H; Wei, C L; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2006-01-01

    Two optical approaches, comprising and contracting both the fluorescence decay lifetime and the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) methods, were developed and evaluated for temperature monitoring of exhaust gases for use on a vehicle engine. The FBGs used in the system were written into specially designed Bi-Ge co-doped photosensitive fibres, to enable them to sustain high temperatures to over 800 0 C, which is far beyond that of FBGs written into most commercial photosensitive fibres. The sensors were subjected to a range of vibration tests, as a part of an optical exhaust monitoring network under development, and results from the test carried out are reported

  11. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  12. Reduction of vibration forces transmitted from a radiator cooling fan to a vehicle body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonghyuk; Sim, Woojeong; Yun, Seen; Lee, Dongkon; Chung, Jintai

    2018-04-01

    This article presents methods for reducing transmitted vibration forces caused by mass unbalance of the radiator cooling fan during vehicle idling. To identify the effects of mass unbalance upon the vibration characteristics, vibration signals of the fan blades were experimentally measured both with and without an added mass. For analyzing the vibration forces transmitted to the vehicle body, a dynamic simulation model was established that reflected the vibration characteristics of the actual system. This process included a method described herein for calculating the equivalent stiffness and the equivalent damping of the shroud stators and rubber mountings. The dynamic simulation model was verified by comparing its results with experimental results of the radiator cooling fan. The dynamic simulation model was used to analyze the transmitted vibration forces at the rubber mountings. Also, a measure was established to evaluate the effects of varying the design parameters upon the transmitted vibration forces. We present design guidelines based on these analyses to reduce the transmitted vibration forces of the radiator cooling fan.

  13. Heading Control System for a Multi-body Vehicle with a Virtual Test Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a Heading Control (HC system for a multi-body vehicle. HC system helps reducing the required torque from the driver and improves the lane keeping efficiency. HC system is important for safety and driver comfort in traffic. The controller performance is examined on a virtual test drive platform. The optimal control theory is applied to HC system and examined on a curved path and under a side wind disturbance. Different assistance levels are applied to see the characteristics of the controller with different virtual test drivers. The results are analyzed based on three performance indices; lane keeping performance (LKP index, assist torque performance (ATP index and driver torque performance (DTP index. As seen from the results while using HC system the lateral displacement decreases as the lane keeping performance increases and the driver torque performance decreases as the assist torque performance increases.

  14. Radiation Transport Around Axisymmetric Blunt Body Vehicles Using a Modified Differential Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Lin C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    A moment method for computing 3-D radiative transport is applied to axisymmetric flows in thermochemical nonequilibrium. Such flows are representative of proposed aerobrake missions. The method uses the P-1 approximation to reduce the governing system of integro-di erential equations to a coupled set of partial di erential equations. A numerical solution method for these equations given actual variations of the radiation properties in thermochemical nonequilibrium blunt body flows is developed. Initial results from the method are shown and compared to tangent slab calculations. The agreement between the transport methods is found to be about 10 percent in the stagnation region, with the difference increasing along the flank of the vehicle.

  15. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  16. Transistorized ignition system for internal combustion engines, in particular for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieras, L F; Skay, F

    1977-05-12

    The invention concerns an ignition system for motor vehicles with solid state control of the power transistor switching the primary current of the ignition coil. A pulse generator driven by the engine is used for this, whose voltage pulses control the switching on of the power transistor and increase in a certain ratio to the engine speed. This ensures that the closing angle, i.e. the mechanical angle of rotation which the machine passes through while loading the ignition coil with mechanical energy, is automatically changed so that for low speeds it is just sufficient for certain ignition, but increases with increasing speed, so that the required ignition energy is always available. At low speeds one avoids charging current flowing through the primary winding of the ignition coil for longer than necessary and thus wasting electrical energy.

  17. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non‑Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2

  18. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    possibilities. The Boeing N2 hybrid-wing-body (HWB) is used as a baseline aircraft for this study. The two pylon mounted conventional turbofans are replaced by two wing-tip mounted turboshaft engines, each driving a superconducting generator. Both generators feed a common electrical bus which distributes power to an array of superconducting motor-driven fans in a continuous nacelle centered along the trailing edge of the upper surface of the wing-body. A key finding was that traditional inlet performance methodology has to be modified when most of the air entering the inlet is boundary layer air. A very thorough and detailed propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) analysis is required at the very beginning of the design process since embedded engine inlet performance must be based on conditions at the inlet lip rather than freestream conditions. Examination of a range of fan pressure ratios yielded a minimum Thrust-specific-fuel-consumption (TSFC) at the aerodynamic design point of the vehicle (31,000 ft /Mach 0.8) between 1.3 and 1.35 FPR. We deduced that this was due to the higher pressure losses prior to the fan inlet as well as higher losses in the 2-D inlets and nozzles. This FPR is likely to be higher than the FPR that yields a minimum TSFC in a pylon mounted engine. 1

  19. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... to Otto-cycle engines used in such MDPVs, except as specified in subpart S of this part. The term... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  20. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a ''NIMF'' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel.) The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO 2 . This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface

  1. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SSME to RS-25: Challenges of Adapting a Heritage Engine to a New Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) program to provide next-generation heavy lift cargo and crew access to space. A key constituent of the SLS architecture is the RS-25 engine, also known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The RS-25 was selected to serve as the main propulsion system for the SLS core stage in conjunction with the solid rocket boosters. This selection was largely based on the maturity and extensive experience gained through 135 missions, 3000+ ground tests, and over a million seconds total accumulated hot-fire time. In addition, there were also over a dozen functional flight assets remaining from the Space Shuttle program that could be leveraged to support the first four flights. However, while the RS-25 is a highly mature system, simply unbolting it from the Space Shuttle boat-tail and installing it on the new SLS vehicle is not a "plug-and-play" operation. In addition to numerous technical integration details involving changes to significant areas such as the environments, interface conditions, technical performance requirements, operational constraints and so on, there were other challenges to be overcome in the area of replacing the obsolete engine control system (ECS). While the magnitude of accomplishing this effort was less than that needed to develop and field a new clean-sheet engine system, the path to the first flight of SLS has not been without unexpected challenges.

  3. A Scramjet Compression System for Hypersonic Air Transportation Vehicle Combined Cycle Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Sen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression system for a scramjet, to be used as part of a combined cycle engine on a hypersonic transport vehicle that can achieve sustained flight at 8 Mach 8. Initially research into scramjet compression system and shock wave interaction was conducted to establish the foundation of the scramjet inlet and isolator sections. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD campaign was conducted, where the shock structure and flow characteristics was analysed between Mach 4.5–8. The compression system of a scramjet is of crucial importance in providing air at suitable Mach number, pressure and temperature to the combustion chamber. The use of turbojet engines in over-under configuration with the scramjet was investigated as well as the study of a combined cycle scramjet-ramjet configuration. It was identified that locating the scramjet in the centre with a rotated ramjet on either side, where its ramps make up the scramjet wall was the most optimal configuration, as it mitigated the effect of the oblique shocks propagating from the scramjet walls into the adjacent ramjet. Furthermore, this meant that the forebody of the vehicle could solely be used as the compression surface by the scramjet. In this paper, the sizing of the scramjet combustion chamber and nozzle were modified to match the flow properties of the oncoming flow with the purpose of producing the most optimum scramjet configuration for the cruise speed of Mach 8. CFD simulations showed that the scramjet inlet did not provide the levels of compression and stagnation pressure recovery initially required. However, it was found that the scramjet provided significantly more thrust than the drag of the aircraft at sustained Mach 8 flight, due to its utilisation of a very aerodynamic vehicle design.

  4. Development of the PRSEUS Multi-Bay Pressure Box for a Hybrid Wing Body Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits, and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. Although such novel configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) offer better aerodynamic performance as compared to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, their blended wing shapes also pose significant new design challenges. Developing an improved structural concept that is capable of meeting the structural weight fraction allocated for these non-circular pressurized cabins is the primary obstacle in implementing large lifting-body designs. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to advance new structural concepts like the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), which is an integrally stiffened panel design that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. The large-scale multi-bay fuselage test article described in this paper is the final specimen in a building-block test program that was conceived to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting the structural weight goals established for the HWB pressure cabin.

  5. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  6. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  7. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF BODY SHOP MANAGING AS A PART OF VEHICLE IMPORTERS CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Stamboliski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic rhythm of living in today’s contemporary surroundings can not be considered without the use of personal and commercial vehicles, for transport of passengers and cargo. This means that every manufacturer in this segment, in their departments for development, find a way to increase their participation in the market. Since the race with time, for promoting new models on the market, not always is in positive relation with the profit which the manufacturer plans to achieve, issues the manufacturer’s focus in the after-sale activities. The body shop with its service, as part of the after-sale activities, brings the client satisfaction to a higher level and of course contributes to realization of higher profit of the company. The setting of the equipment and the staff management, the analysis of the number of entries and realized working hours in the body shop of an importer centre are the central topic/main subject for the author in this paper work. Finding the key factors, as well as the possibility for implementation of the key factors, would reflect increased number of entries, increased number of realized working hours and possibility for improving of the existing system of managing.

  9. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  10. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  11. Engineering Probiotics that Improve Warfighter Performance by Maintaining Lean Body Mass and Inhibiting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-03

    From - To) 03/10/2017 Final Technical Report 15-05-14 to 14-05-17 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Engineering probiotics that improve...ABSTRACT The overall goal of this work is to engineer "synthetic probiotics": orally-administered gut bacteria that sense and compute the metabolic...Final Technical Report Grant number: ONR N00014-14-1-0487 Title: Engineering probiotics that improve warfighter performance by maintaining lean body

  12. Evaluating the Impact of E15 on Snowmobile Engine Durability and Vehicle Driveability: September 22, 2010 - August 15, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miers, Scott A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Blough, Jason R. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of E15 on current and legacy snowmobile engines and vehicles that could occur due to misfueling by the vehicle owner. Three test scenarios were conducted to evaluate the impact of E15, including cold-start performance and emissions, on-snow vehicle driveability, and laboratory exhaust emissions over the useful life of the engine. The eightengines tested represent current and legacy product that may exhibit sensitivity to increased ethanol blended in gasoline. Because a limited number of snowmobile engines were evaluated for this test program, the results are not statistically significant. However, the broad range of engine and mixture preparation technologies, combined with the various test scenarios provide preliminaryinformation to assess potential issues with E15 use in snowmobiles. Cold-start tests were performed at -6.7 degrees C (20 degrees F), -17.8 degrees C (0 degrees F), and -28.9 degrees C (-20 degrees F). The evaluation included time to start or number of pulls to start, engine speed, exhaust gas temperature, and start-up engine emissions concentrations. Statistically significant differences instarting times were not observed for most vehicles. Snowmobile driveability was analyzed using a subjective evaluation on a controlled test course. The drivers could not easily discern which fuel the snowmobiles were using during the subjective evaluation. Durability tests were conducted to measure the emissions and performance of the snowmobiles over the useful life of the vehicles (5,000miles). There were no fuel-related engine failures on E0 or E15. Carbon monoxide emissions were generally reduced by E15 relative to E0, by from 10% to 35%. Occasional misfueling of snowmobiles with E15 is not likely to cause noticeable or immediate problems for consumers. E15 is not approved for snowmobile use, and observations made during this study support the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency's decision to not

  13. The new 2.5L L4 gasoline engine for LEXUS IS300h. The renewed engine series for FR hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Fumihisa; Mashiki, Zenichiro; Yamanari, Kenji [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    To ensure future sustainable mobility, vehicles have to face crucial problems such as energy security, global warming and air quality. To address these problems, TOYOTA introduced in 1997 the TOYOTA Hybrid System (THS) and has continuously improved its technology, globally contributing to the environmental improvement by its expansion into many markets in the world. TOYOTA presented the renewed 4 Cylinder Engine Series for FF vehicles at this symposium last year. This year, Toyota presents the result of its continuous development for FR Hybrid Vehicles, especially for D and E segment vehicles. Toyota not only improved thermal efficiency and reduced CO{sub 2} but also achieved high power output. In 2012, TOYOTA launched 3.5L V6 engine for LEXUS-GS (2GR-FXE engine), as first engine of this new engine series. In 2013, TOYOTA will launch 2.5L-L4 engine for LEXUS-IS (2AR-FSE engine), as the leading engine of this series. Toyota developed these new engines, aiming at leadership with regard to fuel economy, clean exhaust gas and high reliability. Toyota carried out modifications, taking into account usage of Hybrid System. With targeting highest levels of environmental performance, Toyota improved the vehicle driving performances like acceleration response by the combination of enhanced engine power output and newly developed Hybrid System. One of the biggest feature of this series is new generation D-4S system, including two injectors (for Direct injection and Port injection) for each cylinder, high fuel pressure (greater than 18MPa) and high fuel flow rate. The new generation D-4S system helps achieving high performance and good thermal efficiency. Furthermore, Toyota added on Cooled EGR system to 2AR-FSE engine, contributing to lower the fuel consumption, especially in highway driving. The very low friction technology and the well proven Atkinson Cycle are also key features of this engine series. Thanks to the above features, the new engine series achieves high

  14. Industrial fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for production of biodiesel and its application in vehicle diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo eXiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60 m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L-1 day-1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying and ball milling methods to harvest, dry and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  15. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  16. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  17. An overload behavior detection system for engineering transport vehicles based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libo; Wu, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper builds an overloaded truck detect system called ITMD to help traffic department automatically identify the engineering transport vehicles (commonly known as `dirt truck') in CCTV and determine whether the truck is overloaded or not. We build the ITMD system based on the Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) model. By constructing the image dataset of the truck and adjusting hyper-parameters of the original SSD neural network, we successfully trained a basic network model which the ITMD system depends on. The basic ITMD system achieves 83.01% mAP on classifying overload/non-overload truck, which is a not bad result. Still, some shortcomings of basic ITMD system have been targeted to enhance: it is easy for the ITMD system to misclassify other similar vehicle as truck. In response to this problem, we optimized the basic ITMD system, which effectively reduced basic model's false recognition rate. The optimized ITMD system achieved 86.18% mAP on the test set, which is better than the 83.01% mAP of the basic ITMD system.

