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Sample records for vehicle accident mva

  1. Post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTSD) and associated risk factors among motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Motor Vehicle Accident Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuabova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accidents (MVA have been a leading contributor to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Given the high rate of MVA incidents, it is of crucial importance to detect and diagnose PTSD in primary care. Assessing PTSD requires detecting and treating physiologic responses associated with MVA incidents. Responses such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure following an incident as well as psychological processes have been found to predict the likelihood of developing PTSD months or years after the occurrence. Screening for PTSD requires the implementation of multiple assessment tools to accurately detect the presence of PTSD. Clinicians chose assessment tools based on scales used to screen for anxiety, social dysfunction, somatic complaints and depression. Indeed, it cannot be overstated that clinicians must conduct early assessment and diagnosis of PTSD while evaluating the multiple factors that impact upon whether or not an individual will develop PTSD after a MVA.

  3. Impact of motor vehicle accidents on neck pain and disability in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Vos (Kees); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); J. Passchier (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High levels of continuous neck pain after a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are reported in cross-sectional studies. Knowledge of this association in general practice is limited. Aim: To compare the differences in perceived pain and disability in patients with acute neck pain

  4. Sleep Apnea Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents is Reduced by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. Design: MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Setting: Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). Patients: There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. Interventions: CPAP. Measurements and Results: The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P accident risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65–80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤ 5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). Conclusions: The motor vehicle accident risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with obstructive sleep apnea suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. Citation: Karimi M, Hedner J, Häbel H, Nerman O, Grote L. Sleep apnea related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish traffic accident registry data. SLEEP 2015;38(3):341–349. PMID:25325460

  5. Trauma history characteristics and subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Dulmen, Manfred van; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between trauma history characteristics (number and type of traumas, age at first trauma, and subjective responses to prior traumas) and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). One hundred eighty-eight adult MVA victims provided information about prior traumatization and were evaluated for PTSD symptoms 6 weeks and one year following the MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for demographics and depression, prior trauma history characteristics accounted for a small, but significant amount of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Distress from prior trauma and number of types of prior traumas were the most meaningful trauma history predictors. Results encourage further evaluation of trauma history as a multifaceted construct.

  6. Sleep apnea-related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. CPAP. The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P accident risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65-80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). The MVA risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with OSA suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Kawaguchi; Eitaro Taniguchi; Michio Sata

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs.Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit,which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease.Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs,the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown.Recently,Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT),and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs,Besides the ICT and lactulose,there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE.In this commentary,we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE,including neuropsychological tests.We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE,such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee,and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids,on the MVA-related societal costs.

  8. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal Associations Between PTSD Symptoms and Dyadic Conflict Communication Following a Severe Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Beck, J Gayle; Shnaider, Philippe; Le, Yunying; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Pentel, Kimberly Z; Monson, Candice M; Simon, Naomi M; Marques, Luana

    2017-03-01

    There are well-documented associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship impairments, including dysfunctional communication at times of relationship conflict. To date, the extant research on the associations between PTSD symptom severity and conflict communication has been cross-sectional and focused on military and veteran couples. No published work has evaluated the extent to which PTSD symptom severity and communication at times of relationship conflict influence each other over time or in civilian samples. The current study examined the prospective bidirectional associations between PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication in a sample of 114 severe motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors in a committed intimate relationship at the time of the accident. PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication were assessed at 4 and 16weeks post-MVA, and prospective associations were examined using path analysis. Total PTSD symptom severity at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks post-MVA but not vice versa. Examination at the level of PTSD symptom clusters revealed that effortful avoidance at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks, whereas dysfunctional communication 4weeks after the MVA predicted more severe emotional numbing at 16weeks. Findings highlight the role of PTSD symptoms in contributing to dysfunctional communication and the importance of considering PTSD symptom clusters separately when investigating the dynamic interplay between PTSD symptoms and relationship functioning over time, particularly during the early posttrauma period. Clinical implications for the prevention of chronic PTSD and associated relationship problems are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena eBoccia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accident (MVA victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD. With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization.

  11. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183

  12. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J; Reyner, L

    1999-05-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.

  13. Increased population density of neurosurgeons associated with decreased risk of death from motor vehicle accidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Atman; Bekelis, Kimon; Zhao, Wenyan; Ball, Perry A

    2012-09-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are a leading cause of death and disability in young people. Given that a major cause of death from MVAs is traumatic brain injury, and neurosurgeons hold special expertise in this area relative to other members of a trauma team, the authors hypothesized that neurosurgeon population density would be related to reduced mortality from MVAs across US counties. The Area Resource File (2009-2010), a national health resource information database, was retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome variable was the 3-year (2004-2006) average in MVA deaths per million population for each county. The primary independent variable was the density of neurosurgeons per million population in the year 2006. Multiple regression analysis was performed, adjusting for population density of general practitioners, urbanicity of the county, and socioeconomic status of the county. The median number of annual MVA deaths per million population, in the 3141 counties analyzed, was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] 151-323). The median number of neurosurgeons per million population was 0 (IQR 0-0), while the median number of general practitioners per million population was 274 (IQR 175-410). Using an unadjusted analysis, each increase of 1 neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.90 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.01 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeons is associated with a significant reduction in deaths from MVAs, a major cause of death nationally. This suggests that the availability of local neurosurgeons is an important factor in the overall likelihood of survival from an MVA, and therefore indicates the importance of promoting neurosurgical education and practice throughout the country.

  14. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  15. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V.; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems. PMID:27997566

  16. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak V Dixit

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  17. The effect of vehicle characteristics on road accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, I S

    2016-01-01

    The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents investigates whether vehicle characteristics related to handling and stability contribute to road accidents. Using multiple regression analysis, this book addresses driver and vehicle effects separately in order to define both the magnitude of the handling/accident causation problem as well as the relative importance of the various performance measures. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with detailed studies of accidents to determine the circumstances which lead to loss of control or overturning of a car on the road, and which accidents are likely to be influenced by the handling and stability characteristics of cars. Accident rates for these types of accident are then examined for the more popular models of car. Measures of vehicle handling and stability related to accident rates are also discussed. This text will be a useful resource for motorists and road engineers as well as transportation officials.

  18. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  19. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  20. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  1. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  2. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  3. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  4. Active and passive vehicle safety at Volkswagen accident research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmichel, M.; Stanzel, M.; Zobel, R. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Accident Analysis is an efficient means of improving vehicle passive safety and is used frequently and intensively. However, reliable data on accident causation is much more difficult to obtain. In most cases, one or more of the persons involved in an accident will face litigation and therefore are reluctant to provide the information that is essential to researchers. In addition, antilock brakes in almost every current vehicle have caused certain characteristic evidence, i.e. skid marks, to appear much less frequently than before. However, this evidence provides valuable information for assessing the reaction of the driver and his attempt to avoid the accident. In order to implement strategies of accident avoidance, accident causation must first be fully understood. Therefore, one of the assignments of the Volkswagen Accident Research Unit is to interpret global statistics, as well as to study single cases in order to come up with strategies for collision avoidance or mitigation. Currently, our primary concern is focused on active vehicle safety by researching vehicle behavior in the pre-crash phase. (orig.)

  5. Undiagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M M; McFarlane, A C; Hunter, C E; Griggs, W M

    1993-10-18

    To determine the pattern of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among motor vehicle accident victims and to examine the influence of PTSD on subsequent levels of disability. A longitudinal study of motor vehicle accident victims one month and 18 months after the accident. Twenty-four motor vehicle accident victims admitted by the trauma team at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. A 52% response rate was achieved. Post-traumatic stress disorder as diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and disability as measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. Eighteen months after their accidents, six of the 24 subjects had clinically significant PTSD and one was considered borderline. None had been previously diagnosed or treated. The group with PTSD had higher scores on all measures of psychological distress one month after the accident and were more likely to use immature psychological defences. There was no association between physical outcome (measured with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months and subsequent diagnosis of PTSD. However, the group with PTSD had higher levels of disability on assessment with the Sickness Impact Profile, particularly in the domain of social functioning. The results suggest PTSD was associated with work-related dysfunction equal to that associated with severe physical handicap. The data from this pilot study suggest that PTSD after motor vehicle accidents is an important cause of disability, which may also become the focus for damages in litigation. Thus, there is a need for further investigation of the early patterns of distress and to design preventive programs for victims of road accidents.

  6. TIRE MODELS USED IN VEHICLE DYNAMIC APPLICATIONS AND THEIR USING IN VEHICLE ACCIDENT SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ELDOĞAN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheel model is very important in vehicle modelling, it is because the contact between vehicle and road is achieved by wheel. Vehicle models can be dynamic models which are used in vehicle design, they can also be models used in accident simulations. Because of the importance of subject, many studies including theoretical, experimental and mixed type have been carried out. In this study, information is given about development of wheel modelling and research studies and also use of these modellings in traffic accident simulations.

  7. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  8. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: hypotension after a MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 25 year old woman was a restrained driver in a rollover motor vehicle accident (MVA and suffered a C5-C6 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord injury. She was lucid and able to follow commands and could move her upper extremities but not her lower extremities. She was given approximately 6 liters of fluid but required vasopressors to maintain her blood pressure. Initial ECG revealed a normal sinus rhythm without significant ST changes (Figure 1. Upon initial evaluation her blood pressure was low. Bedside ultrasound of the left anterior second intercostal space revealed a sliding lung sign and a 4 chamber view of her heart was performed (Figure 2. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her hypotension? 1. Blunt cardiac injury; 2. Intravascular volume depletion; 3. Neurogenic stunned myocardium; 4. Pericardial tamponade; 5. Pneumothorax ...

  9. Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth after Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Zollner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state…

  10. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and

  11. Injuries Sustained in Noncombat Motor Vehicle Accidents During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    pneumothorax , lung contusion, flail chest ). This finding, and whether it relates in any way to vehicle type, protective equipment worn, or MVA... Trauma Registry. The EMED is a deployment health database maintained by Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), in San Diego, California, and contains...accounted for a majority of all serious injuries. Upon further examination of the 22 serious torso injuries, approximately 40% were chest injuries (e.g

  12. Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Bulumulle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications.

  13. Severity of vehicle bumper location in vehicle-to-pedestrian impact accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-10-10

    Pedestrian protection is one of the key topics for safety measures in traffic accidents all over the world. To analyze the relation between the collision site of the vehicle bumper and the severity of the lower extremity injuries, we performed biomechanical experiments. We compared the applied external force and the risks of subsequent injuries between the impact of the center and side positions of the front bumper. These comparisons were performed by practical impact tests with eight typical different types of cars which were typical of the current vehicle fleets. The tests were made using the TRL legform impactor which was a mechanical substitute of a pedestrian lower extremity. The TRL impactor is used all over the world for assessing the safety of car bumpers. It was found that the risks of lower extremity injuries in the impacts at the side positions, in front of the vehicle's side member, were significantly higher than those at the center. In the tests, we found that foam materials around the rigid front cross member had a significant effect on reducing the lower extremity injury risks and especially tibia fracture risk against vehicle bumper center collisions, but had little effect at the sides of the bumper over the vehicle's side members where the foam was thinner. We also found that the front shape of the vehicle affected the risk of ligaments injuries. According to these results, the information of impact locations of cars in vehicle-to-pedestrian traffic accidents is valuable for clinicians to diagnose patients with lower extremity injuries in traffic accidents and for forensic pathologists to analyze the accident reconstruction. Furthermore, the results suggest that testing of the bumper area in front of the main longitudinal beams should be included in the car safety legislation to require pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  15. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  16. Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helders Paul JM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. Methods/Design The objective is to describe the design of an inception cohort study with a 1-year follow-up to determine risk factors for the development of symptoms after a low-impact motor vehicle accident, the prognosis of chronic disability, and costs. Victims of a low-impact motor vehicle accident will be eligible for participation. Participants with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of 7 or more will be classified as experiencing post-traumatic neck pain and will enter the experimental group. Participants without complaints (a NDI score less than 7 will enter the reference group. The cohort will be followed up by means of postal questionnaires and physical examinations at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Recovery from whiplash-associated disorders will be measured in terms of perceived functional health, and employment status (return to work. Life tables will be generated to determine the 1-year prognosis of whiplash-associated disorders, and risk factors and prognostic factors will be assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Discussion Little is known about the development of symptoms and chronic disability after a whiplash injury. In the clinical setting, it is important to identify those people who are at risk of developing chronic symptoms. This inception prospective cohort study will provide insight in the influence of risk factors, of the development of functional health problems, and costs in people with whiplash-associated disorders.

  17. Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maarten A; van Meeteren, Nico LU; de Wijer, Anton; Helders, Paul JM; Graaf, Yolanda van der

    2008-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. Methods/Design The objective is to describe the design of an inception cohort study with a 1-year follow-up to determine risk factors for the development of symptoms after a low-impact motor vehicle accident, the prognosis of chronic disability, and costs. Victims of a low-impact motor vehicle accident will be eligible for participation. Participants with a Neck Disability Index (NDI) score of 7 or more will be classified as experiencing post-traumatic neck pain and will enter the experimental group. Participants without complaints (a NDI score less than 7) will enter the reference group. The cohort will be followed up by means of postal questionnaires and physical examinations at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Recovery from whiplash-associated disorders will be measured in terms of perceived functional health, and employment status (return to work). Life tables will be generated to determine the 1-year prognosis of whiplash-associated disorders, and risk factors and prognostic factors will be assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Discussion Little is known about the development of symptoms and chronic disability after a whiplash injury. In the clinical setting, it is important to identify those people who are at risk of developing chronic symptoms. This inception prospective cohort study will provide insight in the influence of risk factors, of the development of functional health problems, and costs in people with whiplash-associated disorders. PMID:19099574

  18. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  19. Investigating the Differences of Single-Vehicle and Multivehicle Accident Probability Using Mixed Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are believed to be associated with not only road geometric feature and traffic characteristic, but also weather condition. To address these safety issues, it is of paramount importance to understand how these factors affect the occurrences of the crashes. Existing studies have suggested that the mechanisms of single-vehicle (SV accidents and multivehicle (MV accidents can be very different. Few studies were conducted to examine the difference of SV and MV accident probability by addressing unobserved heterogeneity at the same time. To investigate the different contributing factors on SV and MV, a mixed logit model is employed using disaggregated data with the response variable categorized as no accidents, SV accidents, and MV accidents. The results indicate that, in addition to speed gap, length of segment, and wet road surfaces which are significant for both SV and MV accidents, most of other variables are significant only for MV accidents. Traffic, road, and surface characteristics are main influence factors of SV and MV accident possibility. Hourly traffic volume, inside shoulder width, and wet road surface are found to produce statistically significant random parameters. Their effects on the possibility of SV and MV accident vary across different road segments.

  20. [Road safety in Italy: epidemiology of two-wheeled motor vehicles accidents. National statistics 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anna; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Marinoni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    to describe road accidents occurred in Italy focusing, in particular, on two-wheeled motor vehicles. Analysis of road accidents based on current data referring to year 2000. Italy. In Italy, 67,127 two-wheeled motor vehicle accidents occurred in 2000. Two crash types account for 75% of the accidents: side impact and front-side impact. Per one million kilometres travelled 0.4 cars and 1.3 two-wheeled vehicles are involved (0.7 motorcycles and 2.2 mopeds). In 2000 there were 1,229 deaths and 69,543 injured riders. Males up to forty years old are the most represented. The masculinity ratio presents a decreasing trend from motorcycles to mopeds and to cars both for killed people and for injured people. The lethality rate increases with age for all types of vehicles but for mopeds this trend is much more evident. Most of the accident occur in urban road while most of the deaths happen in extra-urban road. Mopeds and motorcycles, which are a small subset of all motor vehicles (approximately 20%), are greatly overrepresented in crashes. Considering the kilometres travelled, the risk to be involved in a crash for mopeds is estimated to be 32.6 times higher than the comparable risk for cars and for motorcycles it is 17 times higher. The risk of death for riders is two times the risk for cars.

  1. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  2. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  3. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  4. A comprehensive review of rollover accidents involving vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E; Scheibe, Robert R; Eyges, Vitaly E

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present.

  5. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  6. Phase 2 : evaluation of the national crash experience : comparison of CARDfile national motor vehicle accident projections with projections from other data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase 2 Study is to compare national motor vehicle accident projections : made from the Crash Avoidance Research Data base (CARDfile) with national motor : vehicle accident projections made from other data bases. For the most part...

  7. NPP post-accident monitoring system based on unmanned aircraft vehicle:concept, design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, A.A.; Kochan, V.V.; Kharchenko, V.S.; Yanovskij, M.Eh.; Yastrebenetskij, M.A.; Fesenko, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of designing the post-accident system for monitoring the equipment and territory of nuclear power plant after a severe accident based on unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAVs). Wired power and communications networks are found out as the most vulnerable ones during the accident monitoring, and informativity, reliability and veracity are recognized as system basic parameters. It is proposed to equip measurement and control modules with backup wireless communication channels and deploy the repeaters network based on UAVs to ensure the informativity. Modules possess the backup power battery, and repeaters appear in the appropriate places after the accident to provide the survivability. Moreover, an optimization of UAVs' location is proposed according to the minimum energy consumption criterion. To ensure the veracity, it is expected to design the noise-immune protocol for message exchange and archiving and self-diagnostics of all system components

  8. Evaluation of uncertainty of vehicle speed when autotechnical examination of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashkanov А.А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods and ways to measure vehicle speed, which can be used in autotechnical examination of road accidents, in order to identify ways to improve the peer review mechanism of emergencies are analyzed. To achieve the goal we propose to take measurement errors vehicle speed into account. Modern automated technology (GPS, EDR and ACN can reduce these errors, and with sufficient accuracy to determine the speed of the vehicle and other motion parameters and technical data that helps to quicken research in various stages of examination, but there are a number of objective problems hindering their widespread use in Ukraine. To solve these problems need to develop and improve existing methods of expert investigation of the circumstances of accidents based process automation capabilities fixing mechanism and the scene, measurements and calculations options vehicular traffic. This will increase the effectiveness of traditional methods and to minimize the influence of subjective factors.

  9. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  10. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accident or Suicide? Single-Vehicle Car Accidents and the Intent Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Dennis L.; Warner, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Brief case studies of single-vehicle car crashes are used to explore the relationship between this method of death and the intent to commit suicide. The author attempts to determine what criteria can be used to determine whether suicide was the intent, and how death by automobile crash can be determined a suicide. (JPS)

  12. Evaluation of the relationship between unsafe acts and occupational accidents in a vehicle manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fatemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Vehicle manufacturing industries are as critical sites from points of safety. Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions have been recognized as effective factors in increasing the risk of occupational accidents. In order to promote of safety conditions, it's necessary to evaluate unsafe acts of workers as the main reason of accidents. The main goal of research is evaluation of relationship between unsafe Acts with occupational accidents.   Methods   Safety behavior sampling (SBS technique was employed to conduct this study. After doing a pilot study, the number of samples and views were determined 195 and 3456  respectively. The information was then analyzed using Excel, SPSS and statistic tests.   Results   The results of the study showed that the rate of unsafe acts of studying workers was  35.4% .The study of the relationship between unsafe acts and occupational accidents via Regression Logistic test showed that if one percent increases on unsafe acts, the rate of accidents  multiply three.   Conclusion   Therefore in view of this significant correlation between unsafe acts and  occupational accidents and kind of unsafe acts, reducing or eliminating requires the investment and implementation of a program. It should be associated with behavioral safety principles and emphasis should be placed on implementing safety culture fundamentals at all organizational levels.

  13. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  14. Experimental research of vehicle traction properties for reconstruction of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the database of motor vehicle traction properties in unusual conditions, the research team has performed experimental studies: on wet and snow-covered surfaces. Tests of vehicles equipped with winter tyres with non-skid snow chains have been performed on snow-covered surfaces. It has been shown that on snowy surface chains affect vehicle traction properties, mostly during acceleration. They increase the rate of acceleration up to 50% compared to a vehicle with winter tyres without chains. The results of the performed research can be the basis for the full reconstruction of road accidents under these conditions. Knowledge of traction properties of cars in difficult and unusual conditions is an important cognitive factor and serves to improve road safety.

  15. Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Victims of Serious Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naema Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compelling evidence has shown that motor vehicle accidents have an enormous impact on mental health. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is one of the most common psychological consequences in adult survivors of accidents, so it is important to understand the prevalence and predictors of this issue since delay causes damage to crucial daily functioning. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of PTSD after motor vehicle accident. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 528 injured patients six weeks to six months after motor vehicle accident in Imam Reza Clinic of Poursina hospital, Rasht in 2015. Data collection tools were three questionnaires including post-traumatic stress-self report (PSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain. The data were analyzed in SPSS (Version 19 using Chi-square, Fischer’s exact test and multivariate logistic regression. Significance level was considered P≤0.05. Results: The prevalence of PTSD and depression was 30.49% and 19.89% in participants, respectively. Chi-square test indicated a significant relationship among age (P=0.02, sex (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001, work status (P<0.001 and PTSD. Participants who reported pain (P<0.001 and depression (P<0.001 were more likely to have high score of PTSD than the others. Multivariate logistic regression showed this significance in sex, depression, age, educational status and pain, as constant risk factors in developing PTSD after accident. Conclusion: This study suggests that primary care setting should be readily prompted for diagnosis of these disorders in non-treatment seeking individuals in the community.

  16. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  17. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA

  18. Gradual Recovery from Bilateral Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss post Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroko, A A; Shahrjerdi, B; M D, Md Khairi

    2013-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss following trauma is a common finding in daily clinical practice and usually associated with a poor prognosis. Our case illustrates a patient who was involved in motor vehicle accident sustaining bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss but subsequently recovered fully after two years. Unless there is clear trauma to the cochlea or auditory nerve, a substantial duration of follow up is needed in the treatment of such cases.

