WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetation types ecological

  1. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  2. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes. Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

  3. A test of ecological optimality for semiarid vegetation. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Guido D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Turner, Edmund K.

    1992-01-01

    Three ecological optimality hypotheses which have utility in parameter reduction and estimation in a climate-soil-vegetation water balance model are reviewed and tested. The first hypothesis involves short term optimization of vegetative canopy density through equilibrium soil moisture maximization. The second hypothesis involves vegetation type selection again through soil moisture maximization, and the third involves soil genesis through plant induced modification of soil hydraulic properties to values which result in a maximum rate of biomass productivity.

  4. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  5. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  6. Vegetation Landscape, Ecological Characteristics and Soil Fixation for Riverbank in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chunpin; LIN Farching; LIANG Taching; CHEN Yichang

    2007-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate and analyze the vegetation landscape around Rivers of Hou-lung, Fa-tz, Da-li, Ching-shuei and Gau- ping, and to select the suitable plant species that could be applied for the area of riverbank ecological engineering in Taiwan. Studying the vegetation established the key point and procedure of ecological engineering in the riverside and revetment, to compile and edit the dominant plants' types, life form, propagating method, root systems' characteristics and functions for soil conservation. This research choses three dominant plants for roots strength test. The fitting models of plants pulling resistance(Rp', kg) between plant height (H, cm), diameter near ground (Dn,mm), diameter above ground 100 mm (Da, mm), The research finished the relative abundant, types and cluster analysis of riverbank dominant plants that generalize vegetative distribution and ecological restoration for different river types to apply and manage in Taiwan.

  7. Study on vegetation ecological water requirement in Ejina Oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Ecological Water Requirement (EWR) of desert oasis is the amount of water required to maintain a normal growth of vegetation in the special ecosystems. In this study EWR of the Ejina desert oasis is estimated through the relational equation between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), productivity and transpiration coefficient, which was established by a combination of the RS, GIS, GPS techniques with the field measurements of productivity. The results show that about 1.53×108 m3 water would be needed to maintain the present state of the Ejina Oasis, and the ecological water requirement would amount to 3.49×108 m3 if the existing vegetation was restored to the highest productivity level at present. Considering the domestic water requirement, river delivery loss, oasis vegetation water con-sumption, farmland water demand, precipitation recharge, etc., the draw-off discharge of the Heihe River (at Longxin Mount) should be 1.93×108―2.23 ×108 m3 to maintain the present state of the Ejina Oasis, and 4.28×108―5.17×108 m3 to make the existing vegetation be restored to the highest productiv-ity level at present.

  8. [Ecological and food safety considerations about products of vegetable origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Díaz, R V

    1994-12-01

    Media have paid much attention in recent years to emerging microbiological problems in foods of plant origin. The potential for contamination of fruits and vegetables is high because of the wide variety of conditions to which produce is exposed during growth, harvest, processing and distribution. These considerations acquire great significance in the current scenario of the new processing techniques that offer attributes of convenience and fresh-likeness in response to changes in consumption patterns and increased demand of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Thus, reliance on low temperature storage and on improved packaging materials/techniques have increased. Even if produce had not been considered a major vector for foodborne diseases, technologies that extend shelf-life by decreasing the rate of product deterioration might increase the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms, especially of psychotropic nature, by allowing sufficient time for their growth when retarding the development of competitive spoilage organisms. Processing steps that modify the food microenvironment open new possibilities to support pathogens that, for ecological reason, would have never been naturally present in produce. Ecological and safety aspects related to fruits and vegetables as well as foodborne disease outbreaks traceable to produce and reportedly due to Salmonella and Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni are reviewed. PMID:8984963

  9. Predicting Ecologically Important Vegetation Variables from Remotely Sensed Optical/Radar Data Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Nelson, Ross F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of satellite sensor systems will collect large data sets of the Earth's surface during NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) era. Efforts are being made to develop efficient algorithms that can incorporate a wide variety of spectral data and ancillary data in order to extract vegetation variables required for global and regional studies of ecosystem processes, biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and carbon dynamics. These variables are, for the most part, continuous (e.g. biomass, leaf area index, fraction of vegetation cover, vegetation height, vegetation age, spectral albedo, absorbed photosynthetic active radiation, photosynthetic efficiency, etc.) and estimates may be made using remotely sensed data (e.g. nadir and directional optical wavelengths, multifrequency radar backscatter) and any other readily available ancillary data (e.g., topography, sun angle, ground data, etc.). Using these types of data, neural networks can: 1) provide accurate initial models for extracting vegetation variables when an adequate amount of data is available; 2) provide a performance standard for evaluating existing physically-based models; 3) invert multivariate, physically based models; 4) in a variable selection process, identify those independent variables which best infer the vegetation variable(s) of interest; and 5) incorporate new data sources that would be difficult or impossible to use with conventional techniques. In addition, neural networks employ a more powerful and adaptive nonlinear equation form as compared to traditional linear, index transformations, and simple nonlinear analyses. These neural networks attributes are discussed in the context of the authors' investigations of extracting vegetation variables of ecological interest.

  10. NatureServe International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications of Vegetation Alliances and Associations at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This subset of the International Ecological Classification Standard represents the National Vegetation Classification Standard (NVCS) and covers vegetation...

  11. Vegetation Evolution with Degenerating Soil Ecology Under Unequal Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Shan; QI Xiang-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A vegetation evolution model influenced by a degeneration of soil ecological functions was set up. Three ideal communities of a) trees, b) shrubs, and c) herbage populations were first simulated. Then numerical simulations of the evolutionary and developmental processes of a natural forest community, which is composed of over 100 species,were conducted. Results of the study showed that a) in all communities, soil degeneration not only drove some weaker species to extinction, but also a few dominant ones; b) there were different response scales with species in an ideal tree metapopulation that could persist as long as a thousand years, with shrubs in an ideal shrub metapopulation that could persevere for several hundred years, and with species in an ideal herbage metapopulation that could become extinct within 10 years; and c) each metapopulation experienced three evolutionary stages during adaptation to the environment: a) the stage of compelled adaptation or resistance, b) the adjusted stage, and c) the stabilized stage.

  12. Application of GIS in Ecological Land Type (ELT) mapping——A case in Changbai Mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper depicted the physiographic landscape features and natural vegetation situation of study area (the eastern Jilin Province), and expatiates the definition, basic characters and its development of Ecological Land Classification (ELC). Based on the combination of relief map, satellite photography for study area and vegetation inventory data of 480 sample sites, a 5-class and a 15-class ecological land type map was concluded according to 4 important factors including slope, aspect, vegetation and elevation. Ecological Classification System (ECS) is a method to identify, characterize, and map ecosystems. The Ecological Land Type (ELT) was examined and applied initially in eastern Jilin Province.

  13. Vegetation Classification, Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA), Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment at Camas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project includes a pilot study to map the vegetation of Camas National Wildlife Refuge and a report on the overall ecological integrity of the refuge, how it...

  14. Effects of aquatic vegetation type on denitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Bruijne, de W.J.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a microcosm 15N enrichment experiment we tested the effect of floating vegetation (Lemna sp.) and submerged vegetation (Elodea nuttallii) on denitrification rates, and compared it to systems without macrophytes. Oxygen concentration, and thus photosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating

  15. A vegetational and ecological resource analysis from space and high flight photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    A hierarchial classification of vegetation and related resources is considered that is applicable to convert remote sensing data in space and aerial synoptic photography. The numerical symbolization provides for three levels of vegetational classification and three levels of classification of environmental features associated with each vegetational class. It is shown that synoptic space photography accurately projects how urban sprawl affects agricultural land use areas and ecological resources.

  16. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-10-01

    We critically reassess a conceptual model here, dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and we provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past 2 decades using a wide range of model and palaeo-proxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. In the light of recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, the conceptual model by Claussen et al. (2013) reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate, but it does not capture the reconstructed diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. With a new model version adjusted to AHP vegetation, we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as reconstructed from pollen, and we observe a stabilizing effect of high functional diversity on vegetation cover and precipitation. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single plant type may inherit. The model's simplicity limits its application; however, it provides a useful tool to

  17. Differences in hydrological responses for different vegetation types on a steep slope on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liangxia; Huang, Mingbin; Zhang, Luodan

    2016-06-01

    Extensive vegetation restoration practices have been implemented to control soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, China. However, no strict guidelines are available to determine the most suitable plant species for vegetation restoration within a given area. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes of each component (soil water storage, surface runoff, and actual evapotranspiration) of a water balance model and soil loss over time under eight different vegetation types, and to further determine the optimal vegetation type for soil and water conservation and sustainable ecological restoration on the steep slopes (>25°) on the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that vegetation type substantially affected soil water storage and that the greatest soil water storage in both the shallow (0-2 m) and the deep soil layers (2-5 m) occurred under Bothriochloa ischaemum L. (BOI). Vegetation type also affected surface runoff and soil losses. The most effective vegetation types for reducing soil erosion were BOI and Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), while Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and Chinese pine + Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were the most ineffective types. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration varied considerably among the different vegetation types. A soil water surplus was only found under BOI, while insufficient water replenishment existed under the other seven vegetation types. The higher water consumption rates of the seven vegetation types could result in soil desiccation, which could lead to severe water stresses that would adversely affect plant growth. This study suggested that both vegetation type and its effect on controlling soil erosion should be considered when implementing vegetation restoration and that BOI should be highly recommended for vegetation restoration on the steep slopes of the Loess Plateau. A similar approach to the one used in this study could be applied to other regions of the world confronted

  18. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION BY ECOLOGICAL ZONE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi

    2015-09-01

    The disease burden in both developed and developing countries is moving towards higher proportions of chronic diseases, and diseases such as cancers are now considered to be of public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, healthy behaviours such as fruit and vegetable consumption are recommended to reduce the chances of onset of chronic diseases. This paper examines the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in Ghana with particular emphasis on consumption by ecological zone. Data were from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=4916 females; n=4568 males). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using basic descriptive and Poisson regression. The main independent variable was ecological zone and the dependent variables were levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. The mean number of fruits and vegetables consumed in a week was higher among females (fruits: 7.5, 95% CI=7.3-7.7; vegetables: 8.1, 95% CI=7.8-8.3) than males (fruits: 6.2, 95% CI=6.0-6.4; vegetables: 7.9, 95% CI=7.7-8.2). There were significant differences in consumption by ecological zone. Respondents in the Savannah zone consumed less fruit than those in the Coastal and Forest zones, but the differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between the Coastal and Savannah zones were not consistent, especially for vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that one of the key interventions to improve fruit and vegetable consumption could lie in improving distribution systems since their consumption is significantly higher in the Forest zone, where the production of fruit and vegetables is more developed than in the Savannah and Coastal zones. The findings relating to household wealth challenge conventional knowledge on fruit and vegetable consumption, and rather argue for equal consideration of spatial differences in critical health outcomes.

  19. ECOLOGICAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERWATER VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TITINSCHNEIDER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The excess of aquatic submerse vegetation development carries to the reduction of the real rearing area for the piscicultural material from the production farms and allow nestling of the ichthyophages bird species that decrease the fish production. Aquatic submerse vegetation stumble the utilization of aquatic zones for recreation and also wright function of basins utilized for the electric energy production, of micro electricity works through obstruction of the dams grid. The control of the aquatic submerse vegetation development, for Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ceratophyllum submersum, Urticularia vulgaris, Potamogeton natans, Nimphoides peltata species it is accomplish through the removing of some parts of these, preferably with all the stump system. Usually, these its accomplish with the floating equipments fit up with the thermic engines and the propulsion and governating elements who have harm over the fish and some others aquatic organisms through the noise, the displacing a large quality of water caused of propulsion systems and through the noxes elimination (flue, carburant trails, etc.. These technologies reside from the evacuation of the aquatic submerse vegetation and the stump systems of these with the help of an adjustable rake, hang up from the coast by a rope, wrapped to a drummer, who is trained by a motto-propeller group with a small installed power.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE SOIL ON GROWING TYPES OF WOOD VEGETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Irkovsky E. R.; Odnoralov G. A.; Kharchenko N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects influences of soil conditions on growing types of wood vegetation. The carried-out chemical analyses show quantity of chemical elements which have to arrive to the soil with tree waste, and also acidity of the soil

  1. Classification of vegetation types in military region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Silva, Jose Silvestre; Bioucas-Dias, Jose

    2015-10-01

    In decision-making process regarding planning and execution of military operations, the terrain is a determining factor. Aerial photographs are a source of vital information for the success of an operation in hostile region, namely when the cartographic information behind enemy lines is scarce or non-existent. The objective of present work is the development of a tool capable of processing aerial photos. The methodology implemented starts with feature extraction, followed by the application of an automatic selector of features. The next step, using the k-fold cross validation technique, estimates the input parameters for the following classifiers: Sparse Multinomial Logist Regression (SMLR), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Linear Classifier using Principal Component Expansion on the Joint Data (PCLDC) and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine (MSVM). These classifiers were used in two different studies with distinct objectives: discrimination of vegetation's density and identification of vegetation's main components. It was found that the best classifier on the first approach is the Sparse Logistic Multinomial Regression (SMLR). On the second approach, the implemented methodology applied to high resolution images showed that the better performance was achieved by KNN classifier and PCLDC. Comparing the two approaches there is a multiscale issue, in which for different resolutions, the best solution to the problem requires different classifiers and the extraction of different features.

  2. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  3. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. I - Theory and hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution space of an approximate statistical-dynamic model of the average annual water balance is explored with respect to the hydrologic parameters of both soil and vegetation. Within the accuracy of this model it is shown that water-limited natural vegetation systems are in stable equilibrium with their climatic and pedologic environments when the canopy density and species act to minimize average water demand stress. Theory shows a climatic limit to this equilibrium above which it is hypothesized that ecological pressure is toward maximization of biomass productivity. It is further hypothesized that natural soil-vegetation systems will develop gradually and synergistically, through vegetation-induced changes in soil structure, toward a set of hydraulic soil properties for which the minimum stress canopy density of a given species is maximum in a given climate. Using these hypotheses, only the soil effective porosity need be known to determine the optimum soil and vegetation parameters in a given climate.

  4. Effect of vegetation on rock and soil type discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of naturally occurring vegetation on the spectral reflectance of earth materials in the wavelength region of 0.45 to 2.4 microns is determined by computer averaging of in situ acquired spectral data. The amount and type of vegetation and the spectral reflectance of the ground are considered. Low albedo materials may be altered beyond recognition with only ten per cent green vegetation cover. Dead or dry vegetation does not greatly alter the shape of the spectral reflectance curve and only changes the albedo with minimum wavelength dependency. With increasing amounts of vegetation the Landsat MSS band ratios 4/6, 4/7, 5/6, and 5/7 are significantly decreased whereas MSS ratios 4/5 and 6/7 remain entirely constant.

  5. Ecological and Economic Benefits of Vegetation Management Measures in Citrus Orchards on Red Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Jian-Guo; WANG Qiu-Zhen; LIAO Gen-Qing; J.AU; J.L.ALLARD

    2008-01-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the economic and ecological benefits of six types of vegetation management measures in citrus orchards of the hilly red soil region of the eastern part of China.Six vegetation treatments,including tillage without herbicide (clean tillage) and no tillage without herbicide (sod culture)and with herbicide paraquat (paraquat),glyphosate (glyphosate),glyphosate-glyphosate-paraquat (G-G-P),and paraquatparaquat-glyphosate (P-P-G),were applied in the citrus orchards on a clayey red soil with slopes of 8° and 13° and a sandy soil with slope of 25°.The results showed that the sod culture,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G treatments reduced surface runoff by 38.8%,42.5%,18.7%,28.7%,and 37.5%,then the soil-water losses by 55.5%,51.7%,39.9%,46.8%,and 50.0%,and the N,P,and K nutrient losses by 60.3%,50.2%,37.0%,41.8%,and 45.4%,respectively,as compared with the clean tillage treatment.The weed regeneration ratios with the treatments of clean tillage without herbicide,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G were reduced by 55.1%,67.2%,30.3%,36.8%,and 51.2%,respectively,as compared withthe sod culture.The sod culture,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G treatments could increase the soil fertility (annual accumulation of N,P,K,and OM) by 7.1%,6.9%,5.3%,6.2%,and 6.6%,respectively,whereas the clean tillage treatment without herbicide reduced soil fertility by 4.4% after the three-year experiment.The citrus fruit yields in the treatments of paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G increased by 7%-10%;the soluble solid,total sugar,total acidity,sugar-acid ratio,and single fruit weight of citrus fruits of all treatments except sod culture significantly (P > 0.05)exceeded that of the clean tillage treatment.In general,the paraquat treatment showed the best economic and ecological benefits among the six treatments;therefore,it could be regarded as the best available vegetation management measure in citrus orchards of hilly red

  6. Vegetation relevés and soil measurements in the Netherlands: the Ecological Conditions Database (EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Dobben, van H.F.; Frissel, J.Y.; Held, den M.E.; Joosten, V.; Malinowska, A.H.; Slim, P.A.; Wegman, R.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its establishment around 1990, the Ecological Conditions Database (EC; GIVD ID EU-00-006) has been accumulating vegetation relevés from the Netherlands, each accompanied by at least one abiotic soil measurement (e.g. pH or nutrient availability). On 1-1-2010, the database contained 8,229 relev

  7. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa – ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate–vegetation interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Groner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate–vegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP. Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013 introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate–vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, we evaluate the representation of climate–vegetation feedback in this conceptual approach, and put the suggested conclusions into an ecological context. In principle, the original model reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate although vegetation determinants other than precipitation are neglected. However, the model cannot capture the diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. In order to fill the gaps in the description of plant types regarding AHP diversity, we modify the original model in four main aspects. First, the growth ranges in terms of moisture requirements are extended by upper limits to represent full environmental envelopes. Second, data-based AHP plant types replace

  8. Ecological Land Type Associations of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the fourth level of the Ecological Classification System. Polygon boundaries were delineated at a scale of 1:100,000 with a...