  18. Fundamentals of civil engineering an introduction to the ASCE body of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    McCuen, Richard H; Wong, Melanie K

    2011-01-01

    While the ASCE Body of Knowledge (BOK2) is the codified source for all technical and non-technical information necessary for those seeking to attain licensure in civil engineering, recent graduates have notoriously been lacking in the non-technical aspects even as they excel in the technical. Fundamentals of Civil Engineering: An Introduction to the ASCE Body of Knowledge addresses this shortfall and helps budding engineers develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes suggested and implied by the BOK2. Written as a resource for all of the non-technical outcomes not specifically covered in the

  19. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  20. Matrix methods applied to engineering rigid body mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T.

    The purpose of this book is to present the solution of a range of rigorous body mechanics problems using a matrix formulation of vector algebra. Essential theory concerning kinematics and dynamics is formulated in terms of matrix algebra. The solution of kinematics and dynamics problems is discussed, taking into account the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a circular path, the velocity and acceleration determination for a linkage, the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a roller in a taper-roller thrust race, Euler's theroem on the motion of rigid bodies, an automotive differential, a rotating epicyclic, the motion of a high speed rotor mounted in gimbals, and the vibration of a spinning projectile. Attention is given to the activity of a force, the work done by a conservative force, the work and potential in a conservative system, the equilibrium of a mechanism, bearing forces due to rotor misalignment, and the frequency of vibrations of a constrained rod.

  1. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... immediately attempt to regulate new farm and construction equipment and that under any compliance pathway a... from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment... with section 202(a) if: (1) There is inadequate lead time to permit the development of the necessary...

  2. Development of a Model-Based Systems Engineering Application for the Ground Vehicle Robotics Sustainment Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering Technology Symposium HC Human Capital HIIT Helsinki Institute of Information Technology UNCLASSIFIED vii...Technology (TKK), and the Helsinki Institute of Information Technology ( HIIT ), the report introduced the concept and the state-of-the-art in the market

  3. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Increase of the Vehicle Mass for 3-Wheeled Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action changes the regulatory definition of a motorcycle to include 3-wheeled vehicles weighing up to 1749 pounds effective for 1998 and later model year motorcycles for which emission standards are in place.

  4. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  5. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  6. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering for Magnesium in Automotive Body Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, John E.; Liu, Baicheng; Boyle, Kevin P.; Hector, Lou; McCune, Robert

    This paper provides an overview and progress report for an international collaborative project which aims to develop an ICME infrastructure for magnesium for use in automotive body applications. Quantitative processing-micro structure-property relationships are being developed for extruded Mg alloys, sheet-formed Mg alloys and high pressure die cast Mg alloys. These relationships are captured in computational models which are then linked with manufacturing process simulation and used to provide constitutive models for component performance analysis. The long term goal is to capture this information in efficient computational models and in a web-centered knowledge base. The work is being conducted at leading universities, national labs and industrial research facilities in the US, China and Canada. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan).

  7. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  8. 77 FR 65767 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... (RFHM), Ignition Node Module (IGNM), Engine Control Module, Body Controller Module, Sentry Key... disable engine operation and immobilize the vehicle after two seconds of running. This process is also...

  9. Current Launch Vehicle Practice and Data Base Assessment. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Report Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    4 4 2 .2 .4 B a y e sia n .............................................................................................. 4...basic assumption for the method of estimating system relaibility in the present study is that the failure of the launch vehicle must occur in one of its

  10. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  11. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of..., exhaust emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines fueled with either gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas, and intended...

  12. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of

  13. Output Only Modal Testing of a Car Body Subject to Engine Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a car body subject to engine excitation is presented. The response data were analyzed using two different techniques: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working...

  14. Aspects of the engineering design of whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.; Collins, A.G.; Hall, A.S.; Harman, R.R.; Butson, P.C.; Gilderdale, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines reviews the basic physics very briefly, then examines the design requirements and engineering constraints for the major components of such a system. The paper concludes with a brief resume of the techniques used, and a short presentation of the type of results that are achieved. (author)

  15. CONCEPTION OF USE VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DIAGNOSING OF CHOSEN ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CAR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  16. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  17. Summary of Jimsphere wind profiles: Programs, data, comments, part 1. [for use in aeronautical vehicle design and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Jimsphere wind profiles are documented for the following ranges and installations: Eastern Test Range, Cape Kennedy, Florida; Western Test Range; Point Mugu, California; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico; Wallops Island, Virginia; Green River, Utah; and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Profile information for 1964-1977 includes data summaries, computer formats, frequency distributions, composite listings, etc., for use in establishing and interpreting natural environment criteria for aeronautical vehicle design and engineering operations.

  18. The model for calculation of emission and imisson of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1994-01-01

    The model for calculation of emission and immision of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine on the crossroads in urban environments, with substitution of a great number of exhaust-pipes with one chimney in the centre of the crossroad has been made. The whole calculation of the pollution sources mentioned above is, in the fact, the calculation of the emission and imisson of pollutants from point sources of pollution. (author)

  19. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  20. Ride comfort enhancement in railway vehicle by the reduction of the car body structural flexural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriu, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper approaches the issue of reduction in the vertical bending vibrations of the railway vehicle carbody and the ride comfort enhancement at high velocities, starting from the prospect of isolating the vibrations by the best possible selection of the passive suspension damping in the vehicle. To this purpose, the examination falls on the influence of the vertical suspension damping upon the vibrations regime of the vehicle at the bending resonance frequency and upon the ride comfort. The results of the numerical simulations regarding the frequency response of the carbody acceleration and the comfort index will be therefore used. A value of the secondary suspension damping can be thus identified that will provide the best ride comfort performance. Similarly, the ride comfort can be increased by raising the primary suspension damping ratio.

  1. EVALUATION METHOD OF FUEL-EFFICIENT DRIVING IN DUMP TRUCK USING VEHICLE SPEED AND ENGINE ROTATIONAL SPEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Yasui, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Mayu; Takebe, Atsuji; Funahashi, Masashi

    In the construction site, the light oil that the construction vehicle such as dump trucks uses accounts for 70 percent of the amount of the energy use. Therefore, the eco-driving education of the construction vehicle is effective in the fuel cost improvement and the CO2 reduction. The eco-driving education can be executed cheap and easily, and a high effect can be expected. However, it is necessary to evaluate the eco-driving situation of the construction vehicle exactly to maintain the educative effect for a long term. In this paper, the method for evaluating the effect of the fuel cost improvement was examined by using the vehicle speed and the engine rotational speed of the dump truck. In this method, "Ideal eco-driving model" that considers the difference between the vehicle model and the running condition (traffic jam etc.) is made. As a result, it is possible to evaluate the fuel consumption improvement effect of a dump truck by the same index.

  2. Usability engineering of "In Vehicle Information Systems" with multi-tasking GOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, L.; Leuchter, S.

    2008-01-01

    The developments in vehicle electronics and new services are supposed to promise more convenience in driving. The offers and ideas range from vehicle-related installations, such as accident alert, petrol station assistance, dynamic navigation and travel guide, to communication and entertainment services. There is one central design problem that is essential for achieving the main objective "safe motor vehicle driving", i.e. the use of the new service must not unduly distract the driver. In th...

  3. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Lightweight Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector, Jr., Louis G. [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States); McCarty, Eric D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP), Southfield, MI (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The goal of the ICME 3GAHSS project was to successfully demonstrate the applicability of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for the development and deployment of third generation advanced high strength steels (3GAHSS) for immediate weight reduction in passenger vehicles. The ICME approach integrated results from well-established computational and experimental methodologies to develop a suite of material constitutive models (deformation and failure), manufacturing process and performance simulation modules, a properties database, as well as the computational environment linking them together for both performance prediction and material optimization. This is the Final Report for the ICME 3GAHSS project, which achieved the fol-lowing objectives: 1) Developed a 3GAHSS ICME model, which includes atomistic, crystal plasticity, state variable and forming models. The 3GAHSS model was implemented in commercially available LS-DYNA and a user guide was developed to facilitate use of the model. 2) Developed and produced two 3GAHSS alloys using two different chemistries and manufacturing processes, for use in calibrating and validating the 3GAHSS ICME Model. 3) Optimized the design of an automotive subassembly by substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS yielding a design that met or exceeded all baseline performance requirements with a 30% mass savings. A technical cost model was also developed to estimate the cost per pound of weight saved when substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS. The project demonstrated the potential for 3GAHSS to achieve up to 30% weight savings in an automotive structure at a cost penalty of up to $0.32 to $1.26 per pound of weight saved. The 3GAHSS ICME Model enables the user to design 3GAHSS to desired mechanical properties in terms of strength and ductility.

  4. An Optimization Study on an Eco-Friendly Engine Cycle Named as Dual-Miller Cycle (DMC for Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Guven

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is an indispensable part of technology and it is commonly used in land and marine vehicles. However, diesel engines release NOx emissions due to high combustion temperatures. They have harmful effects on the environment such as sources of photo-chemical fog and climate changes. Therefore, they must be reduced and limited. The Miller cycle application is a NOx control method and it is popular in the recent years to abate NOx produced from the internal combustion engines (ICEs. A performance investigation of a Dual-Miller cycle (DMC engine in terms of power (PO, power density (PD and effective efficiency (EE has been performed using a new finite-time thermodynamics modeling (FTTM in this study. The effects of engine design and operating parameters on the engine performance (EPER have been examined. Additionally, the energy losses have been determined resulting from incomplete combustion (IC, friction (FR, heat transfer (HT and exhaust output (EO. The results presented could be an essential tool for DMC marine engine designers.

  5. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  6. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  7. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  8. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

  9. 19 CFR 12.73 - Motor vehicle and engine compliance with Federal antipollution emission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. This section is ancillary to the regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... Those regulations should be consulted for more detailed information concerning EPA emission requirements... and exclusions from emission requirements based on age of vehicle. The following motor vehicles...

  10. Measurement of vehicle emissions and power performance of an engine dedicated to gasoline converted to natural gas vehicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Meneses Oscar Febo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research work reports the factorial experiment carried out in the Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Research (IIME of the Major Saint Andrew University (UMSA, the purpose was to evaluate vehicle power and emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, as well as other gases with harmful effects on human health, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons generated by an internal combustion engine dedicated to gasoline and converted to bi-fuel CNG. For experimentation, a test stand was assembled with a motor commonly used in light transport vehicles in the city of La Paz, and converted to CNG in two types of transformation technology, third and fifth generation, the first being subsidized by the Bolivian State. The results allowed to determine that emissions depend on the operating regime and that the vehicles converted to CNG do not significantly reduce the emission of GHG issued per unit time in relation to original operation with gasoline, this is because they generate higher emission gas flows in the same operating regimes. Emission of other gases harmful to health are significantly superior when converting to the engine with technology of 3rd generation without use of mixer. Being also its performance of lower power, it falls between 87 and 75% of the original value. It is evident that the type of technology and mode of conversion applied influences the emissions and vehicular power.

  11. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  12. Rigid-body-spring model numerical analysis of joint performance of engineered cementitious composites and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmurovska, Y.; Štemberk, P.; Křístek, V.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effectiveness of using engineered cementitious composites with polyvinyl alcohol fibers for concrete cover layer repair. A numerical model of a monolithic concaved L-shaped concrete structural detail which is strengthened with an engineered cementitious composite layer with polyvinyl alcohol fibers is created and loaded with bending moment. The numerical analysis employs nonlinear 3-D Rigid-Body-Spring Model. The proposed material model shows reliable results and can be used in further studies. The engineered cementitious composite shows extremely good performance in tension due to the strain-hardening effect. Since durability of the bond can be decreased significantly by its degradation due to the thermal loading, this effect should be also taken into account in the future work, as well as the experimental investigation, which should be performed for validation of the proposed numerical model.

  13. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine requirements are emphasized and include: high specific impulse within a restricted installed length constraint, long life, multiple starts, different thrust levels, and man-rated reliability. The engine operating characteristics and the major component analytical design are summarized.

  14. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  15. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  16. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  17. Analysis of the vibration of the vehicle body with the elimination of the influence of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presented the results of vibration measurements of selected elements of the vehicle during the test vibration carried out on a bench with a harmonic kinematic extortion. The results of research carried out for the car when replacing tire and wheels steel tripod eliminating the influence of elasticity and damping tires. The tests were performed at various values of the shock absorber fluid filling (from 100% to 50% of the shock absorber fluid. For registered vibration acceleration STFT analysis was performed.

  18. A review of findings of a study of rocket based combined cycle engines applied to extensively axisymmetric single stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensively axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. The information is presented in viewgraph form and the following topics are presented: payload comparisons; payload as a percent of dry weight - a system hardware cost indicator; life cycle cost estimations; operations and support costs estimation; selected engine type; and rocket engine specific impulse calculation.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  20. Use of Probabilistic Engineering Methods in the Detailed Design and Development Phases of the NASA Ares Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayssal, Safie; Weldon, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program called Constellation to send crew and cargo to the international Space Station, to the moon, and beyond. As part of the Constellation program, a new launch vehicle, Ares I, is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Designing a launch vehicle with high reliability and increased safety requires a significant effort in understanding design variability and design uncertainty at the various levels of the design (system, element, subsystem, component, etc.) and throughout the various design phases (conceptual, preliminary design, etc.). In a previous paper [1] we discussed a probabilistic functional failure analysis approach intended mainly to support system requirements definition, system design, and element design during the early design phases. This paper provides an overview of the application of probabilistic engineering methods to support the detailed subsystem/component design and development as part of the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the new Ares I Launch Vehicle. Specifically, the paper discusses probabilistic engineering design analysis cases that had major impact on the design and manufacturing of the Space Shuttle hardware. The cases represent important lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Program and clearly demonstrate the significance of probabilistic engineering analysis in better understanding design deficiencies and identifying potential design improvement for Ares I. The paper also discusses the probabilistic functional failure analysis approach applied during the early design phases of Ares I and the forward plans for probabilistic design analysis in the detailed design and development phases.