  19. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  20. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  1. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  2. Accidents in The Netherlands involving heavy motor vehicles : an analysis concerning underrun protection of rear ends, compared to the sides and the front ends. On behalf of RDW Vehicle Technology & Information Centre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1998-01-01

    In this report accident data concerning heavy vehicles (all motor vehicles with a total weight of more than 3500 kg) are studied. Special attention is given to the question whether accidents involving heavy motor vehicles gave specific reason for concern regarding other road users with respect to

  3. Categorical and dimensional study of the predictive factors of the development of a psychotrauma in victims of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, G; Vaiva, G; Ducrocq, F; Duhem, S; Nandrino, J L

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors of the emergence of complete PTSD and subsyndromal PTSD (defined as individuals exposed to a traumatic event with at least one psychopathological impact, such as hyperarousal, avoidance or persistent re-experiencing) following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). We recruited 155 adult MVA patients, physically injured and admitted to trauma service, over two years. In the week following the accident, patients were asked to complete questionnaires assessing their social situation (sex, age, marital and employment status, prior MVA or trauma), comorbidity (MINI), distress (PDI) and dissociation (PDEQ) experienced during and immediately after the trauma. An evaluation using the CAPS was conducted six months after the trauma to assess a possible PTSD. At six months, 25.8% of the participants developed subsyndromal symptoms and 7.74% developed complete PTSD. The three symptoms that best discriminated the groups were dysphoric emotion, perceived life threat and dissociation. Logistic regression results showed that the strongest predictor of PTSD was the perceived life threat. In addition, a dimensional approach to the results revealed significant correlations between (1) peritraumatic distress and persistent re-experiencing or hyperarousal and (2) dissociation score and avoidance strategy. The presence of a prior traumatic event reinforces avoidance strategies. Our results stress that peritraumatic factors (especially the perception of a life threat) are good predictors of PTSD development. A dimensional perspective allows better identification of psychological complications following an MVA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  5. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

  6. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  7. Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents Related to Sleepiness at the Wheel: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Arnaud, Mickael; Sagaspe, Patricia; Moore, Nicholas; Salvo, Francesco; Philip, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Sleepiness at the wheel is widely believed to be a cause of motor vehicle accidents. Nevertheless, a systematic review of studies investigating this relationship has not yet been published. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between sleepiness at the wheel and motor vehicle accidents. A systematic review was performed using Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science. The outcome measure of interest was motor vehicle accident defined as involving four- or two-wheeled vehicles in road traffic, professional and nonprofessional drivers, with or without objective consequences. The exposure was sleepiness at the wheel defined as self-reported sleepiness at the wheel. Studies were included if they provided adjusted risk estimates of motor vehicle accidents related to sleepiness at the wheel. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were extracted and pooled as odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effect model. Heterogeneity was quantified using Q statistics and the I2 index. The potential causes of heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regressions. Ten cross-sectional studies (51,520 participants), six case-control studies (4904 participants), and one cohort study (13,674 participants) were included. Sleepiness at the wheel was associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (pooled OR 2.51 [95% CI 1.87; 3.39]). A significant heterogeneity was found between the individual risk estimates (Q = 93.21; I2 = 83%). Sleepiness at the wheel increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents and should be considered when investigating fitness to drive. Further studies are required to explore the nature of this relationship. PROSPERO 2015 CRD42015024805. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The seismic assessment of wheeled vehicle type equipment (e.g. emergency power supply vehicle) against severe accident for nuclear power plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takuya; Mitsuzawa, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Hasebe, Motohiko; Imamura, Ryutaro; Tomitani, Yuji; Ueyama, Ippei; Kawamoto, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the equipment to mitigate the effects of severe accidents has been installed in the domestic nuclear power plants. From the viewpoint of convenience for installation, etc., a number of industry standard-based wheeled vehicle type equipment has been placed. On the other hand, the new regulations require the equipment for severe accidents to withstand the Design Basis Earthquake. Therefore, the seismic qualification is essential item for wheeled vehicle type equipment according to the regulatory requirement. At that time, compared to the traditional safety-related equipment, there was not enough knowledge of seismic evaluation for vehicle type equipment. This paper reports the overview of wheeled vehicle type equipment and the seismic qualification by test. (author)

  9. The effects of motor vehicle accidents on careers and the work performance of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Diedericks

    2014-04-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to research on the effects of the injuries by investigating the relationship between the severity of the injuries and the careers and growth potential of victims. Motivation for the study: Employers could use the information on the effects of the injuries on the careers of victims to plan interventions and job accommodations to retain employees and to manage their well-being and performance. Research design, approach and method: The author conducted a quantitative survey on a purposive sample (N = 199 of adult victims of motor vehicle accidents in 2010 in South Africa. She used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse the data. Main findings: The author observed a number of significant relationships between the effects of the different injuries on the careers and growth potential of victims. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations and managers need to recognise the physical and psychological effects of injuries victims sustain in motor accidents and the associated responsibility of organisations to accommodate these employees. Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study can add to the literature and provide insights into the consequences of the injuries. They also provide information that can assist organisations to create an awareness of job accommodation and employee wellness of accident victims.

  10. Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Reconstruction with PC-Crash®: Sensibility Analysis of Factors Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Gala, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the main findings of a study performed by INSIA-UPM about the improvement of the reconstruction process of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents using PC-Crash® software, aimed to develop a software tool for the estimation of the variability of the collision speed due to the lack of real values of some parameters required during the reconstruction task. The methodology has been based on a sensibility analysis of the factors variation. A total of 9 factors have been analyzed with the objective of identifying which ones were significant. Four of them (pedestrian height, collision angle, hood height and pedestrian-road friction coefficient) were significant and were included in a full factorial experiment with the collision speed as an additional factor in order to obtain a regression model with up to third level interactions. Two different factorial experiments with the same structure have been performed because of pedestrian gender differences. The tool has been created as a collision speed predictor based on the regression models obtained, using the 4 significant factors and the projection distance measured or estimated in the accident site. The tool has been used on the analysis of real-world reconstructed accidents occurred in the city of Madrid (Spain). The results have been adequate in most cases with less than 10% of deviation between the predicted speed and the one estimated in the reconstructions. (Author)

  11. FWI and MVA the natural way

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Integrating migration velocity analysis (MVA) and full waveform inversion (FWI) can help reduce the high nonlinearity of the classic FWI objective function. The combination of inverting for the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model using a dual objective function that is sensitive to both components is still very expensive and have produced mixed results. We develop an approach that includes both components integrated to complement each other. We specifically utilize the image to generate reflections in our synthetic data only when the velocity model is not capable of producing such reflections. As a result, we get the MVA working when we need it, and mitigate it\\'s influence when the velocity model produces accurate reflections (possible first for the low frequencies). Applications to a layered model, as well as, the Marmousi model demonstrate some of the approach features.

  12. Development of 50 MVA superconducting generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kiyotaka; Maki, Naoki; Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Ogata, Hisanao; Sanematsu, Toshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Superconducting synchronous generators are expected to be the large capacity turbogenerators of next generation, but they have the structural features considerably different from conventional generators, such as low temperature multiple cylinder rotors and air gap armature winding. For the purpose of grasping the performance of superconducting generators and establishing the fundamental technology for their practical use, Hitachi Ltd. manufactured a 50 MVA superconducting generator. As the results of test, the precooling operation was smoothly finished for about 40 hours, and the superconducting rotor rotated stably at 3000 rpm. The steady and transient electrical characteristics were able to be grasped. It is intended to reflect these results to the development of a practical generator of 500 MVA class expected as the next step. When the superconducting exciting winding cooled by liquid helium is used, the reduction of weight, the improvement of efficiency and the improvement of the stability of power system can be expected. The structural features and the function of superconducting generators, the present state of the development in the world, the outline of the 50 MVA generator, the test results and the problems and the prospect hereafter are reported. The superconducting winding was made of NbTiZr alloy multicore wires. (Kako, I.)

  13. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  14. Cardiac Injury After All-Terrain Vehicle Accidents in 2 Children and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kimberly D; Pian, Phillip; Hanfland, Robert; Nichols, Christopher S; Merritt, Glenn R; Campbell, David; Ing, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) accidents leading to severe morbidity and mortality are common. At our institution, 2 children presented within weeks of each other after ATV accidents. Both children required cardiac valve surgery. The surgical management of these 2 children is discussed, and the literature is reviewed. On initial patient presentation, the diagnosis of a ruptured cardiac valve or ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with these types of accidents is often delayed. We propose that patients presenting with evidence of high-energy blunt thoracic trauma after an ATV accident should undergo an electrocardiogram, cardiac enzyme assessment, and cardiac echocardiogram as part of the initial work-up to rule out significant myocardial injury.

  15. A motor vehicle accident fatality involving the inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Timothy; Avella, Joseph; Lehrer, Michael

    2006-10-01

    A 24-year-old female driver with a history of substance abuse was pronounced dead following a single car motor vehicle accident. A surviving front seat passenger witnessed the decedent inhaling "Dust Off" cleaner just prior to losing control of the vehicle. The propellant compound used in this product is the halogenated hydrocarbon 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE). Sealed autopsy specimens were examined for the presence and subsequent quantitation of DFE utilizing an Agilent 6850 gas chromatograph (GC)-flame-ionization detector. The levels of DFE obtained were as follows: 29.8 mg/L in femoral blood, 40.3 mg/L in pulmonary arterial blood, 85.6 mg/L in aortic blood, 79.9 mg/L in chest cavity blood, 21.2 mg/L in vitreous, 11.7 mg/kg in brain, 27.9 mg/kg in liver, 71.0 mg/L in urine, and 51.8 mg/total gastric contents. The presence of DFE was confirmed in the decedent's urine by injection on an Agilent 6890/5973 GC-mass spectrometer in full scan mode. This case presents a uniquely witnessed observation of the apparent impairing effects and consequences of the acute inhalation of halogenated hydrocarbons such as DFE and the operation of a motor vehicle. The proximity of time of death to inhalant use may also provide insight to postmortem distribution patterns of DFE in relation to normal physiologic blood flow. With further investigations, estimating the time of final use of an inhalant prior to death may be deciphered from such patterns, although a degree of caution should be applied in deaths resulting from severe trauma in which normal tissue structure is compromised because postmortem redistribution may result.

  16. Cellulose decomposition in a 50 MVA transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechalak, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Dissolved gas-in-oil analysis for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide has been used for years to predict cellulose decomposition in a transformer. However, the levels at which these gases become significant have not been widely agreed upon. This paper evaluates the gas analysis results from the nitrogen blanket and the oil of a 50 MVA unit auxiliary transformer in terms of whether accelerated thermal breakdown or normal aging of the paper is occurring. Furthermore, this paper presents additional data on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels in unit and system auxiliary transformers at generating stations and explains why their levels differ

  17. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  18. CARDfile data base representativeness, Phase 1 : general characteristics including populations, vehicles, roads, and fatal accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the : representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base : (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, : Maryland, Michigan, Penn...

  19. CARDfile Data Base Representatives - Phase I: General Characteristics including Populations, Vehicles, Roads, and Fatal Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvan...

  20. How accurate is accident data in road safety research? An application of vehicle black box data regarding pedestrian-to-taxi accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Chang, IlJoon

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the introduction of vehicle black box systems or in-vehicle video event data recorders enables the driver to use the system to collect more accurate crash information such as location, time, and situation at the pre-crash and crash moment, which can be analyzed to find the crash causal factors more accurately. This study presents the vehicle black box system in brief and its application status in Korea. Based on the crash data obtained from the vehicle black box system, this study analyzes the accuracy of the crash data collected from existing road crash data recording method, which has been recorded by police officers based on accident parties' statements or eyewitness's account. The analysis results show that the crash data observed by the existing method have an average of 84.48m of spatial difference and standard deviation of 157.75m as well as average 29.05min of temporal error and standard deviation of 19.24min. Additionally, the average and standard deviation of crash speed errors were found to be 9.03km/h and 7.21km/h, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstructive surgery for complex midface trauma using titanium miniplates: Le Fort I fracture of the maxilla, zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture and nasomaxillary complex fracture, resulting from a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholoff, T J; Del Castillo, C B; Velmonte, M X

    Maxillofacial injuries resulting from trauma can be a challenge to the Maxillo-Facial Surgeon. Frequent causes of these injuries are attributed to automobile accidents, physical altercations, gunshot wounds, home accidents, athletic injuries, work injuries and other injuries. Motor vehicle accidents tend to be the primary cause of most midface fractures and lacerations due to the face hitting the dashboard, windshield and steering wheel or the back of the front seat for passengers in the rear. Seatbelts have been shown to drastically reduce the incidence and severity of these injuries. In the United States seatbelt laws have been enacted in several states thus markedly impacting on the reduction of such trauma. In the Philippines rare is the individual who wears seat belts. Metro city traffic, however, has played a major role in reducing daytime MVA related trauma, as usually there is insufficient speed in traffic areas to cause severe impact damage, the same however cannot be said for night driving, or for driving outside of the city proper where it is not uncommon for drivers to zip into the lane of on-coming traffic in order to overtake the car in front ... often at high speeds. Thus, the potential for severe maxillofacial injuries and other trauma related injuries increases in these circumstances. It is however unfortunate that outside of Metro Manila or other major cities there is no ready access to trauma or tertiary care centers, thus these injuries can be catastrophic if not addressed adequately. With the exception of Le Fort II and III craniofacial fractures, most maxillofacial injuries are not life threatening by themselves, and therefore treatment can be delayed until more serious cerebral or visceral, potentially life threatening injuries are addressed first. Our patient was involved in an MVA in Zambales, seen and stabilized in a provincial primary care center initially, then referred to a provincial secondary care center for further stabilization

  2. Assessment of risk due to vehicle accident for the plutonium solution transfer from H-area to F-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    Transporting radioactive material onsite (intrasite transfers) via truck or train must be performed in a safe manner. Adequate safety is assured for each transfer, as documented in the corresponding Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). One aspect of the OSA is to show that the package to be used for the transfer meets onsite acceptance criteria. The activity being analyzed in this report is the movement of plutonium solution with greater than 20 curies, all reasonable mitigative controls will be implemented to minimize the likelihood of an accidental release, and a probabilistic analysis will be used to evaluate the risk associated with the move. The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of risk due to vehicle accident associated with transporting plutonium solution from H-area to F-area. Included in the report is a list of the required mitigative controls which reduce the predicted accident and release frequencies to those reported in the summary

  3. The effect of concentric constriction of the visual field to 10 and 15 degrees on simulated motor vehicle accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Sachiko; Iwase, Aiko; Susuki, Yuto; Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Fukuchi, Takeo; Matsumoto, Chota; Ohno, Yuko; Ono, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Araie, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Traffic accidents are associated with the visual function of drivers, as well as many other factors. Driving simulator systems have the advantage of controlling for traffic- and automobile-related conditions, and using pinhole glasses can control the degree of concentric concentration of the visual field. We evaluated the effect of concentric constriction of the visual field on automobile driving, using driving simulator tests. Methods Subjects meeting criteria for normal eyesight were included in the study. Pinhole glasses with variable aperture sizes were adjusted to mimic the conditions of concentric visual field constrictions of 10° and 15°, using a CLOCK CHART®. The test contained 8 scenarios (2 oncoming right-turning cars and 6 jump-out events from the side). Results Eighty-eight subjects were included in the study; 37 (mean age = 52.9±15.8 years) subjects were assigned to the 15° group, and 51 (mean = 48.6±15.5 years) were assigned to the 10° group. For all 8 scenarios, the number of accidents was significantly higher among pinhole wearing subjects. The average number of all types of accidents per person was significantly higher in the pinhole 10° group (4.59±1.81) than the pinhole 15° group (3.68±1.49) (P = 0.032). The number of accidents associated with jump-out scenarios, in which a vehicle approaches from the side on a straight road with a good view, was significantly higher in the pinhole 10° group than in the pinhole 15° group. Conclusions Concentric constriction of the visual field was associated with increased number of traffic accidents. The simulation findings indicated that a visual field of 10° to 15° may be important for avoiding collisions in places where there is a straight road with a good view. PMID:29538425

  4. Breaking The Link Between Legal Access To Alcohol And Motor Vehicle Accidents: Evidence From New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M; Siminski, Peter; Yerokhin, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    A large literature has documented significant public health benefits associated with the minimum legal drinking age in the USA, particularly because of the resulting effects on motor vehicle accidents. These benefits form the primary basis for continued efforts to restrict youth access to alcohol. It is important to keep in mind that policymakers have a wide variety of alcohol-control options available to them, and understanding how these policies may complement or substitute for one another can improve policy making moving forward. Towards this end, we propose that investigating the causal effects of the minimum legal drinking age in New South Wales, Australia, provides a particularly informative case study, because Australian states are among the world leaders in their efforts against drunk driving. Using an age-based regression discontinuity design applied to restricted-use data from several sources, we find no evidence that legal access to alcohol has effects on motor vehicle accidents of any type in New South Wales, despite having large effects on drinking and on hospitalizations due to alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Predictive factors for acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşan, Aziz; Guzel, Aslan; Tamam, Yusuf; Ozkan, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Since traffic accidents are more common in developing countries than in developed countries, we aimed to investigate the association of several factors with the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traffic accidents. In the study,95 participants with injuries from traffic accidents were evaluated at 4 different times: in the beginning, and after 3, 6 and 12 months. During the first evaluation, 41.1% (39) of our participants had acute stress disorder (ASD). It was found that lower perceived social support (OR = 0.0908, 95% CI = 0.834-0.989, p = 0.027) and higher peritraumatic dissociative experience scores (OR = 1.332, 95% CI = 1.170-1.516, p accident, we found PTSD affected 29.8, 23.1 and 17.9% of the participants, respectively. Although limitations at work and in social life after a traffic accident were not related to PTSD at 3 months (OR = 122.43, 95% CI = 0.000, p = 0.999) or at 6 months (OR = 63.438, 95% CI = 0.529-76.059, p = 0.089), limitations at work and in social life were predictors of PTSD at 12 months (OR = 155.514, 95% CI = 2.321-104.22, p = 0.019). The persistence of PTSD at the 12-month evaluation is related to ASD, limitations in work and social life, and lower social support scores. In developing countries like Turkey, long-term PTSD is commonly seen after traffic accidents. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  8. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  9. Decreasing adhesions and avoiding further surgery in a pediatric patient involved in a severe pedestrian versus motor vehicle accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rice

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, we report the use of manual physical therapy in a pediatric patient experiencing complications from a life-threatening motor vehicle accident that necessitated 19 surgeries over the course of 12 months. Post-surgical adhesions decreased the patient’s quality of life. He developed multiple medical conditions including recurrent partial bowel obstructions and an ascending testicle. In an effort to avoid further surgery for bowel obstruction and the ascending testicle, the patient was effectively treated with a manual physical therapy regimen focused on decreasing adhesions. The therapy allowed return to an improved quality of life, significant decrease in subjective reports of pain and dysfunction, and apparent decreases in adhesive processes without further surgery, which are important goals for all patients, but especially for pediatric patients.

  10. Executive compensation and the EVA and MVA performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media regularly report a growing incidence of non-alignment of executive pay and performance, and in some cases, no link between the two whatsoever. The advent of new measures of shareholder wealth such as economic value added (EVA) and market value added (MVA) have allowed some companies to link ...

  11. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... and the private health sectors, procuring MVA equipment has been particularly ... 1School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA; 2Alidor Maternity Home, PO Box ... identified as current employees for the ... acknowledged that lack of equipment ... nurse midwives working in lower-level.

  12. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  13. High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle Rollover Accidents and Injuries to U.S. Army Soldiers by Reported Occupant Restraint Use, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael C; Giffin, Robert P; Pakulski, Kraig A; Davis, W Sumner; Bernstein, Stephen A; Wise, Daniel V

    2017-05-01

    The high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) is a light military tactical vehicle. During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S. Army modified the HMMWV into a combat vehicle by adding vehicle armor, which made the vehicle more difficult to control and more likely to roll over. Consequently, reports of fatal rollover accidents involving up-armored HMMWVs began to accumulate during the up-armoring period (August 2003 to April 2005). Furthermore, the lack of occupant restraint use prevalent in a predominantly young, male, and enlisted military population compounded the injuries resulting from these accidents. In this retrospective case series analysis, we describe the characteristics of U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents, occupants, and injuries reported worldwide from fiscal year 1992 to 2013 based on reported occupant restraint use. We conducted all analyses using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SAS version 9.1. Because this analysis does not constitute human subjects research, no institutional review board review was required. First, we obtained U.S. Army HMMWV accident records from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center, and selected those records indicating a HMMWV rollover had occurred. Next, we successively deduplicated the records at the accident, vehicle, occupant, and injury levels for descriptive analysis of characteristics at each level. For each occupant position, we calculated relative, attributable, and population attributable risks of nonfatal and fatal injury based on reported occupant restraint use. Finally, we analyzed body part injured and nature of injury to characterize the injury patterns that HMMWV occupants in each position sustained based on restraint use. We performed a χ 2 test of homogeneity to assess differences in injury patterns between restrained and unrestrained occupants. A total of 819 U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents worldwide were reported from October 1991 through May 2013 involving 821 HMMWVs and

  14. Spatiotemporal Analysis for Wildlife-Vehicle Based on Accident Statistics of the County Straubing-Bogen in Lower Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, R.; Dorner, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last years the numbers of wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) in Bavaria increased considerably. Despite the statistical registration of WVC and preventive measures at areas of risk along the roads, the number of such accidents could not be contained. Using geospatial analysis on WVC data of the last five years for county Straubing-Bogen, Bavaria, a small-scale methodology was found to analyse the risk of WVC along the roads in the investigated area. Various indicators were examined, which may be related to WVC. The risk depends on the time of the day and year which shows correlations in turn to the traffic density and wildlife population. Additionally the location of the collision depends on the species and on different environmental parameters. Accidents seem to correlate with the land use left and right of the street. Land use data and current vegetation were derived from remote sensing data, providing information of the general land use, also considering the vegetation period. For this a number of hot spots was selected to identify potential dependencies between land use, vegetation and season. First results from these hotspots show, that WVCs do not only depend on land use, but may show a correlation with the vegetation period. With regard to agriculture and seasonal as well as annual changes this indicates that warnings will fail due to their static character in contrast to the dynamic situation of land use and resulting risk for WVCs. This shows that there is a demand for remote sensing data with a high spatial and temporal resolution as well as a methodology to derive WVC warnings considering land use and vegetation. With remote sensing data, it could become possible to classify land use and calculate risk levels for WVC. Additional parameters, derived from remote sensed data that could be considered are relief and crops as well as other parameters such as ponds, natural and infrastructural barriers that could be related to animal behaviour and

  15. 1 MVA HTS-2G Generator for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Ilyasov, R. I.; Verzhbitsky, L. G.; Kozub, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The calculation, design simulations and design performance of 1 MVA HTS-2G (second-generation high-temperature superconductor) Generator for Wind Turbines were done in 2013-2014 [1]. The results of manufacturing and testing of 1 MVA generator are presented in the article. HTS-2G field coils for the rotor were redesigned, fabricated and tested. The tests have shown critical current of the coils, 41-45 A (self field within the ferromagnetic core, T = 77 K), which corresponds to the current of short samples at self field. Application of the copper inner frame on the pole has improved internal cooling conditions of HTS coil windings and reduced the magnetic field in the area, thereby increased the critical current value. The original construction of the rotor with a rotating cryostat was developed, which decreases the thermal in-flow to the rotor. The stator of 1 MW HTS-2G generator has been manufactured. In order to improve the specific weight of the generator, the wave (harmonic drive) multiplier was used, which provides increasing RPM from 15 RPM up to 600 RPM. The total mass of the multiplier and generator is significantly smaller compared to traditional direct-drive wind turbines generators [2-7]. Parameters of the multiplier and generator were chosen based on the actual parameters of wind turbines, namely: 15 RPM, power is 1 MVA. The final test of the assembled synchronous generator with HTS-2G field coils for Wind Turbines with output power 1 MVA was completed during 2015.

  16. Low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle for characterising remediation effectiveness following the FDNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Payton, O.D.; Fardoulis, J.S.; Richards, D.A.; Yamashiki, Y.; Scott, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    On the 12th of March 2011, The Great Tōhoku Earthquake occurred 70 km off the eastern coast of Japan, generating a large 14 m high tsunami. The ensuing catalogue of events over the succeeding 12 d resulted in the release of considerable quantities of radioactive material into the environment. Important to the large-scale remediation of the affected areas is the accurate and high spatial resolution characterisation of contamination, including the verification of decontaminated areas. To enable this, a low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a lightweight gamma-spectrometer and height normalisation system was used to produce sub-meter resolution maps of contamination. This system provided a valuable method to examine both contaminated and remediated areas rapidly, whilst greatly reducing the dose received by the operator, typically in localities formerly inaccessible to ground-based survey methods. The characterisation of three sites within Fukushima Prefecture is presented; one remediated (and a site of much previous attention), one un-remediated and a third having been subjected to an alternative method to reduce emitted radiation dose. - Highlights: • Contamination near FDNPP was mapped with a UAV. • Effectiveness of remediation is observed. • Sub-meter resolution mapping is achieved. • Isotopic nature of radiation is determined.