  9. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA a...

  10. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  11. Assessing uncertainties in a second-generation dynamic vegetation model caused by ecological scale limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rosie; McDowell, Nate; Purves, Drew; Moorcroft, Paul; Sitch, Stephen; Cox, Peter; Huntingford, Chris; Meir, Patrick; Woodward, F Ian

    2010-08-01

    *Second-generation Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) have recently been developed that explicitly represent the ecological dynamics of disturbance, vertical competition for light, and succession. Here, we introduce a modified second-generation DGVM and examine how the representation of demographic processes operating at two-dimensional spatial scales not represented by these models can influence predicted community structure, and responses of ecosystems to climate change. *The key demographic processes we investigated were seed advection, seed mixing, sapling survival, competitive exclusion and plant mortality. We varied these parameters in the context of a simulated Amazon rainforest ecosystem containing seven plant functional types (PFTs) that varied along a trade-off surface between growth and the risk of starvation induced mortality. *Varying the five unconstrained parameters generated community structures ranging from monocultures to equal co-dominance of the seven PFTs. When exposed to a climate change scenario, the competing impacts of CO(2) fertilization and increasing plant mortality caused ecosystem biomass to diverge substantially between simulations, with mid-21st century biomass predictions ranging from 1.5 to 27.0 kg C m(-2). *Filtering the results using contemporary observation ranges of biomass, leaf area index (LAI), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) did not substantially constrain the potential outcomes. We conclude that demographic processes represent a large source of uncertainty in DGVM predictions. PMID:20618912

  12. Natural vegetation inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  13. Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kapusta-Duch; Teresa Leszczyńska; Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically) the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radic...

  14. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-11-01

    We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

  15. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  16. [Influence of three types of riparian vegetation on fluvial erosion control in Pantanos de Centla, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Geissen, Violette; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Jarquín-Sánchez, Aarón; de la Cruz, Simón Hernández; Capetillo, Edward; Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe

    2009-12-01

    Wetlands constitute very important ecological areas. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil losses due to fluvial erosion from 2006 to 2008 in two riverbanks under three types of vegetal coverage dominated by Haematoxylum campechianum, Dalbergia brownei and Brachiaria mutica, in the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve, SE Mexico. The relationship between the texture, organic matter and pH of soils and soil losses was evaluated. We used erosion sticks to estimate soil losses in 18 plots (three plots per type, three vegetation types, two riverbanks). Soil loss decreased in this order: H. campechianum>B. mutica>D. brownei indicating that D. brownei scrubland has the most potential to retain soil. The higher erosive impact within H. campechianum sites can be related with the low density of these trees in the study areas, as well as the lack of association with other types of vegetation that could reinforce the rooting of the soil profile. Furthermore, soil losses in H. campechianum sites were dependent on soil texture. The soils under this type of vegetal coverage were mainly sandy, which are more vulnerable to the erosive action in comparison with fine textured soils or soils with higher clay content, like the ones found in D. brownei and B. mutica sites. Soil losses of 100 % in the second year (B. mutica plots) can be attributed to the distribution of roots in the upper soil layer and also to livestock management along riverbanks. This study recognizes the importance of D. brownei scrublands in riverbank soil retention. Nevertheless it is necessary to consider the role of an entire vegetal community in future research. PMID:20073341

  17. [Remote sensing based monitoring of vegetation dynamics and ecological restoration in Beijing mountainous area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Liu, Liang-yun; Jia, Jian-hua

    2010-11-01

    By using the Landsat images in 1979, 1988, 1999, 2005, and 2009, and the linear unmixed model at pixel scale, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation coverage in Beijing mountainous area. After detecting the areas of vegetation degradation or restoration, the impacts of elevation, slope, and soil type on vegetation restoration were studied. From 1979 to 1988, the vegetation coverage in the study area had no obvious change, but in the following 12 years, the vegetation coverage was seriously destroyed due to the fast development of social economy. Fortunately, many protective measures were taken since 2000, which improved the vegetation coverage to 72% in 2009, with an increment of 13% compared to the vegetation coverage in 1999. A significant correlation was observed between the variations of vegetation coverage and territorial features. The areas with poor soil or large slope were more easily suffered from degradation than other places, and the flat regions with low elevation were more affected by human activities. PMID:21361013

  18. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  19. Revising ecological assumptions about Human papillomavirus interactions and type replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murall, Carmen Lía; McCann, Kevin S; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-06-01

    The controversy over whether vaccine-targeted HPV types will be replaced by other oncogenic, non-vaccine-targeted types remains unresolved. This is in part because little is known about the ecology of HPV types. Patient data has been interpreted to suggest independence or facilitative interactions between types and therefore replacement is believed to be unlikely. With a novel mathematical model, we investigated which HPV type interactions and their immune responses gave qualitatively similar patterns frequently observed in patients. To assess the possibility of type replacement, vaccination was added to see if non-vaccine-targeted types increased their 'niche'. Our model predicts that independence and facilitation are not necessary for the coexistence of types inside hosts, especially given the patchy nature of HPV infection. In fact, independence and facilitation inadequately represented co-infected patients. We found that some form of competition is likely in natural co-infections. Hence, non-vaccine-targeted types that are not cross-reactive with the vaccine could spread to more patches and can increase their viral load in vaccinated hosts. The degree to which this happens will depend on replication and patch colonization rates. Our results suggest that independence between types could be a fallacy, and so without conclusively untangling HPV within-host ecology, type replacement remains theoretically viable. More ecological thinking is needed in future studies. PMID:24412334

  20. Characteristic of Soil Hydro-Physical Properties and Water Dynamics under Different Vegetation Restoration Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zelong; GONG Yuanbo; HU Tingxing

    2006-01-01

    By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve the ecological restoration in the low hill heavy rain area upper the Jialing River. Results showed that:the hydro-physical properties of soil in the mixed Alnus cremastogyne and Cupressua Leyland forest (AcCl) were best. But in the depth of 0-20 cm. The properties of soil in the abandoned cropland (Fm) was better than that in the AcCl. The soil bulk densities varied significantly between the layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in all the six vegetation types except that in the Robinia pseudoacacia shrub forest (RpⅡ), and the changes of the maximum and the capillary moisture capacity between layers were significant only in the Fm and in the AcCl. Of these stands, the AcCl had the shortest water-absorbing period and the strongest moisture changes in the upper layer (0-15 cm). In the same stand, the deeper the soil layer, the slighter the soil moisture varied, and the longer the soil moisture accumulating process lasted.

  1. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience

  2. Ecological Factors Affecting the Distribution of Woody Vegetation Near the Arkansas River, Tulsa County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wanamnaker Long

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors affecting plant distribution were studied over different rock strata and slope exposures above the Arkansas River, Tulsa County. Here the Wann sandstone caprock is underlain by the Iola limestone formation. The vegetation was analyzed taxonomically by a complete collection throughout one growing season. Belt transects crossing rock strata on all slope exposures permitted computation of parameters summarized by an Importance Percentage for each woody species. Differences in species populations and degree of mesophytism exist on the slope exposures. Sandstone upland dominants are post and blackjack oaks. Smoke-tree, rare in Oklahoma, and chinquapin oak are closely associated in limestone microhabitats, where each occupies a separate niche. The smoke-tree, of disjunct distribution, appears to be a relict of widespread occurrence in past geologic periods. Its survival with limited ecological amplitude is due to the continuance of the microhabitats to which it is so well adapted.

  3. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bezerra de Mattos Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  4. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological

  5. Plant physiological ecology and the global changes Ecofisiologia vegetal e as mudanças globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global changes are marked by alteration on the normal patterns of important biochemical and biophysical processes of the Earth. However, the real effects as well as the feedbacks of the global changes over vegetation are still unclear. Part of this uncertainty can be attributed to the inattention of stakeholders and scientists towards vegetation and its complex interrelations with the environment, which drive plant physiological processes in different space-time scales. Notwithstanding, some key subjects of the global changes could be better elucidated with a more plant physiological ecology approach. We discuss some issues related to this topic, going through some limitations of approaching vegetation as a static component of the biosphere as the other sub-systems of the Earth-system change. With this perspective, this review is an initial reflection towards the assessment of the role and place of vegetation structure and function in the global changes context. We reviewed the Earth-system and global changes terminology; attempted to illustrate key plant physiological ecology researches themes in the global changes context; consider approaching plants as complex systems in order to adequately quantify systems characteristics as sensibility, homeostasis, and vulnerability. Moreover, we propose insights that would allow vegetation studies and scaling procedures in the context of the Earth-system. We hope this review will assist researchers on their strategy to identify, understand and anticipate the potential effects of global changes over the most vulnerable vegetation processes from the leaf to the global levels.As mudanças globais englobam importantes alterações nos padrões normais de processos bioquímicos e biofísicos da Terra. Os reais efeitos e retroalimentações das mudanças globais sobre a vegetação ainda são incertos. Parte das incertezas pode ser atribuída à falta de atenção de cientistas e políticos para a vegeta

  6. Multivariate Analysis, Description, and Ecological Interpretation of Weed Vegetation in the Summer Crop Fields of Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng QIANG

    2005-01-01

    Two surveys were conducted to investigate weed vegetation in a 153-hm2 sampling area of summer crop fields from Anhui Province, China, through visual scoring of the level of weed infestation compared with summer crops on a seven-class scale. In total, 155 sampling sites were selected in the field based on crops, tillage, rotation systems, geographical regions, and soil types across the province. Data on weed communities and environmental factors were collected and analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and the output was interpreted ecologically. Results showed that the main factors influencing the structure and distribution of weed communities in summer crop fields were the soil submersion period, latitude, and soil type and pH. The CCA indicated a significant relationship between weed dominance and soil submersion duration, latitude, and soil pH. From the result of the PCA and CCA ordination, the 155 sampling sites could be divided into three groups based on geographic and floristic composition, as well as weed abundance. The southern dry land group, which was characterized by a double-cropping system in the hilly regions of southern and central Anhui Province with a continuous summer crop and an autumn dry land crop, was dominated by Galium aparine Linn. var. tenerum (Gren. et Godr) Robb., Avenafatua L., and Veronica persica Poir. The northern dry land group, which had the same cropping system as the southern dry land group, was dominated by G. aparine var. tenerun, Galium tricorne Stokes, Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur., and Lithospermum arvense L. in the North Anhui Province, China. These two dry land groups could be combined into one large dry land group, in which the Galium weed vegetation type dominated. The third group was the paddy soil group, which was characterized by a continu ous summer crop and double- or triple-cropping systems of rice, and prevailed in the south and central areas of Anhui

  7. WETLAND TYPES AND ASSOCIATE VEGETATION IN NEPAL:AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Siwakoti

    2007-01-01

    Wetland is the transitional zone between the permanently wet and dry environment and shares the characteristics of the environment. Wetland is not yet to be classified unambiguously as either aquatic or terrestrial. However, the Ramsar Convention adopts an extremely broad approach in determining the wetland; as a result, several varieties of habitat types are included under the wetland definition. Wetlands are among the world's most productive ecosystems and provide a wide variety of goods and services. Nepal lies on the southern slopes of central Himalayas and occupies a total area of 147 181 km2 between the latitudes 26°22′ N and 30°27′ N and the longitudes 80°40′ E and 88°12′ E. The diverse landscape (60-8 848 m) and bioclimatic conditions (alpine to tropical) of the country provide a unique niche for different types of wetlands. These are distributed from high altitudinal glacial lakes to hot springs, ponds, ox-bow lakes to river floodplains, marshes and swamps. The country has 15 types of inland freshwater natural wetlands as classified by the Ramsar Convention. These wetlands house several species of rare and endangered flora and fauna. The present paper attempts to highlight the various types of wetlands in Nepal with associate vegetation.

  8. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jien Zhang

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05. The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  9. The influence of organic-mineral complexes on micro-elements dynamic in ecological systems of vegetables cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, D.; Buzgar, N.; Bulgariu, L.; Rusu, C.; Munteanu, N.

    2009-04-01

    differential bonded on mineral and organic components of hortic antrosols, have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after combined sequential extraction in solid phase extraction - aqueous biphasic (PEG based) systems. The specific mechanisms of the microelements interaction with organic components have been estimated on the basis of studies realized on fractions obtained after each extraction step by Raman and FTIR spectrometry. These data have been correlated with those obtained by chemical analysis and UV-VIS spectrometry. In conditions of hortic antrosol, from total contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cr, more than 65 % are binding on organic components. A specific phenomenon of hortic antrosols is the microelements complexation exclusively with the functional groups of organic macromolecules. This phenomenon has two important consequences: (i) the strong fixation of microelements (these can be extracted only in very extremely conditions, which implied the organic part destroying) and (ii) their presence determined major modifications in the structure, conformation and stability of organic macromolecules. Under these conditions, the type and structure of organic-mineral compounds represent determinant factors for the dynamic of micro-elements and organic compounds in ecological systems of vegetables cultivation. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 51045/07 an Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 52141 / 08).

  10. Community Food Store Types Availability is Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Okafor, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nutritional guidelines promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables, the level of fruits and vegetable consumption is drastically below the recommended levels nationally, as well as at the state levels. Among factors that may influence consumption of fruits and vegetables, it is held that factors within the food environment such as the availability of retail types that are conducive for easy access to fruits and vegetables within communities may be presenting barriers to purchas...

  11. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a site’s resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  12. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites

  13. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant

  14. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  15. Categorizing Grassland Vegetation with Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning: A Feasibility Study for Detecting Natura 2000 Habitat Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zlinszky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand for reliable, high-resolution vegetation maps covering large areas. Airborne laser scanning data is available for large areas with high resolution and supports automatic processing, therefore, it is well suited for habitat mapping. Lowland hay meadows are widespread habitat types in European grasslands, and also have one of the highest species richness. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of airborne laser scanning for vegetation mapping of different grasslands, including the Natura 2000 habitat type lowland hay meadows. Full waveform leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds were collected from a Natura 2000 site in Sopron, Hungary, covering several grasslands. The LIDAR data were processed to a set of rasters representing point attributes including reflectance, echo width, vegetation height, canopy openness, and surface roughness measures, and these were fused to a multi-band pseudo-image. Random forest machine learning was used for classifying this dataset. Habitat type, dominant plant species and other features of interest were noted in a set of 140 field plots. Two sets of categories were used: five classes focusing on meadow identification and the location of lowland hay meadows, and 10 classes, including eight different grassland vegetation categories. For five classes, an overall accuracy of 75% was reached, for 10 classes, this was 68%. The method delivers unprecedented fine resolution vegetation maps for management and ecological research. We conclude that high-resolution full-waveform LIDAR data can be used to detect grassland vegetation classes relevant for Natura 2000.

  16. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Rutten

    Full Text Available In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  17. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2016-06-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus ( Cistus salviifolius) and ulex ( Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence ( ΔF/ Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  18. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: → N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. → Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. → Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. → Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  19. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  20. Applying the socio-ecological model to improving fruit and vegetable intake among low-income African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tanya

    2008-12-01

    Despite the growing body of literature that provides evidence of the health benefits of a diet high in fruits and vegetables, most Americans eat much less than the recommended amounts of this food group. Among those who are least likely to meet the USDA guidelines for the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables are non-Hispanic Blacks and individuals with lower incomes. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the dietary behaviors, focusing on fruit and vegetable intake, of low-income African Americans from a socio-ecological perspective, and to offer rationale for and guidance on integrating socio-ecological concepts into health promoting programs intended to improve dietary behaviors among this population. Based on the 12 descriptive studies retrieved in the review, dietary behaviors and fruit and vegetable intake among African Americans are the result of a complex interplay of personal, cultural, and environmental factors that can be categorized and described using the five levels of influence conceptualized by the socio-ecological model: Intrapersonal level (taste preferences, habits, and nutritional knowledge and skills), Interpersonal level/social environment (processes whereby culture, social traditions, and role expectations impact eating practices; and patterns within peer groups, friends and family), and Organizational, Community, and Public Policy levels/physical environment (environmental factors that affect food access and availability). The socio-ecological model provides a useful framework for achieving a better understanding of the multiple factors and barriers that impact dietary behaviors, and therefore can provide guidance for developing culturally appropriate and sensitive intervention strategies for African Americans. It is an integrative framework that shows great promise in moving the field closer to attaining the goal of improving dietary behaviors and nutritional status among African Americans.