  1. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  2. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  3. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  4. Optimization of the rocket mode trajectory in a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered SSTO vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1989-07-01

    The application of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engines to booster-stage propulsion, in combination with all-rocket second stages in orbital-ascent missions, has been studied since the mid-1960s; attention is presently given to the case of the 'ejector scramjet' RBCC configuration's application to SSTO vehicles. While total mass delivered to initial orbit is optimized at Mach 20, payload delivery capability to initial orbit optimizes at Mach 17, primarily due to the reduction of hydrogen fuel tankage structure, insulation, and thermal protection system weights.

  5. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  6. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Qihui Yu; Yan Shi; Maolin Cai; Weiqing Xu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure ...

  7. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  8. Tunable geometry of bacterial inclusion bodies as substrate materials for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Fruitos, Elena; Seras-Franzoso, JoaquIn; Vazquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio [CIBER en BioingenierIa, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina and Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-21

    A spectrum of materials for biomedical applications is produced in bacteria, and some of them, such as metals or polyhydroxyalkanoates, are straightforwardly obtained as particulate entities. We have explored the biofabrication process of bacterial inclusion bodies, particulate proteinaceous materials (ranging from 50 to 500 nm in diameter) recently recognized as suitable for surface topographical modification and tissue engineering. Inclusion bodies have been widely described as spherical or pseudo-spherical particles with only minor morphological variability, mostly restricted to their size. Here we have identified a cellular gene in Escherichia coli (clpP) that controls the in vivo fabrication process of inclusion bodies. In the absence of the encoded protease, the dynamics of protein deposition is perturbed, resulting in unusual tear-shaped particles with enhanced surface-volume ratios. This fact modifies the ability of inclusion bodies to promote mammalian cell attachment and differentiation upon surface decoration. The implications of the genetic control of inclusion body geometry are discussed in the context of their biological fabrication and regarding the biomedical potential of these protein clusters in regenerative medicine.

  9. Tunable geometry of bacterial inclusion bodies as substrate materials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Fruitos, Elena; Seras-Franzoso, JoaquIn; Vazquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A spectrum of materials for biomedical applications is produced in bacteria, and some of them, such as metals or polyhydroxyalkanoates, are straightforwardly obtained as particulate entities. We have explored the biofabrication process of bacterial inclusion bodies, particulate proteinaceous materials (ranging from 50 to 500 nm in diameter) recently recognized as suitable for surface topographical modification and tissue engineering. Inclusion bodies have been widely described as spherical or pseudo-spherical particles with only minor morphological variability, mostly restricted to their size. Here we have identified a cellular gene in Escherichia coli (clpP) that controls the in vivo fabrication process of inclusion bodies. In the absence of the encoded protease, the dynamics of protein deposition is perturbed, resulting in unusual tear-shaped particles with enhanced surface-volume ratios. This fact modifies the ability of inclusion bodies to promote mammalian cell attachment and differentiation upon surface decoration. The implications of the genetic control of inclusion body geometry are discussed in the context of their biological fabrication and regarding the biomedical potential of these protein clusters in regenerative medicine.

  10. High thermal efficiency and low emission performance of a methanol reformed gas fueled engine for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Shudo, T.; Hiruma, M. [Musahi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    An internal combustion engine (ICE) operation was carried out experimentally by using the mixture of air and fuel simulating the reformed gas as the fuel. It has been found that the engine can expectedly attain ultra-low emission and high thermal efficiency, namely 35% brake thermal efficiency in the basis of the low heat value of the theoretically reformed gas or 42% in the basis of the low heat value of methanol. By using the result for the estimation of the total thermal efficiency at the end of the motor output shaft of a hybrid electric vehicle, it has been found that the total thermal efficiency of the reformed gas engine system is 34% in case of a 120% energy increment and 33% in case of a 116% energy increment with a little higher NOx emission of 60 ppm while the counterpart of the fuel cell system is 34%. When the emission level for EZEV is required, the total thermal efficiency falls to 32% in case of a 120% energy increment and 31% in case of a 116% energy increment. From the points of the reliability proved by the long history, higher specific power and low cost, the internal combustion engine system with the thermal efficiency almost equal to that of the fuel cell (FC) system is further more practical when methanol is used as the fuel. (orig.)

  11. METHOD OF IMPROVING ENERGY, ECOLOGICAL AND STENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a complex method of deterioration of economic, ecological, and strength indicators of 16ЧН26/27 transport diesel engine. According to the offered method, there were considered conjugated problems applicable to the transport diesel engine combustion chamber and cooling cavities of the cylinder head. Based on the complex research conducted.

  12. Development of an extended-range electric vehicle : a systems engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorderhake, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the complete design (i.e., from product level to implementation level) of a sportive hatchback extended-range electric vehicle, including the design rationales and product creation process used. The project had two main goals: First, the development of a modular extended-range

  13. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of ignition. A motor vehicle or mechanical equipment showing any signs of leakage or electrical fault... equipment is stowed. (f) Each hold or compartment must be ventilated and fitted with an overhead water... smoke or fire detection system capable of alerting personnel on the bridge. (h) All electrical equipment...

  14. Key word placing in Web page body text to increase visibility to search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Kritzinger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the World Wide Web has spawned a wide variety of new information sources, which has also left users with the daunting task of determining which sources are valid. Many users rely on the Web as an information source because of the low cost of information retrieval. It is also claimed that the Web has evolved into a powerful business tool. Examples include highly popular business services such as Amazon.com and Kalahari.net. It is estimated that around 80% of users utilize search engines to locate information on the Internet. This, by implication, places emphasis on the underlying importance of Web pages being listed on search engines indices. Empirical evidence that the placement of key words in certain areas of the body text will have an influence on the Web sites' visibility to search engines could not be found in the literature. The result of two experiments indicated that key words should be concentrated towards the top, and diluted towards the bottom of a Web page to increase visibility. However, care should be taken in terms of key word density, to prevent search engine algorithms from raising the spam alarm.

  15. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  16. Development of engines for commercial vehicles with special regard to their use in various types of vehicles. Die Entwicklung der Nutzfahrzeugmotoren unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Einsatzes in den verschiedenen Fahrzeugarten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, W D

    1984-01-01

    Detailed survey on preferential fields of use, conditions of use, engine types, engine parameters, fuel consumption, and noise level of the following commercial vehicles: motor carriers, light lorries, medium-weight lorries, heavy lorries, routine buses, tourism coaches. These various requirements and fields of use show, that the development of engines for commercial vehicles must cover a very broad range. Additional demands have to be fulfilled especially where noise- and pollutant emission and engine braking effect are concerned. In Europe only smoke emission is limited but rather strictly at that. Additional boundary values for emission of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and non-burned hydrocarbons have to be respected in the USA and Japan. Development is at present focussed on optimization and further development of injection methods in order to reduce to exhaust gas, noise and fuel consumption; methods use to this end are new electric components, increase of combustion pressure, injection pressure and increase of the number of nozzle holes.

  17. Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The transportation sector is responsible for a great percentage of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the energy consumption in the world. Canada is the second major emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. The need for alternative fuels, other than petroleum, and the need to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions are the main reasons behind this study. In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. The data collected from the literature shows that the energy consumption for the production of 1 kg of aluminum is five times higher than that of 1 kg of steel, although higher aluminum content makes vehicles lightweight and more energy efficient during the vehicle use stage. Greenhouse gas regulated emissions and energy use in transportation (GREET) software has been used to analyze the fuel life cycle. The life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting, and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that the use of coal to obtain hydrogen generates the highest emissions and consumes the highest energy. Comparing the overall life cycle of an ICEV and a FCV, the total emissions of an FCV are 49% lower than an ICEV and the energy consumption of FCV is 87% lower than that of ICEV. Further, CO 2 emissions during the hydrogen fuel production in a central plant can be easily captured and sequestrated. The comparison carried out in this study between FCV and ICEV is extended to

  18. An algorithm on simultaneous optimization of performance and mass parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M. A.; Mazraeshahi, H. K.; Ramesh, D.; Montazer, E.; Salami, E.; Romli, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for the determination of optimum parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles is introduced. The parameters affecting the objective function, which is the ratio of specific impulse to gross mass of the launch vehicle, are chosen to achieve maximum specific impulse as well as minimum mass for the structure of engine, tanks, etc. The proposed algorithm uses constant integration of thrust with respect to time for launch vehicle with specific diameter and length to calculate the optimum working condition. The results by this novel algorithm are compared to those obtained from using Genetic Algorithm method and they are also validated against the results of existing launch vehicle.

  19. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  20. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  1. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  2. METHODS OF EVALUATION AND INDICATORS OF OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND VEHICLES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Volkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of forming methods of determination and system, as a part of the computer-integrated technology of transport operation, estimation of indecies of the optimal temperature state of the ICE and the vehicle under operation conditions, which is provided with the help of analysis of possible schemes and processes of the complex system of combined heating, using the technology of heat accumulation are described.

  3. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  4. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    reasonable yield within this decade. Similarly, the permanent magnet motors , which are desirable for traction due to their high efficiency, must also be...degrees C and 180 degrees C (RDECOM Public Affairs 2014). Current electric drive vehicles, using permanent magnet motors , have thermal limitations well...performance and their good efficiency, benefits particularly applicable to permanent magnet motors . Synchronous motors with permanent magnets, in

  5. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.

  6. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  7. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  8. Inclusion bodies as potential vehicles for recombinant protein delivery into epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We present the potential of inclusion bodies (IBs) as a protein delivery method for polymeric filamentous proteins. We used as cell factory a strain of E. coli, a conventional host organism, and keratin 14 (K14) as an example of a complex protein. Keratins build the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of all epithelial cells. In order to build filaments, monomeric K14 needs first to dimerize with its binding partner (keratin 5, K5), which is then followed by heterodimer assembly into filaments. Results K14 IBs were electroporated into SW13 cells grown in culture together with a “reporter” plasmid containing EYFP labeled keratin 5 (K5) cDNA. As SW13 cells do not normally express keratins, and keratin filaments are built exclusively of keratin heterodimers (i.e. K5/K14), the short filamentous structures we obtained in this study can only be the result of: a) if both IBs and plasmid DNA are transfected simultaneously into the cell(s); b) once inside the cells, K14 protein is being released from IBs; c) released K14 is functional, able to form heterodimers with EYFP-K5. Conclusions Soluble IBs may be also developed for complex cytoskeletal proteins and used as nanoparticles for their delivery into epithelial cells. PMID:22624805

  9. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  11. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  12. Probabilistic Load-Flow Analysis of Biomass-Fuelled Gas Engines with Electrical Vehicles in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeding biomass-fueled gas engines (BFGEs with olive tree pruning residues offers new opportunities to decrease fossil fuel use in road vehicles and electricity generation. BFGEs, coupled to radial distribution systems (RDSs, provide renewable energy and power that can feed electric vehicle (EV charging stations. However, the combined impact of BFGEs and EVs on RDSs must be assessed to assure the technical constraint fulfilment. Because of the stochastic nature of source/load, it was decided that a probabilistic approach was the most viable option for this assessment. Consequently, this research developed an analytical technique to evaluate the technical constraint fulfilment in RDSs with this combined interaction. The proposed analytical technique (PAT involved the calculation of cumulants and the linearization of load-flow equations, along with the application of the cumulant method, and Cornish-Fisher expansion. The uncertainties related to biomass stock and its heating value (HV were important factors that were assessed for the first time. Application of the PAT in a Spanish RDS with BFGEs and EVs confirmed the feasibility of the proposal and its additional benefits. Specifically, BFGEs were found to clearly contribute to the voltage constraint fulfilment. The computational cost of the PAT was lower than that associated with Monte-Carlo simulations (MCSs.

  13. Integrated systems and modules for engine cooling and vehicle air-conditioning; Integrierte Systeme und Module zur Motorkuehlung und Innenraumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, M.; Kern, J.; Kampf, H. [Behr GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The high level of function and quality achieved today in modern vehicles cannot be simply increased by the isolated development of advanced single components alone. By contrast, the holistic optimization of systems opens up new potential. Modern cooling modules and integrated HVAC systems by Behr GmbH and Co. combine several components to form a single compact module whose integrated parts are perfectly matched to each other. Developing complete cockpits at such a high level of integration is another step towards advancing the system concept. Understanding a holistic system allows engineers to develop concepts for an efficient thermal management in the cooling system and to improve ecological compatibility of the vehicle air-conditioning system by using suitable simulation tools. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gesamtheitliche Optimierung von Systemen eroeffnet neue Potentiale in der Automobilentwicklung. Moderne Kuehlmodule und integrierte Heiz-/Klimageraete der Behr GmbH and Co. fassen zahlreiche Komponenten zu einem kompakten Modul zusammen, dessen Einzelteile aufeinander abgestimmt sind. Die Entwicklung vollstaendiger Cockpits mit einem hohen Integrationsgrad fuehrt den Systemgedanken konsequent weiter. Das Verstaendnis des gesamten Systems erlaubt im Verbund mit geeigneten Simulationswerkzeugen die Entwicklung von Konzepten fuer ein effizientes Thermomanagement im Kuehlsystem und fuer die Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Kaelteanlage. (orig.)