  17. SPATIOTEMPORAL ANALYSIS FOR WILDLIFE-VEHICLE-COLLISIONS BASED ON ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF THE COUNTY STRAUBING-BOGEN IN LOWER BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pagany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years the numbers of wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC in Bavaria increased considerably. Despite the statistical registration of WVC and preventive measures at areas of risk along the roads, the number of such accidents could not be contained. Using geospatial analysis on WVC data of the last five years for county Straubing-Bogen, Bavaria, a small-scale methodology was found to analyse the risk of WVC along the roads in the investigated area. Various indicators were examined, which may be related to WVC. The risk depends on the time of the day and year which shows correlations in turn to the traffic density and wildlife population. Additionally the location of the collision depends on the species and on different environmental parameters. Accidents seem to correlate with the land use left and right of the street. Land use data and current vegetation were derived from remote sensing data, providing information of the general land use, also considering the vegetation period. For this a number of hot spots was selected to identify potential dependencies between land use, vegetation and season. First results from these hotspots show, that WVCs do not only depend on land use, but may show a correlation with the vegetation period. With regard to agriculture and seasonal as well as annual changes this indicates that warnings will fail due to their static character in contrast to the dynamic situation of land use and resulting risk for WVCs. This shows that there is a demand for remote sensing data with a high spatial and temporal resolution as well as a methodology to derive WVC warnings considering land use and vegetation. With remote sensing data, it could become possible to classify land use and calculate risk levels for WVC. Additional parameters, derived from remote sensed data that could be considered are relief and crops as well as other parameters such as ponds, natural and infrastructural barriers that could be related to

  18. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Trine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs. Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC, ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, respiratory rate (RR, and systolic blood pressure (SBP was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend. Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our finding indicates a need for improved procedures, training, and tools for EMS documentation. Documentation is in itself a quality criterion for appropriate care and is crucial to trauma research.

  19. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    OpenAIRE

    Trapečar, Matej; Ivan Lipičnik, Martin; Balažic, Jože

    2012-01-01

    The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissib...

  20. A Study on the Operation of 1 MVA Distribution STATCON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.T.; Jeon, Y.S.; Yoon, J.S.; Oh, K.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the power system operational technology of 1 MVA STATCON device, which was installed at Gaya Substation in Changwon Power Transmission District Office to improve the power quality by FACTS(Flexible AC Transmission Systems). This report presents the contents as follow; The development of EMTDC simulator to analyze the operating effect of STATCON, analysis of compensation effect when increasing the capacity of STATCON, and analysis of the controlling reactive power by STATCON. (author). 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. An MVA Approach to Missing $E_T$

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of an analysis of the missing transverse energy (MET) resolution in the CMS detector studying $Z\\to\\mu\\mu$ decay events as a part of the University of Michigan Summer REU Program. We make use of boosted decision trees and specialized recoil variables in an attempt to isolate separate effects contributing to the detector resolution such as pileup, the underlying event, and detector inefficiencies. A metric is developed to study the body of high-MET events in the distribution. Emphasis is placed on constructing a multivariate analysis that effectively models and corrects these `tail' regions, resulting in an overall improvement in our MET resolution. In Monte-Carlo simulation, we see an improvement from a mean value of MET = 18.12 GeV to MET= 8.14 GeV with full MVA corrections.

  2. MVA power flow and loss analysis for electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Chen, G.Z.

    2001-01-01

    MVA power-flow and loss analysis is the basis for allocating the fixed costs and power losses under electricity-market deregulation. It is pointed out that the decomposition allocation of active and reactive power losses is not reasonable. The theory of active and reactive loss allocation and branch-power-flow decomposition has been proposed. Various contributory factors have been deduced. These contributory factors include the contribution factors of the active and reactive generation power, load-power-to-branch flows, the contribution factors of active and reactive generation power to active and reactive load power, the contribution factors of active and reactive load power to generation power, and the contribution factors of active and reactive load power and active and reactive generation power to line power losses. The detailed calculation results are presented and analysed, demonstrating that the theory presented provides a good charging algorithm for all the market participants. (Author)

  3. Caring touch as a bodily anchor for patients after sustaining a motor vehicle accident with minor or no physical injuries - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airosa, Fanny; Arman, Maria; Sundberg, Tobias; Öhlén, Gunnar; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2016-03-22

    Patients who sustain a motor vehicle accident may experience long-term distress, even if they are uninjured or only slightly injured. There is a risk of neglecting patients with minor or no physical injuries, which might impact future health problems. The aim of this study was to explore patients' subjective experiences and perspectives on pain and other factors of importance after an early nursing intervention consisting of "caring touch" (tactile massage and healing touch) for patients subjected to a motor vehicle accident with minor or no physical injuries. A mixed method approach was used. The qualitative outcomes were themes derived from individual interviews. The quantitative outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale for pain (VAS, 0-100), sense of coherence (SOC), post-traumatic stress (IES-R) and health status (EQ-5D index and EQ-5D self-rated health). Forty-one patients of in total 124 eligible patients accepted the invitation to participate in the study. Twenty-seven patients completed follow-up after 6 months whereby they had received up to eight treatments with either tactile massage or healing touch. Patients reported that caring touch may assist in trauma recovery by functioning as a physical "anchor" on the patient's way of suffering, facilitating the transition of patients from feeling as though their body is "turned off" to becoming "awake". By caring touch the patients enjoyed a compassionate care and experience moments of pain alleviation. The VAS pain ratings significantly decreased both immediately after the caring touch treatment sessions and over the follow-up period. The median scores for VAS (p touch intervention is associated with patients' report of decreased pain and improved wellbeing up to 6 months after the accident. ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT02610205 . Date 25 November 2015.

  4. A Novel AT-Rich DNA Recognition Mechanism for Bacterial Xenogeneic Silencer MvaT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial xenogeneic silencing proteins selectively bind to and silence expression from many AT rich regions of the chromosome. They serve as master regulators of horizontally acquired DNA, including a large number of virulence genes. To date, three distinct families of xenogeneic silencers have been identified: H-NS of Proteobacteria, Lsr2 of the Actinomycetes, and MvaT of Pseudomonas sp. Although H-NS and Lsr2 family proteins are structurally different, they all recognize the AT-rich DNA minor groove through a common AT-hook-like motif, which is absent in the MvaT family. Thus, the DNA binding mechanism of MvaT has not been determined. Here, we report the characteristics of DNA sequences targeted by MvaT with protein binding microarrays, which indicates that MvaT prefers binding flexible DNA sequences with multiple TpA steps. We demonstrate that there are clear differences in sequence preferences between MvaT and the other two xenogeneic silencer families. We also determined the structure of the DNA-binding domain of MvaT in complex with a high affinity DNA dodecamer using solution NMR. This is the first experimental structure of a xenogeneic silencer in complex with DNA, which reveals that MvaT recognizes the AT-rich DNA both through base readout by an "AT-pincer" motif inserted into the minor groove and through shape readout by multiple lysine side chains interacting with the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. Mutations of key MvaT residues for DNA binding confirm their importance with both in vitro and in vivo assays. This novel DNA binding mode enables MvaT to better tolerate GC-base pair interruptions in the binding site and less prefer A tract DNA when compared to H-NS and Lsr2. Comparison of MvaT with other bacterial xenogeneic silencers provides a clear picture that nature has evolved unique solutions for different bacterial genera to distinguish foreign from self DNA.

  5. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  6. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Iyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.

  7. Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

  8. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  9. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  10. Genetic adjuvantation of recombinant MVA with CD40L potentiates CD8 T cell mediated immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eLauterbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA is a safe and promising viral vaccine vector that is currently investigated in several clinical and pre-clinical trials. In contrast to inactivated or sub-unit vaccines, MVA is able to induce strong humoral as well as cellular immune responses. In order to further improve its CD8 T cell inducing capacity, we genetically adjuvanted MVA with the coding sequence of murine CD40L, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily. Immunization of mice with this new vector led to strongly enhanced primary and memory CD8 T cell responses. Concordant with the enhanced CD8 T cell response, we could detect stronger activation of dendritic cells and higher systemic levels of innate cytokines (including IL-12p70 early after immunization. Interestingly, acquisition of memory characteristics (i.e., IL-7R expression was accelerated after immunization with MVA-CD40L in comparison to non-adjuvanted MVA. Furthermore, the generated CTLs also showed improved functionality as demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining and in vivo killing activity. Importantly, the superior CTL response after a single MVA-CD40L immunization was able to protect B cell deficient mice against a fatal infection with ectromelia virus. Taken together, we show that genetic adjuvantation of MVA can change strength, quality and functionality of innate and adaptive immune responses. These data should facilitate a rational vaccine design with a focus on rapid induction of large numbers of CD8 T cells able to protect against specific diseases.

  11. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  12. Conceptual Design of a Single Phase 33 MVA HTS Transformer with a Tertiary Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, W. S.; Hahn, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. I.; Choi, K. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a 3 phase, 100 MVA, 154 kV class HTS transformer substituting for a 60 MVA conventional transformer. The power transformer of 154 kV class has a tertiary winding besides primary and secondary windings. So the HTS transformer should have the 3rd superconducting winding. In this paper, we designed conceptually the structure of the superconducting windings of a single phase 33 MVA transformer. The electrical characteristics of the HTS transformer such as % impedance and AC loss vary with the arrangement of the windings and gaps between windings. We analyzed the effects of the winding parameters, evaluated the cost of each design, and proposed a suitable HTS transformer model for future power distribution system.

  13. Development and evaluation of recombinant MVA viruses expressing bohv-1 glycoprotein D

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, María Florencia

    2010-01-01

    El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA) es un virus altamente atenuado que se utiliza eficientemente como vector viral no replicativo para el desarrollo de nuevas vacunas. En este trabajo de Tesis se desarrolló un nuevo inmunógeno basado en MVA que expresa como antígeno de interés la glicoproteína D (versión secretada, gDs) del virus herpes bovino tipo I (BoHV-1), un agente infeccioso ampliamente distribuido en Argentina. Primeramente, se diseñó y construyó el vector de transferencia para o...

  14. A benchmark report on MVA Berlin, the key element of waste management in Berlin; MVA Berlin als Herzstueck der Berliner Entsorgung im Vergleich mit der Wettbewerbs-Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempin, T. [Berliner Stadtreinigungsbetrieb, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The MVA Ruhleben incinerator has state-of-the-art technology, volume-dependent prime costs of 100-130 EUR/t, an acceptance payment of 63.70 EUR/t, employees covered by collective agreement system, disposal capacities of 500,000 tpa of residues, ecological sustainability, and customer-friendliness. Its importance will increase in the future as more than half of the expected waste volume of 983,000 tpa will be processed from 2005. (orig.) [German] Die MVA Ruhleben gewaehrleistet derzeit den Stand der Technik, mengenabhaengige Selbstkosten zwischen 100 EUR/t und 130 EUR/t, ein Annahmeentgelt von 63,70 EUR/t, soziale tarifgebundene Arbeitsplaetze, Entsorgungssicherheit, derzeit fuer 500.000 Tonnen Abfall pro Jahr, oekologische Nachhaltigkeit, Kundenfreundlichkeit. Die MVA Ruhleben wird zukuenftig fuer die Abfallentsorgung in Berlin eine noch groessere Bedeutung haben. Mit etwa 520.000 t/a Abfallentsorgungskapazitaet wird sie mehr als die Haelfte des erwarteten ueberlassungspflichtigen Restabfallaufkommens von 983.000 t/a ab 2005 verarbeiten. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of tissue adequacy for histologic examination from Ipas MVA plus and Wallach Endocell in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanijasombutti, Paphada; Imruetaicharoenchok, Arinporn; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Loharamtaweethong, Kongsak; Phuriputt, Napaporn; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare endometrial tissue adequacy sampling by Wallach Endocell and manual vacuum aspiration (Ipas MVA plus) in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Pain and immediate complications from each method were also compared. Two hundred and forty women with abnormal uterine bleeding were randomly assigned to two methods of endometrial sampling: MVA (n = 122) and Endocell (n = 118). The basic characteristic features of the women, the difficulty of the procedure, pain score by visual analogue scale, immediate complications, and treatment were recorded. Endometrial tissue adequacy and histopathologic diagnoses were evaluated. The adequacy of tissue samples was 81.1% in the MVA group and 85.6% in the Endocell group (P = 0.356). There was a significant difference in the rates of difficult procedure between the two groups (27.0% in MVA vs 14.4% in Endocell; P = 0.016). Moderate to severe pain was significantly higher in the MVA group compared to the Endocell group: 60.7% and 19.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). Other immediate minor complications were also observed to be significantly higher in the MVA group (44.3%) than in the Endocell group (30.5%) (P = 0.028). Although medication required for pain was higher in the MVA group (23.0%) than in the Endocell group (12.0%), the difference was not significant (P = 0.130). The two most common histopathologic findings obtained from MVA and Endocell specimens were proliferative endometrium (32.4%) and atrophic endometrium (27.1%). MVA was comparable to Endocell in terms of tissue adequacy. Moderate to severe pain was experienced significantly more in the MVA group; however, the requirement of pain treatment was not significantly different between the groups. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. The candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, induces highly durable Th1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tameris

    Full Text Available Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB should provide long-term protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. The current TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, protects against disseminated childhood TB, but protection against lung TB in adolescents and adults is variable and mostly poor. One potential reason for the limited durability of protection may be waning of immunity through gradual attrition of BCG-induced T cells. We determined if a MVA85A viral-vector boost could enhance the durability of mycobacteria-specific T cell responses above those induced by BCG alone.We describe a long-term follow-up study of persons previously vaccinated with MVA85A. We performed a medical history and clinical examination, a tuberculin skin test and measured vaccine-specific T cell responses in persons previously enrolled as adults, adolescents, children or infants into three different Phase II trials, between 2005 and 2011.Of 252 potential participants, 183 (72.6% consented and completed the study visit. Vaccine-induced Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were remarkably persistent in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults, adolescents, children and infants, up to 6 years after MVA85A vaccination. Specific CD4+ T cells expressed surface markers consistent with either CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory or CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory T cells. Similarly durable Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detected in HIV-infected persons who were on successful antiretroviral therapy when MVA85A was administered. By contrast, Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies in untreated MVA85A-vaccinated HIV-infected persons were mostly undetectable 3-5 years after vaccination.MVA85A induces remarkably durable T cell responses in immunocompetent persons. However, results from a recent phase IIb trial of MVA85A, conducted in infants from the same geographic area and study population, showed no vaccine efficacy, suggesting that these durable T cell responses do not

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Josleyn, Matthew; Mucker, Eric M; Hung, Chien-Fu; Loudon, Peter T; Wu, T C; Hooper, Jay W

    2012-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV) nonhuman primate (NHP) challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  20. Effects of MVA85A vaccine on tuberculosis challenge in animals: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashangura, Rufaro; Sena, Emily S; Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The existing Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides partial protection against tuberculosis (TB). The modified vaccinia ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) aims to boost BCG immunity. We evaluated the animal evidence supporting the testing of MVA85A in humans. Methods: Our protocol included in vivo preclinical studies of the MVA85A booster with BCG compared with BCG alone, followed by a TB challenge. We used standard methods for systematic review of animal studies, and summarized mortality, measures of pathology and lung bacterial load. The comprehensive literature search was to September 2014. Two independent investigators assessed eligibility and performed data extraction. We assessed study quality and pooled bacteria load using random effect meta-analysis. Findings: We included eight studies in 192 animals. Three experiments were in mice, two in guinea pigs, two in macaques and one in calves. Overall, study quality was low with no randomization, baseline comparability not described and blinding not reported. For animal death (including euthanasia due to severe morbidity), studies were underpowered, and overall no benefit demonstrated. No difference was shown for lung pathology measured on an ordinal scale or bacterial load. The largest mortality trial carried out in macaques had more deaths in the MVA85A vaccine group, and was published after a trial in South Africa had started recruiting children. Conclusions: This independent assessment of the animal data does not provide evidence to support efficacy of MVA85A as a BCG booster. More rigorous conduct and reporting of preclinical research are warranted, and we believe the results of studies should be publicly available before embarking on trials in humans, irrespective of the findings. PMID:26351306

  1. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  2. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  3. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    1970-01-01

    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2)

  4. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  5. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  6. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  7. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  8. A 220 MVA turbo-generator for the TCV tokamak power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.; Canay, I.M.; Simond, J.-J.; Morf, J.-J; Pahud, J.-D; Seysen, R.

    1989-01-01

    A new 220 MVA, 120 Hz, 4 pole turbo-generator will be used as a pulsed power source to supply the toroidal and poloidal power supplies of the TCV tokamak, which is being built at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. The paper describes the particular requirements of the TCV poloidal power supplies and the main electrical and mechanical features of the turbo-generator and its principal auxillaries. (author). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  9. 1300MVA steam-turbine generators for Kansai Electric Power's Oi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, N; Amagasa, N; Ito, H; Yagi, K [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Works

    1977-06-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has completed two 1300 MVA generators, equipped with 5500kW brushless exciters, that will be the No. 1 and No. 2 generators of the Oi plant. They are among the largest anywhere, and incorporate such technological innovations as water cooling of the stator coil and asymmetrical arrangement of the rotor slots. The article discusses generator specifications and construction, the brushless exciter, and the results of factory tests.

  10. Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2010-09-01

    The non-replicating poxviral vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is currently a leading candidate for development of novel recombinant vaccines against globally important diseases. The 1980s technology for making recombinant MVA (and other poxviruses) is powerful and robust, but relies on rare recombination events in poxviral-infected cells. In the 21st century, it has become possible to apply bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to poxviruses, as first demonstrated by B. Moss' lab in 2002 for vaccinia virus. A similar BAC clone of MVA was subsequently derived, but while recombination-mediated genetic engineering for rapid production was used of deletion mutants, an alternative method was required for efficient insertion of transgenes. Furthermore "markerless" viruses, which carry no trace of the selectable marker used for their isolation, are increasingly required for clinical trials, and the viruses derived via the new method contained the BAC sequence in their genomic DNA. Two methods are adapted to MVA-BAC to provide more rapid generation of markerless recombinants in weeks rather than months. "En passant" recombineering is applied to the insertion of a transgene expression cassette and the removal of the selectable marker in bacteria; and a self-excising variant of MVA-BAC is constructed, in which the BAC cassette region is rapidly and efficiently lost from the viral genome following rescue of the BAC into infectious virus. These methods greatly facilitate and accelerate production of recombinant MVA, including markerless constructs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MVA recombinants expressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes of PPRV protects goats against virulent challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dev; Reddy, Kolli Bhaktavatsala; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Kumar, Ponsekaran Santha; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-09-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious animal disease caused by the Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) belonging to the genus morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae. The disease results in high morbidity and mortality in goats, sheep and in some small wild ruminants. The presence of large number of small ruminants reared in endemic areas makes PPR a notorious disease threatening the livelihood of poor farmers. Conventional vaccination using a live, attenuated vaccine gives adequate protection but cannot be used in case of eradication of the disease due to difficulty in differentiation of infected animals from the vaccinated ones.In the present study, we constructed two recombinant viruses using attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara virus (MVA) namely MVA-F and MVA-H expressing the full length PPRV fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins, respectively. Goats were vaccinated intramuscularly with 105 plaque forming units (PFU) each of the recombinant viruses and a live attenuated vaccine (RAKSHA PPR) and challenged 4 months later with PPRV challenge virus (10(3) goat LD(50)). All goats were completely protected from the clinical disease. This study gave an indication that mass vaccination of small ruminants with either of the above or both recombinant inexpensive virus vaccines could help in possible eradication of PPRV from endemic countries like India and subsequent seromonitoring of the disease for differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated ones.

  12. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  13. Optimizing the coefficients of the leading terms of the Born Series: FWI+MVA+more

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-05-26

    The scattering series theoretically utilizes a model perturbation framework to explain the difference between the seismic modeled data corresponding to a background model and those measured in the field corresponding to the real Earth. These perturbations include short wavelength features like those predicted by full waveform inversion (FWI) gradients, and long wavelength features often constrained by migration velocity analysis (MVA) objectives. The Born series, however, is not a convergent series. If the perturbations are large, we probably will not be able to explain the data difference. Thus, using the leading terms of the Born in an iterative process, in which they are scaled properly, allows us to avoid such limitations and update the short and long wavelength components of the velocity model. In fact, the FWI update is manifested in the first term of the Born series, and the MVA update is represented by the transmission (first Fresnel zone) part of the second term. In this case, FWI and MVA are code names for dividing the optimized update to reflectivity based portions and those adequate for the background, respectively. Examples on synthetic and real data demonstrate this logic.

  14. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  15. Estudio preliminar sobre micorriza versículo – Arbuscular (MVA en lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverding Ewald

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinó el carácter (obligado o facultativo de la asociación micorrícica y se evaluó la eficiencia de nueve cepas de micorriza en dos tipos de oxisoles con fertilidad baja y moderada y en presencia de tres niveles de fósforo (0,50 Y 100 kg/ha. El lulo es una especie micotrófica facultativa, ya que con adecuados niveles de fósforo asimilable en el suelo su desarrollo no depende de la asociación micorrícica, mientras que con bajos niveles sucede lo contrario. En general, la inoculación con MVA incrementó el desarrollo del lulo tanto en semilleros como en plántulas. Los mejores aislamientos de MVA fueron una mezcla de Acaulospora spp y Glomus sp y Entrophospora colombiana. En general, la efectividad de la MVA incrementó con niveles bajos y medios de fósforo y se deprimió con el nivel alto, El desarrollo del lulo y la efectividad de la micorriza fue mayor en la localidad más cálida (1050 m, 24°C y 60 % HR que en la más templada (2100 m, 14°C Y 80 % HR.A preliminary study to determine the character (obligate or facultative of the mycorrhizal association in, "naranjilla" (Solanum quitoense L. and an evaluation of nine mycorrhiza stock, was carried out at Palmira (1050 m, 24°C and R.H. of 60 % and Jamundí (2100 m, 14°C and R.H. of 80 %. The trial was held on two oxyzole having a lowand moderate fertility, with 3 levels of phosphorus (0,50 Y 100 kq/ha. The "naranjilla" is a facultative mycotrophic specie. In general, the inoculation with MVA fungi, increased the development of the "naranjilla" in seed beds as well as transplanted seed lings. The effectivity of MVA was dependent on the fungus specie, its origin, the phosphorus levels in the soil and the weather of both Iocalities. The development of the "naranjilla" and the effectivity of the mycorrhiza was superior at the locality (14°C. In general, the isolations which showed the best behavior were a mixture of Acaulospora spp and Glomus sp, and

  16. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidents. An analysis of some 2 100 fatal traffic accidents gave the following results: males-79%; females-21%; a ratio of 4: 1. The high proportion of males to females killed in traffic accidents may be due to the fact that (a) more males commute daily in private and commercial vehicles;. (b) more females commute daily in ...