  1. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the...

  2. Ecología vegetal en la Antártida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Sancho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A menudo se ha descrito la vida vegetal en la Antártida como extremadamente pobre y ecológicamente simple. Sin embargo, esto sólo es cierto si nos referimos a las localidades más inhóspitas de la Antártida continental. En la región conocida como Antártida marítima, costa occidental de la Península Antártica e islas adyacentes, la situación es bien distinta. El número de especies de líquenes supera las 350 y se han descrito más de 100 especies de musgos y hepáticas, aunque sólo existen dos plantas con flores. En el ámbito de la ecología vegetal, la cuestión fundamental que ha preocupado a los investigadores hasta ahora es si los líquenes y musgos de la Antártida presentan algún tipo de adaptación que les permita sobrevivir mejor que otras plantas en este medio. Un segundo aspecto de gran interés en la actualidad es determinar la capacidad de adaptación de la flora antártica ante el aumento de la radiación ultravioleta (UV como consecuencia del agujero de ozono, y ante el calentamiento global. Los líquenes antárticos se han mostrado muy tolerantes a amplios periodos de frío y sequía y son capaces de mantener una fotosíntesis activa a temperatura por debajo del punto de congelación, sin embargo algunas de las especies estudiadas no son capaces de mantener tasas positivas de fotosíntesis si la temperatura sube dos o tres grados. Por otra parte, tanto musgos como líquenes se muestran muy resistentes a la radiación UV. Los líquenes y comunidades microbianas de los Valles Secos y Montañas Transantárticas no parecen limitados por la más dura combinación de frío, sequedad y radiación que se produce en nuestro planeta. Estas especies son excelentes candidatos para experimentos de astrobiología en el espacio exterior, con el fin de demostrar la capacidad de supervivencia de células complejas originadas en la Tierra a posibles transferencias interplanetarias.

  3. Dynamic surface soil components of land and vegetation types in Kebbi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Usman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land and vegetation are important components of soil and provides many benefits to surface soil including protection against erosion, climate change impact and unacceptable degradation of soil particles. Visual Soil Assessment was used as a mechanism to assess and classify the land and vegetation types of some agricultural sites in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The aim was to get better understanding of the environmental soil function for sustainable crop production in dryland and fadama areas of the State. The assessment was able to put together combinations of different vegetation types and land age classes. It is valued that the land age classes possessed the characteristics of Holocene-natural, Holocene-anthropogeomorphic, Holocene-young-natural, young-anthropogeomorphic, very-young anthropogeomorphic and very-young natural. However, the vegetation types could be related to evergreen forest, short medium forest (scattered clustered, dwarf vegetation (scattered isolated, grass vegetation, thick vegetation, stony-grass vegetation (scattered sparse and short-length vegetation. The assessment provides an improve understanding of the current status of land and vegetation conditions of the study area and suggested regular soil management for sustainable crop production in the State.

  4. Effects of vegetation type on soil microbial community structure and catabolic diversity assessed by polyphasic methods in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbes play a major role in ecological processes and are closely associated with the aboveground plant community. In order to understand the effects of vegetation type on the characteristics of soil microbial communities, the soil microbial communities were assessed by plate counts, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and Biolog microplate techniques in five plant communities, i.e., soybean field (SF), artificial turf (AT), artificial shrub (AS), natural shrub (NS), and maize field (MF) in Jinan, Shandong Province, North China. The results showed that plant diversity had little discernible effect on microbial biomass but a positive impact on the evennessof utilized substrates in Biolog microplate. Legumes could significantly enhance the number of cultural microorganisms, microbial biomass, and community catabolic diversity. Except for SF dominated by legumes, the biomass of fungi and the catabolic diversity of microbial community were higher in less disturbed soil beneath NS than in frequently disturbed soils beneath the other vegetation types. These results confirmed that high number of plant species, legumes, and natural vegetation types tend to support soil microbial communities with higher function. The present study also found a significant correlation between the number of cultured bacteria and catabolic diversity of the bacterial community. Different research methods led to varied results in this study. The combination of several approaches is recommended for accurately describing the characteristics of microbial communities in many respects.

  5. Ejin Oasis Land Use and Vegetation Change between 2000 and 2011: The Role of the Ecological Water Diversion Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ejin Oasis, located in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB, has experienced severe ecosystem decline between the 1960s and 1990s. In response, the Chinese Government implemented the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP in 2000. To evaluate the effects of the EWDP, this study monitored changes in land use and vegetation in the Ejin Oasis since 2000 and examined driving factors behind such changes. Results demonstrated that the Ejin Oasis ecosystem generally improved between 2000 and 2011. Water body area significantly increased. Lake area of once dried-up Sogo Nuur increased to 45 km2. Accordingly, vegetation cover restoration has also significantly increased. For example, the Seasonally Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (SINDVI has shown that 31.18% of the entire study area experienced an increase in vegetation area. On the other hand, even though the EWDP has been successful in driving vegetation recovery and lake restoration, farmland reclamation has counteracted such restoration initiatives. Farmland area almost doubled between 2000 and 2011. Thus, farmland expansion management is necessary for the full restoration of the Ejin Oasis ecosystems as well as HRB sustainable development. The results of this study can provide a reference for the management of the HRB.

  6. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific substr

  7. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hoon Hong; Hyun-Ok Kim; Shimon Wdowinski; Emanuelle Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol) synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We ...

  8. Influence of seasonality and vegetation type on suburban microclimates

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is responsible for some of the fastest rates of land-use change around the world, with important consequences for local, regional, and global climate. Vegetation, which represents a significant proportion of many urban and suburban landscapes, can modify climate by altering local exchanges of heat, water vapor, and CO2. To determine how distinct urban forest communities vary in their microclimate effects over time, we measured stand-level leaf area index, soil temperature, infrar...

  9. Ecological adaptation strategies of annual plants in artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in Shapotou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jingguang; LI; Xinrong; WANG; Xinping

    2004-01-01

    Taking annual plant Eragrostis poaeides in the artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in the Shapotou Experimental Research Station as example, study has been done on the adaptation strategies of annual plants to random environment through fixed quadrat observations of population changes and fixed plant determinations of individual growth, seed germination,population dynamics, spatial distribution pattern of population, competition and regulation. During the growing season, the survival rate of annual plants depends on the precipitation intensity and precipitation duration which activate the germination of seeds. The optimal germination strategy of annual plants in this habitat during the growing season appears as continuous germination under suitable conditions. Such continuous germination is an adaptive characteristic of annual plants to random environment. In addition, the variation processes of population size and regulation mechanism of E. poaeoides are studied. Statistical results of natural population in four consecutive years show that water condition in the habitat is the leading factor affecting the population dynamics of E. poaeoides. During the establishment period E. poaeoides had a higher death rate, but in the middle to later period they could survive stably. Due to the limitation of soil moisture, the competition among individuals for water inevitably led to self-thinning phenomena. Under very arid condition, the survival curve of annual herbs entirely appears as Deevey Ⅲ type (C type), but under relatively adequate precipitation condition, the survival curve appears as intermediate type. The strategy of life history obviously appears as r-strategy. Plant species of r-strategy often occurs in the early succession stage of the communities. In the relatively adequate and evenly-distributed rainfall years, E. poaeoides population exhibited a density-dependent, i. e., survival rate increased with decrease in population density. The main pattern to

  10. Distinguishing linear, nonlinear, transient and persistent vegetation dynamics to characterize empirical signatures of ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods To characterize and interpret ecological resilience and state change is a fundamental question in ecology. In the same ecosystem, across different communities, one can encounter relative stability, abrupt directional shifts, transient reversible change, as well as nondire...

  11. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  12. 基于遥感的海岛植被生态宏观评价方法初探%Preliminary study on macro evaluation approach of island vegetation ecology based on RS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁照东; 滕骏华; 孙美仙; 刘建伟; 郜志超

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in island ecosystems, thus it is of great significance to have a fast and effective approach for evaluating vegetation ecology in resource management. As we know, remote sensing has the advantages of real time, dynamic, and large-scale synchronous observation. Using remote sensing data to evaluate vegetation gives a relatively low-cost and efficient approach in island development and protection activities. A certain evaluation approach is needed to compare the vegetation status in different islands, and also some criteria to outline the vegetation status on an island. This paper summarizes an evaluation approach for evaluating the whole vegetation ecology and an Island Vegetation Ecological Evaluation Index based on the dimidiate pixel model and NDVI, which has been demonstrated in a case study. Three largest islands of Zhoushan Archipelago are chosen as the case study objects. Using TM data, the vegetation coverage in each island is calculated and classified, and finally the Island Vegetation Ecological Evaluation Index is verified. The results show that Zhoushan Island has the highest index value, refers to good ecological status, followed by Liuheng Island, then Daishan Island, which is matched by the land use type and the intensity of human development on the islands.%以遥感中的像元二分模型为理论基础,通过求解归一化植被指数(NDVI),估算海岛植被覆盖度,形成了一个能够综合反映海岛生态系统状况的植被生态遥感评价指数,有助于不同海岛之间植被生态状况的对比分析和评价.选取舟山群岛中3个面积较大的海岛作为研究对象,利用陆地卫星TM遥感资料,计算得到3个海岛的植被生态遥感评价指数.分析表明,舟山岛的评价指数最高,其次是六横岛,最低的是岱山岛,这些差异与海岛的土地利用类型及人类开发强度密切相关.

  13. What are the most important factors determining different vegetation types in the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, S P S; Funch, R; Conceição, A A; Miranda, L A P; Funch, L S

    2016-06-01

    A transect was used to examine the environmental and biological descriptors of a compact vegetation mosaic in the Chapada Diamantina in northeastern Brazil, including the floristic composition, spectrum of plant life forms, rainfall, and soil properties that defined areas of cerrado (Brazilian savanna), caatinga (seasonally dry tropical forest thorny, deciduous shrub/arboreal vegetation) and cerrado-caatinga transition vegetation. The floristic survey was made monthly from April/2009 to March/2012. A dendrogram of similarity was generated using the Jaccard Index based on a matrix of the species that occurred in at least two of the vegetation types examined. The proportions of life forms in each vegetation type were compared using the chi-square test. Composite soil samples were analyzed by simple variance (ANOVA) to examine relationships between soil parameters of each vegetation type and the transition area. The monthly precipitation levels in each vegetation type were measured and compared using the chi-square test. A total of 323 species of angiosperms were collected distributed in 193 genera and 54 families. The dendrogram demonstrated strong difference between the floristic compositions of the cerrado and caatinga, sharing 2% similarity. The chi-square test did not demonstrate any significant statistical differences between the monthly values of recorded rainfall. The organic matter and clay contents of the soilsin the caatinga increased while sand decreased, and the proportions of therophyte, hemicryptophyte, and chamaephyte life forms decreased and phanerophytes increased. We can therefore conclude that the floristic composition and the spectrum of life forms combined to define the cerrado and caatinga vegetation along the transect examined, with soil being the principal conditioning factor determining the different vegetation types, independent of precipitation levels. PMID:26934155

  14. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  15. Vegetation and Vertebrates of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Outline of Ecology and Annotated Lists 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an extensive list of vegetation and vertebrates at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center based on information gathered during the years 1936-1946.

  16. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. II - Tests and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Tellers, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term optimal climatic climax soil-vegetation system is defined for several climates according to previous hypotheses in terms of two free parameters, effective porosity and plant water use coefficient. The free parameters are chosen by matching the predicted and observed average annual water yield. The resulting climax soil and vegetation properties are tested by comparison with independent observations of canopy density and average annual surface runoff. The climax properties are shown also to satisfy a previous hypothesis for short-term optimization of canopy density and water use coefficient. Using these hypotheses, a relationship between average evapotranspiration and optimum vegetation canopy density is derived and is compared with additional field observations. An algorithm is suggested by which the climax soil and vegetation properties can be calculated given only the climate parameters and the soil effective porosity. Sensitivity of the climax properties to the effective porosity is explored.

  17. Wave Velocity Attenuation and Sediment Retention among Different Vegetation Types in a Pacific Northwest Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.; Blackmar, P.

    2012-12-01

    Feedbacks between vegetation, wave climate, and sedimentation create stable ecosystem states within estuaries that provide ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, erosion control, and pollution filtration. Flume and field studies conducted with cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and sea grasses (Zostera spp., Halodule spp.) have demonstrated that the presence of vegetation reduces wave energy and increases sediment retention. Since the spatial distribution of plant species and the presence of unique plant species differ between estuaries, there is a need to understand how individual plant species, or groups of species with similar morphology, influence wave characteristics and sedimentation. Within Tillamook Bay, Oregon, three species of emergent vascular vegetation species (Carex lyngbyei, Eleocharis sp., Schoenoplectus pungens) and one species of submergent vascular vegetation species (Zostera marina) are present in the high wave energy portion of the estuary at the border of open water and the start of vegetation. These species represent three distinct growth forms (emergent reeds, emergent grasses, submergent grasses) and occur at varying densities relative to each other, as well as within the estuary. Using paired acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), we quantify the relative attenuation of wave velocity between vegetation types and densities within the estuary and compare these results with published attenuation rates from flume and field studies in different environments. The effect of decreased wave velocity on sediment retention is measured using permanent sediment markers within and outside of vegetation stands and paired with ADV data. Sediment retention is predicted to vary seasonally with seasonal vegetation composition changes and remain constant in unvegetated areas. From this experiment we expect to identify like groups of plant species whose attenuation characteristics are the same, allowing for models of wave-vegetation-sediment interaction to be

  18. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long-term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large-scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the Shetland survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry, a range of socio-economic impacts, and perhaps climate change. Currently no such figures are available, although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  19. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  20. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  1. Simulation of maximum light use efficiency for some typical vegetation types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Maximum light use efficiency (εmax) is a key parameter for the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP) derived from remote sensing data. There are still many divergences about its value for each vegetation type. The εmax for some typical vegetation types in China is simulated using a modified least squares function based on NOAA/AVHRR remote sensing data and field-observed NPP data. The vegetation classification accuracy is introduced to the process. The sensitivity analysis of εmax to vegetation classification accuracy is also conducted. The results show that the simulated values of εmax are greater than the value used in CASA model, and less than the values simulated with BIOME-BGC model. This is consistent with some other studies. The relative error of εmax resulting from classification accuracy is -5.5%―8.0%. This indicates that the simulated values of εmax are reliable and stable.

  2. Noise- and delay-induced regime shifts in an ecological system of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the stationary probability distribution (SPD) and mean first passage time (MFPT) in a vegetation model with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation dynamics is assumed to be disturbed by both intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The impacts of the intrinsic noise strength α, extrinsic noise strength D, time delay τ and cross-correlation strength q between two noises on the SPD and MFPT of the regime shifts between the sustainable vegetation and barren states are discussed, respectively. Our main results are as follows. (i) The increase of α will cause regime shifts from the barren state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the increase of D or τ will cause regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the barren state. (ii) The MFPT as a function of the noise intensities (i.e., α and D) exhibits one maximum value in the case of q 0.0), the presence of time delay can also cause the existence of extrinsic noise enhanced stability. (paper)

  3. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C

    2016-02-16

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen's hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1-30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen's analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870-880] a model for the Red Queen's hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host-pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/- type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (-/-) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems.

  4. Effects of Spatial Heterogeneity in Rainfall and Vegetation Type on Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Puma, Michael J.; Celia, Michael A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Guswa, Andrew J.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear plant-scale interactions controlling the soil-water balance are generally not valid at larger spatial scales due to spatial heterogeneity in rainfall and vegetation type. The relationships between spatially averaged variables are hysteretic even when unique relationships are imposed at the plant scale. The characteristics of these hysteretic relationships depend on the size of the averaging area and the spatial properties of the soil, vegetation, and rainfall. We upscale the plant-s...

  5. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration.

  6. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration. PMID:27041062

  7. [Reproductive phenology of three vegetation types from a coastal plain of Paraguana Penninsula, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Jiménez, Luis José; Ramírez, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated by herbaceous species; woody species were mostly frequent in the mangrove vegetation. Phenological data revealed that 14 (27.5%) plant species flower and fruit year-round; 23 (45.1%) plant species flower and fruit at the beginning of the wet season; seven (13.7%) plant species flower at the end of wet season, and seven (13.7%) more flower at the beginning of the dry season. Flowsring and fruiting phenology showed similar frequency distribution during the year; reproductive phenology was independent of life forms. Flowering and fruiting peaks occurred during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season for trees and perennial herbs, and from one to three months later for shrubs and annual herbs. The lowest proportion of flowering and fruiting occurred before rain increase for all life forms. Flowering and fruiting phenologies were similar for the three vegetation types evaluated: flowering peak occurred during the lowest value of precipitation, three to four months after precipitation peak, and fruiting peak occurred four months later from the precipitation peak. These results suggest that flowering and fruiting phenology were not affected by life form and vegetation types. The peaks of flowering and fruiting during the lowest values of precipitation may be considered as a slow and late response to the precipitation maximum, and to the proximity between maximum and minimum of precipitation.