  14. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... section 209 proceeding is to: Consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... regulations also set forth in- use performance standards applicable to non-new yard and non-yard trucks. To...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 85 - Vehicle and Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibrations. V. Injection System. 1. Control parameters and.... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibration. IV. Ignition System. 1. Control parameters and... calibrations. 2. Component calibrations. c. heavy duty diesel engine parameters and specifications I. Basic...

  16. 76 FR 68260 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...), Ignition Node Module (IGNM), Engine Control Module (ECM), Body Controller Module (BCM), Sentry Key... and immobilize the vehicle after two seconds of running. This process is also similar for the keyless...

  17. Development II of ion current combustion control system. Application to the lean burn system of the micro vehicle engine; Ion denryu wo mochiita nensho seigyo system no kaihatsu. 2. Keijidosha engine wo mochiita lean burn eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T; Asano, M; Kajitani, M; Kuma, t; Morinaga, Y [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The lean bum engine has not been introduced into the micro vehicle so far because of the low cost requirement and small displacement, in spite of it is one of the effective solutions which increase the fuel economy. By the way, we had already reported in the former paper that we developed the ion current combustion control system the architecture of which is cheaper than the other system. In this paper, we described the way how the above system is applied to the lean burn system of the micro vehicle engine and also we reported the gain of fuel economy and the exhaust emission level. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph

    CERN Document Server

    Lardier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Soyuz launch vehicle has had a long and illustrious history. Built as the world's first intercontinental missile, it took the first man into space in April 1961, before becoming the workhorse of Russian spaceflight, launching satellites, interplanetary probes, every cosmonaut from Gagarin onwards, and, now, the multinational crews of the International Space Station. This remarkable book gives a complete and accurate description of the two lives of Soyuz, chronicling the cooperative space endeavor of Europe and Russia. First, it takes us back to the early days of astronautics, when technology served politics. From archives found in the Soviet Union the authors describe the difficulty of designing a rocket in the immediate post-war period. Then, in Soyuz's golden age, it launched numerous scientific missions and manned flights which were publicized worldwide while the many more numerous military missions were kept highly confidential! The second part of the book tells the contemporary story of the second li...

  19. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A design study of a novel space transportation concept called NIMF (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel) is reported. In this concept, Martian CO2 gas, which constitutes 95 percent of the atmosphere, is liquified by simple compression to about 100 psi and remains stable without refrigeration. When heated and exhausted out of a rocket nozzle, a specific impulse of about 264 s can be achieved, sufficient for flights from the surface to highly energetic orbits or from one point on the surface to any other point. The propellant acquisition system can travel with the vehicle, allowing it to refuel itself each time it lands. The concept offers unequalled potential to achieve planetwide mobility, allowing complete global access for the exploration of Mars. By eliminating the necessity of transporting ascent propellant to Mars, the NIMF can also significantly reduce the initial mass in LEO and of a manned Mars mission.

  20. Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.

  1. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT.

  2. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Gen; Liu Wanhua

    2008-01-01

    The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. ...

  3. The analysis of results received from the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of results and influence of specified factors on the concentration of pollutants on the crossroads with chosen characteristic conditions has been made, on the basis of the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments. (author)

  4. Patch esophagoplasty using an in-body-tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroomi; Umeda, Satoshi; Takama, Yuichi; Terasawa, Takeshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2018-02-01

    Although many approaches to esophageal replacement have been investigated, these efforts have thus far only met limited success. In-body-tissue-engineered connective tissue tubes have been reported to be effective as vascular replacement grafts. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of an In-body-tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membrane, "Biosheet", as a novel esophageal scaffold in a beagle model. We prepared Biosheets by embedding specially designed molds into subcutaneous pouches in beagles. After 1-2months, the molds, which were filled with ingrown connective tissues, were harvested. Rectangular-shaped Biosheets (10×20mm) were then implanted to replace defects of the same size that had been created in the cervical esophagus of the beagle. An endoscopic evaluation was performed at 4 and 12weeks after implantation. The esophagus was harvested and subjected to a histological evaluation at 4 (n=2) and 12weeks (n=2) after implantation. The animal study protocols were approved by the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre Research Institute Committee (No. 16048). The Biosheets showed sufficient strength and flexibility to replace the esophagus defect. All animals survived with full oral feeding during the study period. No anastomotic leakage was observed. An endoscopic study at 4 and 12weeks after implantation revealed that the anastomotic sites and the internal surface of the Biosheets were smooth, without stenosis. A histological analysis at 4weeks after implantation demonstrated that stratified squamous epithelium was regenerated on the internal surface of the Biosheets. A histological analysis at 12weeks after implantation showed the regeneration of muscle tissue in the implanted Biosheets. The long-term results of patch esophagoplasty using Biosheets showed regeneration of stratified squamous epithelium and muscular tissues in the implanted sheets. These results suggest that Biosheets may be useful as a novel esophageal

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P; Lanyon, B P; Hauke, P; Hempel, C; Zoller, P; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2014-07-10

    The key to explaining and controlling a range of quantum phenomena is to study how information propagates around many-body systems. Quantum dynamics can be described by particle-like carriers of information that emerge in the collective behaviour of the underlying system, the so-called quasiparticles. These elementary excitations are predicted to distribute quantum information in a fashion determined by the system's interactions. Here we report quasiparticle dynamics observed in a quantum many-body system of trapped atomic ions. First, we observe the entanglement distributed by quasiparticles as they trace out light-cone-like wavefronts. Second, using the ability to tune the interaction range in our system, we observe information propagation in an experimental regime where the effective-light-cone picture does not apply. Our results will enable experimental studies of a range of quantum phenomena, including transport, thermalization, localization and entanglement growth, and represent a first step towards a new quantum-optic regime of engineered quasiparticles with tunable nonlinear interactions.

  7. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  8. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze earlier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  9. Prehistory and state of catalytic exhaust gas detoxification of vehicle engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischinger, F

    1985-01-01

    The application of catalyst techniques to exhaust gas detoxification of car engines has a prehistory of about 60 years. There were important attempts at further development in the 1940's and 1950's in connection with efforts to comply with the legal measures in California caused by the smog problem in Los Angeles. The technical difficulties had been overcome by the mid-1970's, so that catalytic converters could be introduced into mass production of cars in the USA. Their function was first mainly limited to oxidation of noxious substances in the exhaust gas. Catalysts were first used to reduce nitrogen oxide emission in 1977. The 3 way catalyst now used in mass production in the USA permits the simultaneous reduction of all three important types of noxious substances emitted from petrol engines. In order to ensure the most favourable composition of the exhaust gas for this purpose, the 3 way catalyst is combined with electronic control of the formation of the mixture. The catalytic converter for cars represents by far the most economically important industrial application of catalyst techniques today. There is not other alternative for achieving the low emission of noxious substances which can be reached by this technique. (HW).

  10. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application to the structural health assessment of large civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Carlo A.; Rabuffetti, Angelo S.; Chiarelli, Gian P.; Brambilla, Giovanni; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the structural assessment of an existing Thermal Power Plant (TPP) located near Pristina, focusing on the cooling tower and the flue gas stack, which are the main structures of the TPP. Scope of the work was the evaluation of the actual conditions of the structures and to identify the eventual repair measures in order to guarantee a safe and reliable operation of the TPP in view of the extension of its operational lifetime for the next 30 years. With this aim, a sequence of different activities was performed, like: a topographic survey to compare the actual geometrical configuration with the design one, an investigation of the material properties, an in depth visual inspection in order to detect any visible existing damage. Due to the very high elevations of the constructions and to the lack of appropriate structures aimed to their inspections and maintenance, this activity could not be performed without using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This resulted the safest, most economical and less time-consuming solution identified to map the surface damage in the reinforced concrete elements of these large structures including zones that could not be inspected because out of reach by other means.

  11. Bio ethanol use in light vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches vehicles emissions and air quality, Unite States context, Brazilian context, bio ethanol impact on engine emissions, bioethanol and engine technologies for emission control, bioethanol impact on engine emissions, flex-fuel vehicles, impact of bioethanol use in light vehicles, evolution perspectives for light vehicles: energy issues, and hybrid vehicles.

  12. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-01

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver’s seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm. (paper)

  13. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-07

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver's seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm.

  14. Development and analysis of a variable position thermostat for smart cooling system of a light duty diesel vehicles and engine emissions assessment during NEDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Eid S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of the variable position electromagnetic thermostat in MCS is proposed. • A series of experiments were conducted on a light duty diesel vehicle operated over the NEDC test. • A comparative study was done on emission characteristics of the MCS and the conventional cooling system. • Engine cold start and steady-state coolant flow rate and emissions are presented. • The effect of MCS on engine accumulation FC and emissions over NEDC are evaluated. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Smart cooling control systems for IC engines can better regulate the combustion process and heat, a variable position thermostat and electric coolant pumps (EWP) for IC engines are under development by a number of researchers. However, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of a variable position electromagnetic thermostat (VPEMT) to provide more flexible control of the engine temperature and coolant mass flow rate of modification cooling system (MCS). The measurement procedure was applied to two phases under new European drive cycle (NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer, with conventional cooling system (baseline engine) and MCS of a light duty diesel engine. The experimental results revealed that MCS using a VPEMT and EWP contributed to a reduction of engine warm-up period. As a consequence, important reduces in coolant flow rate and most exhaust emission compounds (THC, CO_2, CO and smoke opacity) were obtained. In contrast, NOx emission was observed to increase in these conditions. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds during a cold start and engine fully warm-up tests when the engine was equipped by conventional cooling system and MCS operation under NEDC, revealing the effect of MCS on engine fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

  15. Calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension for the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis vulgaris on the body: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Alan; Gold, Linda Stein; Bukhalo, Michael; Grekin, Steven; Kempers, Steven; Boyce, Brent M; Ganslandt, Cecilia; Villumsen, John; Lebwohl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A combination topical suspension/gel containing calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate has been developed as a safe and effective treatment for patients with psoriasis vulgaris of the scalp. This same preparation has the potential to be a convenient, effective, and cosmetically appealing formulation for psoriasis on the body. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topical suspension containing calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate compared with its constituent components and topical suspension vehicle in the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis on the trunk and limbs. This was a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, 4-arm trial in 1,152 subjects. The co-primary efficacy end points were the proportion of subjects achieving controlled disease based on the Investigators' Global Assessment of disease severity at weeks 4 and 8. Adverse events, vital signs, and clinical laboratory measurements were also assessed. At week 4, a greater proportion of subjects in the calcipotriene plus betamethasone group achieved controlled disease compared with subjects in the calcipotriene-only and vehicle-only treatment groups. At week 8, a statistically significantly (Psuspension containing calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate traditionally used for scalp psoriasis is also a safe and effective once-daily treatment for psoriasis vulgaris on the body.

  16. Health Effects of Long-term Occupational Exposure to Whole Body Vibration: A Study on Drivers of Heavy Motor Vehicles in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuod Neghab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drivers of heavy motor vehicles are occupationally exposed to intense whole body vibration (WBV for several hours per day over their working lifetime. Therefore, they are at risk of WBV-induced occupational disorders. This study aimed to investigate health effects of long-term exposure to whole body vibration among a group of heavy vehicle drivers in Fars province, southwestern Iran. Methods: Data on vibration-induced health effects were gathered through a checklist specifically devised for this purpose, interview and medical records of 155 male heavy vehicle drivers as well as 70 referent subjects. Signs and symptoms were classified into 6 categories of neuropsychological, gastrointestinal, ocular, auditory and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Results: Symptoms such as neuropsychological, musculoskeletal, metabolic, visual and hearing disorders were significantly more prevalent among drivers than in referent individuals. Additionally, logistic regression analysis revealed that there were statistically significant associations between exposure to WBV and several outcomes. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that longterm occupational exposure to WBV is a risk factor for neuropsychological, musculoskeletal, metabolic, visual and hearing disorders.