  17. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  18. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  19. Experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after severe traumatic brain injury under no-fault versus fault-based motor accident insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rosamund; Foster, Michele; Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To explore experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after motor vehicle accident (MVA) acquired severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) under fault-based vs no-fault motor accident insurance (MAI). In-depth qualitative interviews with 10 adults with sTBI and 17 family members examined experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice and how these were shaped by both compensable status and interactions with service providers and service funders under a no-fault and a fault-based MAI scheme. Participants were sampled to provide variation in compensable status, injury severity, time post-injury and metropolitan vs regional residency. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify dominant themes under each scheme. Dominant themes emerging under the no-fault scheme included: (a) rehabilitation-focused pathways; (b) a sense of security; and (c) bounded choices. Dominant themes under the fault-based scheme included: (a) resource-rationed pathways; (b) pressured lives; and (c) unknown choices. Participants under the no-fault scheme experienced superior access to specialist rehabilitation services, greater surety of support and more choice over how rehabilitation and life-time care needs were met. This study provides valuable insights into individual experiences under fault-based vs no-fault MAI. Implications for an injury insurance scheme design to optimize pathways, outcomes and choice after sTBI are discussed.

  20. Technical subsidies for the operation of IRD/CNEN emergency vehicles in the case of a nuclear accident at the Angra Nuclear Power Plant with associated radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.

    1982-03-01

    Technical support is provided for the operation of an emergency vehicle of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the event of uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the Angra Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to the atmosphere. It is based on internationally adopted emergency decision process philosophy, the concept of 'Protective Action Guide' (PAG), the exposure pathways relevant to nuclear accidents, the measuring systems to be used in obtaining the exposure rate in the effluent 'plume', the methods utilized to predict dose to the population, radioiodine suppression measures, the monitoring instrumentation available to the emergency group, some post-accident considerations and finally, the monitoring that may be carried out from an aircraft. Information is given about the NPP operator's responsabilities with respect to the prediction of the consequences of an accident, as well as methods for thyroid and whole body dose estimation based on exposure to the radioiodine and noble gases present in the effluent plume. The example of the Three Mile Island's incident is used to formulate some observations regarding collective dose to the public estimates derived from measurements made from a helicopter. (Author) [pt

  1. MVA and NYVAC as vaccines against emergent infectious diseases and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carmen E; Nájera, José L; Krupa, Magdalena; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-06-01

    Recombinants based on poxviruses have been used extensively as gene delivery systems to study many biological functions of foreign genes and as vaccines against many pathogens, particularly in the veterinary field. Based on safety record, efficient expression and ability to trigger specific immune responses, two of the most promising poxvirus vectors for human use are the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the Copenhagen derived NYVAC strains. Because of the scientific and clinical interest in these two vectors, here we review their biological characteristics, with emphasis on virus-host cell interactions, viral immunomodulators, gene expression profiling, virus distribution in animals, and application as vaccines against different pathogens and tumors.

  2. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  3. Flywheel for a 167 MVA surge power motor-generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, H.

    1975-01-01

    Flywheels to be subjected to major speed fluctuations are designed on the basis of both the usual strength analysis and fracture mechanics considerations, and the testing and operating instructions have to allow for this. Appropriate test units are used to determine the fracture toughness of the material. Residual stresses are measured and extensive ultrasonic and magnetic particle tests performed to enable the permissible number of stress cycles to be predicted. The article deals with these problems by reference to the flywheel of a 167 MVA surge power motor-generator set for the Max Planck Insitute for Plasma Physics in Garching. (orig.) [de

  4. Simulation of double-fed speed regulation system for 125 MVA motor-generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fen; Wang Shujing; Li Huajun

    2007-01-01

    A simulation modeling of double-fed motor speed regulation for 125 MVA AC pulsed M-G set of HL-2A is built using Matlab. Some parameters of the project are obtained by the pre-simulation, and the process of start-up is analyzed. In the Matlab simulation the motor model in Simulink can not be connected directly to the cycloconverter model. This problem is solved by adding an ideal transformer model between them, and the satisfactory result is obtained. A new method of control switching two cycloconverter without circulating current has been introduced. (authors)

  5. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.

  6. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  7. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  8. Frequency of work zone accidents on construction projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study work zone accidents in New York State, with particular attention to the : occurrence and mitigation of rear-end vehicle accidents. The specific objectives were to: : - Recommend changes to the NYSDO...

  9. Market implementation of the MVA platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Claassen, E

    2015-08-20

    A quantitative method is presented to rank strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to achieve pairwise comparisons among SWOT factors in order to prioritize them. Key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the influenza vaccine field were interviewed to collect a unique dataset to evaluate the market potential of this platform. The purpose of this study, to evaluate commercial potential of the MVA platform for the development of novel generation pandemic influenza vaccines, is accomplished by using a SWOT and AHP combined analytic method. Application of the SWOT-AHP model indicates that its strengths are considered more important by KOLs than its weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Particularly, the inherent immunogenicity capability of MVA without the requirement of an adjuvant is the most important factor to increase commercial attractiveness of this platform. Concerns regarding vector vaccines and anti-vector immunity are considered its most important weakness, which might lower public health value of this platform. Furthermore, evaluation of the results of this study emphasizes equally important role that threats and opportunities of this platform play. This study further highlights unmet needs in the influenza vaccine market, which could be addressed by the implementation of the MVA platform. Broad use of MVA in clinical trials shows great promise for this vector as vaccine platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza and threats by other respiratory viruses. Moreover, from the results of the clinical trials seem that MVA is particularly attractive for development of vaccines against pathogens for which no, or only insufficiently effective vaccines, are available. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  11. Design of double-fed control system for J-TEXT 100 MVA pulse generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jianming; Yu, Kexun; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Ge; Xiao, Zhiguo; Jiang, Guozhong; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Jiayu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A double-fed control system is designed for J-TEXT 100 MVA pulse generator unit. ► The double-fed system can control the motor speed and reactive power individually. ► Experiment on a prototype motor shows a good control result. -- Abstract: The 100 MVA pulse generator unit is the main power supply of J-TEXT. This unit supplies energy for the toroidal coil, the ohmic heat coil and the divertor coil, with the maximum stored energy 185 MJ. For the difference of grid frequency between China and USA, the rotational speed and stored energy of this unit are less than the designed value. A double-fed control system for the unit is designed to raise them. This double-fed system has applied a control method using a rotational reference frame oriented by stator flux. With this control system, the speed and reactive power of motor could be controlled individually. Experiments on a prototype motor show a good control result

  12. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA [monitoring, verification, and accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  13. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  14. ANALISIS PENGARUH EVA DAN MVA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTI DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pahlawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: (1 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham (2 pengaruh Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham (3 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham antara variabel kinerja keuangan industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada periode 2007-2012. Kegunaan teoritis adalah untuk memberikan kontribusi tentang pengetahuan manajemen keuangan, yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk penelitian berikutnya kinerja keuangan terutama tentang industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Kegunaan praktis adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap kinerja keuangan untuk kontribusi memberi kepada manajemen properti umum dalam mengelola variabel kinerja industri properti Bursa Efek Indonesia.Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari data Bursa Efek Indonesia, dan Departemen Riset menurut sifat laporan keuangan pada periode 2007-2012. Sampel adalah 54 variabel dan dianalisis dengan regresi berganda metode statistik linier. Total nilai determinasi adalah 0,368, artinya ini adalah 36,8% informasi dalam data dapat dijelaskan oleh model dan 63,2% di bawah variabel lain dan error. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Variabel Economic Value Added (EVA berpengaruh positif terhadap return saham; (2 Variabel Market Value Added (MVA memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap Return Saham; Mengacu pada kesimpulan penelitian diatas maka disarankan adalah: (1 Dioptimalkan Economic Value Added (EVA untuk mencapai pendapatan dan keuntungan dari return saham (2 Mengelola Variabel Market Value Added (MVA pada kondisi baik untuk menjaga stabilitas keuangan dan mendapatkan dipercaya dari investor Bursa Efek Indonesia (3 Fokus ke Manajemen Risiko, Jasa, perusahaan Visi & Misi, dan Active keterampilan dan pengetahuan karyawan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi untuk

  15. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  16. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Andersen, Rikke F; Spencer, Alexandra J

    2008-01-01

    -length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A...

  17. Aspects regarding the Calculation of the Dielectric Loss Angle Tangent between the Windings of a Rated 40 MVA Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Popescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify how to determine the dielectric loss angle tangent of the electric transformers from the transformer stations. Autors of the paper managed a case study on the dielectric established between high respectively medium voltage windings of an electrical rated 40 MVA transformer.

  18. Un chercheur du CERN tué dans un accident

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The accident occured on Sunday between Collonges and Pougnu (Pays de Gex): 4 russians scientists were aboard the vehicle; the driver lost the control of the vehicle and the car made a barrel. (1/4 page)

  19. Automated and connected vehicle implications and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Automated and connected vehicles (ACV) and, in particular, autonomous vehicles have captured : the interest of the public, industry and transportation authorities. ACVs can significantly reduce : accidents, fuel consumption, pollution and the costs o...

  20. Principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito na BR 163, Mato Grosso, Brasil, 2004 Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Victório de Carvalho Almeida

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é essencial para o desenvolvimento econômico de Mato Grosso, Brasil, sendo a BR 163 a principal rodovia de escoamento da produção agropecuária da região. Uma das conseqüências desta atividade é a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. Com o objetivo de analisar e categorizar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes nesta rodovia, foram utilizados dados da Superintendência de Polícia Rodoviária Federal referentes ao ano de 2004. Nos resultados, destacaram-se como fatores associados à maior chance de ocorrência de acidentes com vítimas (com significância estatística: a condição de rolamento regular (OR = 1,89; IC: 1,32-2,70; os acidentes do tipo colisão frontal (OR = 14,14; IC: 8,96-22,32 e atropelamento de pedestre (OR = 35,95; IC: 8,10-159,52; e os fatores contribuintes defeito na via (OR = 4,35; IC: 1,94-9,75 e desobediência à sinalização (OR = 5,69; IC: 2,01-16,12. Conclui-se que para reduzir o problema dos acidentes nesta rodovia é preciso estabelecer medidas de intervenção de caráter global, não focalizando ações somente na modificação do comportamento do condutor e na fiscalização, mas considerando questões regionais e suas dimensões econômicas, sociais e culturais.Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70; front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32; and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI

  1. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Influence of adenovirus and MVA vaccines on the breadth and hierarchy of T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollier, Christine S; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2016-08-31

    Viral-vectored vaccines are in clinical development for several infectious diseases where T-cell responses can mediate protection, and responses to sub-dominant epitopes is needed. Little is known about the influence of MVA or adenoviral vectors on the hierarchy of the dominant and sub-dominant T-cell epitopes. We investigated this aspect in mice using a malaria immunogen. Our results demonstrate that the T-cell hierarchy is influenced by the timing of analysis, rather than by the vector after a single immunization, with hierarchy changing over time. Repeated homologous immunization reduced the breadth of responses, while heterologous prime-boost induced the strongest response to the dominant epitope, albeit with only modest response to the sub-dominant epitopes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. MVA amplifier used for plasma position control in the WEGA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.

    1982-02-01

    A new amplifier has been developed for the control of the plasma positron in the WEGA III tokomak acting on the vertical magnetic field. In the high power domain thyristor choppers are usually applied. Unfortunately their response time is quite long and does not yet correspond to the WEGA demand. Therefore transistors have been used to build a fast switching amplifier of the H-bridge type, delivering a power of 1 MVA, by switching 2500 A at 400 V. Because of the duty cycle of the plasma (0,12 s every 240 s) the necessary average power to the amplifier supply is only 500 VA. An intermediate energy storage in an electrolytic capacitor bank is therefore used. As the switching transistors must operate under extreme conditions of voltage and current, precautions must be taken to limit the overvoltage and the overcurrent, to prevent oscillations and to assure power and control equilibrium among the transistors

  4. Aspectos patológicos de 155 casos fatais de cães atropelados por veículos automotivos Pathological aspects of 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicles accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O atropelamento por veículos automotivos contribui significativamente para as estatísticas de morte em cães. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre os aspectos patológicos reportados na literatura. Este artigo descreve 155 casos fatais de atropelamento por veículos automotivos em cães. Dos 155 cães atropelados, em 138 (89,0% havia lesões que explicavam a morte ou a razão para a eutanásia desses cães. Essas lesões incluíram traumatismo espinhal-medular (43 [27,7%], ruptura de órgãos parenquimatosos (40 [25,8%], traumatismo cranioencefálico (28 [18,1%], ruptura de órgãos ocos (16 [10,3%], fratura de costelas com laceração de órgãos parenquimatosos (15 [9,7%] e ruptura de diafragma com deslocamento de vísceras abdominais para a cavidade torácica (10 [6,4%].Motor vehicle-related trauma significantly contributes to death statistics of dogs. There are however few documented reports on the pathological aspects of such cases. This paper describes 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicle accidents. In 138 (89.0% of the 155 dogs hit by motor vehicles there were lesions that could explain the death or reason for these dogs being euthanatized. These lesions included vertebrospinal trauma (43 [27.7%], rupture of parenchymal organs (40 [25.8%], cranioencephalic trauma (28 [18.1%], rupture of hollow organs (16 [10.3%], rib fracture with subsequent laceration of parenchymal organs (15 [9.7%], and diaphragmatic rupture with displacement of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity (10 [6.4%].

  5. Dendritic cells exposed to MVA-based HIV-1 vaccine induce highly functional HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Climent

    Full Text Available Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α. MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8(+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B.

  6. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  7. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Cottingham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS99 12415-20. The genomic BAC clone was 'rescued' back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8(+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c mice, but deletion of B15R enhanced specific CD8(+ T cell responses to one of two endogenous viral epitopes (from the E2 and F2 proteins, in accordance with published work (Staib et al., 2005, J. Gen. Virol.86, 1997-2006. In addition, we found a higher frequency of triple-positive IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 secreting E3-specific CD8+ T-cells 8 weeks after vaccination with MVA lacking B15R. Furthermore, a recombinant vaccine capable of inducing CD8(+ T cells against an epitope from Plasmodium berghei was created using GalK counterselection to insert an antigen expression cassette lacking a tandem marker gene into the traditional thymidine kinase locus of MVA-BAC. MVA continues to feature prominently in clinical trials of recombinant vaccines against diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate in proof-of-concept experiments that MVA-BAC recombineering is a viable route to more rapid and efficient generation of new candidate mutant and recombinant

  9. Standardisation of heavy vehicle crash investigation procedures in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles and even less is known about the real cause of these accidents. This paper reports on the findings of a study on the status of heavy vehicle accident investigation procedures in South Africa. This study involved a...

  10. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.401 - Reporting of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.401 Reporting of accidents. (a) The... manager of the GSA IFMS fleet management center issuing the vehicle; (2) The employee's supervisor; and (3... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting of accidents...

  13. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  14. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  15. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  16. Effect of vaccine dose on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG vaccinated UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Ansar A; Minassian, Angela M; Sander, Clare R; Rowland, Rosalind; Porter, David W; Poulton, Ian D; Hill, Adrian V S; Fletcher, Helen A; McShane, Helen

    2012-08-17

    A non-randomised, open-label, Phase I safety and immunogenicity dose-finding study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate TB vaccine Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing Antigen 85A (MVA85A) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in healthy adult volunteers previously vaccinated with BCG. Healthy BCG-vaccinated volunteers were vaccinated with either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. All adverse events were documented and antigen specific T cell responses were measured using an ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Safety and immunogenicity were compared between the 2 dose groups and with a previous trial in which a dose of 5×10(7)PFU MVA85A had been administered. There were no serious adverse events recorded following administration of either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. Systemic adverse events were more frequently reported following administration of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A when compared to either 5×10(7) or 1×10(7)PFU of MVA85A but were mild or moderate in severity and resolved completely within 7 days of immunisation. Antigen specific T cell responses as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT were significantly higher following immunisation in adults receiving 1×10(8)PFU compared to the 5×10(7) and 1×10(7) doses. Additionally, a broader range of Ag85A epitopes are detected following 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-γ secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Poly-MVA attenuates 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiated and croton oil promoted skin papilloma formation on mice skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Ravindran K; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Janardhanan, Kainoor K; Antonawich, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Chemopreventive agents which exhibit activities such as anti-inflammation, inhibition of carcinogen induced mutagenesis and scavenging of free radical might play a decisive role in the inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis either at the initiation or promotion stage. Many synthesized palladium (Pd) complexes tested experimentally for antitumor activity are found effective. Poly-MVA is a liquid blend preparation containing B complex vitamins, ruthenium with Pd complexed with alpha lipoic acid as the major ingredients. The antitumor effect of Poly-MVA was evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene-initiated croton oil-promoted papilloma formation on mice skin. Skin tumor was initiated with a single application of 390 nmol of DMBA in 20 µl acetone. The effect of Poly-MVA against croton oil- induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation on the mice skin was also evaluated. Topical application of Poly-MVA (100 µl, twice weekly for 18 weeks) 30 minutes prior to each croton oil application, significantly decreased the tumor incidence (11%) and the average number of tumor per animals. Application of Poly-MVA (100 µl) before croton oil significantly (p < 0.05) protected the mouse skin from inflammation (36%) and lipid peroxidation (14%) when compared to the croton oil alone treated group. Experimental results indicate that Poly-MVA attenuate the tumor promoting effects of croton oil and the effect may probably be due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  18. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  19. Report on acoustic and vibration measurements on 250 MVA transformer at St. Vital Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, K.; McLoughlin, M.; Schott, R.; Tennese, G.; Daneryd, A.

    1998-09-01

    Vibroacoustic behaviour of a power transformer was characterized prior to employing active noise control (ANC) to control transformer noise. The effect of changes in temperature and loading conditions on the vibration pattern of the transformer tank received particular attention. The transformer quieting technology has been developed and implemented by QuietPower Systems of New York and Noise Cancellation Technologies Inc., of Maryland. Results of the study will be used to ensure that actuator placement is appropriate for each of the seasons experienced throughout the year, as well as to build boundary element and finite element models of the tank vibration and the associated radiated noise. Boundary element results show that the first four harmonics are the primary contributors to radiated noise. The finite element model used to examine the modal response of the tank structure showed high modal densities, even around the lower order harmonics (120 Hz). This can be interpreted to mean that statistical techniques normally associated with high frequency noise problems may be applicable here because of the high modal density. Results of the completed summer and winter measurements permit an evaluation of the effects of loading conditions, temperature and other environmental factors on transformer noise. Appendix B contains the results of numerical simulations on a 250 MVA transformer. 3 refs., 72 figs., 2 appendices

  20. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  1. Computer Based Road Accident Reconstruction Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Batista

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more trustworthy accident reconstruction, thereforepractical experiences while using computer software toolsfor road accident reconstruction obtained in the TransportSafety Laboratory at the Faculty for Maritime Studies andTransport of the University of Ljubljana are presented and discussed.This paper addresses also software technology for extractingmaximum information from the accident photo-documentationto support accident reconstruction based on the simulationsoftware, as well as the field work of reconstruction expertsor police on the road accident scene defined by this technology.

  2. A T cell-inducing influenza vaccine for the elderly: safety and immunogenicity of MVA-NP+M1 in adults aged over 50 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Antrobus

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines have reduced immunogenicity and are of uncertain efficacy in older adults. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-NP+M1, a viral-vectored influenza vaccine designed to boost memory T cell responses, in a group of older adults.Thirty volunteers (aged 50-85 received a single intramuscular injection of MVA-NP+M1 at a dose of 1·5×10(8 plaque forming units (pfu. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed over a period of one year. The frequency of T cells specific for nucleoprotein (NP and matrix protein 1 (M1 was determined by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ ELISpot, and their phenotypic and functional properties were characterized by polychromatic flow cytometry. In a subset of M1-specific CD8(+ T cells, T cell receptor (TCR gene expression was evaluated using an unbiased molecular approach.Vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 was well tolerated. ELISpot responses were boosted significantly above baseline following vaccination. Increases were detected in both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell subsets. Clonality studies indicated that MVA-NP+M1 expanded pre-existing memory CD8(+ T cells, which displayed a predominant CD27(+CD45RO(+CD57(-CCR7(- phenotype both before and after vaccination.MVA-NP+M1 is safe and immunogenic in older adults. Unlike seasonal influenza vaccination, the immune responses generated by MVA-NP+M1 are similar between younger and older individuals. A T cell-inducing vaccine such as MVA-NP+M1 may therefore provide a way to circumvent the immunosenescence that impairs routine influenza vaccination.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00942071.

  3. Characteristics of worker accidents on NYSDOT construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Satish; Zech, Wesley C

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing cost-effective safety measures to protect construction workers in highway work zones, based on real data. Two types of accidents that occur in work zones were: (a) construction work area accidents, and (b) traffic accidents involving construction worker(s). A detailed analysis of work zone accidents involving 36 fatalities and 3,055 severe injuries to construction workers on New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) construction projects from 1990 to 2001 established that five accident types: (a) Struck/Pinned by Large Equipment, (b) Trip or Fall (elevated), (c) Contact w/Electrical or Gas Utility, (d) Struck-by Moving/Falling Load, and (e) Crane/Lift Device Failure accounted for nearly 96% of the fatal accidents, nearly 63% of the hospital-level injury accidents, and nearly 91% of the total costs. These construction work area accidents had a total cost of $133.8 million. Traffic accidents that involve contractors' employees were also examined. Statistical analyses of the traffic accidents established that five traffic accident types: (a) Work Space Intrusion, (b) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space, (c) Flagger Struck-by Vehicle, (d) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Entering/Exiting Work Space, and (e) Construction Equipment Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space accounted for nearly 86% of the fatal, nearly 70% of the hospital-level injury and minor injury traffic accidents, and $45.4 million (79.4%) of the total traffic accident costs. The results of this paper provide real statistics on construction worker related accidents reported on construction work zones. Potential preventions based on real statistics have also been suggested. The ranking of accident types, both within the work area as well as in traffic, will guide the heavy highway contractor and owner agencies in identifying the most cost effective safety preventions.

  4. A multi-antigenic MVA vaccine increases efficacy of combination chemotherapy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung-Theung-Long, Stéphane; Coupet, Charles-Antoine; Gouanvic, Marie; Schmitt, Doris; Ray, Aurélie; Hoffmann, Chantal; Schultz, Huguette; Tyagi, Sandeep; Soni, Heena; Converse, Paul J; Arias, Lilibeth; Kleinpeter, Patricia; Sansas, Benoît; Mdluli, Khisimuzi; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Nuermberger, Eric; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste; Silvestre, Nathalie; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2018-01-01

    Despite the existence of the prophylactic Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major public health issue causing up to 1.8 million annual deaths worldwide. Increasing prevalence of Mtb strains resistant to antibiotics represents an urgent threat for global health that has prompted a search for alternative treatment regimens not subject to development of resistance. Immunotherapy constitutes a promising approach to improving current antibiotic treatments through engagement of the host's immune system. We designed a multi-antigenic and multiphasic vaccine, based on the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus, denoted MVATG18598, which expresses ten antigens classically described as representative of each of different phases of Mtb infection. In vitro analysis coupled with multiple-passage evaluation demonstrated that this vaccine is genetically stable, i.e. fit for manufacturing. Using different mouse strains, we show that MVATG18598 vaccination results in both Th1-associated T-cell responses and cytolytic activity, targeting all 10 vaccine-expressed Mtb antigens. In chronic post-exposure mouse models, MVATG18598 vaccination in combination with an antibiotic regimen decreases the bacterial burden in the lungs of infected mice, compared with chemotherapy alone, and is associated with long-lasting antigen-specific Th1-type T cell and antibody responses. In one model, co-treatment with MVATG18598 prevented relapse of the disease after treatment completion, an important clinical goal. Overall, results demonstrate the capacity of the therapeutic MVATG18598 vaccine to improve efficacy of chemotherapy against TB. These data support further development of this novel immunotherapeutic in the treatment of Mtb infections.