  8. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  9. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  10. Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alliaume, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools for

  11. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian B. Deall

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil and climate of a broad transect of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area are described. The transect extends from Hazyview (530 m elevation to Mount Anderson (2 280 m elevation. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  12. An ecological study of the vegetation in three former river beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar-Ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.

    1961-01-01

    In three former river beds of the river Waal near Zaltbommel a study was made of the factors which determine the differentiation in the vegetation. The water in each of the three beds is eutrophic. One of the beds is situated inside the main dike of the present river, the two other ones outside the

  13. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a

  14. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculat...

  15. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  16. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...

  17. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  18. THE FORMATION OF ENTS ADAPTIVE REACTIONS DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PSYCHO-VEGETATIVE REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Kazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the students (12 to 15 years old examination was to identify the integrative criteria of assessing the nature of the functional relationships between the parameters of the psychosocial and physiological adaptation of students, depending on age, individual-typological peculiarities of vegetative regulation, personal potential at different stages of school education.The study of the characteristics of vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system was made with a help of an automatic cardiac-rhythm programs. The research of psychophysiological parameters was fulfiled using an automatic complex. The measurement of the speed of simple visual-motor reaction (PSMR, reaction to a moving object (WFD, the level of functional mobility of nervous processes (WFP and health brain (DDM were made before. Features psychosocial adaptation was analyzed using 8-color Luscher test.All examinee were divided into three groups on the basis of the statistical characteristics of the cardiac rhythm by the tone source autonomic tone: “vagotonia” (with a predominance of parasympathetic sistems, “somatotonic” (with domination of the sympatholytic effects, “atonic” (balanced type of vegetative nervous system.Based on the analysis of psychodynamic, neurodynamic and vegetative functions showed that students with initial vagotonies tone are characterized by high levels of situational and personal anxiety, low psychosocial adaptation, decreased activity of neurodynamic functions and psychodynamic processes in the learning dynamics, whereas the individuals with dominance of sympatotonics type regulation have high level of neurodynamic processes, psychosocial adaptation, against the background of significant stress mechanisms of vegetative regulation.Students with initial vegetative tone demonstrate a sufficient level of psychosocial adaptation, activity psychodynamic and neuromotor processes, accompanied by the preservation of the functionality of

  19. Soil data for a vegetation gradient located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Xu, Xiaomei; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-07-28

    Boreal soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle owing to the large amount of carbon stored within this northern region. To understand how carbon and nitrogen storage varied among different ecosystems, a vegetation gradient was established in the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, located in interior Alaska. The ecosystems represented are a black spruce (Picea mariana)–feather moss (for example, Hylocomium sp.) forest ecosystem, a shrub-dominated ecosystem, a tussock-grass-dominated ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen ecosystem. Here, we report the physical, chemical, and descriptive properties for the soil cores collected at these sites. These data have been used to calculate carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates on a long-term (decadal and century) basis (Manies and others, in press).

  20. Changes in woody plant composition of three vegetation types exposed to a similar fire regime for over 46 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Stein, A.; Steege, ter H.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of regular burning of woodland vegetation in Africa over an extended period (46 years) was studied in the Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda. Areas identified as having different vegetation types in 1958 were revisited to analyze vegetation changes and to test the prediction that conve

  1. Effects of Spatial Heterogeneity in Rainfall and Vegetation Type on Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Puma, Michael J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Nordbotten, Jan M; Guswa, Andrew J; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear plant-scale interactions controlling the soil-water balance are generally not valid at larger spatial scales due to spatial heterogeneity in rainfall and vegetation type. The relationships between spatially averaged variables are hysteretic even when unique relationships are imposed at the plant scale. The characteristics of these hysteretic relationships depend on the size of the averaging area and the spatial properties of the soil, vegetation, and rainfall. We upscale the plant-scale relationships to the scale of a regional land-surface model based on simulation data obtained through explicit representation of spatial heterogeneity in rainfall and vegetation type. The proposed upscaled function improves predictions of spatially averaged soil moisture and evapotranspiration relative to the effective-parameter approach for a water-limited Texas shrubland. The degree of improvement is a function of the scales of heterogeneity and the size of the averaging area. We also find that single-valued functi...

  2. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.

  3. Comparison of the Continuity of Vegetation Indices Derived from Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ Data among Different Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun She

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Landsat 8, the most recently launched satellite of the series, promises to maintain the continuity of Landsat 7. However, in addition to subtle differences in sensor characteristics and vegetation index (VI generation algorithms, VIs respond differently to the seasonality of the various types of vegetation cover. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of these variations on VIs between Operational Land Imager (OLI and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+. Ground spectral data for vegetation were used to simulate the Landsat at-senor broadband reflectance, with consideration of sensor band-pass differences. Three band-geometric VIs (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and two band-transformation VIs (Vegetation Index based on the Universal Pattern Decomposition method (VIUPD, Tasseled Cap Transformation Greenness (TCG were tested to evaluate the performance of various VI generation algorithms in relation to multi-sensor continuity. Six vegetation types were included to evaluate the continuity in different vegetation types. Four pairs of data during four seasons were selected to evaluate continuity with respect to seasonal variation. The simulated data showed that OLI largely inherits the band-pass characteristics of ETM+. Overall, the continuity of band-transformation derived VIs was higher than band-geometry derived VIs. VI continuity was higher in the three forest types and the shrubs in the relatively rapid growth periods of summer and autumn, but lower for the other two non-forest types (grassland and crops during the same periods.

  4. A quantitative assessment of the vegetation types on the island of St. Eustatius, Dutch Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinde van Andel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean dry forests are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems on earth. Several studies exist on their floristic composition and their recovery after natural or man-made disturbances, but little is known on the small Dutch Caribbean islands. In this study, we present quantitative data on plant species richness and abundance on St. Eustatius, one of the smallest islands of the Lesser Antilles. We collected and identified trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs in 11 plots of 25 x 25 m in different vegetation types. We compared their floristic composition and structure to vegetation surveys from roughly the same locations in the 1990s and 1950s. We found substantial differences among our 11 plots: vegetation types varied from evergreen forests to deciduous shrubland and open woodland. The number of tree species ≥10 cm DBH ranged between one and 17, and their density between three and 82 per plot. In spite that all plots were subject to grazing by free roaming cattle, canopy height and floristic diversity have increased in the last decades. Invasive species are present in the open vegetation types, but not under (partly closed canopy. Comparison with the earlier surveys showed that the decline of agriculture and conservation efforts resulted in the regeneration of dry forests between the 1950s and 2015. This process has also been reported from nearby islands and offers good opportunities for the future conservation of Caribbean dry forests.

  5. An approach for detecting five typical vegetation types on the Chinese Loess Plateau using Landsat TM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Lei, Bo; Su, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing can provide large-scale spatial data for the detection of vegetation types. In this study, two shortwave infrared spectral bands (TM5 and TM7) and one visible spectral band (TM3) of Landsat 5 TM data were used to detect five typical vegetation types (communities dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum, Artemisia gmelinii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Quercus liaotungensis) using 270 field survey data in the Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau. The relationships between 200 field data points and their corresponding radiance reflectance were analyzed, and the equation termed the vegetation type index (VTI) was generated. The VTI values of five vegetation types were calculated, and the accuracy was tested using the remaining 70 field data points. The applicability of VTI was also tested by the distribution of vegetation type of two small watersheds in the Yanhe watershed and field sample data collected from other regions (Ziwuling Region, Huangling County, and Luochuan County) on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that the VTI can effectively detect the five vegetation types with an average accuracy exceeding 80 % and a representativeness above 85 %. As a new approach for monitoring vegetation types using remote sensing at a larger regional scale, VTI can play an important role in the assessment of vegetation restoration and in the investigation of the spatial distribution and community diversity of vegetation on the Loess Plateau.

  6. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  7. Impact of climate and vegetation type on evapotranspiration from green roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, M. E.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; Way, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly popular low impact development tool used to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization and the loss of vegetated spaces. The benefits of green roofs include reducing stormwater volume and peak flows, reducing building energy loads, and mitigating the urban heat island effect. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key process fundamental to hydrologic and thermal performance of green roofs. For example, ET governs the water storage volume available in the soil medium and thus the ability of the green roof to retain and attenuate stormwater. Green roof design considerations such as soil medium depth and plant type impact ET rates. Additionally, climate has a strong impact on ET rates. To date, the influence between climate and green roof design factors (e.g. vegetation type and soil medium depth) on ET rates have not been well quantified. We performed a field study to evaluate the impact of climate, vegetation type, and soil medium depth on ET rates from extensive modular green roofs over prolonged drying periods. Three Canadian cities with distinct climates were chosen as field sites: London, ON, Calgary, AB, and Halifax, NS. At each site, daily module weights were recorded from May to August in 2013 and 2014 for approximately 40 green roof modules. These modules were divided into four vegetation treatments (three single species and one mixed species), and each treatment was divided into two groups of soil medium depth (10 cm or 15 cm). Daily ET rates and seasonal moisture loss were calculated and compared for the modules to determine which treatment provided the highest ET rates. The root depth profile, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance were also measured. On average, daily ET rates among the vegetation treatments did not vary greatly, however, observations on plant survival indicate which plant types are best suited for each site. In all three sites, mixed species in 15 cm of soil medium had higher seasonal moisture loss compared to

  8. Vegetable but not fruit consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Raquel; Shu, Xiao Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Elasy, Tom; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei

    2008-03-01

    We examined associations between fruit and vegetable intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a population-based prospective study of 64,191 women with no history of T2D or other chronic diseases at study recruitment and with valid dietary information. Dietary intake was assessed by in-person interviews using a validated FFQ. During 297,755 person-years of follow-up, 1608 new cases of T2D were documented. We used a Cox regression model to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable intake (g/d) with the risk of T2D. Quintiles of vegetable intake and T2D were inversely associated. The relative risk for T2D for the upper quintile relative to the lower quintile of vegetable intake was 0.72 (95%CI: 0.61-0.85; P Fruit intake was not associated with the incidence of diabetes in this population. Our data suggest that vegetable consumption may protect against the development of T2D.

  9. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  10. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  11. Vegetation ecology meets ecosystem science: Permanent grasslands as a functional biogeography case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Cyrille; Choler, Philippe; Borgy, Benjamin; Garnier, Eric; Amiaud, Bernard; Debarros, Guilhem; Diquelou, Sylvain; Gachet, Sophie; Jolivet, Claudy; Kattge, Jens; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Loranger, Jessy; Mikolajczak, Alexis; Munoz, François; Olivier, Jean; Viovy, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has been widely acknowledged, and the importance of the functional roles of species, as well as their diversity, in the control of ecosystem processes has been emphasised recently. However, bridging biodiversity and ecosystem science to address issues at a biogeographic scale is still in its infancy. Bridging this gap is the primary goal of the emerging field of functional biogeography. While the rise of Big Data has catalysed functional biogeography studies in recent years, comprehensive evidence remains scarce. Here, we present the rationale and the first results of a country-wide initiative focused on the C3 permanent grasslands. We aimed to collate, integrate and process large databases of vegetation relevés, plant traits and environmental layers to provide a country-wide assessment of ecosystem properties and services which can be used to improve regional models of climate and land use changes. We outline the theoretical background, data availability, and ecoinformatics challenges associated with the approach and its feasibility. We provide a case study of upscaling of leaf dry matter content averaged at ecosystem level and country-wide predictions of forage digestibility. Our framework sets milestones for further hypothesis testing in functional biogeography and earth system modelling. PMID:25908020

  12. Vegetation ecology meets ecosystem science: Permanent grasslands as a functional biogeography case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Cyrille; Choler, Philippe; Borgy, Benjamin; Garnier, Eric; Amiaud, Bernard; Debarros, Guilhem; Diquelou, Sylvain; Gachet, Sophie; Jolivet, Claudy; Kattge, Jens; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Loranger, Jessy; Mikolajczak, Alexis; Munoz, François; Olivier, Jean; Viovy, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has been widely acknowledged, and the importance of the functional roles of species, as well as their diversity, in the control of ecosystem processes has been emphasised recently. However, bridging biodiversity and ecosystem science to address issues at a biogeographic scale is still in its infancy. Bridging this gap is the primary goal of the emerging field of functional biogeography. While the rise of Big Data has catalysed functional biogeography studies in recent years, comprehensive evidence remains scarce. Here, we present the rationale and the first results of a country-wide initiative focused on the C3 permanent grasslands. We aimed to collate, integrate and process large databases of vegetation relevés, plant traits and environmental layers to provide a country-wide assessment of ecosystem properties and services which can be used to improve regional models of climate and land use changes. We outline the theoretical background, data availability, and ecoinformatics challenges associated with the approach and its feasibility. We provide a case study of upscaling of leaf dry matter content averaged at ecosystem level and country-wide predictions of forage digestibility. Our framework sets milestones for further hypothesis testing in functional biogeography and earth system modelling.

  13. Assessing climate refugia from a terrestrial vegetation vulnerability assessment for 29 types in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Bjorkman, J.; Boynton, R.; Stewart, J.; Holguin, A.; Schwartz, M.; Albright, W.

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the climate vulnerability of 29 terrestrial macrogroup vegetation types in the National Vegetation Classification Scheme covering 99% of California. Using a 2015 landcover map, we defined current and future climate exposure of each type by assessing conditions at all known locations. This approach identifies both areas of expected high stress and of climate refugia. Species distribution models of the vegetation types proved to over-predict the extent of occupied lands, compared to their mapped extents. Trait based components of the vulnerability assessment were far less influential on level of vulnerability than climate projection. Various cutoffs can be selected to describe refugia. Here we classed refugia as the 20% of climate conditions most frequently occupied by a type. Under CNRM CM5 RCP 4.5, of 70,143 km2 that are the most climate-insulated locations, 46,420 km2 move to higher levels of climate exposure. At the other extreme of climate projections tested, MIROC ESM RCP 8.5, 59,137 km2 are lost. Four macrogroups lose their refugia under CNRM 4.5: Pacific Northwest Conifer Forests, Mountain Riparian Scrub and Wet Meadow, Salt Marsh, and Great Basin Upland Scrub. Under MIROC 8.5 and additional 8 macrogroups lose the most commonly experienced climate: Subalpine Aspen Forests & Pine Woodlands, Non-Native Forest and Woodlands, North Coast Deciduous Scrub and Terrace Prairie, Coastal Dune and Bluff Scrub, Freshwater Marsh, Wet Mountain Meadow, Big Sagebrush Scrub, and Alpine Vegetation. These results raise interesting questions regarding the definition of refugia. We review the results and ask how appropriate they are for different ecosystem types.

  14. Present and Historical Climate Variability and its Ecological Impact on Vegetation in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Sasha) Kosanic, Aleksandra; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Turkington, Thea

    2014-05-01

    West Cornwall is the most south westerly part of the United Kingdom with a strong maritime climate. This study analyses the earliest archived instrumental meteorological records collected in West Cornwall (SW England). Records were obtained from the Met Office archive (Camborne 1957-2010; Culdrose 1985-2011), Trengwainton Garden (1940-2010), and from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, data for Falmouth (1880-1952) and Helston (1843-1888). Homogeneity tests were used (Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests) to exclude any trends not related to climate variability. The data exhibit trends in annual mean and maximum temperatures over the timescales analysed, and show a general temperature increase in the 20th and 21st century. Annual and seasonal temperature changes are found to vary locally with strongly positive trends in autumn, spring and summer seasons. Trends in precipitation are positive only for the 19th century and only for one station. Correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows negative results for precipitation data. However correlation with the NAO index is positive with temperature, especially in the winter season. Return period analysis showed a decrease in intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the post-1975 period (Camborne and Trengwainton Garden stations). Climate change in the 20th century, and future continued warming is likely to have major implications on biodiversity in this region. The second part of this research analyses changes in the geographical distribution of plant species over West Cornwall using herbarium and current vegetation records. Also we examine whether Ellenberg values could be used as an environmental change indicator. This research will clearly contribute to a better identification of the climate change impact in West Cornwall, but will also benefit policy developing strategies to identify areas at risk of climate impacts at the regional and local scale.