  17. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... ``data driven'' emission measurement allowances through a comprehensive research, development, and... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  18. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  19. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankuan Zhu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation.Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study.Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  1. Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Compression Ignition Vehicles: An Experimental Investigation of Solar Alkaline Water Electrolysis for Improving Diesel Combustion and a Solar Charging System for Reducing Auxiliary Engine Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Garry Inocentes

    Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic electricity can be applied towards aspiration of hydrogen-oxygen-steam gas produced through alkaline electrolysis and reductions in auxiliary alternator load for reducing hydrocarbon emissions in low nitrogen oxide indirect-injection compression-ignition engines. Aspiration of 0.516 ± 0.007 liters-per-minute of gas produced through alkaline electrolysis of potassium-hydroxide 2wt.% improves full-load performance; however, part-load performance decreases due to auto-ignition of aspirated gas prior to top-dead center. Alternator load reductions offer improved part-load and full-load performance with practical limitations resulting from accessory electrical loads. In an additive approach, solar electrolysis can electrochemically convert solar photovoltaic electricity into a gas comprised of stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen gas. Aspiration of this hydrogen-oxygen gas enhances combustion properties decreasing emissions and increased combustion efficiency in light-duty diesel vehicles. The 316L stainless steel (SS) electrolyser plates are arranged with two anodes and three cathodes space with four bipolar plates delineating four stacks in parallel with five cells per stack. The electrolyser was tested using potassium hydroxide 2 wt.% and hydronium 3wt.% at measured voltage and current inputs. The flow rate output from the reservoir cell was measured in parallel with the V and I inputs producing a regression model correlating current input to flow rate. KOH 2 wt.% produced 0.005 LPM/W, while H9O44 3 wt.% produced less at 0.00126 LPM/W. In a subtractive approach, solar energy can be used to charge a larger energy storage device, as is with plug-in electric vehicles, in order to alleviate the engine of the mechanical load placed upon it by the vehicles electrical accessories through the alternator. Solar electrolysis can improve part-load emissions and full-load performance. The average solar-to-battery efficiency based on the OEM rated

  2. The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Orton, Nichole Ritchie; Gruber, Rebekah; Rupp, Jonathan; Scherer, Risa; Reed, Matthew; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-08-18

    Although advanced restraint systems, such as seat belt pretensioners and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety-including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear-that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant. The models must, however, be validated against physical tests before implementation. The objective of this study was therefore to provide the data necessary for FE model validation by conducting sled tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). A secondary objective of this test series was to examine the influence of occupant body size (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male), military gear (helmet/vest/tactical assault panels), seat belt type (3-point and 5-point), and advanced seat belt technologies (pretensioner and load limiter) on occupant kinematics and injury risk in frontal crashes. In total, 20 frontal sled tests were conducted using a custom sled buck that was reconfigurable to represent both the driver and passenger compartments of a light tactical military vehicle. Tests were performed at a delta-V of 30 mph and a peak acceleration of 25 g. The sled tests used the Hybrid III 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male ATDs outfitted with standard combat boots and advanced combat helmets. In some tests, the ATDs were outfitted with additional military gear, which included an improved outer tactical vest (IOTV), IOTV and squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner with a tactical assault panel (TAP), or IOTV and rifleman with

  3. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  4. A method and instruments to identify the torque, the power and the efficiency of an internal combustion engine of a wheeled vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. V.; Kozlov, K. E.; Belogusev, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method and instruments to identify the torque, the power, and the efficiency of internal combustion engines in transient conditions. This method, in contrast to the commonly used non-demounting methods based on inertia and strain gauge dynamometers, allows controlling the main performance parameters of internal combustion engines in transient conditions without inaccuracy connected with the torque loss due to its transfer to the driving wheels, on which the torque is measured with existing methods. In addition, the proposed method is easy to create, and it does not use strain measurement instruments, the application of which does not allow identifying the variable values of the measured parameters with high measurement rate; and therefore the use of them leads to the impossibility of taking into account the actual parameters when engineering the wheeled vehicles. Thus the use of this method can greatly improve the measurement accuracy and reduce costs and laboriousness during testing of internal combustion engines. The results of experiments showed the applicability of the proposed method for identification of the internal combustion engines performance parameters. In this paper, it was determined the most preferred transmission ratio when using the proposed method.

  5. 41 CFR 101-45.003 - Vehicle reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle designed primarily for highway use that is to be disposed of through surplus or exchange/sale...) For the trunk— (i) Wash interior surface; and (ii) Spray-dye mats. (3) For the engine compartment— (i... color if scrapes, dings, etc., are excessive; (vii) Repair minor body damage; (viii) Apply decorative...

  6. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  7. Preparing and probing many-body correlated systems in a Quantum Gas Microscope by engineering arbitrary landscape potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, M. Eric; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool box for observing the emergence of strongly correlated physics in quantum systems. Dynamic control of optical potentials on the single-site level allows us to prepare and probe many-body quantum states through local Hamiltonian engineering. We achieve these high precision levels of optical control through spatial light modulation with a DMD (digital micro-mirror device). This allows for both arbitrary beam shaping and aberration compensation in our imaging system to produce high fidelity optical potentials. We use these techniques to control state initialization, Hamiltonian dynamics, and measurement in experiments investigating low-dimensional many-body physics - from one-dimensional correlated quantum walks to characterizing entanglement.

  8. Tailoring the foreign body response for in situ vascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuizen, T.C.; Damanik, Febriyani; Anderson, J.; Lavrijsen, T.; Cox, M.A.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a screening platform for a guided in situ vascular tissue engineering approach. Polymer rods were developed that upon 3 weeks of subcutaneous implantation evoke a controlled inflammatory response culminating in encapsulation by a tube-shaped autologous fibrocellular tissue

  9. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  10. Definition and verification of a set of reusable reference architectures for hybrid vehicle development

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Cian

    2012-01-01

    Current concerns regarding climate change and energy security have resulted in an increasing demand for low carbon vehicles, including: more efficient internal combustion engine vehicles, alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Unlike traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles contain a m...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.310 - How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines, randomly select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model... distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission... sample size for the model year as described in paragraph (c) of this section. (3) In the first test...

  12. Thermodynamics of the vehicle. 2. ed.; Thermodynamik des Kraftfahrzeugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The vehicle is characterized by thermodynamic processes at almost all levels: Drive systems (from internal combustion engines and hybrids to electric motors with fuel cells), charging, cooling and heating circuits, air conditioners, aerodynamics of the vehicle body, damper systems, fuel injection systems, exhaust systems, brakes, tires. However, due to an enhanced complexity and phenomenological approach the thermodynamics is a challenge for engineers. This book under considerations combines the theoretical principles and their mathematical presentation with applications in the automotive technology. Numerous specific examples facilitate the understanding and practical application of the basic knowledge. In addition to corrections and updates, the new edition under consideration contains more practical exercises and in-depth questions.

  13. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  14. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  15. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    KAUST Repository

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolò ; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain

  16. Design and Performance Evaluation of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless Engine Valve Actuator for Future Vehicle Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun; Cho, Kwanghyun; Park, Sang-Shin; Choi, Seibum B

    2017-12-18

    This paper details the new design and dynamic simulation of an electro-hydraulic camless engine valve actuator (EH-CEVA) and experimental verification with lift position sensors. In general, camless engine technologies have been known for improving fuel efficiency, enhancing power output, and reducing emissions of internal combustion engines. Electro-hydraulic valve actuators are used to eliminate the camshaft of an existing internal combustion engines and used to control the valve timing and valve duration independently. This paper presents novel electro-hydraulic actuator design, dynamic simulations, and analysis based on design specifications required to satisfy the operation performances. An EH-CEVA has initially been designed and modeled by means of a powerful hydraulic simulation software, AMESim, which is useful for the dynamic simulations and analysis of hydraulic systems. Fundamental functions and performances of the EH-CEVA have been validated through comparisons with experimental results obtained in a prototype test bench.

  17. Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapour and Vehicle Engine Exhaust Gases Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Cheng, P.; Španěl, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2002), s. 1124-1134 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT-MS * petrol * vehicle exhaust gas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2002

  18. Engineering development of avian influenza virus detection system in a patient's body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Santoso; Romadhon; Sukandar; Istofa

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus detection equipment in a patient's body has been made. Currently, detection of avian influenza virus carried out by expensive laboratory equipment's, so only certain hospitals can perform this detection. This developing equipment is expected to be cheaper than existing equipment and the diagnosis can be known immediately. The sensing device is made using the principle of nuclear radiation detection. Radiation comes from a drunk labelled tamiflu (oseltamivir) which is drunk to the patient. Tamiflu is a drug to catch, H5N1 viruses in a patient's body. A labelled tamiflu is tamiflu which is labelled by I-131 radioisotopes. The presence of virus in the body is proportional to the amount of radiation captured by the detector. The equipment is composed of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) pancake detector type, a signal processor, a counter, and a data processor (computer). The GM detector converts the radiation that comes into electrical signals. Electrical signal is then converted into TTL level pulses by the signal processor. Pulse counting results are processed by data processor. The total count is proportional to the amount of virus captured by labelled tamiflu. The measurement threshold can be set by medical officer through software. At a certain threshold can be inferred identified patients infected with avian influenza virus. If the measurement below the threshold means that the patient is still within safe limits. This equipment is expected to create avian influenza virus detection system that cheaply and quickly so that more and more hospitals are using to detect the avian influenza virus. (author)

  19. Engineering of avian influenza virus detection system in a patient's body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Santoso; Romadhon; Sukandar, Istofa

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus detection equipment in a patient's body has been made. Currently, detection of avian influenza virus carried out by expensive laboratory equipment's, so only certain hospitals can perform this detection. This developing equipment is expected to be cheaper than existing equipment and the diagnosis can be known immediately. The sensing device is made using the principle of nuclear radiation detection. Radiation comes from a drunk labelled tamiflu (oseltamivir) which is drunk to the patient. Tamiflu is a drug to catch H5N1 viruses in a patient's body. A labelled tamiflu is tamiflu which is labelled by 1-131 radioisotopes. The presence of virus in the body is proportional to the amount of radiation captured by the detector. The equipment is composed of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) pancake detector type, a signal processor, a counter, and a data processor (computer). The GM detector converts the radiation that comes into electrical signals. Electrical signal is then converted into TTL level pulses by the signal processor. Pulse counting results are processed by data processor. The total count is proportional to the amount of virus captured by labelled tamiflu. The measurement threshold can be set by medical officer through software. At a certain threshold can be inferred identified patients infected with avian influenza virus. If the measurement below the threshold means that the patient is still within safe limits. This equipment is expected to create avian influenza virus detection system that cheaply and quickly so that more and more hospitals are using to detect the avian influenza virus. (author)

  20. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    KAUST Repository

    Delaine, David A.

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student participation in engineering education (EE). SPEED is a global, non-profit student organisation that functions as an interdisciplinary network to diversify dialogue, stimulate change and impact the development of EE and its effect on society. SPEED is directly attracting young people to engineering in various ways: the organisation of its keynote event, the Global Student Forum; facilitating interactions between globally minded, socially inclined engineers with aspirations to change the world; and through the global dissemination of SPEED\\'s work and practices through broad and relevant channels. Short-term outcomes are highlighted here. This case study can serve as a model for student engagement and involvement in other disciplines. © 2010 SEFI.

  1. An examination of vehicles at the brake-chassis test bed in the range of the partial engine load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł MARZEC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a ZI engine is presented in the paper, as well as a project involving a device for applying a partial load in the performed examinations of a brakechassis test bed. The device was prepared for an Opel Astra and enabled the determination of exterior characteristics of the engine for different values of the engine load. The indicating pressure sensor and the angle marker on the crankshaft allowed for the recording of the indicating pressure obtained at different values of the load. The analysis of heat evolution in the process of burning, based on the registered results of the measurements at the brake-chassis test bed, has also been included in the presentation.

  2. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

    2002-01-01

    of yield strength. The analysis of the performed work showed good prospects of using the alluminium-magnesium alloys with increased mechanical characteristics for making body elements of propellant tanks of the Zenit -2S launch vehicles. The use of these alloys can give the increase of structural strength by 20-30% and considerable increase of payload weight.

  3. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  4. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  5. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shisuo; Lockamy, Virginia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zhou, Lin [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Xue, Christine; LeBlanc, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Glenn, Shonna [Xstrahl, Inc, Suwanee, Georgia (United States); Shukla, Gaurav; Yu, Yan; Dicker, Adam P.; Leeper, Dennis B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lu, You [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To implement clinical stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A murine model of multinodular Kras-driven spontaneous lung tumors was used for this study. High-resolution cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was used to identify and target peripheral tumor nodules, whereas off-target lung nodules in the contralateral lung were used as a nonirradiated control. CBCT imaging helps localize tumors, facilitate high-precision irradiation, and monitor tumor growth. SBRT planning, prescription dose, and dose limits to normal tissue followed the guidelines set by RTOG protocols. Pathologic changes in the irradiated tumors were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Results: The image guided radiation delivery using the SARRP system effectively localized and treated lung cancer with precision in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer. Immunohistochemical data confirmed the precise delivery of SBRT to the targeted lung nodules. The 60 Gy delivered in 3 weekly fractions markedly reduced the proliferation index, Ki-67, and increased apoptosis per staining for cleaved caspase-3 in irradiated lung nodules. Conclusions: It is feasible to use the SARRP platform to perform dosimetric planning and delivery of SBRT in mice with lung cancer. This allows for preclinical studies that provide a rationale for clinical trials involving SBRT, especially when combined with immunotherapeutics.

  6. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may instead include the full corporate name and... corporate name, address, and telephone number. (ii) List the engine or equipment models you expect to... valid certificate of conformity issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the...

  7. Surface engineering of macrophages with nanoparticles to generate a cell-nanoparticle hybrid vehicle for hypoxia-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Christopher A; Yuan, Quan; Yeudall, W Andrew; Lebman, Deborah A; Yang, Hu

    2010-02-02

    Tumors frequently contain hypoxic regions that result from a shortage of oxygen due to poorly organized tumor vasculature. Cancer cells in these areas are resistant to radiation- and chemotherapy, limiting the treatment efficacy. Macrophages have inherent hypoxia-targeting ability and hold great advantages for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics to cancer cells in hypoxic areas. However, most anticancer drugs cannot be directly loaded into macrophages because of their toxicity. In this work, we designed a novel drug delivery vehicle by hybridizing macrophages with nanoparticles through cell surface modification. Nanoparticles immobilized on the cell surface provide numerous new sites for anticancer drug loading, hence potentially minimizing the toxic effect of anticancer drugs on the viability and hypoxia-targeting ability of the macrophage vehicles. In particular, quantum dots and 5-(aminoacetamido) fluorescein-labeled polyamidoamine dendrimer G4.5, both of which were coated with amine-derivatized polyethylene glycol, were immobilized to the sodium periodate-treated surface of RAW264.7 macrophages through a transient Schiff base linkage. Further, a reducing agent, sodium cyanoborohydride, was applied to reduce Schiff bases to stable secondary amine linkages. The distribution of nanoparticles on the cell surface was confirmed by fluorescence imaging, and it was found to be dependent on the stability of the linkages coupling nanoparticles to the cell surface.