  5. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  6. A multi-antigenic MVA vaccine increases efficacy of combination chemotherapy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Leung-Theung-Long

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of the prophylactic Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine, infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a major public health issue causing up to 1.8 million annual deaths worldwide. Increasing prevalence of Mtb strains resistant to antibiotics represents an urgent threat for global health that has prompted a search for alternative treatment regimens not subject to development of resistance. Immunotherapy constitutes a promising approach to improving current antibiotic treatments through engagement of the host's immune system. We designed a multi-antigenic and multiphasic vaccine, based on the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus, denoted MVATG18598, which expresses ten antigens classically described as representative of each of different phases of Mtb infection. In vitro analysis coupled with multiple-passage evaluation demonstrated that this vaccine is genetically stable, i.e. fit for manufacturing. Using different mouse strains, we show that MVATG18598 vaccination results in both Th1-associated T-cell responses and cytolytic activity, targeting all 10 vaccine-expressed Mtb antigens. In chronic post-exposure mouse models, MVATG18598 vaccination in combination with an antibiotic regimen decreases the bacterial burden in the lungs of infected mice, compared with chemotherapy alone, and is associated with long-lasting antigen-specific Th1-type T cell and antibody responses. In one model, co-treatment with MVATG18598 prevented relapse of the disease after treatment completion, an important clinical goal. Overall, results demonstrate the capacity of the therapeutic MVATG18598 vaccine to improve efficacy of chemotherapy against TB. These data support further development of this novel immunotherapeutic in the treatment of Mtb infections.

  7. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given [fr

  8. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  9. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  10. Field testing of a 1,300MVA turbine generator for the Oi nuclear-power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshiaki; Tajiri, Yoshiaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Mitsuo.

    1980-01-01

    The first Mitsubishi 1,300MVA turbine generator for this power station was put into commercial operation in March 1979, and the second unit in December of that year. The turbine generators use new technology in a variety of areas, including the cooling system, to achieve great increases in capacity over previously designed generators, and are destined to become the worldwide standard for large-scale generators of this type. Valuable experience was gained in the installation and testing of the generators. The outline of the tests performed on the generators with respect to heating and vibration are described in the article. (author)

  11. Modeling of Electric Field Around 100 MVA 150/20 KV Power Transformator Using Charge Simulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Noviadi Arief; Risdiyanto, Agus; Ramdan, Ade

    2013-01-01

    Charge Simulation Method is one of the field theory that can be used as an approach to calculate the electromagnetic distribution on the electrical conductor. This paper discussed electric field modeling around power transformator by using Matlab to find the safety distance. The safe distance threshold of the electric field to human health refers to WHO and SNI was 5 kV/m. The specification of the power transformator was three phases, 150/20 kV, and 100 MVA. The basic concept is to change the...

  12. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Keuangan Sebelum Dan Sesudah Merger Dengan Menggunakan Metode Economic Value Added (Eva Dan Market Value Added (Mva Pada Pt Unilever Indonesia Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmi Ayu Zulvina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Merger is a decision to combine or merge two or more companies into one new company. One of the merged company in Indonesia is PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk with PT Knorr Indonesia in 2004. To identify and analyze it, EVA and MVA method is used, then the results of the calculations tested using normality test statistical tool kolmogorov smirnov, and carried out by means of differential test paired samples T-test.The increase of  EVA before and after the merger worth 125.30%. While the increase in MVA before and after the merger worth 227.33%. Increasing the value of MVA was more due to the company's market value, which is reflected in the share price and listed share, although not free from invested capital in the company

  13. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  14. ROAD TRANSPORT ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasunkanmi Oriola AKINYEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of road traffic accidents revealed that most accidents are as a result of drivers’ errors. Over the years, active safety systems (ASS were devised in vehicle to reduce the high level of road accidents, caused by human errors, leading to death and injuries.This study however evaluated the impacts of ASS inclusions into vehicles in Nigeria road transportation network. The objectives was to measure how ASS contributed to making driving safer and enhanced transport safety. Road accident data were collected, for a period of eleven years, from Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Central Office of Statistics. Quantitative analysis of the retrospective accident was conducted by computing the proportion of yearly number of vehicles involved in road accident to the total number of vehicles for each year. Results of the analysis showed that the proportion of vehicles involved in road accidents decreased from 16 in 1996 to 0.89 in 2006, the injured persons reduced from 15.58 in 1998 to 0.3 in 2006 and the death rate diminished from 4.45 in 1998 to 0.1 in 2006. These represented 94.4%, 95% and 95% improvement respectively on road traffic safety. It can therefore be concluded that the inclusions of ASS into design of modern vehicles had improved road safety in Nigeria automotive industry.

  15. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  16. HIV-DNA Given with or without Intradermal Electroporation Is Safe and Highly Immunogenic in Healthy Swedish HIV-1 DNA/MVA Vaccinees: A Phase I Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Nilsson

    Full Text Available We compared safety and immunogenicity of intradermal (ID vaccination with and without electroporation (EP in a phase I randomized placebo-controlled trial of an HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccine in healthy Swedish volunteers.HIV-DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtypes A, B and C; Rev B; Gag A and B and RTmut B were given ID at weeks 0, 6 and 12 in a dose of 0.6 mg. Twenty-five volunteers received vaccine using a needle-free device (ZetaJet with (n=16 or without (n=9 ID EP (Dermavax. Five volunteers were placebo recipients. Boosting with recombinant MVA-CMDR expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE (HIV-MVA or placebo was performed at weeks 24 and 40. Nine of the vaccinees received a subtype C CN54 gp140 protein boost together with HIV-MVA.The ID/EP delivery was very well tolerated. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, no statistically significant difference was seen in the IFN-γ ELISpot response rate to Gag between HIV-DNA ID/EP recipients (5/15, 33% and HIV-DNA ID recipients (1/7, 14%, p=0.6158. The first HIV-MVA or HIV-MVA+gp140 vaccination increased the IFN-γ ELISpot response rate to 18/19 (95%. CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses to Gag or Env were demonstrable in 94% of vaccinees. A balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response was noted, with 78% and 71% responders, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-2 dominated the CD4+ T cell response to Gag and Env. The CD8+ response to Gag was broader with expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1β and/or CD107. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Binding antibodies were induced after the second HIV-MVA+/-gp140 in 93% of vaccinees to subtype C Env, with the highest titers among EP/gp140 recipients.Intradermal electroporation of HIV-DNA was well tolerated. Strong cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses were elicited by the HIV-DNA prime and HIV-MVA boosting regimen, with or without intradermal electroporation use.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN 60284968.

  17. HIV-DNA Given with or without Intradermal Electroporation Is Safe and Highly Immunogenic in Healthy Swedish HIV-1 DNA/MVA Vaccinees: A Phase I Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Charlotta; Hejdeman, Bo; Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Tecleab, Teghesti; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Bråve, Andreas; Earl, Patricia L; Stout, Richard R; Robb, Merlin L; Shattock, Robin J; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sandström, Eric; Wahren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    We compared safety and immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) vaccination with and without electroporation (EP) in a phase I randomized placebo-controlled trial of an HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccine in healthy Swedish volunteers. HIV-DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtypes A, B and C; Rev B; Gag A and B and RTmut B were given ID at weeks 0, 6 and 12 in a dose of 0.6 mg. Twenty-five volunteers received vaccine using a needle-free device (ZetaJet) with (n=16) or without (n=9) ID EP (Dermavax). Five volunteers were placebo recipients. Boosting with recombinant MVA-CMDR expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE (HIV-MVA) or placebo was performed at weeks 24 and 40. Nine of the vaccinees received a subtype C CN54 gp140 protein boost together with HIV-MVA. The ID/EP delivery was very well tolerated. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, no statistically significant difference was seen in the IFN-γ ELISpot response rate to Gag between HIV-DNA ID/EP recipients (5/15, 33%) and HIV-DNA ID recipients (1/7, 14%, p=0.6158). The first HIV-MVA or HIV-MVA+gp140 vaccination increased the IFN-γ ELISpot response rate to 18/19 (95%). CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses to Gag or Env were demonstrable in 94% of vaccinees. A balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response was noted, with 78% and 71% responders, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-2 dominated the CD4+ T cell response to Gag and Env. The CD8+ response to Gag was broader with expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1β and/or CD107. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Binding antibodies were induced after the second HIV-MVA+/-gp140 in 93% of vaccinees to subtype C Env, with the highest titers among EP/gp140 recipients. Intradermal electroporation of HIV-DNA was well tolerated. Strong cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses were elicited by the HIV-DNA prime and HIV-MVA boosting regimen, with or without intradermal electroporation use. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 60284968.

  18. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Chapman

    Full Text Available In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM. Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory phenotype. The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. DNA-GagN expresses a natural Gag with a sequence that was closest to the consensus sequence of subtype C viruses sampled in South Africa. DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly

  19. An examination of the Apo-1/Fas promoter Mva I polymorphism in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabe Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apo-1/Fas (CD95 molecule is an apoptosis-signaling cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor family. Both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL are expressed in activated mature T cells, and prolonged cell activation induces susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The Apo-1/Fas gene is located in a chromosomal region that shows linkage in multiple sclerosis (MS genome screens, and studies indicate that there is aberrant expression of the Apo-1/Fas molecule in MS. Methods Mva I polymorphism on the Apo-1/Fas promoter gene was detected by PCR-RFLP from the DNA of 114 Japanese patients with conventional MS and 121 healthy controls. We investigated the association of the Mva I polymorphism in Japanese MS patients using a case-control association study design. Results We found no evidence that the polymorphism contributes to susceptibility to MS. Furthermore, there was no association between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and clinical course (relapsing-remitting course or secondary-progressive course. No significant association was observed between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and the age at disease onset. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that Apo-1/Fas promoter gene polymorphisms are not conclusively related to susceptibility to MS or the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with MS.

  20. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  2. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  3. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  4. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  5. Accident Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, Ivo; Lund, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    There is a general feeling that decommissioning is an activity involving limited risks, compared to NPP operation, and in particular risks involving the general public. This is technically confirmed by licensing analysis and evaluations, where, once the spent fuel has been removed from the plant, the radioactivity inventory available to be released to the environment is very limited. Decommissioning activities performed so far in the world have also confirmed the first assumptions and no specific issue has been identified, in this field, to justify a completely new approach. Commercial interests in international harmonization, which could drive an in-depth discussion about the bases of this approach, are weak at the moment. However, there are several reasons why a discussion in an international framework about the Safety Case for decommissioning (and, in particular, about Accident Assessment) may be considered necessary and important, and why it may show some specific and peculiar aspects. An effort for a comprehensive and systematic D and D accident safety assessment of the decommissioning process is justified. It is necessary also to explore in a holistic way the aspects of industrial safety, and develop tools for the decision-making process optimization. The expected results are the implementation of appropriate and optimized protective measures in any event and of adequate on/off-site emergency plans for optimal public and workers protection. The experience from other decommissioning projects and large-scale industrial activities is essential to balance provisions and an Operating Experience review process (specific for decommissioning) should help to focus on real issues

  6. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law enforcement personnel must make detailed investigations of...

  7. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In addition to the requirements in § 634.28 of...

  8. The phenomenon of road accidents : review and preview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klöckner, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Traffic accidents are not a product of motorization, for people were losing their lives in traffic accidents even before the invention of the motor vehicle. The number of deaths increased, parallel to spreading motorization until about 1970 and then fell in the following years in spite of further

  9. TALEN-mediated single-base-pair editing identification of an intergenic mutation upstream of BUB1B as causative of PCS (MVA) syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Kanai, Akinori; Hosoba, Kosuke; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Kudo, Yoshiki; Asami, Keiko; Ogawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Kajii, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsuura, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-prone syndrome of premature chromatid separation with mosaic variegated aneuploidy [PCS (MVA) syndrome] is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by constitutional aneuploidy and a high risk of childhood cancer. We previously reported monoallelic mutations in the BUB1B gene (encoding BUBR1) in seven Japanese families with the syndrome. No second mutation was found in the opposite allele of any of the families studied, although a conserved BUB1B haplotype and a decreased transcript were identified. To clarify the molecular pathology of the second allele, we extended our mutational search to a candidate region surrounding BUB1B. A unique single nucleotide substitution, G > A at ss802470619, was identified in an intergenic region 44 kb upstream of a BUB1B transcription start site, which cosegregated with the disorder. To examine whether this is the causal mutation, we designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease–mediated two-step single-base pair editing strategy and biallelically introduced this substitution into cultured human cells. The cell clones showed reduced BUB1B transcripts, increased PCS frequency, and MVA, which are the hallmarks of the syndrome. We also encountered a case of a Japanese infant with PCS (MVA) syndrome carrying a homozygous single nucleotide substitution at ss802470619. These results suggested that the nucleotide substitution identified was the causal mutation of PCS (MVA) syndrome. PMID:24344301

  10. Broad and potent immune responses to a low dose intradermal HIV-1 DNA boosted with HIV-1 recombinant MVA among healthy adults in Tanzania☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Nilsson, Charlotta; Francis, Joel; Buma, Deus; Moshiro, Candida; Aris, Eric A.; Lyamuya, Eligius F.; Janabi, Mohamed; Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Joachim, Agricola; Polonis, Victoria R.; Bråve, Andreas; Earl, Patricia; Robb, Merlin; Marovich, Mary; Wahren, Britta; Pallangyo, Kisali; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Mhalu, Fred; Sandström, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase I/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Sixty HIV-uninfected volunteers were randomized to receive DNA plasmid vaccine 1 mg intradermally (id), n = 20, or 3.8 mg intramuscularly (im), n = 20, or placebo, n = 20, using a needle-free injection device. DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtype A, B, C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A, B and Rtmut B were given at weeks 0, 4 and 12. Recombinant MVA (108 pfu) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE or placebo was administered im at month 9 and 21. Results The vaccines were well tolerated. Two weeks after the third HIV-DNA injection, 22/38 (58%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag. Two weeks after the first HIV-MVA boost all 35 (100%) vaccinees responded to Gag and 31 (89%) to Env. Two to four weeks after the second HIV-MVA boost, 28/29 (97%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 27 (93%) to Gag and 23 (79%) to Env. The id-primed recipients had significantly higher responses to Env than im recipients. Intracellular cytokine staining for Gag-specific IFN-γ/IL-2 production showed both CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses. All vaccinees had HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses. All vaccinees reacted in diagnostic HIV serological tests and 26/29 (90%) had antibodies against gp160 after the second HIV-MVA boost. Furthermore, while all of 29 vaccinee sera were negative for neutralizing antibodies against clade B, C and CRF01 AE pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl neutralization assay, in a PBMC assay, the response rate ranged from 31% to 83% positives, depending upon the clade B or CRF01_AE virus tested. This vaccine approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Low dose, id HIV-DNA priming elicited higher

  11. MVA E2 recombinant vaccine in the treatment of human papillomavirus infection in men presenting intraurethral flat condyloma: a phase I/II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran Y Carvajal, Antonio; de la Garza, Alfonso; Cruz Quiroz, Benitez Jose Cecilio; Vazquez Zea, Eduardo; Díaz Estrada, Ismael; Mendez Fuentez, Ernesto; López Contreras, Mario; Andrade-Manzano, Alejandro; Padilla, Santiago; Varela, Axel Ramírez; Rosales, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent for warts and cervical cancer. In Mexico, the death rate from cervical cancer is extremely high, and statistical data show that since 1990 the number of deaths is increasing. Condylomas and cancer of the penis are the most common lesions presented in men; bladder and prostate cancer in men are also associated with the presence of HPV. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treating both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus in the population. Approaches to this include preventative vaccines such as Gardasil, and therapeutic vaccines to treat established infections in both men and women. This will be the only way to decrease the numbers of deaths due to this malignancy. We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate the potential use of the recombinant vaccinia viral vaccine MVA E2 (composed of modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA] expressing the E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus) to treat flat condyloma lesions associated with oncogenic HPV in men. Fifty male patients with flat condyloma lesions were treated with either MVA E2 therapeutic vaccine or fluorouracil (5-fluorouracil). Thirty men received the therapeutic vaccine, at a total of 10(6) virus particles per dose, administered directly into the urethra once every week over a 4-week period. Twenty control patients were treated with 5% fluorouracil 1mL twice weekly over a 4-week period directly into the urethra. Reduction of lesions or absence of papillomavirus infection was monitored by colposcopy and histologic analysis. The immune response after MVA E2 treatment was determined by measuring the antibodies against the MVA E2 virus and by analyzing the lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against cancer cells bearing oncogenic papillomavirus. Presence of papillomavirus was determined by the Hybrid Capture method. Twenty-eight of 30 patients showed no lesion or presence of papillomavirus as diagnosed by colposcopy and brush histologic

  12. Alphavirus replicon DNA expressing HIV antigens is an excellent prime for boosting with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA or with HIV gp140 protein antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Knudsen

    Full Text Available Vaccination with DNA is an attractive strategy for induction of pathogen-specific T cells and antibodies. Studies in humans have shown that DNA vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity needs further improvement. As a step towards this goal, we have previously demonstrated that immunogenicity is increased with the use of an alphavirus DNA-launched replicon (DREP vector compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying the dose and number of administrations of DREP when given as a prime prior to a heterologous boost with poxvirus vector (MVA and/or HIV gp140 protein formulated in glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-AF adjuvant. The DREP and MVA vaccine constructs encoded Env and a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein from HIV clade C. One to three administrations of 0.2 μg DREP induced lower HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses than the equivalent number of immunizations with 10 μg DREP. However, the two doses were equally efficient as a priming component in a heterologous prime-boost regimen. The magnitude of immune responses depended on the number of priming immunizations rather than the dose. A single low dose of DREP prior to a heterologous boost resulted in greatly increased immune responses compared to MVA or protein antigen alone, demonstrating that a mere 0.2 μg DREP was sufficient for priming immune responses. Following a DREP prime, T cell responses were expanded greatly by an MVA boost, and IgG responses were also expanded when boosted with protein antigen. When MVA and protein were administered simultaneously following multiple DREP primes, responses were slightly compromised compared to administering them sequentially. In conclusion, we have demonstrated efficient priming of HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses with a low dose of DREP, and shown that the priming effect depends on number of primes administered rather than dose.

  13. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Morse, William D.; Shirey, David L.; Cdebaca, DanielL M.; Hoffman, John P. Jr.; Lucy, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  14. Short-circuit tests of 1650 and 96 MVA transformers for 1300 MW french nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhot, M.

    1989-01-01

    Power evacuation and feeding of the auxiliaries directly from the 400 kV grid are sensitive points governing the security of 1300 MW PWR Nuclear Power Plants of the French Program. These two different functions are provided by two specific types of transformers. - Banks of 3 single-phase 550 MVA - 400 kV/20 kV transformers. - Three-phase 96 MVA - 400 kV / 3 x 6.8 kV transformers. These passive elements must have a never failing reliability and assure a continuous service in spite of electric, thermal and mechanical stresses that may occur during the lifetime of the power plant. Dielectric and thermal tests carried out in the manufacturers test floors insure these stresses withstand capabilities of transformers. In France, high short-circuit power for the 400 kV network added to often low impedance voltages for transformers impose on them very high stresses during short-circuits. Calculation and experimentation on scale or partial models are not sufficient to insure short-circuit currents withstand capabilities of transformers. The margin of uncertainty dependent on obligatory extrapolations for this kind of complex systems [steel, magnetic sheets, copper, oil, paper and transformerboard] can be reduced in a significant way only by real scale tests on prototypes. These tests that need both high power and voltage cannot be performed in manufacturers test floors. So, in France they are carried out at the EDF Les Renardieres Laboratory. Following paper deals with SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMERS which, particularly thanks to their interleaved rectangular windings display a great resistance to short-circuit stresses

  15. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...... of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved...

  16. Diseño y construcción de vectores de transferencia para la obtención de virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA recombinantes Design and construction of transfer vectors in order to obtain recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA constituye un buen candidato para el desarrollo de vectores virales de expresión no replicativos porque no replica en la mayoría de las células de mamíferos. Para la producción de MVA recombinantes es fundamental disponer de vectores de transferencia que, por recombinación homóloga con el genoma viral, permitan introducir los genes de interés en regiones no esenciales para la replicación in vitro. En este trabajo se diseñaron y obtuvieron los vectores de transferencia denominados VT-MHA y VT-MTK que portan las regiones correspondientes a las posiciones 1-303 y 608-948 del gen MVA165R y 1-244 y 325-534 del gen MVA086R, respectivamente, las que flanquean un sitio de clonado múltiple para la inserción de los genes foráneos. En dichos vectores se clonaron los casetes para la expresión de los genes lac Z o uid A, y la actividad de las enzimas marcadoras b-galactosidasa y b-glucuronidasa se confirmó in situ. Además, utilizando el vector denominado VT-MTK-GUS, se obtuvieron y aislaron MVA recombinantes puros que portan y expresan el gen uid A. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen las herramientas básicas para establecer la metodología de obtención de MVA recombinantes, con el propósito de desarrollar localmente vectores virales no replicativos candidatos a vacunas.Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA constitutes a good candidate for the development of non-replicative expression viral vectors because it does not replicate in most of mammalian cells. It is essential, for the production of recombinant MVA, the availability of transfer vectors which allow the introduction of desired genes into non-essential regions for in vitro viral replication, by homologous recombination with the viral genome. In the present work, the transfer vectors named VT-MHA and VT-MTK were designed and obtained. They carried genomic regions corresponding to 1- 303 and 608-948 positions of the MVA165R gene and 1-244 and

  17. Epidemiology of road traffic accidents in adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most numerous cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions are injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2,2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents a mechanism of traffic accidents, pathophysiology of injury, partition of car accidents and characterized the insults of victims in various types of automobile accidents. Injuries resulting from road accidents have numerous substantial consequences as they are related with releasing large amounts of kinetic energy which must be absorbed. Kinetic energy absorbing is the basic mechanism of injury arising during road accidents. In apprising an automobile accident should take into consideration the type of the car accident and the extent of damage to the vehicle People participating in road accidents of high energy are especially endangered with substantial injuries. There is a close relationship between the rate of vehicle damages and seriousness of casualties' injuries.

  18. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  19. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  20. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  1. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  2. Factors Affecting Road Traffic Accident in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Him, Norziha; Roslan, Rozaini; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Khalid, Kamil; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Azbi Arobi, Farquis; Mohamad, Nazeera

    2018-04-01

    A road traffic accident resulted from the combination of factors related to the few components of the system involving environment, roads, road users, vehicles and the interaction between those systems. Road traffic accident (RTA) in Malaysia recorded as the highest fatality rate (per 100,000 population) among the ASEAN countries. In 2016, more than half of million cases accident recorded with more than 7,000 people were killed. Therefore, the RTA is one of the most critical issue in Malaysia even become the worldwide burden to authority. Generally, driving is a complex process which involves movement of a vehicle by either a computer or human controller. However, failure to control and coordinate will contribute to an accident. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of accident in Johor Malaysia and to examine the relationship between the number of accident and the types of vehicles and roads. The results could help the government to recognise the different patterns, types of vehicles and roads that show major factors in the increasing of road traffic accident in Malaysia.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  4. Macro Data Analysis of Traffic Accidents in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Jusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a macro data analysis of Indonesian road accidents in the form of statistical data. Traffic accidents and their subsequent fatalities bring enormous social and economic consequences. A good understanding of the problem is expected to initiate major action toward the improvement of road and vehicle safety. One important milestone is the collection and analysis of road accident data. The results from this study portray the ‘tangled threads’ problem of traffic in Indonesia. The population number and number of vehicles have increased steadily, as has been accurately predicted by experts. Meanwhile, there is not enough infrastructure growth. Motorcycles are the main contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities due to their popularity as an effective vehicle to jump traffic jams. The ‘tangled threads’ need an extremely creative and comprehensive solution.