  15. Ecological and Geochemical Assessment of Woody Vegetation in Tungsten-Molybdenum Mining Area (Buryat Republic, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, N. S.; Kosheleva, N. E.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Biogeochemical studies performed in the impact zone of the Dzhida tungsten- molybdenum mining and processing enterprise in Zakamensk (Buryat Republic, Russia) in 2013 showed that the needles and bark of Lárix sibírica Ledeb. and the leaves and bark of Bétula platyphýlla Sukacs are characterized by certain changes in their trace element (TE) composition. The total index of the biogeochemical transformation Z v which sums all the positive and negative deviations of TE contents from the background values for larch and birch in the city averaged 95 and 46 for their assimilating organs and 30 and 25 for their perennial organs, respectively. This was caused by the increased uptake of W, Mo, V, Pb, Bi, Cd, and Co in the city. The close correlation between TE concentrations in soils and plants was observed for the elements of the strong and moderate biological capturing, including cationic Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, and Ba and anions of the ore elements W and Mo and the associated Bi. The most intensive TE accumulation was found in the larch needles due to the wax layer which firmly fixes the dust enriched with TEs. Indication of the ecological state of urban woody plants revealed that their organs contain the increased concentrations of Pb and Fe and suffer from the Mn deficiency, which attests to disturbance of photosynthetic processes, most pronounced in the residential area. Birch leaves are characterized by a very low Cu/Zn ratio which detects the imbalance of these elements participating in the synthesis of enzymes.

  16. Effect of vegetative filter strips on herbicide runoff under various types of rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Stefan; Cardinali, Alessandra; Marotta, Ester; Paradisi, Cristina; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Narrow vegetative filter strips proved to effectively reduce herbicide runoff from cultivated fields mainly due to the ability of vegetation to delay surface runoff, promote infiltration and adsorb herbicides. A field trial was conducted from 2007 to 2009 in north-east Italy in order to evaluate the effectiveness of various types of vegetative filter strips to reduce spring-summer runoff of the herbicides mesotrione, metolachlor and terbuthylazine, widely used in maize, and to evaluate the effect of the rainfall characteristics on the runoff volume and concentration. Results show that without vegetative filter strip the herbicide load that reaches the surface water is about 5-6 g ha(-1)year(-1) for metolachlor and terbuthylazine (i.e. 0.5-0.9% of the applied rate), confirming that runoff from flat fields as in the Po Valley can have a minor effect on the water quality, and that most of the risk is posed by a few, or even just one extreme rainfall event with a return period of about 25-27 years, causing runoff with a maximum concentration of 64-77 μg L(-1). Mesotrione instead showed rapid soil disappearance and was observed at a concentration of 1.0-3.8 μg L(-1) only after one extreme (artificial) rainfall. Vegetative filter strips of any type are generally effective and can reduce herbicide runoff by 80-88%. Their effectiveness is steady even under severe rainfall conditions, and this supports their implementation in an environmental regulatory scheme at a catchment or regional scale.

  17. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  18. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data. The blended data exhibited a high correlation (R2 = 0.88 with the satellite derived ETM+ data. The time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were then generated using the blended high spatio-temporal resolution data to capture the phenological differences between the C3 and C4 vegetation. The time-series NDVI revealed that the C3 vegetation turns green earlier in spring than the C4 vegetation, and senesces later in autumn than the C4 vegetation. C4 vegetation has a higher NDVI value than the C3 vegetation during summer time. Based on the distinguished characteristics, the time-series NDVI was used to extract the C3 and C4 classification features. Five features were selected from the 18 classification features according to the ground investigation data, and subsequently used for the C3 and C4 classification. The overall accuracy of the C3 and C4 vegetation classification was 85.75% with a kappa of 0.725 in our study area.

  19. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  20. Vegetation type modifies the cycling and aromaticity of DOC and N in small-scale urban stormwater basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Dolliver, H.; Balster, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban land use can cause ecological degradation of surface waters through stormwater inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). Green infrastructure practices such as small-scale (m2) vegetated stormwater basins (e.g. bioretention basins, rain gardens, bioswales) have been implemented for the past 20 years to reduce stormwater quantity and improve water quality in urban ecosystems. Although the efficacy of these practices rests on an ecological assumption that plant-soil interactions will alter the C and N cycles relative to surrounding urban infrastructure, the impact of vegetation type on the biogeochemistry of urban stormwater basins is not well understood. We hypothesized that the two most prevalent types of vegetation planted in stormwater basins in the Midwestern United States, native prairie and woody shrubs, differ in their cycling and export of C and N due to differences in relative woody and parenchymatic tissue inputs to soil organic matter, root morphology, and root exudation. We tested this hypothesis in an open-air field laboratory consisting of 9 vegetated mesocosms (3 native prairie, 3 woody shrub, 3 bare soil) designed in 2005 according to WI-DNR specifications for residential stormwater basin construction. During precipitation events in July-October 2011, we collected stormwater runoff from an adjacent tin roof (417 m2) and conducted 9 runoff applications that mimicked the rate and intensity of runoff that would be received by a small-scale (5.9 m2) stormwater basin in the urban environment during a 2.54 cm rain event. We instrumented each mesocosm to quantify (1) first flush and peak flow concentration of DOC and TDN during gravitational soil water flux (2) DOC and TDN concentration in soil pore space after gravitational water flux ceased, and (3) SUVA254 as an optical proxy for aromaticity in the first flush and peak flow of gravitational soil water flux. Results show significant differences (p<0.05) in both DOC

  1. The Influence of Vegetation Type on the Surface Water and Energy Balance in Semiarid Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurc, S. A.; Small, E. E.

    2001-12-01

    The transition from semiarid grassland to shrubland occurs over a distance of ~1 km in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. The spatial variability of precipitation, incident shortwave radiation, and other factors is minimal across the ecotone because the transition zone spans such a short distance. Therefore, we assume that the type of vegetation is the primary factor controlling the spatial variations of water and energy cycling at this location. We examine fluxes in the grassland, shrubland, and the intermediate mixed environment to isolate the influence of vegetation type on the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. Three micrometeorology sites span this shrub-grass ecotone. The Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance method is used at two of the sites and an eddy covariance system is used at the third site. We have intercompared the Bowen ratio and eddy covariance methods at each site. The differences introduced by using these two different methods are negligible compared to the observed spatial and temporal variability. We present data from two summer monsoon seasons. The response to precipitation events is dramatic and similar at all three sites across the vegetation gradient. The latent heat flux at midday changes from nearly 0 when the soil is dry to greater than 250 W m-2 for several days following rainfall. These temporal fluctuations are much greater than the spatial differences associated with vegetation cover observed under either wet or dry conditions. However, the drydown following rainfall, and the attendant variations in water and energy fluxes, is different across the ecotone. In the shrubland, soil moisture and evapotranspiration decrease more quickly than in the grassland.

  2. Social Ecological Model of Illness Management in High-Risk Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Ellis, Deborah A.; Frey, Maureen A.; Templin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested a social ecological model of illness management in high-risk, urban adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. It was hypothesized that management behaviors would be associated with individual adolescent characteristics as well as family, peer, and provider relationships. Questionnaires were collected from 96 adolescents…

  3. Hotspots of human-induced biomass productivity decline and their social-ecological types toward supporting national policy and local studies on combating land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quyet Manh; Le, Quang Bao; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2014-10-01

    Identification and social-ecological characterization of areas that experience high levels of persistent productivity decline are essential for planning appropriate management measures. Although land degradation is mainly induced by human actions, the phenomenon is concurrently influenced by global climate changes that need to be taken into account in land degradation assessments. This study aims to delineate the geographic hotspots of human-induced land degradation in the country and classify the social-ecological characterizations of each specific degradation hotspot type. The research entailed a long-term time-series (1982-2006) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to specify the extents of areas with significant biomass decline or increase in Vietnam. Annual rainfall and temperature time-series were then used to separate areas of human-induced biomass productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Next, spatial cluster analyses identified social-ecological types of degradation for guiding further investigations at regional and local scales. The results show that about 19% of the national land mass experienced persistent declines in biomass productivity over the last 25 years. Most of the degraded areas are found in the Southeast and Mekong River Delta (17,984 km2), Northwest Mountains (14,336 km2), and Central Highlands (13,504 km2). We identified six and five social-ecological types of degradation hotspots in agricultural and forested zones, respectively. Constraints in soil nutrient availability and nutrient retention capability are widely spreading in all degradation hotspot types. These hotspot types are different from each other in social and ecological conditions, suggesting that region-specific strategies are needed for the formulation of land degradation combating policy.

  4. Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F M; Mendonça, M S; Campos, L A

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) is considered the most fragmented and endangered Brazilian biome. The diversity of phytophagous insects increases after disturbances in forests, and it was hypothesized the Pentatomidae can furnish ecologically reliable information in terms of diversity in response to the changes occurring in AF. Our aim was to quantify the response of assemblages of Pentatomoidea to gradient of human disturbance in two vegetation types of the AF-dense ombrophilous forest (DOF) and mixed ombrophilous forest (MOF). Twelve transects were grouped into environmental classes, namely open, intermediate, and closed. Overall, 1,017 pentatomoids were sampled, representing 64 species. The open environment was more abundant than closed environment, though it is expected that Pentatomoidea respond with increasing abundance when under light or moderate disturbance. The MOF was more abundant than DOF, and the composition differed between both of them. Given the differences in composition between MOF and DOF, abiotic variables are important factors acting as environmental filters for Pentatomoidea, not just directly on the insects, but probably also on the nutritional support of their host plants. PMID:25369568

  5. 蔬菜地农药施用的土壤生态风险评估%Soil Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Vegetable Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓勋飞; 詹宇; 王祥云; 吕晓男

    2014-01-01

    Residues of pesticides are often detected in soil, surface water, and groundwater in intensive agricultural areas. Exposure to pes-ticides may have potential impacts on human health and ecosystem safety. To mitigate the negative impacts of pesticide residues, growers, policy makers, and researchers seek tools to quantitatively assess potential risks of pesticides. In this study, an assessment model for ecologi-cal risk of pesticides in soils was developed based on temperature, interception fraction of vegetables, and application rates and properties of active ingredients in interested pesticides. Geo-statistical analysis was then employed to determine the basic spatial units of ecological risk assessment for vegetable production. Finally quantitative risk assessment of pesticide uses in vegetable soils was conducted using a total of 130 pesticide use records for 2010 collected together with soil and climate parameters in vegetable fields of reclamation areas in Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province. A total of 20 pesticides with predicted ecological risks was identified. Of which, carbendazim, used for asparagus crop in April, had the highest ecological risk, and its short-term and long-term risk values were up to 104.6 and 106.1, respectively. Imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, acetamiprid, and azoxystrobin were the next, all showing high ecological risks in soil(risk values >85). Emamectin benzoate, iprodione, and fipronil did not show ecological risk(risk values <60). For each vegetable parcellwith multi pesticides applied, an integrated ecological risk value(IERV)of different pesticides was also calculated, and a visualized map for spatial distribution of IERV for vegetable parcels was achieved. A case study of IERV in April showed that higher risks were present in several parcels planted with asparagus, while lower risks in radish fields. In summary, this approach would be useful for growers and pesticide control advisors in screening high risk areas and mitigating the impacts

  6. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation

  7. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  8. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry

  9. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  10. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photointerpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  11. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photo-interpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  12. Inclusion of ecologically based trait variation in plant functional types reduces the projected land carbon sink in an earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-08-01

    Earth system models demonstrate large uncertainty in projected changes in terrestrial carbon budgets. The lack of inclusion of adaptive responses of vegetation communities to the environment has been suggested to hamper the ability of modeled vegetation to adequately respond to environmental change. In this study, variation in functional responses of vegetation has been added to an earth system model (ESM) based on ecological principles. The restriction of viable mean trait values of vegetation communities by the environment, called 'habitat filtering', is an important ecological assembly rule and allows for determination of global scale trait-environment relationships. These relationships were applied to model trait variation for different plant functional types (PFTs). For three leaf traits (specific leaf area, maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C, and maximum electron transport rate at 25 °C), relationships with multiple environmental drivers, such as precipitation, temperature, radiation, and CO2 , were determined for the PFTs within the Max Planck Institute ESM. With these relationships, spatiotemporal variation in these formerly fixed traits in PFTs was modeled in global change projections (IPCC RCP8.5 scenario). Inclusion of this environment-driven trait variation resulted in a strong reduction of the global carbon sink by at least 33% (2.1 Pg C yr(-1) ) from the 2nd quarter of the 21st century onward compared to the default model with fixed traits. In addition, the mid- and high latitudes became a stronger carbon sink and the tropics a stronger carbon source, caused by trait-induced differences in productivity and relative respirational costs. These results point toward a reduction of the global carbon sink when including a more realistic representation of functional vegetation responses, implying more carbon will stay airborne, which could fuel further climate change. PMID:25611824

  13. Using vegetation cover type to predict and scale peatland methane dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, K. J.; McCalley, C. K.; Palace, M. W.; Varner, R. K.; Herrick, C.; DelGreco, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost ecosystems contain about 50% of the global soil carbon. As these northern ecosystems experience warmer temperature, permafrost thaws and may result in an increase in atmospheric methane. We examined a thawing and discontinuous permafrost boundary at Stordalen Mire, in Northern Sweden, in an effort to better understand methane emissions. Stable isotope analysis of methane in peatland porewater can give insights into the pathway of methane production. By measuring δ13CH4 we can predict whether a system is dominated by either hydrogenotrophic or acetaclastic methane production. Currently, it is a challenge to scale these isotopic patterns, thus, atmospheric inversion models simply assume that acetoclastic production dominates. We analyzed porewater samples collected across a range of vegetation cover types for δ13CH4 using a QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometer) in conjunction with highly accurate GPS (3-10cm) measurements and high-resolution UAV imaging. We found δ13CH4 values ranging from -88‰ to -41‰, with averages based on cover type and other vegetation features showing differences of up to -15‰. We then used a computer neural network to predict cover types across Stordalen Mire from UAV imagery based on field-based plot measurements and training samples.. This prediction map was used to scale methane flux and isotope measurements. Our results suggest that the current values used in atmospheric inversion studies may oversimplify the relationship between plant and microbial communities in complex permafrost landscapes. As we gain a deeper understanding of how vegetation relates to methanogenic communities, understanding the spatial component of ecosystem methane metabolism and distribution will be increasingly valuable.

  14. Abundance and Dynamics of Soil Labile Carbon Pools Under Different Types of Forest Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-Kun; XU Qiu-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest ecosystems is not only important to global carbon (C) storage but also to sustainable management of forestland with vegetation types, being a critical factor in controlling the quantity and dynamics of SOM. In this field experiment soil plots with three replicates were selected from three forest vegetation types: broadleaf,Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.). Soil total organic C (TOC),two easily oxidizable C levels (EOC1 and EOC2, which were oxidized by 66.7 mmol L-1 K2Cr2O7 at 130-140 ℃ and333 mmol L-1 KMnO4 at 25 ℃, respectively), microbial biomass C (MBC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC)were analyzed for soil samples. Soil under the broadleaf forest stored significantly higher TOC (P ≤ 0.05). Because of its significantly larger total soil C storage, the soil under the broadleaf forest usually had significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05)of the different labile organic carbons, EOC1, EOC2, MBC, and WSOC; but when calculated as a percentage of TOC each labile C fraction of the broadleaf forest was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) than one of the other two forests. Under all the three vegetation types temperature as well as quality and season of litter input generally affected the dynamics of different organic C fractions in soils, with EOC1, EOC2, and MBC increasing closely following increase in temperature,whereas WSOC showed an opposite trend.

  15. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  16. Types of fruits and vegetables used in commercial baby foods and their contribution to sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ada Lizbeth; McLean, Kimberley; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are often featured in names of commercial baby foods (CBFs). We aimed to survey all available CBFs in the UK market with F&V included in the food name in order to describe the amount and types of F&V used in CBF and their contribution to total sugar content. Food labels were used to identify F&V and total sugar content. Fruits were more common than vegetables in names of the 329 CBFs identified. The six most common F&V in the names were all relatively sweet: apple, banana, tomato, mango, carrot and sweet potato. The percentage of F&V in the foods ranged from a median of 94% for sweet-spoonable to 13% for dry-savoury products. Fruit content of sweet foods (n = 177) was higher than vegetable content of savoury foods (n = 152) with a median (IQR) of 64.0 g/100 g (33.0-100.0) vs. 46.0 g/100 g (33-56.7). Fruit juice was added to 18% of products. The proportion of F&V in CBF correlated significantly with sugar content for all the food types except dry-savoury food (sweet-spoonable r = 0.24, P = 0.006; savoury-spoonable r = 0.65, P < 0.001; sweet-dry r = 0.81, P < 0.001; savoury-dry r = 0.51, P = 0.06) and explained up to two-thirds of the variation in sugar content. The F&V content of CBFs mainly consists of fruits and relatively sweet vegetables which are unlikely to encourage preferences for bitter-tasting vegetables or other non-sweet foods. F&V contribute significantly to the total sugar content, particularly of savoury foods.