  8. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  9. Economical vehicle body in white concepts of series production. A holistic approach to technology trends under the aspect of the climate debate; Wirtschaftliche Fahrzeugleichtbaukonzepte grosser Baureihen. Ein holistischer Ansatz zu Technologietrends im Rahmen der Klimadebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Peter L.M. [MBtech Consulting GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany). Bereich ' Innovations- und Technologiemanagement' ; Gaenzle, Steffen [MBtech Consulting GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany). Lean Development and Launch Consulting

    2009-07-01

    Automotive light weight construction does not only mean to choose light weight materials. It is also an integrated concept and therefore the consideration of interactions for whole chain of vehicle development is required. The inter-dependencies and demands of raw material suppliers, fabricators, system suppliers and vehicle manufacturers will be outlined. An insight into the most important trends of automotive body in white construction methods, material concepts, joining technologies on a holistic system overview will be given. Approaches of an economic implementation through build up of system alliances between OEM/suppliers and refinancing of development costs during generation programs will be pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  11. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  12. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  13. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail: expmotor@fiat.com.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  14. 78 FR 53500 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Radio Frequency Hub Module (RFHM), Ignition Node Module (IGNM), Engine Control Module, Body Controller...) transceiver and a microprocessor and it initiates the ignition process by communicating with the BCM through... vehicles, the RFHM is connected to a Keyless Ignition Node (KIN) with a START/STOP push button as an...

  15. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  16. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  17. Uncertainty Propagation in Hypersonic Vehicle Aerothermoelastic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorte, Nicolas Etienne

    Hypersonic vehicles face a challenging flight environment. The aerothermoelastic analysis of its components requires numerous simplifying approximations. Identifying and quantifying the effect of uncertainties pushes the limits of the existing deterministic models, and is pursued in this work. An uncertainty quantification framework is used to propagate the effects of identified uncertainties on the stability margins and performance of the different systems considered. First, the aeroelastic stability of a typical section representative of a control surface on a hypersonic vehicle is examined. Variability in the uncoupled natural frequencies of the system is modeled to mimic the effect of aerodynamic heating. Next, the stability of an aerodynamically heated panel representing a component of the skin of a generic hypersonic vehicle is considered. Uncertainty in the location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the heat flux prediction is quantified using CFD. In both cases significant reductions of the stability margins are observed. A loosely coupled airframe--integrated scramjet engine is considered next. The elongated body and cowl of the engine flow path are subject to harsh aerothermodynamic loading which causes it to deform. Uncertainty associated with deformation prediction is propagated to the engine performance analysis. The cowl deformation is the main contributor to the sensitivity of the propulsion system performance. Finally, a framework for aerothermoelastic stability boundary calculation for hypersonic vehicles using CFD is developed. The usage of CFD enables one to consider different turbulence conditions, laminar or turbulent, and different models of the air mixture, in particular real gas model which accounts for dissociation of molecules at high temperature. The system is found to be sensitive to turbulence modeling as well as the location of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Real gas effects play a minor role in the

  18. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  19. Syntheses and Tribological Property of CrMoN/MoS2 Multilayer Films on Piston Rings of Heavy Vehicle Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiancheng; LI Qi; LI Ruoting; DI Yuelan

    2016-01-01

    In order to prolong the service life of piston rings of heavy vehicle engine and decrease the friction and wear of piston rings and cylinder liner, CrMoN/MoS2 multilayer iflms were deposited on the surface of rings by magnetron sputtering and low temperature ion sulfuration. FESEM equipped with EDX was adopted to analyze the compositions and morphologies of surface, cross-section, and wear scars of the multilayer iflms. The nano-hardness and Young’s modulus of the iflms were measured by a nano tester. Tribological properties of the iflms were tested by an SRV®4 wear tester. The experimental results indicate that the structures of the multilayer films are dense and compact. The films possess nano hardness value of approximately 26.7 GPa and superior ability of plastic deformation resistance. The multilayer iflms can activate solid lubricating, and possess an excellent antifriction and wear resistance under the conditions of heavy load, high frequency, high temperature, and dynamic load.

  20. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  1. Using virtual environment for autonomous vehicle algorithm validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskis, Aleksandrs

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes possible use of modern game engine for validating and proving the concept of algorithm design. As the result simple visual odometry algorithm will be provided to show the concept and go over all workflow stages. Some of stages will involve using of Kalman filter in such a way that it will estimate optical flow velocity as well as position of moving camera located at vehicle body. In particular Unreal Engine 4 game engine will be used for generating optical flow patterns and ground truth path. For optical flow determination Horn and Schunck method will be applied. As the result, it will be shown that such method can estimate position of the camera attached to vehicle with certain displacement error respect to ground truth depending on optical flow pattern. For displacement rate RMS error is calculating between estimated and actual position.

  2. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Side View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  3. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Front View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  4. X-43A Vehicle During Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  5. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  6. A Comprehensive Examination of Heavy Vehicle Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings from reviewing the literature on several topics that are related to heavy vehicle emissions including engine and fuel types, vehicle technologies that can be used to reduce or mitigate vehicle emissions, the factor...

  7. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  8. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  9. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  10. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  11. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  12. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  13. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Evaporative and Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasolineand Methanol-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Technical Amen

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1993 EPA finalized a new test procedure to measure evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The amendments modify several of the test procedure’s tolerances, equipment specifications, and procedural steps.

  14. Automotive engineering aspects of solar-powered vehicles on the example of the world-champion EMCar. Fahrzeugtechnische Aspekte von Solarautomobilen am Beispiel des Weltmeisters EMCar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, U.

    1992-11-01

    Various faculties of Darmstadt Technical University cooperated to build a solar-powered vehicle capable of running in competitions for this category. Safety, handling and efficiency considerations led to the concept of a fourwheeler with reduced rear track-width. The composite body consists of a NACA-profile containing all aggregates with an off-center canopy for the deriver. An integrated drive/rear-axle unit carriers the motor and the toothed-belt transmission. Its kinematics are designed to compensate some unwellcome effect from the narrow track-width for improved straight-line driven and concerning. Together with the double-A-arm front suspension roll in corner as well as dive and squat in braking and acceleration are reduced to near zero. Minimum overall energy consumption in straight and level driving is 2 kWh/100 km at a constant 25 km/h. In mid-day sunshine this speed can be maintained with energy from the solar generator alone. (orig./HW).

  15. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when

  16. Investigating methods for determining mismatch in near side vehicle impacts - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Kathryn; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne; Stitzel, Joel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates vehicle mismatch in severe side-impact motor vehicle collisions. Research conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has determined that vehicle mismatch often leads to very severe injuries for occupants in the struck vehicle, because the larger striking vehicle does not engage the lower sill upon impact, resulting in severe intrusions into the occupant compartment. Previous studies have analyzed mismatched collisions according to vehicle type, not by the difference in vehicle height and weight. It is hypothesized that the combination of a heavier striking vehicle at a taller height results in more intrusion for the struck vehicle and severe injury for the near side occupant. By analyzing Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) data and occupant injury severity, it is possible to study intrusion and injuries that occur due to vehicle mismatch. CIREN enrolls seriously injured occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) across the United States. From the Toyota-Wake Forest University CIREN center, 23 near side impact cases involving two vehicles were recorded. Only 3 of these seriously injured occupant cases were not considered mismatched according to vehicle curb weight, and only 2 were not considered vehicle mismatched according to height differences. The mismatched CIREN cases had an average difference in vehicle curb weight of 737.0 kg (standard deviation of 646.8) and an average difference in vehicle height of 16.38 cm (standard deviation of 7.186). There were 13 occupants with rib fractures, 12 occupants with pelvic fractures, 9 occupants with pulmonary contusion, and 5 occupants with head injuries, among other multiple injuries. The average Injury Severity Score (ISS) for these occupants was 27, with a standard deviation of 16. The most serious injuries resulted in an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 5, which included 3 occupants. Each of these AIS 5 injuries were to different body regions on different

  17. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  18. Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.

    2017-12-01

    Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.

  19. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  20. Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Systems ( JAUGS ). JAUGS is a JRP technology initiative under the cognizance of the Aviation and Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center...AMRDEC). The JAUGS focus is on developing a high-level command and control architecture for UGVs. As defined in the JRP Glossary, “ JAUGS is an upper...vehicle platforms and missions. JAUGS uses the Society of Automotive Engineers Generic Open Architecture framework to classify UGV interfaces and

  1. Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can capture the physical characteristics of high-speed flight. To overcome the analytical intractability of the model, a simplified control-oriented model of the hypersonic vehicle is presented with curve fitting approximations. The control-oriented model can not only reduce the complexity of the model, but also retain aero-flexible structure-propulsion interactions of the physics-based model and can be applied for nonlinear control.

  2. 40 CFR 1051.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.325 What happens if an engine... for an engine family if it fails under § 1051.315. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing vehicles or engines from an engine family, even if you find noncompliant vehicles or engines only...

  3. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  4. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  5. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  6. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  7. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  8. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  9. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  10. Using magnetic coils to produce periodically applied forces to maintain the high speed movement of bodies and vehicles, particularly in tubes evacuated of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    An arrangement is described in which a body is accelerated or maintained in motion along a track that passes through a number of annular electromagnet coils, the length of the body being substantially less than the distance between two adjacent coils. A series if electronmagnetically produced force pulses is applied to the body as it passes through successive coils, by the use of an automatic switch operated by the body. Control is provided so that each coil is de-energized at or before maximum magnetic flux linkage is attained between coil and body, the arrangement being such that the body is accelerated into the coil, but leaves it at a much reduced flux linkage. The possible uses of such an arrangement are mentioned: these include the acceleration of bullets, incorporating D and T in pellet form in their concave noses, to obtain a nuclear fusion reaction. (U.K.)

  11. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  12. The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Scatter from an Ensemble of Bodies with Angular Periodicity, as a Model for Jet Engine Modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cashman, John

    2001-01-01

    A rotating ensemble of bodies of arbitrary shape with angular periodicity scatters an electromagnetic wave to produce a spectrum of frequency components characteristic of the structure and its rotation...

  13. Scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by small impedance bodies of arbitrary shapes applications to creating new engineered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  15. Reduced Order Modeling for Rapid Simulations of Blast and Rollover Events of a Ground Vehicle and its Occupants Using Rigid Body Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    were developed and integrated with the vehicle hull model. Tire dimensions used in this model were (from Michelin 335/80R20): diameter – 40.7”, tread ...List of Figures Figure 2.1 Hull Parts, Materials and Thicknesses ...their thicknesses , are shown in Fig.2.1. Figure 2.1 Hull Parts, Materials and Thicknesses LS-Dyna material MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY for

  16. The Electric Vehicle Project for High School Students in Nagoya City Science Museum : As the First Step of Global Engineering Education to Create Value from Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    馬渕, 浩一; Mabuchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an account of "The Electric Vehicle Project", a science museum activity in cooperation with Nagoya Institute of Technology and major manufacturing companies. The project is intended to encourage Japanese high school students' interest in science and technology, based on Nagoya, Japan and Asia, the center of the manufacturing industries. The project contains three programs: 1) Students make practical lead acid batteries. 2) Students drive an electric vehicle of their own desig...

  17. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  18. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  19. IEA Vehicle Efficiency Workshops Drive New Vehicle Policy Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Fuel economy is not only about getting more performance from the engine. Components outside the engine are also large fuel consumers. If fuel-economy test methods always remembered that, vehicle manufacturers would optimise component performance. A number of initiatives addressing component test standards and related policies have been triggered by IEA's recent workshops.

  20. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter requested that the Inspector General (IG), DoD review the DoD procurement history for body armor and armored vehicles and determine whether officials properly followed contracting policies...

  1. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  2. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  3. Service Cart For Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  4. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  5. Man as a living bioreactor: Long-term histological aspects of a mandibular replacement engineered in the patient's own body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokat, H; Açil, Y; Gülses, A; Birkenfeld, F; Wiltfang, J

    2018-05-26

    In 2016, we reported the world's first reconstruction of a mandibular discontinuity defect using a custom-made bone transplant that had been prefabricated in the gastrocolic omentum using tissue engineering strategies. However, the tissue of an engineered human neomandible has not been evaluated histologically until now. The current study assessed the long-term histological characteristics of biopsies of the neomandible 9months after transplantation. Histological analysis showed an increased amount of vital mineralized bone tissue after 10months, in comparison to biopsies obtained earlier. The engineered bone covered the surface of the bone substitute material but also grew out typical structures of cancellous bone tissue without a core of BioOss. The amount of induced bone tissue was 32% in the biopsy. In addition, the soft tissue showed an alignment of the connective tissue fibres parallel to the trabecular bone. Increasing time and mechanical forces at the mandible led to an increased amount of mineralized tissue and remodelling of the connective tissue fibres after transplantation. Further research should focus on developing advanced scaffold materials, as the outer titanium mesh cage leads to complications. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    world settings. The implementation and qualification of these technologies addresses national objectives and improves the state of the art to advance...Gasoline Electric Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). Figure 1 shows one of the H2ICE vehicles. The H2ICE vehicles have a full hybrid system capable of...Hickam NAC National Automotive Center PACOM Pacific Command SLI Starting, Lighting, and Ignition SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TARDEC Tank Automotive Research Development, and Engineering Center

  7. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  8. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  9. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  10. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  11. Investigating the factors affecting the development of a sustainable national accreditation body for engineering and technology laboratories in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elsmuai, T

    2015-01-01

    Quality Assurance has become one of the prime factors for consideration by a customer whether a person or organisation in order to achieve highly competitive industrial activity. Within the developing countries there is limited awareness among the public regarding the role and purpose of accreditation. This constitutes a major constraint and it is one of several constraints for accreditation, specifically, in the Arab region. The primary objective of a National Accreditation Body is to enable...