  5. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  6. [Factors associated with road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolo, Simon Ilunga; Matungulu, Charles Matungulu; Mukanya, Pascal Kimba; Umba, Irène Kabange; Kabamba, Julie Ndayi; Numbi, Oscar Luboya; Ilunga, Benjamin Kabyla; Kaj, Françoise Malonga; Lubaba, Célestin Banza; Ngongo, Ghislain Mashini

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective non-comparative cross-sectional study in Lubumbashi on factors associated with road accidents. To contribute to the reduction of morbidity and mortality related to road accidents based on a better understanding of this phenomenon in the city of Lubumbashi, to assess the frequency and the growth of road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi and to determine the factors predisposing to these accidents. This non-controlled retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study covered the period from 1st January to 31st December 2008, and included all cases of vehicles registered by the police department after an accident. A total of 1,915 road traffic were reported, mostly caused by public transport vehicles (59%) driven by young adult males (89% of cases) with a mean age of 28 years. The main cause was speeding combined with other factors (34% of cases). The majority of these accidents occurred in the city of Lubumbashi (52.9% of cases) between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (74% of cases). Transit vehicles were exposed to a greater risk of road accidents (59%). There is an urgent need for accurate information on the rules of the road for drivers and road users to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to road accidents.

  7. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  8. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Jeffrey R; Ngauy, Viseth; de Souza, Mark S; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Cox, Josephine H; Polonis, Victoria R; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Peel, Sheila; Slike, Bonnie; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Paris, Robert M; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; Marovich, Mary A

    2010-11-15

    We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand. MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7) or 10(8) pfu) or intradermally (ID; 10(6) or 10(7) pfu) at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2). Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51)Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i) moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6) PBMC at 10(8) pfu IM), but high in response rate (70% (51)Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8) pfu IM); (ii) predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+) T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route); (iv) dose- and route-dependent with 10(8) pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8) pfu IM). MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  9. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Currier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand.MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7 or 10(8 pfu or intradermally (ID; 10(6 or 10(7 pfu at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2. Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6 PBMC at 10(8 pfu IM, but high in response rate (70% (51Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8 pfu IM; (ii predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+ T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route; (iv dose- and route-dependent with 10(8 pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8 pfu IM.MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  10. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudebong, M; Wurapa, F; Nonvignon, J; Norman, I; Awoonor-Williams, J K; Aikins, M

    2011-12-01

    Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admissions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern Ghana. Retrospective cross-sectional cost study. Data were collected from Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Authority, the Police, health facilities and motorcycle accident victims. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for data collection. Cost analysis was based on the standard road accident cost conceptual framework. Ninety-eight percent of vehicles registered in the municipality in 2004 - 2008 were motorcycles. The motorcycles were significantly more than the cars registered. The economic burden of motorcycle accidents was estimated to be about US$1.2 million, of which, 52% were accident-related costs (i.e. property damage and administration) and 48% casualty-related costs (i.e. medical costs, out-of-pocket expenses, lost labour outputs, intangible costs and funeral expenses). Most motorcycle accident victims were in their productive ages and were males. Only a third of the motorcycles were insured. Majority of the riders (71%) did not possess valid driving license and would want to avoid the police. Main motorcycle injuries were head injuries, fractures, lacerations and contusions. Majority of the accidents were caused by lack of formal motorcycle riding training, abuse of alcohol, unrestrained animals and donkey carts. Motorcycle accidents could be reduced through law enforcement, continuous mass education and helmet use.

  11. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  12. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA) como vacunas preventivas y terapéuticas contra el SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Heeney, Jonathan L.; Mooij, Petra; Nájera García, José Luis; Jiménez, Victoria; Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.

    2005-01-01

    Vectores Recombinantes basados en el Virus Modificado de Ankara (MVA) como Vacunas Preventivas y Terapéuticas contra el SIDA. Losvirus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y permiten la expresión simultánea de varios antígenos, una proteína Env del VIH-I consistente en una proteína gpl20 carente de secuencias correspondientes a la proteína gp41, y una proteína quiméricade fusión de Gag, Pol y Nef. Son virus esta...

  13. A fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon4 and IE2 exon5 stimulates potent cellular immunity in an MVA vaccine vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhou, W.; Srivastava, T.; La Rosa, C.; Mandarino, A.; Forman, S.J.; Zaia, J.A.; Britt, W.J.; Diamond, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    A therapeutic CMV vaccine incorporating an antigenic repertoire capable of eliciting a cellular immune response has yet to be successfully implemented for patients who already have acquired an infection. To address this problem, we have developed a vaccine candidate derived from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that expresses three immunodominant antigens (pp65, IE1, IE2) from CMV. The novelty of this vaccine is the fusion of two adjacent exons from the immediate-early region of CMV, their successful expression in MVA, and robust immunogenicity in both primary and memory response models. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the viral vaccine in mouse models shows that it can stimulate primary immunity against all three antigens in both the CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets. Evaluation of human PBMC from healthy CMV-positive donors or patients within 6 months of receiving hematopoietic cell transplant shows robust stimulation of existing CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets

  14. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MvaT Family Proteins Encoded on IncP-7 Plasmid pCAR1 and the Host Chromosome Regulate the Host Transcriptome Cooperatively but Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Takahashi, Yurika; Shintani, Masaki; Takeda, Toshiharu; Suzuki-Minakuchi, Chiho; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    MvaT proteins are members of the H-NS family of proteins in pseudomonads. The IncP-7 conjugative plasmid pCAR1 carries an mvaT-homologous gene, pmr. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bearing pCAR1, pmr and the chromosomally carried homologous genes, turA and turB, are transcribed at high levels, and Pmr interacts with TurA and TurB in vitro. In the present study, we clarified how the three MvaT proteins regulate the transcriptome of P. putida KT2440(pCAR1). Analyses performed by a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) suggested that the binding regions of Pmr, TurA, and TurB in the P. putida KT2440(pCAR1) genome are almost identical; nevertheless, transcriptomic analyses using mutants with deletions of the genes encoding the MvaT proteins during the log and early stationary growth phases clearly suggested that their regulons were different. Indeed, significant regulon dissimilarity was found between Pmr and the other two proteins. Transcription of a larger number of genes was affected by Pmr deletion during early stationary phase than during log phase, suggesting that Pmr ameliorates the effects of pCAR1 on host fitness more effectively during the early stationary phase. Alternatively, the similarity of the TurA and TurB regulons implied that they might play complementary roles as global transcriptional regulators in response to plasmid carriage. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. HIV-1 Subtype C Mosaic Gag Expressed by BCG and MVA Elicits Persistent Effector T Cell Responses in a Prime-Boost Regimen in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsungai Ivai Jongwe

    Full Text Available Over 90% of HIV/AIDS positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with highly heterogeneous HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C viruses. One of the best ways to reduce the burden of this disease is the development of an affordable and effective prophylactic vaccine. Mosaic immunogens are computationally designed to overcome the hurdle of HIV diversity by maximizing the expression of potential T cell epitopes. Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔpanCD auxotroph and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1C mosaic Gag (GagM were tested in a prime-boost regimen to demonstrate immunogenicity in a mouse study. The BCG-GagM vaccine was stable and persisted 11.5 weeks post vaccination in BALB/c mice. Priming with BCG-GagM and boosting with MVA-GagM elicited higher Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than the BCG-GagM only and MVA-GagM only homologous vaccination regimens. The heterologous vaccination also generated a more balanced and persistent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response with a predominant effector memory phenotype. A Th1 bias was induced by the vaccines as determined by the predominant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. This study shows that a low dose of MVA (104 pfu can effectively boost a BCG prime expressing the same mosaic immunogen, generating strong, cellular immune responses against Gag in mice. Our data warrants further evaluation in non-human primates. A low dose vaccine would be an advantage in the resource limited countries of sub-Saharan Africa and India (where the predominating virus is HIV-1 subtype C.

  17. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Saubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old and adult (7 weeks old BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine.

  18. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubi, Narcís; Im, Eung-Jun; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Gil, Olga; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Gatell, Josep Maria; Hanke, Tomáš; Joseph, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old) and adult (7 weeks old) BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine. PMID:21603216

  19. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  20. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  1. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  2. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  3. Modeling of Electric Field Around 100 MVA 150/20 kV Power Transformator using Charge Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviadi Arief Rachman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Charge Simulation Method is one of the field theory that can be used as an approach to calculate the electromagnetic distribution on the electrical conductor. This paper discussed electric field modeling around power transformator by using Matlab to find the safety distance. The safe distance threshold of the electric field to human health refers to WHO and SNI was 5 kV/m. The specification of the power transformator was three phases, 150/20 kV, and 100 MVA. The basic concept is to change the distribution charge on the conductor or dielectric polarization charge with a set of discrete fictitious charge. The value of discrete fictitious charge was equivalent to the potential value of the conductor, and became a reference to calculate the electric field around the surface contour of the selected power transformator. The measurement distance was 5 meter on each side of the transformator surface. The results showed that the magnitude of the electric field at the front side was 5541 V/m, exceeding the safety limits.

  4. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  5. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  6. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and assesses the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1,300 F and 1,800 F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  7. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  8. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  9. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  10. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  11. Relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts recorded by drive recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangquan; Cheng, Bo; Kuzumaki, Seigo; Mei, Bingsong

    2011-08-01

    Road traffic conflicts can be used to estimate the probability of accident occurrence, assess road safety, or evaluate road safety programs if the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts is known. To this end, we propose a model for the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts recorded by drive recorders (DRs). DRs were installed in 50 cars in Beijing to collect records of traffic conflicts. Data containing 1366 conflicts were collected in 193 days. The hourly distributions of conflicts and accidents were used to model the relationship between accidents and conflicts. To eliminate time series and base number effects, we defined and used 2 parameters: average annual number of accidents per 10,000 vehicles per hour and average number of conflicts per 10,000 vehicles per hour. A model was developed to describe the relationship between the two parameters. If A(i) = average annual number of accidents per 10,000 vehicles per hour at hour i, and E(i) = average number of conflicts per 10,000 vehicles per hour at hour i, the relationship can be expressed as [Formula in text] (α>0, β>0). The average number of traffic accidents increases as the number of conflicts rises, but the rate of increase decelerates as the number of conflicts increases further. The proposed model can describe the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts in a simple manner. According to our analysis, the model fits the present data.

  12. A GIS Approach to Evaluate Infrastructure Variables Influencing the Occurrence of Traffic Accidents in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Çepni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies worldwide have been developed that seek to explain the occurrence of traffic accidents from different perspectives. The analyses have addressed legal perspectives, technical attributes of vehicles and infrastructure as well as the psychological, behavioral and socio-economic components of the road system users. Recently, some analysis techniques based on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been used, which allow the generation of spatial distribution maps, models and risk estimates from a spatial perspective. Sometimes analyses of traffic accidents are performed using quantitative statistical techniques, which place significant importance on the evolution of accidents. Studies such as those in references have shown that conventional statistical models are sometimes inadequate to model the frequency of traffic accidents, as they may provide erroneous inferences. GIS approach has been used to explore different spatial and temporal visualization technologies to reveal accident patterns and significant factors relating to vehicle crashes, or as a management system for accident analysis and the determination of hot spots. This paper examines the relationship between urban road accidents and variables related to road infrastructure, environment and traffic volumes. Some accident-prone sections in the city of Kocaeli are specifically identified by GIS tools. Urban road accidents in Kocaeli are a serious problem and it is believed that accidents can be related to infrastructure characteristics. The study aimed to establish the relationship between urban road accidents and the road infrastructure variables and revealed some possible accident prone locations for the period of 2013 and 2015 in Kocaeli city

  13. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  14. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  15. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  16. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  17. [Mortality in traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Tornés, Arlines; González-Longoria, Lourdes; González-Pardo, Secundino; Acosta-González, Ariel; Vintimilla-Burgos, Patricio; Paspuel-Yar, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of describing mortality from traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba, in 2011 a review was performed of injured and deceased patients due to traffic accidents, recorded in the Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Of the 1,365 injured patients treated in the emergency room, the predominant groups were individuals aged 25 to 44 years comprising 372 patients (27.3%) and men comprising 1,071 (78.5%). 46 people died, most from the same age group and male. Multiple traumatisms (52.6%) and craniofacial trauma (34.2%) were the predominant injuries. Motor vehicle-pedestrian accidents stood out with a mortality of 26.3%. In conclusion, mortality from traffic accidents predominately occurs in young male adults, whose fatal consequences are due to multiple traumatisms from road accidents.

  18. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  19. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  20. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  1. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  2. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  3. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  4. A phase I randomized clinical trial of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine MVA.HIVA administered to Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed O Afolabi

    Full Text Available A vaccine to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 during breast-feeding would complement efforts to eliminate infant HIV-1 infection by antiretroviral therapy. Relative to adults, infants have distinct immune development, potentially high-risk of transmission when exposed to HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS when infected. To date, there have been only three published HIV-1 vaccine trials in infants.We conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial PedVacc 001 assessing the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of candidate vaccine MVA.HIVA administered intramuscularly to 20-week-old infants born to HIV-1-negative mothers in The Gambia.Infants were followed to 9 months of age with assessment of safety, immunogenicity and interference with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI vaccines. The trial is the first stage of developing more complex prime-boost vaccination strategies against breast milk transmission of HIV-1.From March to October 2010, 48 infants (24 vaccine and 24 no-treatment were enrolled with 100% retention. The MVA.HIVA vaccine was safe with no difference in adverse events between vaccinees and untreated infants. Two vaccine recipients (9% and no controls had positive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT assay responses. Antibody levels elicited to the EPI vaccines, which included diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and oral poliovirus, reached protective levels for the vast majority and were similar between the two arms.A single low-dose of MVA.HIVA administered to 20-week-old infants in The Gambia was found to be safe and without interference with the induction of protective antibody levels by EPI vaccines, but did not alone induce sufficient HIV-1-specific responses. These data support the use of MVA carrying other transgenes as a boosting vector within more complex prime-boost vaccine strategies against transmission of HIV-1 and

  5. Diseño del sistema de control y protección de una central hidráulica de 37 MVA

    OpenAIRE

    Feliz Juárez, Javier Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El presente Proyecto Fin de Carrera tiene como objetivo el estudio, diseño y valoración técnica y económica del Sistema de Control y Protección de Grupo de una central hidroeléctrica de 37 MVA. Este Sistema está compuesto por el conjunto de equipos eléctricos, electrónicos y mecánicos encargados del control y protección de los dispositivos e instalaciones existentes en la central y necesarias para el correcto funcionamiento de la unidad Turbina- Generador de la misma. Se han...

  6. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ASSESSING ACCIDENT HOTSPOTS BY USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles, transportation issues, especially transportation safety have gained great importance. One of the social problems in the world, and particularly in developing countries, which each year imposes great casualties, and economic, social and cultural costs on society, is traffic accidents. Traffic accidents cause waste of time and assets and loss of human resources in society, therefore studies and measures to reduce accidents and damage caused by them, particularly in recent decades, has become important. One of the suggested ways to deal with the problem of car accidents is the modeling of accident-prone points, as by identifying these points, factors affecting accidents can be identified, and elimination of these factors leads to a reduction in accidents. Numerous studies have been conducted in this respect, using official police data to identify these points and performing necessary analysis on them. Official data has gaps and shortcomings. Using Volunteered Geographic Information to determine accident-prone venues can be a suitable answer to the problems of using official data. The aim of this study is the use of volunteered geographic information in relation to the accidents and their causes. By taking into account factors affecting traffic accidents in the study area, and determining the importance of each factor, as well as the severity-of-accidents parameter, and using the Expert Choice software, a decision-making software based on the hierarchical analysis, high-risk venues are determined, and the accident-prone points of the study area are specified.

  8. RESEARCH OF VEHICLE’S BRAKING DYNAMICS AT TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicles braking process after the road accident is reviewed. The inaccuracies are analyzed for the purpose of deceleration determination occurance at the application of out-of-date statistical database by experts.

  9. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... seven hundred and seventy seven (777) fatal road traffic accidents were reported during ... the influence of alcohol, riding without restraint, poor vehicle maintenance ..... emphasize on the road posters signal rules and regular ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITY TO AVOID A RUNNING-DOW ACCIDENT TIMELY BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarayev, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Such circumstances under which the drive can stop the vehicle by applying timely braking before reaching the pedestrian crossing or decrease the speed to the safe limit to avoid a running-down accident is considered.

  11. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  12. Models Supporting Trajectory Planning in Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles have the potential to drastically improve the safety, efficiency and cost of transportation. Instead of a driver, an autonomous vehicle is controlled by an algorithm, offering improved consistency and the potential to eliminate human error from driving: by far the most common cause of accidents. Data collected from different types of sensors, along with prior information such as maps, are used to build models of the surrounding traffic scene, encoding relevant aspects of t...

  13. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  14. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author) [pt

  15. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  16. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the

  17. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  18. Radiological accidents in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios [es

  19. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  2. Traffic Accidents Involving Cyclists Identifying Causal Factors Using Questionnaire Survey, Traffic Accident Data, and Real-World Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shoko; Hirose, Toshiya; Aomura, Shigeru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning. Second, the study investigated the characteristics of 250 accident situations involving cyclists that happened in the city using real-world bicycle accident data. The results revealed that the traffic accidents occurred at intersections of local streets, where cyclists collided most often with vehicles during commute time in the morning. Third, cyclists' behavior was observed at a local street intersection in the morning in the city using video pictures. In one hour during the morning commute period, 250 bicycles passed through the intersection. The results indicated that one of the reasons for traffic accidents involving cyclists might be the combined effect of low visibility, caused by the presence of box-like building structures close to the intersections, and the cyclists' behavior in terms of their velocity and no confirming safety. It was observed that, on average, bicycle velocity was 3.1 m/s at the initial line of an intersection. The findings from this study could be useful in developing new technologies to improve cyclist safety, such as alert devices for cyclists and vehicle drivers, wireless communication systems between cyclists and vehicle drivers, or advanced vehicles with bicycle detection and collision mitigation systems.

  3. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  4. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  5. Structure shielding from cloud and fallout gamma ray sources for assessing the consequences of reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.; Profio, A.E.

    1975-12-01

    Radiation shielding provided by transportation vehicles and structures typical of where people live and work were estimated for cloud and fallout gamma-ray sources resulting from a hypothetical reactor accident. Dose reduction factors are recommended for a variety of situations for realistically assessing the consequences of reactor accidents

  6. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Holgado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R; or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R. The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+ and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential.

  7. A methodology for the transfer of probabilities between accident severity categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the radiological risks of accidents involving vehicles transporting radioactive materials requires consideration of both accident probability and consequences. The probability that an accident will occur may be estimated from historical accident data for the given mode of transport. In addition to an overall accident rate, information regarding accident severity and the resulting package environments across the range of all credible accidents is needed to determine the potential for a release of radioactive material from the package or for an increase in direct radiation from the package caused by damage to packaging shielding. This information is usually obtained from a variety of sources such as historical data, experimental data, analyses of accident and package environments, and expert opinion. The consequences of an accident depend on a number of factors including the type, quantity, and physical form of radioactive material being transported; the response of the package to accident environments; the fraction of material released from the package; and the dispersion of any released material. One approach for the classification and treatment of transportation accidents in risk analysis divides the complete range of critical accident environments resulting from all credible accidents into some number of accident-severity categories. The types of accident environments that a package may be subjected to in transportation are often classified into the following five groups: impact, fire, crush, puncture, and immersion. A open-quotes criticalclose quotes accident environment is one of a type that could present a plausible threat to a package. Each severity category represents a portion of all credible accidents, and the total of all severity categories covers the complete range of critical accident environments. This approach is used in the risk assessment codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser and Kanipe 1992) and INTERTRAN (Ericsson and Elert 1983)

  8. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  9. Analysis of crashes using FE vehicle models. Relations between vehicle types and crash characteristics; Yugen yoso model wo mochiita sharyo no shototsu kaiseki. Sharyo type to shototsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, O. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the crash characteristics of vehicles under the condition of real-world accidents. This paper pays attention to the differences in the crash characteristics of a vehicle colliding with a vehicle which is a different type. Vehicles on the market can be divided broadly into two vehicle structures, monocoque structure and frame structure. Monocoque structure is mainly used for passenger vehicles and frame structure is for recreational vehicles (RV). In recent years, RV has been a large seller on the market. So accidents between passenger vehicles and a RVs occur frequently. The analysis of experimental data and computer simulation, which is predicated on the experimental data, was carried out for this study. In the analysis of experimental data, barrier force data from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) were analyzed. The FE passenger vehicle model which is based on systematic validation tests was used for the computer simulation of car-to-car collisions. (author)

  10. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Especificamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antigenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficienciahumana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que see ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  11. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Específicamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antígenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que se ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  12. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply of 18kV Power Transformers Rated 464 kVA to 2 MVA

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of thirty-five 18 kV cast-resin rectifier power transformers rated 464 kVA to 2 MVA and 26 protective enclosures. Following a market survey (MS-2920/SL/LHC) carried out among 56 firms in sixteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3007/SL/LHC) was sent on 12 August 2002 to eight firms in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders from three firms in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with TRASFOR (CH), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 35 power transformers rated 464 kVA to 2 MVA and 26 protective enclosures for a total amount of 1 398 500 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with an option for three additional transformers and protective enclosures, for an additional amount of 107 650 Swiss francs, subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2005, bringing the total amount to 1 506 150 Swiss francs subject to revision for inflation from 1 January...

  13. ChAd63-MVA-vectored blood-stage malaria vaccines targeting MSP1 and AMA1: assessment of efficacy against mosquito bite challenge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; Elias, Sean C; Choudhary, Prateek; Biswas, Sumi; Halstead, Fenella D; Collins, Katharine A; Edwards, Nick J; Douglas, Alexander D; Anagnostou, Nicholas A; Ewer, Katie J; Havelock, Tom; Mahungu, Tabitha; Bliss, Carly M; Miura, Kazutoyo; Poulton, Ian D; Lillie, Patrick J; Antrobus, Richard D; Berrie, Eleanor; Moyle, Sarah; Gantlett, Katherine; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Long, Carole A; Sinden, Robert E; Gilbert, Sarah C; Lawrie, Alison M; Doherty, Tom; Faust, Saul N; Nicosia, Alfredo; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2012-12-01

    The induction of cellular immunity, in conjunction with antibodies, may be essential for vaccines to protect against blood-stage infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We have shown that prime-boost delivery of P. falciparum blood-stage antigens by chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) followed by the attenuated orthopoxvirus MVA is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. Here, we report on vaccine efficacy against controlled human malaria infection delivered by mosquito bites. The blood-stage malaria vaccines were administered alone, or together (MSP1+AMA1), or with a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine candidate (MSP1+ME-TRAP). In this first human use of coadministered ChAd63-MVA regimes, we demonstrate immune interference whereby responses against merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) are dominant over apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and ME-TRAP. We also show that induction of strong cellular immunity against MSP1 and AMA1 is safe, but does not impact on parasite growth rates in the blood. In a subset of vaccinated volunteers, a delay in time to diagnosis was observed and sterilizing protection was observed in one volunteer coimmunized with MSP1+AMA1-results consistent with vaccine-induced pre-erythrocytic, rather than blood-stage, immunity. These data call into question the utility of T cell-inducing blood-stage malaria vaccines and suggest that the focus should remain on high-titer antibody induction against susceptible antigen targets.