  17. Variations of deep soil moisture under different vegetation types and influencing factors in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuening; Zhao, Wenwu; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Qiang; Ding, Jingyi; Liu, Yuanxin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Soil moisture in deep soil layers is a relatively stable water resource for vegetation growth in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the variations in deep soil moisture and its influencing factors at a moderate watershed scale is important to ensure the sustainability of vegetation restoration efforts. In this study, we focus on analyzing the variations and factors that influence the deep soil moisture (DSM) in 80-500 cm soil layers based on a soil moisture survey of the Ansai watershed in Yan'an in Shanxi Province. Our results can be divided into four main findings. (1) At the watershed scale, higher variations in the DSM occurred at 120-140 and 480-500 cm in the vertical direction. At the comparable depths, the variation in the DSM under native vegetation was much lower than that in human-managed vegetation and introduced vegetation. (2) The DSM in native vegetation and human-managed vegetation was significantly higher than that in introduced vegetation, and different degrees of soil desiccation occurred under all the introduced vegetation types. Caragana korshinskii and black locust caused the most serious desiccation. (3) Taking the DSM conditions of native vegetation as a reference, the DSM in this watershed could be divided into three layers: (i) a rainfall transpiration layer (80-220 cm); (ii) a transition layer (220-400 cm); and (iii) a stable layer (400-500 cm). (4) The factors influencing DSM at the watershed scale varied with vegetation types. The main local controls of the DSM variations were the soil particle composition and mean annual rainfall; human agricultural management measures can alter the soil bulk density, which contributes to higher DSM in farmland and apple orchards. The plant growth conditions, planting density, and litter water holding capacity of introduced vegetation showed significant relationships with the DSM. The results of this study are of practical significance for vegetation restoration strategies, especially

  18. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period.

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRAW MULCHES ON WEED-CONTROL IN VEGETABLES CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in 2010–2012. The effect of different kinds of straw and its dose applied to soil mulching on the amount and fresh mass of weeds and yield level of broccoli and tomato was investigated. The type of straw mulch applied to the soil mulching influenced number and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weed species. The most efficient for limiting infestation was mulch from buckwheat and rye straw. Soil mulching, regardless of its kind, causes a decrease in the number and mass of weeds at the beginning of growing period of vegetables. The application of straw at a dose of 20 t∙ha-1 had higher weed-suppressing effect than at a dose of 10 t∙ha-1. When assessing the infestation before harvest the influence of straw mulch was lower but still significant. The application in higher dose of rye and buckwheat straw in broccoli, corn and rape in tomato cultivation reduced a number of weeds compared to dose of 10 t∙ha-1. The better yielding effect in both vegetable species had soil mulching with straw at a dose of 10 t∙ha-1.

  20. A Methodology for Soil Moisture Retrieval from Land Surface Temperature, Vegetation Index, Topography and Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture conditions have an impact upon hydrological processes, biological and biogeochemical processes, eco-hydrology, floods and droughts due to changing climate, near-surface atmospheric conditions and the partition of incoming solar and long-wave radiation between sensible and latent heat fluxes. Hence, soil moisture conditions virtually effect on all aspects of engineering / military engineering activities such as operational mobility, detection of landmines and unexploded ordinance, natural material penetration/excavation, peaking factor analysis in dam design etc. Like other natural systems, soil moisture pattern can vary from completely disorganized (disordered, random) to highly organized. To understand this varying soil moisture pattern, this research utilized topographic wetness index from digital elevation models (DEM) along with vegetation index from remotely sensed measurements in red and near-infrared bands, as well as land surface temperature (LST) in the thermal infrared bands. This research developed a methodology to relate a combined index from DEM, LST and vegetation index with the physical soil moisture properties of soil types and the degree of saturation. The advantage in using this relationship is twofold: first it retrieves soil moisture content at the scale of soil data resolution even though the derived indexes are in a coarse resolution, and secondly the derived soil moisture distribution represents both organized and disorganized patterns of actual soil moisture. The derived soil moisture is used in driving the hydrological model simulations of runoff, sediment and nutrients.

  1. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxuan Han

    Full Text Available Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland.

  2. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability – insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2014-07-01

    We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth, and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

  3. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  4. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Skrzypek

    Full Text Available Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle. Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard. The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere.

  5. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  6. Impacts of grassland types and vegetation cover changes on surface air temperature in the regions of temperate grassland of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Li, Guangdi; Yu, Pujia; Zhou, Daowei

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of surface air temperature response to different grassland types and vegetation cover changes in the regions of temperate grassland of China was analyzed by observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method. The basis of the OMR approach is that reanalysis data are insensitive to local surface properties, so the temperature differences between surface observations and reanalysis can be attributed to land effects. Results showed that growing-season air temperature increased by 0.592 °C/decade in the regions of temperate grassland of China, with about 31 % of observed warming associated with the effects of grassland types and vegetation cover changes. For different grassland types, the growing-season OMR trend was the strongest for temperate desert steppe (0.259 °C/decade) and the weakest for temperate meadow (0.114 °C/decade). Our results suggest that the stronger intraseasonal changes of grassland vegetation are present, the more sensitive the OMR trend responds to the intraseasonal vegetation cover changes. In August and September, the OMR of temperate meadow showed a weak cooling trend. For temperate meadow, about 72.2 and 72.6 % of surface cooling were explained by both grassland type and increase of vegetation cover for August and September, respectively. For temperate steppe and temperate desert steppe, due to the limited soil moisture and little evaporative cooling feedback, the vegetation changes have no significant effect on the surface air temperature. These results indicate that the impact of grassland types and vegetation cover changes should be considered when projecting further climate change in the temperate grassland region of China.

  7. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    . At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  8. GIS-based analysis of relationships between ecological factors and forest vegetation in the Prealps (North-east Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfanti PL; Ganis P; Altobelli A; Alberti G; Napolitano R; Turco S

    2004-01-01

    The forest communities distribution in mountainous areas is strongly related to some primary ecological factors (e.g. water, temperature, geology) and to some other factors derived from the soil morphology (e.g. slope, aspect and solar radiation). The aim of this study is to investigate and express quantitatively the relationships between ecological factors and forest communities through geospatial analysis in a GRASS GIS. There are significant statistical differences between forest communiti...

  9. 植被指数-地面温度特征空间的生态学内涵及其应用%Ecological Connotation and Application of the Vegetation Index-Surface Temperature Feature Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江东; 王乃斌; 杨小唤; 刘红辉

    2001-01-01

    植被指数与地面温度是描述土地覆盖特征的重要参数,对两种数据的综合分析,可以衍生出更丰富、更清晰的地表信息,有助于更加准确、有效地认知土地覆盖/土地利用的时空变化规律.本文探讨了植被指数与地面温度构成的二维向量空间的物理意义与生态学内涵,以基于NOAA AVHRR的时间序列数据为本底,分析了不同土地覆盖类型在该特征空间上的时序变化规律,并以黄淮海地区主要农作物冬小麦为例,研究了植被指数-地面温度指标与干旱、半干旱地区农作物产量之间的响应关系.%Studies on character and variation of land cover/land use become more and more important in geographical and ecological research. Vegetation index and surface temperature are important parameters to describe characters of land covers. More useful information will be created by integrated analyses of these two kinds of data together, which will help us to find out main principles of the temporal and spatial variation of land cover/land use. The paper focused on physical connotation and ecological meaning of the vegetation index-surface temperature feature space, analyzed temporal variation of different type of land covers in this feature space using NOAA AVHRR remote sensing data, and did much site work on relationship between water index and winter wheat yield in the Huang Huaihai campagna. Following views have been set forth and tested based on these data: (1) Large area and long time serials land surface parameters could be retrieved from remote sensed information; (2) Different types of land covers have different characters in the vegetation index-surface temperature feature space; (3) Water index, derived from vegetation index and surface temperature, is turned out to be a good indicate of growing situation of crops.

  10. Natural vegetal regeneration as a basis for the development of strategies for ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo José García Vettorazzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural ecosystems of the Maya Biosphere Reserve contain high levels of biodiversity providing environmental goods and services to society, so their conservation is strategic for local and regional development. However, there is a increasing tendency to disturb these ecosystems as a result of human activities, so is necessary to develop strategies that minimize the negative impacts and allow the recovery of degraded natural ecosystems. Existing information on the functioning of essential ecological processes of local ecosystems is sparse and is scattered, limiting the development of strategies. It was proposed to study the dynamics of natural regeneration of vegetation as a basis for defining strategies of ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in Peten and adjacent areas, by characterizing the structure and composition of vegetation in six categories of natural regeneration and forest without recent disturbance. Two modified Whitaker 0.1 ha plots were plotted by category and seed bank samples were collected. With this information a conceptual framework of natural regeneration was developed for application in restoration strategies at local and landscape scales.

  11. Ecological aspects of lake regulation in Northern Finland. Part 2. Geomorphology and vegetation of the littoral zone. Ekologiset naekoekohdat joidenkin Pohjois-Suomen jaervien saeaennoestelyssae. Osa 2. Rannan geomorfologia ja vesikasvillisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S.; Alasaarela, E. (9830800FI); Keraenen, R.; Nykaenen, M. (Oulu Univ. (Finland)); Neuvonen, I. (Kainuun Vesi- ja ympaeristoepiiri, Kajaani (Finland))

    1989-02-01

    Ecological aspects of lake regulation were studied in certain lakes in northern Finland in 1984-1987. The general aims of the project were to analyze the effects of regulation on lake ecosystems and to produce information that can be applied when assessing the possible effects of hydroelectric projects. The effects of lake regulation were easy to observe in the littoral zone of Lake Ontojaervi, the sandy shores in particular were unstable both above and below the water level. The shores were very much steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, minerogenic bottoms were more common than in the latter lake. The results from the two lakes were used to calculate a simple model to forecast the distribution of bottom types of Lake Ontojaervi before regulation. The effect of penetration by ice was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi; the surface sediment being frozen to a greater depth than in Lake Lentua. Beneath the freezing zone in ice just pressed down on the sediment. The littoral vegetation decreased markedly after regulation and was entirely absent in open places. Changes in abundance were particularly clear, with decreases in the large isoetides and helophytes and increases of small isoetides. The results from Lake Lentua were used to formulate a simple ecological model for the frequency of macrophytes.

  12. Identifying nitrogen limitations to organic sediments accumulation in various vegetation types of arctic tundra (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, G.; Wojtuń, B.; Hua, Q.; Richter, D.; Jakubas, D.; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (colonially breeding, planktivorous Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by N2-fixation. The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget [1]. The growth rates and the sediment thickness (climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. [1] Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015. Diversification of nitrogen sources in various tundra vegetation types in the high Arctic. PLoS ONE (in review).

  13. Effects of Vegetation Type and Management Practice on Soil Respiration of Grassland in Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaco Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration rate in two types of grassland dominated with Zoysia japonica and Miscanthus sinensis, respectively, and under two management practices (undisturbed and intentionally burned for the M. sinensis grassland was investigated for understanding the effects of grassland vegetation type and management practices on the relationship between soil temperature and soil respiration in northern Japan. Soil temperatures at depth of 1 cm in the Z. japonica (ZJ and burned M. sinensis (MSb plots had a larger temporal variation than that in the control M. sinensis (MSc plot prior to early July. However, the coefficient of temperature sensitivity ( values, based on soil respiration rates and soil temperatures at 5 cm depth in the ZJ and MSb plots, were 1.3 and 2.9. These rates were lower than that in the MSc plot (4.3, meaning that soil respiration showed lower activity to an increase in soil temperature in the ZJ and MSb plots. In addition, monthly carbon fluxes from soil in these plots were smaller than that in the MSc plot. These results suggested that artificial disturbance would decrease soil microbial or/and plant root respiration, and it would contribute to the plant productivity. Future studies should examine the effects of the intensity and period of management on the soil respiration rate.

  14. Habitat suitability and ecological niches of different plankton functional types in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Meike; Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; O'Brien, Colleen J.; Bednaršek, Nina; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Doney, Scott C.; Leblanc, Karine; Le Quéré, Corinne; Luo, Yawei; Moriarty, Róisín; O'Brien, Todd D.; Schiebel, Ralf; Swan, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Marine plankton play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. While our knowledge about marine ecosystem structure and functioning is still scarce and episodic, several recent observational studies confirm that marine ecosystems have been changing due to recent climate change, overfishing, and coastal eutrophication. In order to better understand marine ecosystem dynamics, the MAREDAT initiative has recently collected abundance and biomass data for 5 autotrophic (diatoms, Phaeocystis, coccolithophores, nitrogen fixers, picophytoplankton), and 6 heterotrophic plankton functional types (PFTs; bacteria, micro-, meso- and macrozooplankton, foraminifera and pteropods). Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools that can be used to derive information about species habitats in space and time. They have been used extensively for a wide range of ecological applications in terrestrial ecosystems, but here we present the first global application in the marine realm, which was made possible by the MAREDAT data synthesis effort. We use a maximum entropy SDM to simulate global habitat suitability, habitat extent and ecological niches for different PFTs in the modern ocean. Present habitat suitability is derived from presence-only MAREDAT data and the observed annual and monthly mean levels of physiologically relevant variables such as SST, nutrient concentration or photosynthetic active radiation received in the mixed layer. This information can then be used to derive ecological niches for different species or taxa within each PFT, and to compare the ecological niches of different PFTs. While these results still need verification because data was not available for all ocean regions for all PFTs, they can give a first indication what present and future plankton habitats may look like, and what consequences we may have to expect for future marine ecosystem functioning and service provision in a warmer

  15. Seasonal variations in the biomass, quantity and quality of agar, from the reproductive and vegetative stages of Gracilaria (verrucosa type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, J.N.C.; Englar, J.R.; Saunders, R.G.; Lindsay, J.C.

    1981-09-01

    Optimum growth of Gracilaria (verrucosa type) in British Columbia occurred between 5 and 6 meters below mean field level and correlated with solar radiation throughout the season. Vegetative populations declined with a consequent increase in reproductive forms to a maximum in July. Tetrasporophytes dominated the reproductive population and in July attained the greatest seasonal biomass of all forms of the alga. Maximum population and biomass were attained by carposporophytes in July and by male gametophytes one month earlier. An inverse relationship between biomass and yield of agar was apparent only for the vegetative and tetrasporic forms of the alga. Variations in yields, gel strengths, and gelation characteristics of the agars isolated, were demonstrated to be dependent on time of season and life stages of the alga. Ranked in the following decreasing order of merit as a source of agar were the cystocarpic, tetrasporic, vegetative and male gametophytic forms of Gracilaria (verrucosa type).

  16. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  17. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    for positive feedbacks from high-latitude ecosystems to CO2-induced climate change will require the development of ecosystem-level physiological models of net carbon exchange that differentiate the responses of major C pools, that account for effects of vegetation type, and that integrate over summer...

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A.J.; Forouhi, N.G.; Ye, Z.; Buijsse, B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer

  19. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Vegetation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity and ecological characteristics of 74 vegetation types and the lack of vegetation type within the 9.6 million km2 of Chinese territory were studied using data from the China vegetation map. The analysis used 877 large quadrats 10 mm×10 mm (actual size 100 km×100 km), which covered about 8.77 million km2. Each large-quadrat was divided into four small 5 mm×5 mm quadrats (actual size 50 km×50 km). The frequency of occurrence of all vegetation types was recorded in each small quadrat.The survey using the Shiyomi method of vegetation analysis based on the beta-binomial distribution was adopted to describe the frequency of occurrence and spatial heterogeneity for each kind of vegetation. The weighted average heterogeneity of all the vegetation types in the landscape provides a measure of the landscape level heterogeneity which describes the spatial intricacy of the existing vegetation composition.The maximum spatial vegetation heterogeneity was 0.8620 in the frigid-temperate coniferous forest of Larix(V1), which dominates cold moist northeast China. The minimum spatial heterogeneity with a low occurrence was the Caragana tibetica in the gravel desert in the western Yellow River Hetao area. The minimum occurrence with a low spatial heterogeneity was the Monsoon rainforest on rock in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. The vegetation types on the Qing-Zang Plateau were found to be representative of Chinese vegetation because of the very high occurrence and spatial heterogeneity of these vegetation types. The weighted average of the heterogeneity was 0.677, while the vegetation diversity index was 3.29.

  1. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  2. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  3. Satellite-based analysis of clouds and radiation properties of different vegetation types in the Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Nadine; Quaas, Johannes; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Land-use changes impact the energy balance of the Earth system, and feedbacks in the Earth system can dampen or amplify this perturbation. We analyze here from satellite data the response of clouds and subsequently radiation to a change of land use for the example of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In this region, the characteristics of different cloud types over two vegetation types (forest and crop-/grasslands) were calculated for a time period of five years by using satellite data...

  4. Functional analysis and modelling of vegetation: plant functional types in a mesocosmos experiment and a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Lehsten, Veiko

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis lies on the functional analysis and modelling of vegetation. A statistical method for the optimisation of plant functional types is developed in the first part. The fourth corner method by Pierre Legendre et al. was adapted to the task of grouping of plant functional types. New null models are developed for this randomisation method and their statistical properties are investigated. The mechanistical model LEGOMODEL is used to simulate the succession of plant function...