  12. Space robot simulator vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  13. Trajectory planning and tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chebly , Alia

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the trajectory planning and the control of autonomous vehicles are addressed. As a first step, a multi-body modeling technique is used to develop a four wheeled vehicle planar model. This technique considers the vehicle as a robot consisting of articulated bodies. The geometric description of the vehicle system is derived using the modified Denavit Hartenberg parameterization and then the dynamic model of the vehicle is computed by applying a recursive method used in robotics,...

  14. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  15. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  16. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV VI Composite 6-9% Fuel...and eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements could be...different drive cycles were being used to evaluate vehicle performance. These cycles can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time

  17. A survey of security and privacy in connected vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Weffers, H.T.G.; Mohamad, M.M.; Wolf, M.; BenHaddou, D.; Al-Fuqaha, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle control the behavior of its devices—e.g., break and engine. They communicate through the in-vehicle network. Vehicles communicate with other vehicles and road side units (RSUs) through vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANets), with personal devices through

  18. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The vehicle...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission data vehicle selection. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.430-78 - Vehicle failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle failure. 86.430-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.430-78 Vehicle failure. Any test vehicle which incurs major mechanical failure necessitating disassembly of the engine shall not be used as a test vehicle...

  2. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  3. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  4. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  5. Prediction of dynamics of bellows in exhaust system of vehicle using equivalent beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong Dae; Lee, Nam Young; Lee, Sang Woo [Noise and vibration CAE Team, Hyundai Motor Company, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The exhaust system is one of the major sources of vibrations, along with the suspension system and engine. When the exhaust system is connected directly to the engine, it transfers vibrations to the vehicle body through the body mounts. Therefore, in order to reduce the vibrations transmitted from the exhaust system, the vibration characteristics of the exhaust system should be predicted. Thus, the dynamic characteristics of the bellows, which form a key component of the exhaust system, must be modeled accurately. However, it is difficult to model the bellows because of the complicated geometry. Though the equivalent beam modeling technique has been applied in the design stage, it is not sufficiently accurate in the case of the bellows which have complicated geometries. In this paper, we present an improved technique for modeling the bellows in a vehicle. The accuracy of the modeling method is verified by comparison with the experimental results.

  6. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  7. Assessment of body work condition by RULA method in a motor vehicle industry in order to design an effective exoskeleton system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : physical activities in occupations like handling, static and dynamic postures, sudden movements, and repetitive postures are amongst most important risk factors of Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. There are many ergonomic methods for assessing WMSDs which can be used in different cases, but these assessments and analyses can not be beneficial by themselves and should be promoted with usable, practical suggestions to improve the work condition. Such quality is brought to this research paper by first assessing ergonomic risks level, resulted by postural stresses, with special emphasis on improper postures, forces and repeating and then using these information to design assisting device called exoskeleton for improving work condition and industrial tasks.   Methods: For assessing and analyzing upper body work condition, postures in 17 different tasks were analyzed by RULA (Rapid upper limb assessment method and a set of 60 worksheets were created out of them. Also biomechanical movement observation during normal tasks was done. Then HONDA company`s exoskeleton for lower body was analyzed and some design elements were extracted from it, to design an upper body exoskeleton based on the same design language.   Results: This Research shows that none of tasks were completely acceptable, and neck, trunk and legs were more affected by improper postures. There was no meaningful difference between right and left hand conditions in overall task and posture assessment. Research also shows dominant effect of force and repeat risk factors in tasks being harmful for upper body. Analyzing HONDA company`s exoskeleton shows the likelihood of success in upper body exoskeleton for improving work conditions and minimizing WMSDs.   Conclusion: Although redistribution or regular rotation of personnel, changing and optimizing work cycles and proper training might reduce WMSDs and improve work condition, but using an assisting device

  8. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  9. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  11. Hyper-X and Pegasus Launch Vehicle: A Three-Foot Model of the Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  12. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Top Front View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  13. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  14. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Top Rear View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    , future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  15. X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  16. Hydrostatically regenerative brake system for commercial vehicles and mobil hydraulic work engines; Hydrostatisch Regeneratives Bremssystem (HRB) fuer Nutzfahrzeuge und mobile Arbeitsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliffken, Markus Gustav; Ehret, Christine; Stawiarksi, Robert [Bosch Rexroth AG, Elchingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The characteristics of the hydraulic storage system and the hydrostatically renewable brake system of Bosch Rexroth AG (Eichingen, Federal Republic of Germany) as a hydraulic hybrid system permit a fast integration in the vehicle, low costs of maintenance and high security. The system is suitable for vehicles which frequently start and brake. As a function of the operating cycle, savings of up to 25 % are possible. Additionally, the hydrostatically renewable brake system reduces the wear of brakes and provides a larger travelling comfort by eliminating interruptions of traction power. At present, the functionality of the hydrostatically renewable brake system is tested in a field test at Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). Further prototypes also are developed and tested in the U.S.A. up to the end of the year 2008.

  17. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, William

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model GVSI is a top-level analysis tool designed to support engineering tradeoff studies and vehicle design optimization efforts...

  18. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  19. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  20. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  2. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  3. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  4. Numerical calculation on infrared characteristics of the special vehicle exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Li, Xiao-xia; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    For mastery of infrared radiation characteristics and flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, first, a physical model of the special vehicle exhaust system is established with the Gambit, and the mathematical model of flow field is determined. Secondly, software Fluent6.3 is used to simulated the 3-D exterior flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, and the datum of flow field, such as temperature, pressure and density, are obtained. Thirdly, based on the plume temperature, the special vehicle exhaust space is divided. The exhaust is equivalent to a gray-body. A calculating model of the vehicle exhaust infrared radiation is established, and the exhaust infrared radiation characteristics are calculated by the software MATLAB, then the spatial distribution curves are drawn. Finally, the numerical results are analyzing, and the basic laws of the special vehicle exhaust infrared radiation are explored. The results show that with the increase of the engine speed, the temperature of the exhaust pipe wall of the special vehicle increases, and the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas flow field increase, which leads to the enhancement of the infrared radiation intensity

  5. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  6. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  7. A computer simulation of the transient response of a 4 cylinder Stirling engine with burner and air preheater in a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of computer programs are presented with full documentation which simulate the transient behavior of a modern 4 cylinder Siemens arrangement Stirling engine with burner and air preheater. Cold start, cranking, idling, acceleration through 3 gear changes and steady speed operation are simulated. Sample results and complete operating instructions are given. A full source code listing of all programs are included.

  8. Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle ICEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Chaouachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle allows fast gentle quiet and environmentally friendly movements in industrial and urban environments. The automotive industry has seen the opportunity to revive its production by replacing existing vehicles due to the reluctance of oil reserves around the world. In order to greatly reduce countries dependence on oil strategic sectors such as transport must increasingly integrate technologies based primarily on clean and renewable energy. Governments must implement large-scale measures to equip themselves with electric vehicles and build large recharge networks. The traditional system for conversions of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles consists of replacing the internal combustion engine and the gearbox with electrical components engine and gearbox or engine and gearbox retaining the rest of the elements Transmission transmission shafts etc..

  9. Eco-Test at Vehicle Testing Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the world conference on sustainable developmentof ecology, the care for the environment has to be strictlycomplied with, and this should be the task both of every individualand of the society as an organised whole. The work presentsconcrete measurements from practice and the indicators of thesituation regarding motor vehicles in Croatia. The EGO-TESThas been performed in Croatia according to the European Uniondirectives; first on the vehicles with petrol engines. Now, it isstarting to be applied on the vehicles with Diesel engines as well.Compliance with the EGO TEST regarding motor vehicles inCroatia will take into consideration the guidelines provided bythe European Union and thus reduce the harm from exhaustgases and noise pollution, and increase the possibility of usingmotor vehicles in order to reduce the danger and increase thesafety on the roads by excluding old vehicles from traffic.

  10. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  11. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For the...

  12. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  13. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  14. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  15. Acquisition of the Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The platform for the AMEV is an upgraded M2A0 Bradley Fighting Vehicle variant, which has the turret removed, the roof squared off and raised 13 inches, a 600 horsepower engine, and additional armor...

  16. Societal megatrends and trends in vehicle technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Duysinx, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The confrence enviions the future trends in automotive technologies at the light of societal megatrends. Different emerging technologies for the vehicle powertrain are envisionned for the next decade: piston engines with natural gas, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells systems. In addition one must also consider the arrival of autonomous driving and of the race for lightweight design of cars.

  17. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  18. Systems Engineering of Unmanned DoD Systems: Following the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System/Defense Acquisition System Process to Develop an Unmanned Ground Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Manual D-A-1). APAs are “Performance attributes of a system not important enough to be considered KPPs or KSAs, but still appropriate to include in...the CDD or CPD are designated as APAs ” (JCIDS Manual D-A-1). The requirements are expressed using Thresholds (T) and Objectives (O). “Performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is

  19. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  20. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  1. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  4. Fuel cell usage in motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellone, R.

    1998-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused by fuel cell usage in motor vehicles, since this technology seems to overcome the conventional limits by other kinds of drive, i.e. the high environmental impact of internal-combustion engines and the drawbacks of electric battery vehicles in terms of maximum operating range and battery recharge time. After 2010 its costs are expected to fall in competitive levels with internal-combustion engines [it

  5. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  6. A prospective assessment of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a synthetic version of a cost-benefit analysis study of the development of electric vehicles (all-electric vehicles and hybrid-re-chargeable vehicles) by 2020. The authors have assessed the replacement of a conventional thermal engine vehicle by an electric vehicle. They comment the results obtained for the both types of electric vehicle. They outline that costs of ownership of electric vehicles are higher in 2010 but become competitive in 2020, and that environmental benefits are already present in 2010 but depend on the electricity production mode. They observe that some other environmental impacts are not taken into account, outline that a recharge station network has to be developed, and discuss the cost of this infrastructure

  7. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Tensor contraction engine: Abstraction and automated parallel implementation of configuration-interaction, coupled-cluster, and many-body perturbation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So

    2003-01-01

    We develop a symbolic manipulation program and program generator (Tensor Contraction Engine or TCE) that automatically derives the working equations of a well-defined model of second-quantized many-electron theories and synthesizes efficient parallel computer programs on the basis of these equations. Provided an ansatz of a many-electron theory model, TCE performs valid contractions of creation and annihilation operators according to Wick's theorem, consolidates identical terms, and reduces the expressions into the form of multiple tensor contractions acted by permutation operators. Subsequently, it determines the binary contraction order for each multiple tensor contraction with the minimal operation and memory cost, factorizes common binary contractions (defines intermediate tensors), and identifies reusable intermediates. The resulting ordered list of binary tensor contractions, additions, and index permutations is translated into an optimized program that is combined with the NWChem and UTChem computational chemistry software packages. The programs synthesized by TCE take advantage of spin symmetry, Abelian point-group symmetry, and index permutation symmetry at every stage of calculations to minimize the number of arithmetic operations and storage requirement, adjust the peak local memory usage by index range tiling, and support parallel I/O interfaces and dynamic load balancing for parallel executions. We demonstrate the utility of TCE through automatic derivation and implementation of parallel programs for various models of configuration-interaction theory (CISD, CISDT, CISDTQ), many-body perturbation theory[MBPT(2), MBPT(3), MBPT(4)], and coupled-cluster theory (LCCD, CCD, LCCSD, CCSD, QCISD, CCSDT, and CCSDTQ)

  9. A wireless batteryless in vivo EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with 60 Hz suppression technique for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanonart, Nattapon; Young, Darrin J

    2009-01-01

    A wireless, batteryless, and implantable EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with adaptive RF powering for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring is designed, implemented, and in vivo characterized. A packaged microsystem, exhibiting a total size of 9 mm x 7 mm x 3 mm with a weight of 400 mg including a pair of stainless-steel EKG electrodes, is implanted in a mouse abdomen for real-time monitoring. A low power 2 mm x 2 mm ASIC, consisting of an EKG amplifier, a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT)-based temperature sensor, an RF power sensing circuit, an RF-DC power converter, an 8-bit ADC, digital control circuitry, and a 433 MHz FSK transmitter, is powered by an adaptively controlled external RF energy source at 4 MHz to ensure a stable 2V supply with 156microA current driving capability for the overall microsystem. An electrical model for analyzing 60 Hz interference based on 2-electrode and 3-electrode configurations is proposed and compared with in vivo evaluation results. Due to the small laboratory animal chest area, a 60 Hz suppression technique by employing input termination resistors is chosen for two-EKG-electrode implant configuration.