  14. The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wajja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents.In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs.Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly.The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.

  15. A new approach to road accident rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alejandro; González-Aguilera, Diego; López, Alfonso I; Gutiérrez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    This article develops and validates a new methodology and tool for rescue assistance in traffic accidents, with the aim of improving its efficiency and safety in the evacuation of people, reducing the number of victims in road accidents. Different tests supported by professionals and experts have been designed under different circumstances and with different categories of damaged vehicles coming from real accidents and simulated trapped victims in order to calibrate and refine the proposed methodology and tool. To validate this new approach, a tool called App_Rescue has been developed. This tool is based on the use of a computer system that allows an efficient access to the technical information of the vehicle and sanitary information of the common passengers. The time spent during rescue using the standard protocol and the proposed method was compared. This rescue assistance system allows us to make vital information accessible in posttrauma care services, improving the effectiveness of interventions by the emergency services, reducing the rescue time and therefore minimizing the consequences involved and the number of victims. This could often mean saving lives. In the different simulated rescue operations, the rescue time has been reduced an average of 14%.

  16. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  17. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  18. 50 CFR 27.31 - General provisions regarding vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designated routes of travel, as indicated by the appropriate traffic control signs or signals and in... wildlife refuge or portion thereof is located shall govern traffic and the operation and use of vehicles... arrives at the scene of the accident, unless such vehicle constitutes a traffic or safety hazard. (l) A...

  19. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  2. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  3. Death from a driverless vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2018-03-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major cause of fatalities around the world, and a number of deaths are caused by moving traffic on public roads. Deaths from vehicles that are off the highway may be called non-traffic fatalities which can be due to a vehicle reversing, carbon monoxide poisoning, weather-induced over-heating inside the vehicle and electric windows. Children (and animals) are the usual victims. We report a case from India where a man was found lying dead by the roadside with a lorry nearby. The autopsy findings indicated that he had been run over, but as there was no history of a vehicular collision and with no eyewitnesses, the investigators were unsure of the probable sequence of events that led to his death. The autopsy findings, history, circumstantial evidence and chemical analysis enabled us to work out what had happened.

  4. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, contamination of places and foods has been a matter of concern. Unfortunately, agricultural producers have few sources of information and have had to rely on the lessons from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 or on information obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency. However, as of this writing, data on the specific consequences of the Fukushima accident on Japanese agriculture remain limited. More than 80% of the land that suffered from the accident was related to agriculture or was in forests and meadows. The in fluence of the accident on agriculture was the most difficult to study because the activity in nature had to be dealt with. For example, when contaminated rice is harvested, scientists working on rice plants and soils and the study of watercourses or mountains have to collaborate to analyze or determine the vehicle by which the radioactivity accumulated and through which it spread in nature. At the request of agriculturists in Fukushima, we at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at The University of Tokyo have been urgently collecting reliable data on the contamination of soil, plants, milk, and crops. Based on our data, we would like to comment on or propose an effective way of resuming agricultural activity. Because obtaining research results based on in situ experiments is time-consuming, we have been periodically holding research report meetings at our university every 3-4 months for lay people, showing them how the contamination situation has changed or what type of effect can be estimated. Although our research is still ongoing, we would like to summarize in this book our observations made during the one and a half years after the accident. (author)

  5. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba | Cham | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%). Most drivers (46%) were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%). Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety ...

  6. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  7. Social impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1997-01-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. 'How safe is safe enough' is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  8. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  9. Management of accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The example of the Chernobyl accident and the statistics of the occurrence of accidents make clear the threat to humanity, if one cannot guarantee successful accident prevention in the use and distribution of the projects aimed at. The science of safety, as it is known in the Wuppertal model, makes its contribution to this vital task for the human community. It makes it necessary to create the essential dates and concepts, the methods, principles and techniques based on them and the associated instrumentation. (DG) [de

  10. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  11. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of the heavy manipulator vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, C.; Paustian, P.; Kruger, W.

    1993-01-01

    After the severe reactor accident of Tschernobyl in 1986 MaK System started to develop a Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System under contract from German nuclear technology assistance company ''KHG'' (Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH). The system comprises a remote controlled manipulator vehicle, a mobile mission control stand as well as a transport/service unit. In order to fulfill the high demands of this complex system a couple of new developments had to be started. The paper describes some of these developments and gives an overview about the main features of the Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System (HMV). (author)

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hay, Christine M; Stapleton, Jack T; Marbury, Thomas C; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; Röesch, Siegfried; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P; Schmidt, Darja; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56-80 years old population. MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for Group

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  16. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  17. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  18. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  19. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  20. Occupational Accidents And Preventive Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the 2005 statistics concerning occupational accidents involving members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel. It sets out the accident frequency and severity rates and provides a breakdown of accidents by cause and injury. It also contains a summary analysis of the most serious accidents and the associated recommendations.

  1. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  4. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  5. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  8. Statistical Analysis And Treatment Of Accident Black Spots: A Case Study Of Nandyal Mandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharshan Reddy, B.; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, L.; Sreenivasa Reddy, G., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Background: Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. Nandyal Mandal is located in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh and well developed in both agricultural and industrial sectors after Kurnool. 567 accidents occurred in the last seven years at 143 locations shows the severity of the accidents in the Nandyal Mandal. There is a need to carry out some work in the Nandyal Mandal to improve the accidents black spots for reducing the accidents. Methods: Last seven years (2010-2016) of accident data collected from Police Stations. Weighted Severity Index (WSI), a scientific method is used for identifying the accident black spots. Statistical analysis has carried out for the collected data using Chi-Square Test to determine the independence of accidents with other attributes. Chi-Square Goodness of fit test conducted for test whether the accidents are occurring by chance or following any pattern. Results: WSI values are determined for the 143 locations. The Locations with high WSI are treated as accident black spots. Five black spots are taken for field study. After field observations and interaction with the public, some improvements are suggested for improving the accident black spots. There is no relationship between the severity of accidents and the other attributes like month, season, day, hours in day and the age group except type of vehicle. Road accidents are distributed throughout the Year, Month and Season. Road accidents are not distributed throughout the day.

  9. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  10. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  11. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumi; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Milne, Kathryn H; de Cassan, Simone C; Collins, Katharine A; Halstead, Fenella D; Bliss, Carly M; Ewer, Katie J; Osier, Faith H; Hodgson, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Long, Carole A; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i) ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii) immunization and CHMI, and iii) primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i) total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii) responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii) functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA), iv) IgG avidity, and v) isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM). These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other diseases

  12. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  13. Combination of intratumoral injections of vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM-CSF and immunization with DNA vaccine prolongs the survival of mice bearing HPV16 induced tumors with downregulated expression of MHC class I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němečková, Š.; Šmahel, M.; Hainz, P.; Macková, J.; Zurková, K.; Gabriel, P.; Indrová, Marie; Kutinová, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2007), s. 326-333 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM- CSF * DNA vaccine * HPV16 induced tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2007

  14. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE in 18-40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD. Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA, a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers.This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30 and 282 healthy subjects.Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored.The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects.The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%.MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602.

  15. MVA-based H5N1 vaccine affords cross-clade protection in mice against influenza A/H5N1 viruses at low doses and after single immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost H C M Kreijtz

    Full Text Available Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype, frequently reported since 2003, result in high morbidity and mortality. It is feared that these viruses become pandemic, therefore the development of safe and effective vaccines is desirable. MVA-based H5N1 vaccines already proved to be effective when two immunizations with high doses were used. Dose-sparing strategies would increase the number of people that can be vaccinated when the amount of vaccine preparations that can be produced is limited. Furthermore, protective immunity is induced ideally after a single immunization. Therefore the minimal requirements for induction of protective immunity with a MVA-based H5N1 vaccine were assessed in mice. To this end, mice were vaccinated once or twice with descending doses of a recombinant MVA expressing the HA gene of influenza virus A/Vietnam/1194/04. The protective efficacy was determined after challenge infection with the homologous clade 1 virus and a heterologous virus derived from clade 2.1, A/Indonesia/5/05 by assessing weight loss, virus replication and histopathological changes. It was concluded that MVA-based vaccines allowed significant dose-sparing and afford cross-clade protection, also after a single immunization, which are favorable properties for an H5N1 vaccine candidate.

  16. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagyaiah, M; Shrinagesh, B

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad

  17. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  20. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  1. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) com vacunas preventivas y terapeúticas contra la hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Los virus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y que permiten la expresión simultáneamente de varios antígenos del VHC, concretamente las proteínas maduras estructurales (Core, E1, E2 y p7) y no estructurales (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A más los 201 aminoácidos de la región N-terminal de NS5B). Con ello se consiguen virus recombinantes estables, que permiten el desencadenamiento de una respuesta inmune contr...

  2. High security of supply thanks to a mains-coupling transformer; Hoehere Versorgungssicherheit durch Netzkupplungstransformator. 400-MVA-Transformatorengruppe mit Laengs- und Querregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschwanden, T. [Kraftwerke Oberhasli AG (KWO), Innertkirchen (Switzerland); Jaeggi, F. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Berne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses how the coupling between the 380-kV and 132-kV grids in Bassecourt, Switzerland, was realised using a 400 MVA transformer and thus assures the quality of supply in the Cantons of Basel and Jura as well as in western Switzerland in general. This direct coupling eases the load on existing 380/220-kV transforming equipment in Bassecourt on the Swiss-French border. Details on the Bassecourt transformer station are given and the concept behind the new installation is discussed. In particular, the new transformer's ability to influence power and reactive power flows between the 380-kV grid and the 132-kV mains is described. The transformer's physical and electrical construction is discussed in detail. The purchasing process and the transformer's protective systems are described. A review of first operational experience gained is presented.

  3. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  4. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  5. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  6. Enhanced cell surface expression, immunogenicity and genetic stability resulting from a spontaneous truncation of HIV Env expressed by a recombinant MVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Linda S.; Belyakov, Igor M.; Earl, Patricia L.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Moss, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    During propagation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding HIV 89.6 Env, a few viral foci stained very prominently. Virus cloned from such foci replicated to higher titers than the parent and displayed enhanced genetic stability on passage. Sequence analysis showed a single nucleotide deletion in the 89.6 env gene of the mutant that caused a frame shift and truncation of 115 amino acids from the cytoplasmic domain. The truncated Env was more highly expressed on the cell surface, induced higher antibody responses than the full-length Env, reacted with HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and mediated CD4/co-receptor-dependent fusion. Intramuscular (IM), intradermal (ID) needleless, and intrarectal (IR) catheter inoculations gave comparable serum IgG responses. However, intraoral (IO) needleless injector route gave the highest IgA in lung washings and IR gave the highest IgA and IgG responses in fecal extracts. Induction of CTL responses in the spleens of individual mice as assayed by intracellular cytokine staining was similar with both the full-length and truncated Env constructs. Induction of acute and memory CTL in the spleens of mice immunized with the truncated Env construct by ID, IO, and IR routes was comparable and higher than by the IM route, but only the IR route induced CTL in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, truncation of Env enhanced genetic stability as well as serum and mucosal antibody responses, suggesting the desirability of a similar modification in MVA-based candidate HIV vaccines

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  9. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  11. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Review of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Storr, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of severe reactor accidents - loss of coolant or coolant flow and transient overpower (TOP) accidents - are described and compared. Accidents in research reactors are discussed. The 1961 SL1 accident in the US is used as an illustration as it incorporates the three features usually combined in a severe accident - a design flaw or flaws in the system, a circumvention of safety circuits or procedures, and gross operator error. The SL1 reactor, the reactivity accident and the following fuel-coolant interaction and steam explosion are reviewed. 3 figs

  13. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  14. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research.

  15. Accident at Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The course of events during the accident on 28 March 1979 at Three Mile Island-2 Reactor at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is described in detail. The effects (in the environment and within the safety containment) are described. The following points are then discussed: the possibility of a comparable accident occurring in the nuclear power stations in the German Federal Republic; the possibility of any point having been overlooked in the design of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic; whether previous risk analyses are still valid; and how near the Three Mile Island reactor was to a core meltdown. Some conclusions are drawn. (U.K.)

  16. Mortal radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. The TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  18. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  20. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akway M. Cham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether violation of traffic rules is the main cause of RTAs. Method: A cross sectional study design was used with quantitative data covering January – December 2014. The main objective of the research was to understand the epidemiology of RTAs in order to develop preventive measures. A total of 1725cases from road RTAs data were extracted from the directorate of traffic police Central Equatoria state Juba and Juba teaching hospital. Results: Most (99.5% of the RTA drivers were not under the influence of alcohol. Most accidents were caused by male drivers (99%. The highest number of RTAs took place in August (11%. Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%. Most drivers (46% were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%. Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety regulations. Resources are limited so there is a need to harness local resources including the local community. More efforts are needed to improve road safety education among the youth/integrate safety into road design.

  1. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  2. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  4. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  5. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  6. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  7. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  8. The effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Eric Nimako; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Ackaah, Williams

    2013-04-01

    The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EPRI research on accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlberg, R.N.; Chao, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts regarding severe reactor accident management and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMAEX), activities. (EPRI) Electric Power Research Institute accident management program consists of the two products just mentioned plus one related to severe accident plant status information and the MAAP 4.0 computer code. These are briefly discussed

  10. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  11. Innovative Vehicle Concept for the Integration of Alternative Power Trains

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Philipp; Kriescher, Michael; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The Institute of Vehicle Concepts is developing a safe, modularisable vehicle concept in rib and space frame design for tomorrow’s vehicles with alternative power trains. The vehicle can be powered either by a fuel cell system, a free-piston linear generator developed at the DLR, or a traction battery. Taking into account the given boundary conditions, the challenge is to design a body structure that is light and performs well in the event of an accident. The rib and space fra...

  12. Emotional reactivity: Beware its involvement in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bailara, Katia; Atzeni, Thierry; Contrand, Benjamin; Derguy, Cyrielle; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Galéra, Cédric

    2018-04-01

    Reducing risk attributable to traffic accidents is a public health challenge. Research into risk factors in the area is now moving towards identification of the psychological factors involved, particularly emotional states. The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between emotional reactivity and responsibility in road traffic accidents. We hypothesized that the more one's emotional reactivity is disturbed, the greater the likelihood of being responsible for a traffic accident. This case-control study was based on a sample of 955 drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash. Responsibility levels were determined with a standardized method adapted from the quantitative Robertson and Drummer crash responsibility instrument. Emotional reactivity was assessed with the MATHYS. Hierarchical cluster analysis discriminated four distinctive driver's emotional reactivity profiles: basic emotional reactivity (54%), mild emotional hyper-reactivity (29%), emotional hyper-reactivity (11%) and emotional hypo-reactivity (6%). Drivers who demonstrated emotional hypo-reactivity had a 2.3-fold greater risk of being responsible for a traffic accident than those with basic emotional reactivity. Drivers' responsibility in traffic accidents depends on their emotional status. The latter can change the ability of drivers, modifying their behavior and thus increasing their propensity to exhibit risk behavior and to cause traffic accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  14. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  15. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  16. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  17. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  18. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation.

  19. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul

    2009-01-01

    vehicles or vessels transporting radioactive materials or at other places where radioactive materials are detected, other than at nuclear facilities (Article 22 of the APPRE). Based on the scale of accidents, radiological accidents are categorized into radiological emergencies and radiological disasters. A 'radiological emergency' indicates a situation that requires an urgent response due to actual or threatened leakage of radioactive materials or radiation (Subparagraph 7, Article 2 of the APPRE). A 'radiological disaster' refers to a disaster that requires a national response because a radiological emergency has escalated into a situation that can claim people's lives and harm their property as well as the environment (Subparagraph 8, Article 2 of the APPRE). Most provisions in the APPRE concern accidents inside nuclear facilities and radiological disasters. Only Article 22 thereof provides for accidents outside nuclear facilities, expressly stipulating the obligation of the public to file a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology, etc

  20. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  1. post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-07

    Jul 7, 2004 ... of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi and Director, Africa Mental Health ..... meeting of the Asssociation for Advancement of Behaviour ... and post traumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996.

  2. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  3. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  4. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  5. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  7. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.; Stueck, R.

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  9. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  11. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  12. Amo 1618 effects on incorporation of 14C-MVA and 14C-acetate into sterols in Nicotiana and Digitalis seedlings and cell-free preparations from Nicotiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, T.J.; Paleg, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactivity from acetate-[ 14 C] and MVA-[ 14 C] into sterols and sterol precursors in tobacco was inhibited by Amo 1618; differing patterns of accumulation were obtained with the two precursors, suggesting more than one point of inhibition. This was borne out with cell-free preparations with which it was demonstrated that both HMG-CoA reductase and squalene-2,3-epoxide cyclase were inhibited, the latter more strongly than the former. GLC analysis of gross sterol and hydrocarbon fractions confirmed previous indications that incorporation of radioactivity into individual sterols was inhibited by Amo 1618. Finally, incorporation of MVA-[ 14 C] into sterols and sterol precursors of Digitalis was significantly altered by the retardant, thus expanding the generality of the relationship between sterol (particularly 4-desmethylsterol) biosynthesis inhibition and retardant effect. (author)

  13. TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Viannia parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host. Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania species are generally not protective.Using a newly developed mouse model of chronic L. (Viannia panamensis infection and the heterologous DNA prime - modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA boost vaccination modality, we examined whether the conserved vaccine candidate antigen tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP could provide protection against infection/disease.Heterologous prime - boost (DNA/MVA vaccination utilizing TRYP antigen can provide protection against disease caused by L. (V. panamensis. However, protection is dependent on modulating the innate immune response using the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 during DNA priming. Prime-boost vaccination using DNA alone fails to protect. Prior to infection protectively vaccinated mice exhibit augmented CD4 and CD8 IFNγ and memory responses as well as decreased IL-10 and IL-13 responses. IL-13 and IL-10 have been shown to be independently critical for disease in this model. CD8 T cells have an essential role in mediating host defense, as CD8 depletion reversed protection in the vaccinated mice; vaccinated mice depleted of CD4 T cells remained protected. Hence, vaccine-induced protection is dependent upon TLR1/2 activation instructing the generation of antigen specific CD8 cells and restricting IL-13 and IL-10 responses.Given the general effectiveness of prime-boost vaccination, the recalcitrance of Leishmania (Viannia to vaccine approaches effective against other species of Leishmania is again evident. However, prime-boost vaccination modality can with modulation induce protective responses, indicating that the delivery system is critical. Moreover, these results suggest that

  14. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  15. Radiological accident of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Gimenez, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The accident of Goiania that took place in September, 1987, was the consequence of the dismantlement of the teletherapy equipment containing a Cs 137 source. The activity of the source was of about 5,2.10 13 Bq(1.400 Ci) and was made up by 1.10 -1 Kg of ClCs. This is one of the worst accidents, involving medical or industrial source, which happened up to the moment. The accident and the criteria adopted to face the emergency are described. The characteristics of the irradiation and superficial and internal contamination of the persons affected caused any dosimetric evaluation to be particularly difficult. The emergency control managed by capable persons was carried out with the expected difficulties in some areas within the Goiania city. About 90 % of the material could be recovered, in the removal works, in order to be treated as radioactive waste. Conclusions that should be taken into account in Argentina are reached. The authors of the article took part in the emergency by helping the brazilian Authorities within the Mutual Assistance Agreement between Argentina and Braxil. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Thule accident 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgaard, L.; Moeller Kristensen, H.

    1987-01-01

    On January 21, 1968 an American B-52 bomber crashed on the ice at Thule in Nothern Greenland. The bomber carried 4 nuclear weapons that were destroyed. The radioactive material of the bombs was spread over a large area of the ice. About 850 Danes stayed at the Thule base in 1968 for a shorter or longer period. Out of these 850 probably between 70 and 170 men took part in the clearing after the accident. Danish and American authorities establised that the radioactive contamination from the accident was too small to cause any health effects. For that reason the Danish authorities did not follow the Danish workers in order to show late effects, if any. In defiance of the authorities' very cocksure attitude towards possible late effets parts of the Danish press in the Summer 1986 started to be interested in the matter and to search for previous Thule-workers. Up till January 1987 aboput 600 workers have been contacted by the press, trade unions, and private persons. About 500 out of the 600 workers report on illness, cancers and deaths. This report tries to compile the accessible informations on the matter, to descibe the possible radioactive and chemical effects, to compare the Thule accident with a similar incident in Spain in 1966, and to propose a comprehensive health examination of all the workers. (LN)

  17. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  18. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-06-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.). Copyright © 2016 Gray et al.

  19. Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing

  20. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  1. Upon the reconstruction of accidents triggered by tire explosion. Analytical model and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiginschi, L.; Agape, I.; Talif, S.

    2017-10-01

    Accident Reconstruction is important in the general context of increasing road traffic safety. In the casuistry of traffic accidents, those caused by tire explosions are critical under the severity of consequences, because they are usually happening at high speeds. Consequently, the knowledge of the running speed of the vehicle involved at the time of the tire explosion is essential to elucidate the circumstances of the accident. The paper presents an analytical model for the kinematics of a vehicle which, after the explosion of one of its tires, begins to skid, overturns and rolls. The model consists of two concurent approaches built as applications of the momentum conservation and energy conservation principles, and allows determination of the initial speed of the vehicle involved, by running backwards the sequences of the road event. The authors also aimed to both validate the two distinct analytical approaches by calibrating the calculation algorithms on a case study

  2. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  3. A Simplified Approach to Estimate the Urban Expressway Capacity after Traffic Accidents Using a Micro-Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the decomposition of the evolution processes of the urban expressway capacity after traffic accidents and the influence factors analysis, an approach for estimating the capacity has been proposed. Firstly, the approach introduces the Decision Tree ID algorithm, solves the accident delay time of different accident types by the Information Gain Value, and determines congestion dissipation time by the Traffic Flow Wave Theory. Secondly, taking the accident delay time as the observation cycle, the maximum number of the vehicles through the accident road per unit time was considered as its capacity. Finally, the attenuation simulation of the capacity for different accident types was calculated by the VISSIM software. The simulation results suggest that capacity attenuation of vehicle anchor is minimal and the rate is 30.074%; the next is vehicles fire, rear-end, and roll-over, and the rate is 38.389%, 40.204%, and 43.130%, respectively; the capacity attenuation of vehicle collision is the largest, and the rate is 50.037%. Moreover, the further research shows that the accident delay time is proportional to congestion dissipation time, time difference, and the ratio between them, but it is an inverse relationship with the residual capacity of urban expressway.