  5. Factors Affecting Distribution of Vegetation Types on Abandoned Cropland in the Hilly-Gullied Loess Plateau Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the forest-steppe region of the Loess Plateau to provide insight into the factors affecting the process of vegetation establishment,and to provide recommendations for the selection of indigenous species in order to speed up the succession process and to allow the establishment of vegetation more resistant to soil erosion.Four distinctive vegetation types were identified,and their distribution was affected not only by the time since abandonment but also by other environmental factors,mainly soil water and total P in the upper soil layers.One of the vegetation types,dominated by Artemisia scoparia,formed the early successional stage after abandonment while the other three types formed later successional stages with their distribution determined by the soil water content and total P.It can be concluded that the selection of appropriate species for introduction to accelerate succession should be determined by the local conditions and especially the total P concentration and soil water content.

  6. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (psausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (poil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  7. Seasat synthetic aperture radar ( SAR) response to lowland vegetation types in eastern Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Milton, N.M.; Segal, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of Seasat SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with the 30-digital number (DN) increase observed in the digital Seasat data. The density, morphology, and relative geometry of the lowland vegetation with respect to standing water can all affect the strength of the return L band signal.-from Authors

  8. Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: its ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain G Razafimandimbison

    Full Text Available During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1 self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2 changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to "a high degree of specialization and developmental burden"; 3 head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards

  9. Comparison of interception and initial retention of wet-deposited contaminants on leaves of different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen Hoffman, F.; Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Rael, Rolando M.

    Simulated rain containing both soluble radionuclides and insoluble particles labeled with a radionuclide was manually applied to several kinds of vegetation, including a conifer, a broad-leafed tree, and several herbaceous species. The fraction of each radioactive material intercepted and initially retained by the vegetation was determined for each plant type. This fraction was determined both as the mass interception factor, r/Y, and the leaf area interception fraction, LAIF. Mean values of r/Y ranged from 0.16 to 2.9 m 2 kg -1 and of the LAIF, from 0.011 to 0.16. There was a greater range in mean retention values among radionuclide types than among plant species; the range among plant types tended to be less with the LAIF than the r/Y. Significantly less interception and initial retention was measured for anions than for cations or the insoluble particles.

  10. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Epstein, H. E.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Raynolds, M. K.; Comiso, J. C.; Gubarkov, A. A.; Khomutov, A. V.; Jia, G. J.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kumpula, T.; Kuss, P.; Matyshak, G.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Orekhov, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Ukraientseva, N. G.; Yu, Q.

    2009-10-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  13. Vegetation Cover Types of St. Vincent Island N.W.R.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this vegetative study on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge were to: (1) identify and describe the major plant communities and associations on...

  14. THE FORMATION OF ENTS ADAPTIVE REACTIONS DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PSYCHO-VEGETATIVE REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Kazin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the students (12 to 15 years old) examination was to identify the integrative criteria of assessing the nature of the functional relationships between the parameters of the psychosocial and physiological adaptation of students, depending on age, individual-typological peculiarities of vegetative regulation, personal potential at different stages of school education.The study of the characteristics of vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system was made with a help of an ...

  15. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  16. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological

  17. In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact.

  18. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest

  19. The hydrological responses of different land cover types in a re-vegetation catchment area of the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics was investigated by comparing five land cover types. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon, subshrub (Artemisia scoparia, shrub (Spiraea pubescens, tree (Robinia pseudoacacia, and crop (Zea mays vegetation were monitored in an experiment performed during the growing season of 2011. There were more than 10 soil moisture pulses during the period of data collection, and the surface soil moisture of all of the land cover types showed an increasing trend. Corn cover was associated with consistently higher soil moisture readings than the other surfaces. Grass and subshrubs showed an intermediate moisture level, with that of grass being slightly higher than that of subshrub most of the time. Shrubs and trees were characterized by lower soil moisture readings, with the shrub levels consistently being slightly higher than those of the trees. With the exception of the corn land cover type, the average soil temperature showed the same regime as the average moisture content, but exhibiting a downward trend throughout the observation period. Three typical decreasing periods were chosen to compare the differences in water losses. In periods of both relatively lower and higher water soil moisture contents, subshrubs lost the largest amount of water. The daily water loss associated with corn was most variable. The tree and shrub sites presented an intermediate level, with that of tree being slightly higher compared to shrub; the daily water loss trends of these two land cover types were similar and were more stable than those of the other types. The amount of water loss related to the grass land cover type is determined by the initial moisture content. Soil under subshrubs acquired and retained soil moisture resources more efficiently than the other cover types, representing an adaptive vegetation type in this area.

  20. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  1. Altering Their Ecological Niche: Investigating the Response of Avian Migrants to Changes in Vegetation Phenology at Northern Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Ward, D. H.; Ely, C. R.; Handel, C. M.; Hupp, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    The impacts of global climate change are expected to be most severe at high northern latitudes. There is now strong evidence to support the hypothesis that such changes have had dramatic effects on the phenology of spring vegetative growth in these areas. One aspect of this change that has not been thoroughly investigated is how these changes vary across habitats and whether sub-Arctic and Arctic avifauna have adapted to shifts in plant phenology by modifying the timing of migration and nesting. A recent study showed that certain bird species have experienced population decline due to the varied timing of seasonal events and points to the fact that the degree of risk facing migratory birds is not well quantified. Plant phenology is especially sensitive to annual variation in temperature and precipitation and is a major determinant of plant species distribution, making it a good indicator of climate change effects. Migratory birds are considered one of the most vulnerable groups to the impacts of climate change because climate affects bird movement and distribution through species-specific physiological tolerances and changes in food and habitat resources. In this study we analyze the evidence for long-term plant phenology changes across different biomes of Alaska using satellite remote sensing techniques. We correlate this variability with ground-based measurements of avian migration and breeding. Specifically, we try to determine if the timing of spring green-up is synchronized across breeding areas or whether the process has become fractured across intervening biomes, potentially disrupting the timing of migration and breeding, putting species at risk. Using satellite-based time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, we create spatially explicit maps of seasonal vegetation metrics and correlate those with the timing and distribution of avian migrant populations. Preliminary investigation focused on the last 10 year period (2000-2009) and

  2. The Effect of Latitude, Litter and Vegetation type on the Performance of the Invasive Species Impatiens glandulifera

    OpenAIRE

    Mujuni, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Impatiens glandulifera is a blacklisted invasive alien plant species that exhibits high phenotypic variation along latitudinal gradients in its invaded range in Europe, with a preference for riparian, roadside and other moist or disturbed habitats. However, limited information exists on how different latitudinal populations perform in contrasting vegetation types. Furthermore, the impact of I. glandulifera litter on the performance of co-occurring species within different...

  3. The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Sartori, Giacomo; Garlato, Adriano; Ungaro, Fabrizio; Zanella, Augusto; Jabiol, Bernard; Obber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of geology, climate, soil type and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study sites were compared by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Humus forms were described by the structure (micro-, meso-, or macro-aggregated) of the organo-mineral A horizon, by the thickness of litter horizons and by their nomenclature, which followed the morpho-functional classification recently proposed for inclusion in the WRB-FAO. The size of aggrega...

  4. Root Effect of Three Vegetation Types on Shoreline Stabilization of Chongming Island, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qin; ZHONG Qi-Cheng; WANG Kai-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Coastal erosion is currently a major problem along the southern coast of Chongming Island, Shanghai. To enhance the erosion protection ability of coastal shelterbelts, two woody tree species, Taxodium ascendens and Salix babylonica, were planted separately into Phragmites australis + Scirpus mariqueter communities in 2006. Two years later, we investigated whether either of these experiments reduced erosion and increased stability in the native herbaceous plant community. We also examined soil stability and root length density under T. ascendens added, S. babylonica added and native herbaceous vegetation conditions along an intertidal gradient from the soil surface to a depth of 40 cm in each experiment, thus to determine the capacity of T. ascendens and S. babylonica to contribute to shoreline stabilization. Topsoil under the native vegetation had greater stability at the middle and higher intertidal zones because its soil stability index and root length density were significantly higher than in the T. ascendens or S. babylonica planted communities. The effect of T.ascendens on soil stability was not generally better than that of the native vegetation. Only at the 20-30 cm soil depth of the middle intertidal zone and in the 10-20 cm layer of the higher intertidal zone the soil stability index and root length densities under the T. ascendens added condition were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the native vegetation.The S. babylonica planted soil had greater stability in the deeper soil layer than the soil under either the native vegetation or the T. ascendens added condition, and its soil stability index and root length density were significant higher (P < 0.05) than those of other vegetation conditions at the 30-40 cm soil depth for the lower intertidal zone and at the 20-40 cm layer for middle and higher intertidal zones.

  5. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATENA ESLAMI FAROUJI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Farouji AE, Khodayari H. 2016. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran. Biodiversita 17: 1-10. The accurate identification of plant communities and their distribution are classical tools for mapping and classification of plants. Plants are strongly sensitive against changing environmental conditions. Moreover, Iran has a special position in Asia which has been creating a diverse ecosystem. Close floristic studies are necessary for precise determination of diversity and uniformity. To determine plant species in different vegetation types in Beiran shahr region, modified multi-scale Whittaker plots were constructed. This studied area was about 20000 ha and located in Northwest to Southwest of Iran. Eighty-nine plots were made in different longitude and latitudes. The minimum and maximum heights were 1101 and 2489 m asl., respectively. Within each modified multi-scale plots, each species was explored. Of 608 species, 498 and 97 are belonging to dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and remained 13 species were Pteridophytes. As measured, Therophyte and Champhyte are the dominant and recessive form of life in studied area. Based on species of each plot and subplots, mean Jaccard's coefficient, number of unique species and mean unique species/plot were estimated for each vegetation type. It is obvious that there is a clear correlation between Slopes of the species-log area curve and Mean number of unique species per plot.

  6. Resource type influences the effects of reserves and connectivity on ecological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Nicholas A; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Martin, Tyson S H; Gilby, Ben L; Maxwell, Paul S; Huijbers, Chantal M; Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Connectivity is a pivotal feature of landscapes that affects the structure of populations and the functioning of ecosystems. It is also a key consideration in conservation planning. But the potential functional effects of landscape connectivity are rarely evaluated in a conservation context. The removal of algae by herbivorous fish is a key ecological function on coral reefs that promotes coral growth and recruitment. Many reef herbivores are harvested and some use other habitats (like mangroves) as nurseries or feeding areas. Thus, the effects of habitat connectivity and marine reserves can jointly promote herbivore populations on coral reefs, thereby influencing reef health. We used a coral reef seascape in eastern Australia to test whether seascape connectivity and reserves influence herbivory. We measured herbivore abundance and rates of herbivory (on turf algae and macroalgae) on reefs that differed in both their level of connectivity to adjacent mangrove habitats and their level of protection from fishing. Reserves enhanced the biomass of herbivorous fish on coral reefs in all seascape settings and promoted consumption of turf algae. Consumption of turf algae was correlated with the biomass of surgeonfish that are exploited outside reserves. By contrast, both reserve status and connectivity influenced herbivory on macroalgae. Consumption of macroalgae was greatest on fished reefs that were far from mangroves and was not strongly correlated with any fish species. Our findings demonstrate that landscape connectivity and reserve status can jointly affect the functioning of ecosystems. Moreover, we show that reserve and connectivity effects can differ markedly depending on resource type (in this case turf algae vs. macroalgae). The effectiveness of conservation initiatives will therefore depend on our ability to understand how these multiple interactive effects structure the distribution of ecological functions. These findings have wider implications for the

  7. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  8. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  9. Predictors of College-Student Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Differ by Housing Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabitur, Erica; Peterson, Karen E.; Rathz, Colleen; Matlen, Stacey; Kasper, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether college-student characteristics associate with food security and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and whether these associations differ in students in housing with and without food provision. Participants: 514 randomly-sampled students from a large, Midwestern, public university in 2012 and 2013 Methods: Ordered…

  10. Physical rehabilitation of students of medical groups with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia for mixed type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlchovik Alina Vitalievna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Consider the problem of declining levels of health of students I-II courses that are assigned to special medical group. Substantiated the importance of including health improvement-rehabilitation program for students with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia of mixed type. Define oriented content rehabilitation programs for this group of individuals. The program improves the functional and psychological status of students, to carry out prevention of autonomic crises. Proved the prevalence and increase with each passing year the number of people with vascular dystonia of mixed type of students - 50-55%.

  11. Eddy covariance and scintillation measurements of atmospheric exchange processes over different types of vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction and objectivesGood comprehension of the energy and mass cycles and their effect on climate dynamics is crucial to understanding, predicting and anticipating ecological changes due to possible future climate perturbations. Here direct and long-term flux density measurements of greenhouse

  12. Fuzzy logic merger of spectral and ecological information for improved montane forest mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Running, Steven W.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Key, Carl H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat‐5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These data were combined utilizing fuzzy logic where assignment of each pixel to a single vegetation category was derived comparing the partial membership of each vegetation category within spectral and environmental classes. Partial membership was assigned from canopy cover for forest types measured from field sampling. Initial classification of spectral and ecological data produced map accuracies of less than 50% due to overlap between spectrally similar vegetation and limited spatial precision for predicting local vegetation types solely from the ecological information. Combination of environmental data through fuzzy logic increased overall mapping accuracy (70%) in coniferous forest communities of northwestern Montana, USA.

  13. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  14. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups.

  15. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups. PMID:27307276

  16. Analysis of fern spore banks from the soil of three vegetation types in the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Trejo, María Del Rosario; Pérez-García, Blanca; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2004-05-01

    The vertical structure of fern spore banks was studied in a xerophilous shrubland, montane rain forest, and pine-oak forest in Hidalgo, Mexico, using the emergence method. Soil samples were collected in April 1999 at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. Viable spores decreased significantly with depth in all vegetation types, and the highest number of prothallia and sporophytes was found in the uppermost layer. The montane rain forest and the xerophilous shrubland had the largest and the richest banks, respectively. Twenty-three fern taxa were registered in the aboveground vegetation, 12 in the soil banks, and 43.5% were in both. Aboveground and in the soil bank, the xerophilous shrubland, the montane rain forest, and the pine-oak forest had, 17 and 7, 1 and 6, and 7 and 3 taxa, respectively. These were distributed differentially in relation to depth. The Sørensen index indicated a similarity of 61.5% between the xerophilous shrubland and the montane rain forest, and the Czeckanovsky index indicated 19.75%. The presence of viable spores in the soil of all vegetation types confirmed the existence of natural spore banks. Long-distance dispersal was an important factor determining the specific composition of the xerophilous shrubland and the pine-oak forest. PMID:21653423

  17. Study on Types and Features of Urban Vegetation in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐城市植被类型及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹林克; 南伟疆; 严成; 王蕾; 姜逢清; 昝勤

    2011-01-01

    根据人为干扰程度、群落功能以及优势建群种,将乌鲁木齐市城市植被划分为自然植被、半自然植被和人工植被3个植被类、13个植被组和125个植被型。自然植被类划分为7个植被组82个植被型;半自然植被类划分为4个植被组33个植被型;人工植被类划分为2个植被组10个植被型。乌鲁木齐自然植被类谱系完整,旱生和超旱生灌木、半灌木及多年生草本优势明显。半自然植被类由于人类活动的扰动,植物群落物种数量较自然植被明显增多,乔灌木比例加大,上层乔灌木种类大部分为人工栽培种,草本组多为原生和外来的野生植物种,部分物种呈斑块状分布并沿灌溉带呈线状分布,物种多样性指数较高。人工植被类中园林绿地破碎度较高,呈点、块、条状散布于城市中心,覆盖率低,种群间和群落间关联度小。其中,以防护林绿地为主,群落中引入归化种和外来种的比例过高;受市场经济影响,农业植被组以粮食、蔬菜和油料为主。%According to the degree of human disturbance,community functions and advantages of the dominant and constructive species,in this paper,urban vegetation in Urumqi was divided into three parts,i.e.the natural vegetation,semi-natural vegetation and artificial vegetation,including 3 vegetation races,13 vegetation groups and 125 vegetation types.Natural vegetation race is classified into 7 vegetation groups,i.e.the coniferous forest vegetation group,broadleaf forest vegetation group,shrub vegetation group,desert vegetation group,meadow vegetation group,steppe vegetation group and alpine vegetation group with 82 vegetation types;semi-natural vegetation race is divided into 4 vegetation groups,i.e.the broadleaf forest vegetation group,shrub vegetation group,herbaceous vegetation group and partner person vegetation group with 33 vegetation types;artificial vegetation race is classified into 2 vegetation groups

  18. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.;

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial...

  19. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds...... were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day....... Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences...