  10. Development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent grafts) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Hidetake; Mizuno, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamanami, Masashi; Kanda, Keiichi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent graft) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles and to determine its mechanical and histological properties. The preparation mold was assembled by insertion of an acryl rod (outer diameter, 8.6 mm; length, 40 mm) into a self-expanding nitinol stent (internal diameter, 9.0 mm; length, 35 mm). The molds (n = 6) were embedded into the subcutaneous pouches of three beagles for 4 weeks. After harvesting and removing each rod, the excessive fragile tissue connected around the molds was trimmed, and thus tubular autologous connective tissues with the stent were obtained for use as Bio stent grafts (outer diameter, approximately 9.3 mm in all molds). The stent strut was completely surrounded by the dense collagenous membrane (thickness, ∼150 µm). The Bio stent graft luminal surface was extremely flat and smooth. The graft wall of the Bio stent graft possessed an elastic modulus that was almost two times higher than that of the native beagle abdominal aorta. This Bio stent graft is expected to exhibit excellent biocompatibility after being implanted in the aorta, which may reduce the risk of type 1 endoleaks or migration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aerodynamic Performance and Particle Image Velocimetery of Piezo Actuated Biomimetic Manduca Sexta Engineered Wings Towards the Design and Application of a Flapping Wing Flight Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    elucidated the complexity and convoluted interrelation between insect musculature, body composition, wing design, operating Reynolds number, wing flap geometry...Figure 2.23 shows the AFIT FWMAV components after the laminated carbon fiber sheets are cut on the laser and ready for assembly. (a) Structure (b...Linkage (c) Passive rotation joint (d) Rotation stop (e) Alignment clips (f) Wing Figure 2.23: AFIT FWMAV cut-out laminated carbon fiber assembly parts. The

  12. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  13. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Full Vehicle Vibration and Noise Analysis Based on Substructure Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhien Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining substructure and power flow theory, in this paper an external program is written to control MSC. Nastran solution process and the substructure frequency response are also formulated accordingly. Based on a simple vehicle model, characteristics of vibration, noise, and power flow are studied, respectively. After being compared with the result of conventional FEM (finite element method, the new method is confirmed to be feasible. When it comes to a vehicle with the problem of low-frequency noise, finite element models of substructures for vehicle body and chassis are established, respectively. In addition, substructure power flow method is also employed to examine the transfer characteristics of multidimensional vibration energy for the whole vehicle system. By virtue of the adjustment stiffness of drive shaft support and bushes at rear suspension lower arm, the vehicle interior noise is decreased by about 3 dB when the engine speed is near 1050 rpm and 1650 rpm in experiment. At the same time, this method can increase the computation efficiency by 78%, 38%, and 98% when it comes to the optimization of chassis structure, body structure, and vibration isolation components, respectively.

  15. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  16. Observation of increases in emission from modern vehicles over time in Hong Kong using remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W.T.; Cheung, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study on-road gaseous emissions of vehicles are investigated using remote sensing measurements collected over three different periods. The results show that a high percentage of gaseous pollutants were emitted from a small percentage of vehicles. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles generally have higher gaseous emissions compared to other vehicles, particularly among higher-emitting vehicles. Vehicles with high vehicle specific power (VSP) tend to have lower CO and HC emissions while petrol and LPG vehicles tend to have higher NO emissions when engine load is high. It can be observed that gaseous emission factors of petrol and LPG vehicles increase greatly within 2 years of being introduced to the vehicle fleet, suggesting that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly. It can be observed that LPG vehicles have higher levels of gaseous emissions than petrol vehicles, suggesting that proper maintenance of LPG vehicles is essential in reducing gaseous emissions from vehicles. - Highlights: ► Emissions collected in 3 different periods to examine changes in emission over time. ► LPG vehicles generally emit more gaseous pollutants compared to other vehicles. ► Large increase in emissions from modern petrol/LPG vehicles after 2 years' operation. ► CO and NO emissions of modern diesel vehicles are similar to those of older vehicles. - Remote sensing measurements show large increases in gaseous emissions from vehicles in Hong Kong after 2 years of operation, indicating that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly.

  17. Supersonic cruise vehicle research/business jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison study of a GE-21 variable propulsion system with a Multimode Integrated Propulsion System (MMIPS) was conducted while installed in small M = 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicles with military and business jet possibilities. The 1984 state of the art vehicles were sized to the same transatlantic range, takeoff distance, and sideline noise. The results indicate the MMIPS would result in a heavier vehicle with better subsonic cruise performance. The MMIPS arrangement with one fan engine and two satellite turbojet engines would not be appropriate for a small supersonic business jet because of design integration penalties and lack of redundancy.

  18. On the required complexity of vehicle dynamic models for use in simulation-based highway design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander; Brennan, Sean

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive project whose goal is to identify roadway design practices that maximize the margin of safety between the friction supply and friction demand. This study is motivated by the concern for increased accident rates on curves with steep downgrades, geometries that contain features that interact in all three dimensions - planar curves, grade, and superelevation. This complexity makes the prediction of vehicle skidding quite difficult, particularly for simple simulation models that have historically been used for road geometry design guidance. To obtain estimates of friction margin, this study considers a range of vehicle models, including: a point-mass model used by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design policy, a steady-state "bicycle model" formulation that considers only per-axle forces, a transient formulation of the bicycle model commonly used in vehicle stability control systems, and finally, a full multi-body simulation (CarSim and TruckSim) regularly used in the automotive industry for high-fidelity vehicle behavior prediction. The presence of skidding--the friction demand exceeding supply--was calculated for each model considering a wide range of vehicles and road situations. The results indicate that the most complicated vehicle models are generally unnecessary for predicting skidding events. However, there are specific maneuvers, namely braking events within lane changes and curves, which consistently predict the worst-case friction margins across all models. This suggests that any vehicle model used for roadway safety analysis should include the effects of combined cornering and braking. The point-mass model typically used by highway design professionals may not be appropriate to predict vehicle behavior on high-speed curves during braking in low-friction situations. However, engineers can use the results of this study to help select the appropriate vehicle dynamic

  19. 40 CFR 85.1505 - Final admission of certified vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor... vehicle or engine from the previous test (e.g., adjusting the RPM, timing, air-to-fuel ratio, etc.) other... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final admission of certified vehicles...

  20. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation; refueling test... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1807-01 - Vehicle labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle labeling. 86.1807-01 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks...

  2. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-00 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  3. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-96 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  4. 40 CFR 86.132-00 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-00... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  5. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1807-07 - Vehicle labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle labeling. 86.1807-07 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1822-01 - Durability data vehicle selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Durability data vehicle selection. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1828-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission data vehicle selection. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1828-10 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission data vehicle selection. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light...

  10. 40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.232-94... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  11. 40 CFR 86.411-78 - Maintenance instructions, vehicle purchaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance instructions, vehicle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... instructions, vehicle purchaser. (a) The manufacturer shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the ultimate...

  12. 40 CFR 86.531-78 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.531-78 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.531-78 Vehicle preparation. (a) The manufacturer...

  13. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  14. Development of a catalysts technology to disclosure ultra low emission concepts for vehicles with combustion engines. Final report; Entwicklung einer Katalysatortechnologie zur Darstellung von Niedrigstemissionskonzepten an Kraftfahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotor. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizig, M.; Hirth, P.; Bergmann, A.; Hodgson, J.; Althoefer, K.; Konieczny, R.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the research was the development of concepts that support ultra low emission concepts for vehicles with combustion engines. This has been done in the 4 subprojects 'Increase of mass transfer', 'Catalyst isolation', 'Reduction of thermal mass' and 'Homogenization of flow distribution'. In the fifth subproject 'catalyst design' the gained experiences should be used to realize the achieved results for practical applications. Phases of the project: Literature investigation - theoretical consideration and interpretation - investigations on favoured variants - durability tests - study of parameters of manufacturing process - emission tests. The gained experiences were slipped in several products that can be realized in serial production. To be mentioned: (a) The TS-Designs and the LS-Design (see subproject A), (b) the HD-Design (see subproject B, C, E), (c) and the mixing device (see subproject D). Additional know-how was gained in subproject D that was used to work out the PM-Design in a separate developement project. These substrates can be used to reduce soot emissions in vehicles with diesel engines. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Forschungsprojektes war es, in den 4 Teilprojekten 'Verbesserung des Massentransportes', 'Katalysatorisolation', 'Reduzierung der thermischen Masse' und 'Interner Stroemungsausgleich' Konzepte zu entwickeln, die Niedrigstemissionen an Kraftfahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotoren unterstuetzen. Im 5. Teilprojekt 'Katalysatordesign' sollten die gewonnenen Erfahrungen ganz oder teilweise genutzt weden, um die erzielten Ergebnisse praktisch umzusetzen. Projektphasen: Literaturrecherche - Theoretische Betrachtung/Auslegung - Untersuchungen an favorisierten Varianten - Dauerhaltbarkeitsuntersuchungen - Studie Fertigungsparameter - Emissionsmessungen. Die im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes gewonnenen Erkenntnisse konnten in verschiedene Produkte

  15. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  16. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  18. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  19. Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility Overview - Germany Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    the current and future force Survivability Robotics – Intelligent Systems Vehicle Electronics & Architecture Fuel, Water, Bridging ...Test Cell • Engine Generator Test Lab • Full Vehicle Environmental Test Cell • Hybrid Electric Reconfigurable Moveable Integration Testbed (HERMIT...Converter Conducted competitive runoff evaluations on Bridging Boat engine candidates Completed independent durability assessment of OEM

  20. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Lighting devices and reflectors. Tires. Horn. Windshield wiper or wipers. Rear-vision mirror or mirrors.... No driver or any employee of a motor carrier shall: (1) Fuel a motor vehicle with the engine running, except when it is necessary to run the engine to fuel the vehicle; (2) Smoke or expose any open flame in...

  1. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  2. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  3. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  4. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  5. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  6. Electric vehicles: energy consumption and the comparision with other new vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schillemans, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the end of the 19th century the electric vehicle (EV) controlled the market for road transport. But with remarkable improvements in the performance of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), EVs had vanished from the scene by the 1930's. Since then, they have attracted interest from time to

  7. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  8. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  9. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  10. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  11. Innovationsallianz Green Carbody Technologies - mit energieeffizienterer und ressourcenschonenderer Technik produzieren: Presentation held at Conference on "Strategies in Car Body Engineering 2013", 19 - 20 March 2013, Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Innovation Alliance Green Carbody Technologies InnoCaT researched in the years 2010 - 2012 for efficient solutions along the process chain "painted car body" including the tool shop, the press shop through body shop to the painted body under the approach of holistic planning. Examples of the results are planning of low-energy production, the energy-efficient climate control of enclosures, the automatic adjustment of body devices, resource-efficient sheet metal hot stamping and so on. All ...

  12. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  13. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  14. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability

  15. Design, Analysis and Qualification of Elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. B.; Suresh, R.; Krishnadasan, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is configured as a winged body vehicle, designed to fly in hypersonic, supersonic and subsonic regimes. The vehicle will be boosted to hypersonic speeds after which the winged body separates and descends using aerodynamic control. The aerodynamic control is achieved using the control surfaces mainly the rudder and the elevon. Elevons are deflected for pitch and roll control of the vehicle at various flight conditions. Elevons are subjected to aerodynamic, thermal and inertial loads during the flight. This paper gives details about the configuration, design, qualification and flight validation of elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  16. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  17. 40 CFR 1051.620 - When may a manufacturer obtain an exemption for competition recreational vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... competition: (i) The vehicle or engine may not be displayed for sale in any public dealership. (ii) Sale of... exemption for competition recreational vehicles? 1051.620 Section 1051.620 Protection of Environment... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.620 When may a manufacturer obtain an exemption for...

  18. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  19. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  20. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  1. [Design and application of portable rescue vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Qi, Huaying; Wang, Shen

    2017-12-01

    The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle. The portable rescue vehicle facilitates the operation of medical staff, and is worthy of clinical application.

  2. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1509 - Final admission of modification and test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test vehicles. 85.1509 Section 85.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1509 Final admission of modification and test vehicles. (a) Except...

  4. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  5. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  9. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles. (10) Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means of support, permanently attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body while... material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the same compartment with employees. (8...

  11. Lockheed Martin approach to a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvin, John D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses Lockheed Martin's perspective on the development of a cost effective Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Critical to a successful Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program are; an economic development plan sensitive to fiscal constraints; a vehicle concept satisfying present and future US launch needs; and an operations concept commensurate with a market driven program. Participation in the economic plan by government, industry, and the commercial sector is a key element of integrating our development plan and funding profile. The RLV baseline concept design, development evolution and several critical trade studies illustrate the superior performance achieved by our innovative approach to the problem of SSTO. Findings from initial aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests and trajectory analyses on this concept confirm the superior characteristics of the lifting body shape combined with the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This Aero Ballistic Rocket (ABR) concept captures the essence of The Skunk Works approach to SSTO RLV technology integration and system engineering. These programmatic and concept development topics chronicle the key elements to implementing an innovative market driven next generation RLV.

  12. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  13. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  14. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.

  15. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  16. Multidisciplinary Modeling Software for Analysis, Design, and Optimization of HRRLS Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Lawrence W.; Lohner, Rainald; Hunt, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The concept for Highly Reliable Reusable Launch Systems (HRRLS) under the NASA Hypersonics project is a two-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-take-off / horizontal-landing, (HTHL) architecture with an air-breathing first stage. The first stage vehicle is a slender body with an air-breathing propulsion system that is highly integrated with the airframe. The light weight slender body will deflect significantly during flight. This global deflection affects the flow over the vehicle and into the engine and thus the loads and moments on the vehicle. High-fidelity multi-disciplinary analyses that accounts for these fluid-structures-thermal interactions are required to accurately predict the vehicle loads and resultant response. These predictions of vehicle response to multi physics loads, calculated with fluid-structural-thermal interaction, are required in order to optimize the vehicle design over its full operating range. This contract with ResearchSouth addresses one of the primary objectives of the Vehicle Technology Integration (VTI) discipline: the development of high-fidelity multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization methods and tools for HRRLS vehicles. The primary goal of this effort is the development of an integrated software system that can be used for full-vehicle optimization. This goal was accomplished by: 1) integrating the master code, FEMAP, into the multidiscipline software network to direct the coupling to assure accurate fluid-structure-thermal interaction solutions; 2) loosely-coupling the Euler flow solver FEFLO to the available and proven aeroelasticity and large deformation (FEAP) code; 3) providing a coupled Euler-boundary layer capability for rapid viscous flow simulation; 4) developing and implementing improved Euler/RANS algorithms into the FEFLO CFD code to provide accurate shock capturing, skin friction, and heat-transfer predictions for HRRLS vehicles in hypersonic flow, 5) performing a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation on an HRRLS

  17. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  18. Artist Concept of X-43A/Hyper-X Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  19. X-43A/Hyper-X Vehicle Arrives at NASA Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  20. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...