  4. Effects of personality on risky driving behavior and accident involvement for Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyan; Du, Feng; Qu, Weina; Gong, Zhun; Sun, Xianghong

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related fatalities in China and pose the most serious threat to driving safety. Driver personality is considered as an effective predictor for risky driving behavior and accident liability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between personality and risky driving behavior, but only a few of them have explored the effects of personality variables on accident involvement. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of personality on Chinese drivers' risky driving and accident involvement. The present study aimed to examine the effects of personality variables on Chinese drivers' unsafe driving behaviors and accident involvement. Two hundred and twenty-four Chinese drivers aged 20 to 50 were required to complete questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism, and normlessness), risky driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations), and accident involvement (all accidents, serious accidents, at-fault accidents). Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for gender, age, and overall mileage, were conducted to identify the personality traits related to risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. Participants' personality traits were found to be significantly correlated with both risky driving behavior and accident involvement. Specifically, the traits of anger and normlessness were effective predictors for aggressive violations. The traits of anger, sensation-seeking, normlessness, and altruism were effective predictors for ordinary violations. Moreover, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for the total number of accidents participants had during the past 3 years. Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident

  5. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  6. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  7. Cernavoda CANDU severe accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Marin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The papers present the activities dedicated to Romania Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant first CANDU Unit severe accident evaluation. This activity is part of more general PSA assessment activities. CANDU specific safety features are calandria moderator and calandria vault water capabilities to remove the residual heat in the case of severe accidents, when the conventional heat sinks are no more available. Severe accidents evaluation, that is a deterministic thermal hydraulic analysis, assesses the accidents progression and gives the milestones when important events take place. This kind of assessment is important to evaluate to recovery time for the reactor operators that can lead to the accident mitigation. The Cernavoda CANDU unit is modeled for the of all heat sinks accident and results compared with the AECL CANDU 600 assessment. (orig.)

  8. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  9. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  10. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  11. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  12. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  13. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  14. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  15. Nuclear accidents and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocanin, R.; Amidzic, B.

    2005-01-01

    The numerous threats are our cruel reality. There is a great arsenal of nuclear weapons. Nuclear terrorism and nuclear accidents are always possible, especially during the transport and handling different nuclear material. Terrorist organisation also goes for coming into the possession of the nuclear means. Specific and important problem is human radioactive contamination in using nuclear energy for peaceful and military purpose. So, realisation of the universal and united system of NBCD gives us a possibility by using the modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units to react in a real time and successfully perform monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination. (author) [sr

  16. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  17. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  19. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  20. Serious accident in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  1. [Effect of post-traumatic disorders of the victims and causes of traffic accidents in the early stages of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigała, Dawid Konrad; Ziołek, Jakub; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Poland is a country in which every year there is a lot of motor vehicle accidents, number of victims is one of the highest in European union. Helping patients after motor vehicle accidents should base on cooperation of doctors and psychologists because holistic approach to patient enables rapid and effective rehabilitation. To show connection between physical damage cause in motor vehicle accident with mental trauma, which increase on process of full recovery. There were 31 victims who were involved in motor vehicle accidents not more than one month ago. In the second group there were people who was never involved in motor vehicle accident. The procedure consisted on filling demographic questionnaire, state traite anxety inventory and aqute stress disorder questionnare. In the second part of the research was to accomplish the emotional Stroop task, which based on selecting the name of the color of a word, which was on the screen. There were two types of the words: negative related to motor vehicle accident and neutral. Participants from the research group had higher level of anxiety than participants from control group and they had significantly longer reaction time in particular on words associated to accident, which could be the signal of problems with cognitive processes because of the anxiety. Furthermore participants with head injuries and upper limbs (whitout dominant limb) have had longer reaction times in Stroop test than participants with leg injuries, it indicating on higher level of anxiety and feeling of insecurity. It should be noted that looking on a character an range of a injuries, role that participant attend in accident (victims have more emotional disturbance), because it could determinate rate of recovery and the way communication with the patient.

  2. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  3. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  4. A Scenario Proposal For A Radioactive Waste Transport Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.A.; Rashad, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of all precautions that being taken during radioactive materials transport accidents to ensure safe transportation of these materials; there is still a probability for accidents to occur which, may be accompanied by injury or death of persons and damage of property So, in response to the increasing possibilities of accidents in Egypt, the government had prepared an emergency response plan for radiological accidents to coordinate the response efforts of all the national agencies. Trends for use of the radioactive materials and sources inside the country for the purpose of medical diagnosis and treatment as well as in industrial applications, are increasing. The radioactive waste resulted from these activities are transported from the centres where these materials being used to the waste management facility where they are treated and finally disposed safely at disposal site. The aim of the emergency exercise scenario is to test not only the main components of the emergency plan but also the level of emergency preparedness; that is the effectiveness with which the actions or combined actions of the different organizations involved in an emergency can be put into practice. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to give a scenario proposal for the radiological emergency actions taken in case of a transport accident for a radioactive waste material (type A- package ) transported by a vehicle from one of the medical centers to a disposal site, 40 km northeast of cairo

  5. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  6. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  7. Credible investigation of air accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

  8. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  9. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  10. Accident Causal Factors on the Building Construction Sites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Samuel Williams

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns for cost, quality and timely delivery of projects have been in existence from time immemorial, whereas the passion for these should be extended to safe execution of site works by the construction participants, as safety of life is very paramount. However, high level of commitment that is essential for the safe execution of site works has become a taboo. Hence, a plethora of accidents takes place on the site ranging from falls from height, contact with working tools, vehicle-related, slip and trip, collapse, exposure to harmful substances, to lifting and handling object accidents. It is pertinent to know that, responsibility for accidents on site cuts across all project participants (clients, consultants, contractors, workers, as well as the construction site environment. Recognition of the construction participants and site environmental factors as agents of accident is the focus of this research. Through extensive review of literature, a copious number of factors were identified and subsequently grouped under five factors as client-related, consultant-related, contractor-related, construction workers-related, and construction site-related. However, there has been a dearth of research in the grouping of accident contributing factors. The identification and understanding of these factors will go a long way in mitigating construction accidents, coupled with proven measures taken in positively addressing them. Efforts to prevent these causative factors include inter alia elimination of hazards from design, effective safety management, adequate planning of activities and employment of seasoned professionals by the client. The contractors are to embark on staff safety auditing, set up safety committees, conduct regular training for staff, use innovative technology, uphold housekeeping and report accident occurrence, while strict adherence to safety regulations must be adopted by all construction operatives.

  11. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  12. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  13. The Human Aspect of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anegawa, T.; Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    situation where a large number of aftershocks were observed and associated tsunami cautions were announced from time to time. Due to the occurrence of the SBO (Station Black Out), first responders had to engage in field works in the complete darkness while the field were scattered with damaged equipment, vehicles and other debris caused by the tsunami and explosions. Eventual loss of effective communication tools such as paging and PHS also hampered communication between the field, main control rooms and the ERC. In spite of the loss of effective communication tool and other equipment prepared for emergency response, the ERC personnel and shift crew members had to deal with concurrent event progress at six units at the same time; where sometimes the accident progress at one unit (e.g., explosion of the reactor building) also inversely affected the accident response at the adjacent units. Communication within the ERC and between the site and the Headquarters as well as outside the company (e.g., Cabinet, regulatory authority) became more and more complicated and caused further confusion as the progress of accident at 6 units in Fukushima Daiichi and 4 units in Fukushima Daini NPSs. The presentation will describe actions and decisions being taken in such extreme circumstances, to highlight the key lessons learned; such as importance of establishing strong command and control functions, data sharing system etc. Learning from the accident, TEPCO has introduced new command and control system and staff are being trained with the new system. Also, reflecting the lessons from the accident response by shift crew at main control rooms and the field, training program for shift workers and first responders has been revised and more extensive and frequent emergency drills are conducted. In the presentation, such activities currently performed by TEPCO will be addressed. (author)

  14. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  15. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  17. Accident analysis. A review of the various accidents classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.; Figueras, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the accident analysis, in relation with the safety evaluation, environmental impact and emergency planning, should be to identify the total risk to the population and workers from potential accidents in the facility, analizing it over full spectrum of severity. (auth.)

  18. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  19. Calcaneal fractures • In children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... height (which ranged from 0,5 to 2 m), 2 were injured in motor vehicle accidents, and 1 was struck on the heel by a ... striking feature was the rapid resolution of symptoms in all ... MVA = motor vehicle accident NWB non-weight-bearing; B-K = below-knee; POP = plaster of Paris cast(s); A-K = above-knee.

  20. Potentialities of robots in major accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, M.

    2013-01-01

    The INTRA group was founded in 1988, 2 years after the Chernobyl accident with the purpose of a cooperation between EDF, Cogema and CEA in order to develop and operate a fleet of robots able to intervene and replace man in a nuclear facility in case of major accident. Now INTRA disposes of 5 types of equipment: first, robots for the inside of buildings (they can overcome 40 cm high obstacles, open doors, go upstairs) they are wire-guided and enjoy a battery life of 6 to 8 hours. Secondly, robots for the open air that are able to move in very degraded grounds, they are remote controlled through radio-waves and their autonomy range nears 5 km. Thirdly, public works vehicles, INTRA has developed an excavator and a dump truck, both are remote controlled, they allow the making of any earth work. Fourthly, INTRA has developed 2 systems of contamination measurement: Skylink and Helinuc. Skylink is a system of 20 radiation monitors that can be dispatched on the contaminated zone, their data is collected through radio waves. Helinuc is a kind of gamma spectrometer that is helicopter-borne and can draw a map of the contamination around the installation. Fifthly, 2 drones are being tested, they will be fitted with radiation monitors. (A.C.)

  1. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  2. Fallout radiation protection provided by transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1972-10-20

    Fallout radiation protection factors (PF's) were estimated for a variety of civilian transportation vehicles using measurements of the natural terrain radiation as a source. The PF values are below 2 in light vehicles, truck beds, or trailers; from 2.5 to 3 in the cabs of heavy trucks and in a railway guard car; and from 3.0 to 3.5 in the engineer's seat of heavy locomotives. This information can be useful in planning the possible movement of personnel from or through areas contaminated either by a wartime incident or a peacetime accident. The information may also be useful for studying the reduction of exposure to the natural terrestrial radiation environment provided by vehicles.

  3. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance Team, a mobile intervention facility for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear emergency assistance team consisting of a vehicle pool and a stock of technical equipment was set up for operation in case of major reactor accidents. The equipment is kept in 6 containers which can be shipped on trucks, by rail or by helicopter or plane. Technical equipment and tasks of each container are briefly explained. Special transport vehicles for remote handling of contaminated material are described. (ORU) [de

  4. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...

  5. Killing by Autonomous Vehicles and the Legal Doctrine of Necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoni De Sio, F.

    2017-01-01

    How should autonomous vehicles (aka self-driving cars) be programmed to behave in the event of an unavoidable accident in which the only choice open is one between causing different damages or losses to different objects or persons? This paper addresses this ethical question starting from the

  6. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  7. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  8. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  9. Fukushima accident - reasons and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident influenced dramatically the current view on safety of nuclear facilities. Consideration about possible impacts of natural catastrophe in design of nuclear facilities seems to be much more important than before. European commission is focused on the stress-tests at nuclear power plants. His paper will go more in details having in mind reasons and impacts of Fukushima accident (Author)

  10. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  11. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  12. COMPLETE VEHICLE PROTECTION USING AT MEGA MICRO CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Satheeshkumar; S. Vimalnath; G. Nandhakumar

    2017-01-01

    The Primary aim of this Project is to design the project for a Complete Vehicle Protection with Embedded Technology. In this project there are two sections, one is a vehicle unit another one is a monitoring unit. In a vehicle unit Accident is measured with the help of vibration sensor. Temperature is measured with the help of temperature sensor. Fuel Level measurement using Float. Those sensor’s output is given to the amplifier unit. After the amplification this output is given to the ATMEGA ...

  13. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document

  14. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  15. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reflective of the seriousness of the accident. (b) In any case, each accident which results in a fatality or... evidence uncovered during accident investigations which would be of benefit in developing a new OSHA...

  16. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  17. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  18. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  19. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  20. Dose assessment in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, S.

    2013-04-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation bring many benefits to humankind, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. Facilities that use radiation source require special care in the design and operation of equipment to prevent radiation injury to workers or to the public. Despite considerable development of radiation safety, radiation accidents do happen. The purpose of this study is therefore to discuss how to assess doses to people who will be exposed to a range of internal and external radiation sources in the event of radiological accidents. This will go a long way to complement their medical assessment thereby helping to plan their treatment. Three radiological accidents were reviewed to learn about the causes of those accidents and the recommendations that were put in place to prevent recurrence of such accidents. Various types of dose assessment methods were discussed.(au)

  1. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  2. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  3. Static electrification testing of Texas Utilities 345-20.9 kV, 650 MVA generator step-up transformer under controlled factory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofts, D.W.; Moore, H.

    1995-01-01

    Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, with two 1150 Megawatt units, has two 345-20.9 kV, three-phase, 650 MVA transformers connected in parallel. The transformers have had a long history of hydrogen generation, and one of the Unit No. 2 transformers failed in 1983 while energized from the system for plant construction power. The failed unit was repaired and returned to Comanche Peak, and there was no evidence of static electrification involvement in the failure. During the time from installation to commercial operation in 1990 for Unit No. 1 and 1992 for Unit No. 2, the transformers were backfed from the system as needed to provide construction power. There was little regard paid to the operation of the cooling systems other than assuring the cooling was running. The transformers on unit No. 1 were subjected to several unusual electrical events - ferroresonance in 1981 and over excitation in 1983, with the generation of gasses of great concern. The decision was made to install a new transformer and return the old unit to the factory for diagnostic testing to determine the cause for the generation of combustible gas, primarily hydrogen. The dielectric integrity of the transformer could be quantified and decisions made concerning the replacement of the remaining transformers. After testing, the transformer was disassembled for forensic evaluation and rebuilt for return as a spare or to replace another transformer while undergoing repairs. Deformation of the bottom of the tank was discovered with large dents in the bottom protruding inward approximately one and one-half inches. With the concern of decreased clearances or displaced flux shields in the tank, an inspection opening was cut in the end of the transformer near the bottom. While investigating the deformation, evidence of partial discharge activity was discovered at the bottom of the high-to-low insulation; a location where static electrification damage has been observed in other large shell-form transformers

  4. Homocysteine and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Pal, Salil K; Mazumdar, Hirak; Bhandari, Biswanath; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Pandit, Sudipta

    2009-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is rapidly emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, possibly because of its propensity to accelerate atherosclerosis. Whether it is also a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is a matter of debate till now, as there are conflicting results of the various prospective studies. The present study was performed to correlate the levels of plasma homocysteine levels with that of ischaemic and haemorrhagic CVA. Forty-two cases of CVA were randomly selected over a period of one year, and their risk factors were assessed. It was observed that serum homocysteine levels were significantly raised in those with intracerebral infarcts when compared to those with intracerebral haemorrhage, although homocysteine levels didn't prove to be prognostically significant.

  5. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  6. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident [es

  7. Usability engineering of "In Vehicle Information Systems" with multi-tasking GOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, L.; Leuchter, S.

    2008-01-01

    The developments in vehicle electronics and new services are supposed to promise more convenience in driving. The offers and ideas range from vehicle-related installations, such as accident alert, petrol station assistance, dynamic navigation and travel guide, to communication and entertainment services. There is one central design problem that is essential for achieving the main objective "safe motor vehicle driving", i.e. the use of the new service must not unduly distract the driver. In th...

  8. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type.

  9. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year pe......, results suggest the necessity of designing education campaigns for parents, promoting information campaigns for road users and allocating resources for infrastructural interventions and law enforcement in order to address the identified major problems.......-year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  11. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  12. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  13. Contributing factors in construction accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, R A; Hide, S A; Gibb, A G F; Gyi, D E; Pavitt, T; Atkinson, S; Duff, A R

    2005-07-01

    This overview paper draws together findings from previous focus group research and studies of 100 individual construction accidents. Pursuing issues raised by the focus groups, the accident studies collected qualitative information on the circumstances of each incident and the causal influences involved. Site based data collection entailed interviews with accident-involved personnel and their supervisor or manager, inspection of the accident location, and review of appropriate documentation. Relevant issues from the site investigations were then followed up with off-site stakeholders, including designers, manufacturers and suppliers. Levels of involvement of key factors in the accidents were: problems arising from workers or the work team (70% of accidents), workplace issues (49%), shortcomings with equipment (including PPE) (56%), problems with suitability and condition of materials (27%), and deficiencies with risk management (84%). Employing an ergonomics systems approach, a model is proposed, indicating the manner in which originating managerial, design and cultural factors shape the circumstances found in the work place, giving rise to the acts and conditions which, in turn, lead to accidents. It is argued that attention to the originating influences will be necessary for sustained improvement in construction safety to be achieved.

  14. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1989-09-01

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  15. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  16. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Heath, Sonya L; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S; Kwa, Suefen; Robinson, Harriet L

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  17. Literature survey of motorcycle accidents with respect to the influence of engine size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, J. van; Klootwijk, C.W.; Ruijs, P.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    For completion of the type approval of two- or three-wheeled motor vehicles, and in particular of Directive 95/1/EC of the European Community, the Directorate General III (Industry) commissioned a study to examine wether there is a relation between motorcycle accident occurence and motorcycle engine

  18. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

    2007-01-01

    This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

  19. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  20. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  2. A review of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.; Smith, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  4. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  5. [Forensic Analysis of 498 Road Traffic Accident Deaths in Haikou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, R; Chen, M

    2017-12-01

    To analyse the characteristics of road traffic accident deaths in Haikou city, and to provide reference for the identification of causes of death and the preventive measures. Totally 498 road traffic accident deaths accepted by the Traffic Police Branch of Haikou City Public Security Bureau in 2014-2016 were collected, and the related parameters such as sex, age, time of the accidents, travel mode of the victims, the types of vehicle and the cause of death were analysed. Most victims aged 21-40 years old with the sex ratio of 3:1, and the accidents mainly happened in March, April, May and October and peaked at 6:01-8:00 and 20:01-22:00 per day. Riding motorbike and electric bicycle, as travel modes, had the highest accident incidence (30.9%). The vast majority of involved vehicles were motorbike and electric bicycle (57.4%). The most common cause of death was craniocerebral injury, followed by chest and abdominal injury. The autopsy of road traffic accident deaths plays an important role in identification of death manner and responsibility confirmation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  6. Factors associated with urban non-fatal road-accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Carlucci, Fabio; Cirà, Andrea; Restaino, Marialuisa

    2018-02-05

    This paper reports on the factors associated with non-fatal urban-road accident severity. Data on accidents were gathered from the local traffic police in the City of Palermo, one of the six most populated cities in Italy. Findings from a mixed-effects logistic-regression model suggest that accident severity increases when two young drivers are involved, road traffic conditions are light/normal and when vehicles crash on a two-way road or carriageway. Speeding is more likely to cause slight or serious injury even when compared to a vehicle moving towards the opposite direction of traffic. An accident during the summer is more likely to result in a slight or serious injury than an accident during the winter, which is in line with evidence from Southern Europe and the Middle East. Finally, the severity of non-fatal accident injuries in an urban area of Southern Europe was significantly associated with speeding, the age of the driver and seasonality.

  7. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-04-01

    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P road traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  8. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  9. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of the X-15 Flight 3-65 Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.

    2014-01-01

    The November 15, 1967, loss of X-15 Flight 3-65-97 (hereafter referred to as Flight 3-65) was a unique incident in that it was the first and only aerospace flight accident involving loss of crew on a vehicle with an adaptive flight control system (AFCS). In addition, Flight 3-65 remains the only incidence of a single-pilot departure from controlled flight of a manned entry vehicle in a hypersonic flight regime. To mitigate risk to emerging aerospace systems, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) proposed a comprehensive review of this accident. The goal of the assessment was to resolve lingering questions regarding the failure modes of the aircraft systems (including the AFCS) and thoroughly analyze the interactions among the human agents and autonomous systems that contributed to the loss of the pilot and aircraft. This document contains the outcome of the accident review.

  11. Car Theft in Poland as a Part of the Risk in Auto Accident and Theft Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wieteska, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The problem of car theft has been observed for many years. The largest scale of this phenomenon occurred in the 1990’s. In this paper, the issue is discussed in social, ethical and economic aspects. We present the scale of the phenomenon of the theft of passenger vehicles in Poland in the years 2001–2012 in terms of the number of vehicles, type of stolen vehicles and the accident areas. In addition, we present the cause of theft and selected ways to protect cars from it. We als...

  12. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  14. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  15. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  16. RENEB accident simulation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Depuydt, Julie; De Sanctis, Stefania; Dobos, Katalin; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Facco, Eva; Fattibene, Paola; Frenzel, Monika; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Gonon, Géraldine; Gregoire, Eric; Gruel, Gaëtan; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Hristova, Rositsa; Jaworska, Alicja; Kis, Enikő; Kowalska, Maria; Kulka, Ulrike; Lista, Florigio; Lumniczky, Katalin; Martínez-López, Wilner; Meschini, Roberta; Moertl, Simone; Moquet, Jayne; Noditi, Mihaela; Oestreicher, Ursula; Orta Vázquez, Manuel Luis; Palma, Valentina; Pantelias, Gabriel; Montoro Pastor, Alegria; Patrono, Clarice; Piqueret-Stephan, Laure; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Regalbuto, Elisa; Ricoul, Michelle; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Roy, Laurence; Sabatier, Laure; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sebastià, Natividad; Sommer, Sylwester; Sun, Mingzhu; Suto, Yumiko; Terzoudi, Georgia; Trompier, Francois; Vral, Anne; Wilkins, Ruth; Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results obtained from all other participants. The exercise was performed over 27 weeks and involved the network consisting of 28 institutes: 21 RENEB members, four candidates and three non-RENEB partners. The duration of a single exercise never exceeded 10 days, while the response from the assisting laboratories never came later than within half a day. During each week of the exercise, around 4500 samples were reported by all service laboratories (SL) to be examined and 54 scenarios were coherently estimated by all laboratories (the standard deviation from the mean of all SL answers for a given scenario category and a set of data was not larger than 3 patient codes). Each participant received training in both the role of a reference laboratory (activating the network) and of a service laboratory (responding to an activation request). The procedures in the case of radiological event were successfully established and tested.

  17. Accident risk. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical introduction in which WASH-740, WASH-1400, Swedish, Finnish, Scandinavian, Netherlands and West German analyses are briefly presented, the concept of risk itself is discussed, distinguishing between objective and subjective aspects, and between voluntary and involuntary risk. Risk analysis is briefly described and an attempt made to define acceptable risk. In treating the safety philosophy of nuclear power plants the engineered safety precautions are presented. The numerical results of the analysis made for Norwegian conditions are presented and discussed. Underground siting, which has been much discussed in Norway is also treated, and emergency planning briefly discussed. The probability and consequences of core meltdown in a light water reactor are then discussed, and the possible faults leading to this, both internal, human errors and external impacts are analysed. The failure mechanisms in the containment building which could lead to the release of activity are discussed, followed by the dispersion of the activity and the health and economic consequences. The accidents at Wuergassen and Brown's Ferry are briefly described as examples. A brief discussion of nuclear insurance and nuclear law in Norway form the concluding sections. (JIW)

  18. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  19. Radioactivity control after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Pantelic, G.

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident has influence on more attention when radioactivity of fish were controlled. Sea fish, freshwater fish, fish products and fish flour were analysed ( 95 samples). All products were safe for use with radiation-hygienic aspects. [sr

  20. The Goiania accident - environmental survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Moreira, M.C.F.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1997-01-01

    The survey methods applied during the Goiania accident could be considered complementary one to the other, and were able to give a clear picture about the contamination in the city to guide the further decontamination works. (author)