  20. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  1. Wild fire effects on floristic diversity in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types in a small islet of eastern Aegean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eleni; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos; Korakis, George; Parissi, Zoi; Chouvardas, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    Sclerophyllus scrub formations, the main vegetation type in many islands of the Aegean area, are characterized by their high biodiversity. Dominant shrub species of sclerophyllus formations are well adapted to dry season conditions by various anatomical and physiological mechanisms. As a result, their biomass acts as very flammable fine fuel, and consequently wild fires are very common in these ecosystems. Wildfire effects on vegetation and biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin have been studied and the results are diverse depending mainly on vegetation type and frequency of fire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of wildfire on floristic diversity and species composition in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types 1) Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana, 2) low formations of Cistus creticus and 3) low formations of Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. The research was conducted in Enoussa islet, which is located northeastern of Chios Island, in May 2013 (one year after the fire). Vegetation sampling was performed along five transects placed in recently burned and in adjacent unburned sites of each vegetation type. The plant cover and the floristic composition were measured, while diversity, evenness and dominance indices were determined for the vegetation data. Vegetation cover and the floristic diversity were significant lower and higher respectively in burned areas in comparison to the unburned. The woody species followed by the annual grasses and the annual forbs dominated in both burned and unburned areas. However, the woody species were significantly decreased in the burned areas in all vegetation types, while the annual grasses only in the burned areas of Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana and Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. Inversely, the annual forbs significantly increased in the burned sites of Cistus creticus formations. The highest value of Morisita-Horn Index of similarity between burned and unburned sites (beta diversity) was

  2. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  3. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  4. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  5. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Armenteras; Cerian Gibbes; Carla A. Vivacqua; Juan Sebastián Espinosa; Wania Duleba; Fabio Goncalves; Christopher Castro

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In...

  6. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  7. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  8. Intakes of Dietary Fiber, Vegetables, and Fruits and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; ITO, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; ,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary o...

  9. The effect of vegetation type and fire on permafrost thaw: An empirical test of a process based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Aaron; Estop-Aragones, Cristian; Fisher, James; Hartley, Iain; Murton, Julian; Phoenix, Gareth; Street, Lorna; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    As conditions become more favourable for plant growth in the high latitudes, most models predict that these areas will take up more carbon during the 21st century. However, vast stores of carbon are frozen in boreal and arctic permafrost, and warming may result in some of this carbon being released to the atmosphere. The recent inclusion of permafrost thaw in large-scale model simulations has suggested that the permafrost feedback could potentially substantially reduce the predicted global net uptake of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems, with major implications for the rate of climate change. However, large uncertainties remain in predicting rates of permafrost thaw and in determining the impacts of thaw in contrasting ecosystems, with many of the key processes missing from carbon-climate models. The role that different plant communities play in insulating soils and protecting permafrost is poorly quantified, with key groups such as mosses absent in many models. But it is thought that they may play a key role in determining permafrost resilience. In order to test the importance of these ecological processes we use a new specially acquired dataset from sites in the Canadian arctic to develop, parameterise and evaluate a detailed process-based model of vegetation-soil-permafrost interactions which includes an insulating moss understory. We tested the sensitivity of modelled active layer depth to a series of factors linked to fire disturbance, which is common in boreal permafrost areas. We show how simulations of active layer depth (ALD) respond to removals of (i) vascular vegetation, (ii) moss cover, and (iii) organic soil layers. We compare model responses to observed patterns from Canada. We also describe the sensitivity of our modelled ALD to changes in temperature and precipitation. We found that four parameters controlled most of the sensitivity in the modelled ALD, linked to conductivity of organic soils and mosses.

  10. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  11. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  12. Effect of Different Vegetation Types on the Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Community Structure in the Loess Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; LIU Guo-bin; XUE Sha; and XIAO Lie

    2013-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in China is one of the most eroded areas in the world. Accordingly, vegetation restoration has been implemented in this area over the past two decades to remedy the soil degradation problem. Understanding the microbial community structure is essential for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the reclamation of degraded arable land. This study aimed to determine the effect of different vegetation types on microbial processes and community structure in rhizosphere soils in the Loess Plateau. The six vegetation types were as follows:two natural grassland (Artemisia capillaries and Heteropappus altaicus), two artificial grassland (Astragalus adsurgens and Panicum virgatum), and two artificial shrubland (Caragana korshinskii and Hippophae rhamnoides) species. The microbial community structure and functional diversity were examined by analyzing the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and community-level physiological profiles. The results showed that rhizosphere soil sampled from the H. altaicus and A. capillaries plots had the highest values of microbial biomass C, average well color development of carbon resources, Gram-negative (G-) bacterial PLFA, bacterial PLFA, total PLFA, Shannon richness, and Shannon evenness, as well as the lowest metabolic quotient. Soil sampled from the H. rhamnoides plots had the highest metabolic quotient and Gram-positive (G+) bacterial PLFA, and soil sampled from the A. adsurgens and A. capillaries plots had the highest fungal PLFA and fungal:bacterial PLFA ratio. Correlation analysis indicated a signiifcant positive relationship among the microbial biomass C, G- bacterial PLFA, bacterial PLFA, and total PLFA. In conclusion, plant species under arid climatic conditions signiifcantly affected the microbial community structure in rhizosphere soil. Among the studied plants, natural grassland species generated the most favorable microbial conditions.

  13. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  14. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  15. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  16. Ecological Species Groups of Wetland Vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River, Shanxi%汾河连伯滩湿地植被生态种组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    根据42个野外样方调查资料,采用Fisher精确检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数,研究汾河连伯滩湿地21个优势种的种间关系,结合组平均法的聚类结果,对生态种组进行了划分.结果表明:1)在210个种对中,Fisher精确检验结果表明共有16个种对为正关联,1个种对为负关联;Pearson相关系数有20个种对为正相关,5个种对为负相关;Spearman秩相关系数有34个种对为正相关,7个种对为负相关;2)在所有的种对中,大多数种对间表现为不显著关联,种间不显著相关,说明优势种群间生态位相对分离;3)综合种间关联、种间相关和聚类分析结果,将21个优势种划分成4个生态种组,分别是芦苇生态种组、赖草生态种组、白茅生态种组和野艾蒿生态种组,这4个生态种组反映了随水分条件变化连伯滩湿地植被群落的组成特征.%Interspecies relationships between the dominant species of wetland vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River,Shanxi by Fishers exact test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation based on the data collected from 42 field plots. Ecological species groups of those dominant species were studied by using group averaging clustering.The results indicated that: Sixteen species-pairs had positive association coefficient and one species-pair had negative association coefficient by Fisher's exact test. In addition, 20 species-pairs had positive correlation coefficient and 5 species-pairs had negative correlation coefficient by Pearson's correlation analysis. Furthermore, 34 species-pairs displayed positive and 7 were negative correlations by Spearman. Associations and correlations between most species-pairs were not significant, which suggested that the dominant species distributed in an isolated pattern and their inches separated. On the basis of the results of association and correlation of those dominant species as well as that of analysis of clustering, those

  17. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  18. Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; O'Connell, Jessica L.; Di Tommaso, Stefania; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to quantify large-scale plant productivity in coastal marshes to understand marsh resilience to sea level rise, to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits, and to monitor impacts from land use, eutrophication and contamination. Remote monitoring of aboveground biomass of emergent wetland vegetation will help address this need. Differences in sensor spatial resolution, bandwidth, temporal frequency and cost constrain the accuracy of biomass maps produced for management applications. In addition the use of vegetation indices to map biomass may not be effective in wetlands due to confounding effects of water inundation on spectral reflectance. To address these challenges, we used partial least squares regression to select optimal spectral features in situ and with satellite reflectance data to develop predictive models of aboveground biomass for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. We used field spectrometer data to test model errors associated with hyperspectral narrowbands and multispectral broadbands, the influence of water inundation on prediction accuracy, and the ability to develop species specific models. We used Hyperion data, Digital Globe World View-2 (WV-2) data, and Landsat 7 data to scale up the best statistical models of biomass. Field spectrometer-based models of the full dataset showed that narrowband reflectance data predicted biomass somewhat, though not significantly better than broadband reflectance data [R2 = 0.46 and percent normalized RMSE (%RMSE) = 16% for narrowband models]. However hyperspectral first derivative reflectance spectra best predicted biomass for plots where water levels were less than 15 cm (R2 = 0.69, %RMSE = 12.6%). In species-specific models, error rates differed by species (Typha spp.: %RMSE = 18.5%; S. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and

  19. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken Haste; Dieckmann, Ulf;

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference...... interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size......-structured communities. Like other types of trait-mediated competition, all four types of interference competition can induce disruptive selection and thus promote initial diversification. Even though foraging interference and reproductive interference are more potent in promoting initial diversification, they catalyze...

  20. Tidal saline wetland regeneration of sentinel vegetation types in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott F; Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal saline wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) are dynamic and frequently disturbed systems that provide myriad ecosystem services. For these services to be sustained, dominant macrophytes must continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance. Macrophytes accomplish this regeneration through combinations of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction, the relative importance of which varies by species. Concurrently, tidal saline wetland systems experience both anthropogenic and natural hydrologic alterations, such as levee construction, sea-level rise, storm impacts, and restoration activities. These hydrologic alterations can affect the success of plant regeneration, leading to large-scale, variable changes in ecosystem structure and function. This review describes the specific regeneration requirements of four dominant coastal wetland macrophytes along the NGoM (Spartina alterniflora, Avicennia germinans, Juncus roemerianus, and Batis maritima) and compares them with current hydrologic alterations to provide insights into potential future changes in dominant ecosystem structure and function and to highlight knowledge gaps in the current literature that need to be addressed.

  1. Tidal saline wetland regeneration of sentinel vegetation types in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott F.; Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-06-01

    Tidal saline wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) are dynamic and frequently disturbed systems that provide myriad ecosystem services. For these services to be sustained, dominant macrophytes must continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance. Macrophytes accomplish this regeneration through combinations of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction, the relative importance of which varies by species. Concurrently, tidal saline wetland systems experience both anthropogenic and natural hydrologic alterations, such as levee construction, sea-level rise, storm impacts, and restoration activities. These hydrologic alterations can affect the success of plant regeneration, leading to large-scale, variable changes in ecosystem structure and function. This review describes the specific regeneration requirements of four dominant coastal wetland macrophytes along the NGoM (Spartina alterniflora, Avicennia germinans, Juncus roemerianus, and Batis maritima) and compares them with current hydrologic alterations to provide insights into potential future changes in dominant ecosystem structure and function and to highlight knowledge gaps in the current literature that need to be addressed.

  2. Impacts of climate gradients on the vegetation phenology of major land use types in Central Asia (1981-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan KARIYEVA; Willem J.D.van LEEUWEN; Connie A.WOODHOUSE

    2012-01-01

    Time-series of land surface phenology (LSP)data offer insights about vegetation growth patterns.They can be generated by exploiting the temporal and spectral reflectance properties of land surface components.Interannual and seasonal LSP data are important for understanding and predicting an ecosystem's response to variations caused by natural and anthropogenic drivers.This research examines spatio-temporal change patterns and interactions between terrestrial phenology and 28 years of climate dynamics in Central Asia.Long-term (1981-2008) LSP records such as timing of the start,peak and length of the growing season and vegetation productivity were derived from remotely sensed vegetation greenness data.The patterns were analyzed to identify and characterize the impact of climate drivers at regional scales.We explored the relationships between phenological and precipitation and temperature variables for three generalized land use types that were exposed to decadelong regional drought events and intensified land and water resource use:rainfed agriculture,irrigated agriculture,and non-agriculture.To determine whether and how LSP dynamics are associated with climate patterns,a series of simple linear regression analyses between these two variables was executed.The three land use classes showed unique phenological responses to climate variation across Central Asia.Most of the phenological response variables were shown to be positively correlated to precipitation and negatively correlated to temperature.The most substantial climate variable affecting phenological responses of all three land use classes was a spring temperature regime.These results indicate that future higher temperatures would cause earlier and longer growing seasons.

  3. The impact of greenhouse vegetable farming duration and soil types on phytoavailability of heavy metals and their health risk in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination in vegetables from greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) in China requires major attention. For GVP sustainability at a large regional level, 441 surface GVP soil and 132 corresponding greenhouse vegetable samples were collected from six typical GVP bases in eastern China to systematically evaluate the impact of GVP duration and soil types (Anthrosols and Cambosols) on phytoavailability of four major metals, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb, and their health risk. The results revealed high Cd accumulation in leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols, which might pose potential health risk. Regardless of soil types in the study region, greenhouse farming lowered soil pH and enhanced metal availability with rising GVP duration, which might exacerbate Cd phytoavailability and vegetable Cd contamination as well as potential health risk. Also, increased GVP soil organic matter contents over time, found in some locations, affected crop-depending Cu and Zn uptakes. Furthermore, due to GVP, the annual decrease rate of soil pH and increase rates of soil available metal concentrations were generally much greater in Anthrosols than those in Cambosols, which contributed a lot to high Cd uptake by leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols and their potential health risk. From sustainable GVP perspective, fertilization strategy with reduced frequency and rate is especially important and effective for abating soil and vegetable contamination by heavy metals under greenhouse farming.

  4. Vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil reduce DNA strand breaks in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Pleifer, Simone;

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with increased oxidative stress, which may lead to increased DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a healthy diet on DNA oxidation in diabetics and nondiabetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-six diabetic......Guo excretion remained unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a healthy diet rich in antioxidants reduces levels of DNA strand breaks in diabetic individuals....... and 21 nondiabetic individuals participated in this study. All subjects received information about the benefits of a healthy diet, while subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300 g of vegetables and 25 mL PUFA-rich plant oil per day. DNA damage in mononuclear cells...

  5. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land garden plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica land was the most obvious among them, with soil pH increasing by 0.43. The effects of fertilization and vegetation type on

  6. Study on Aquatic Vegetation and Its Ecological Effect in Lake Lihu of Lake Xinghu%星湖里湖区水生植被及其生态效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学年; 郭玉娟

    2011-01-01

    The species, distribution and biomass of 6 representative aquatic vegetation and water quality, such as water body, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and NH3 -N in Lake Iihu were investigated and studied, the ecological effect of aquatic vegetation were analyzed. The results showed that aquatic flora in the lake covers Vallisneria densesemdate ,Myriophyllum spicatum ,Limnanthemum indicium and Nelumbo nucifera 4 species. The community structure was simple and the dominant of community was Vallisneria densesemdate. Aquatic vegetation biomass and nutrient content were negatively correlated, conversely, aquatic vegetation biomass and water transparency were positively correlated. The results show that aquatic vegetation could purify water,reduce N,P nutrients content and inhibit algae growth. The study provided scientific basis for comprehensive adjustment and ecological restoration of the environment of Lake Xinghu.%对星湖里湖区6个具有代表性的水生植被种类、分布、生物量以及水体TN、TP、叶绿素a、NH3-N等水质指标进行调查研究,探讨了里湖区水生植被的生态效应.结果表明,共采集到密齿苦草、穗花狐尾藻、金银莲花、莲等4种植物,优势种为密齿苦草;水生植物生物量与水体营养盐含量呈负相关,与水体透明度呈正相关;水生植物可净化水质,有效降低水体N、P营养盐,克制藻类生长.该研究为星湖环境的综合治理和生态修复提供了科学依据.

  7. Vegetation Spatial Heterogeneity of Different Soil Regions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vegetation spatial heterogeneity and ecological characteristics in different soil regions were analyzed by surveying the vegetation in 12 different soil regions of Inner Mongolia, China, including coniferous-broadleaf deciduous forests, shrub, grassland, and desert regions with 1122 large 2 cm × 2 cm quadrats (actual size 30 km × 30 km, referred to as L-quadrat hereafter) in about 1.18 million km2. Each Lquadrat was divided into four small 1 cm× 1 cm quadrats (actual size 15 km × 15 km, S-quadrat). The vegetation was analyzed based on the beta-binomial distribution to describe the frequency of occurrence and spatial heterogeneity for each kind of vegetation. The weighted average of the heterogeneity of all vegetation in the same soil region provides a measure of the soil regional landscape level heterogeneity which describes the spatial complexity of the regional landscape composition of the existing vegetation. Comparison of the vegetation characteristics in the 12 soil regions shows that, the calcic gray soil has the highest average vegetation type per quadrat. The largest soil region is calcic chestnut soil and has the most vegetation types. Every soil region has its own dominant vegetation sequence which dominates in occurrence and dominant vegetation types which dominates in spatial heterogeneity. For the Inner Mongolian vegetation, the weighted average of the heterogeneity is 0.60 and the vegetation diversity index is 4.47.

  8. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: estudios recientes han demostrado los beneficios cardiovasculares de la dieta mediterránea enriquecida con aceite de oliva y frutos secos. Las personas con diabetes, que tienen un mayor riesgo de complicaciones cardiovasculares, podrían beneficiarse en gran medida de seguir ese tipo de patrón alimentario. Objetivos: análisis de la ingesta de grasas vegetales procedentes de frutos secos y aceites vegetales en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo que compara 60 personas con DM1 y 60 sujetos sanos. Se recoge la frecuencia de consumo de aceites vegetales y de frutos secos y se calcula el aporte procedente de estos alimentos en ácidos grasos mono y poliinsaturados (ácido oleico, linoleico y -linolénico). Se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo diseñado de forma específica. Se recogen variables antropométricas, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y variables relacionadas con la diabetes. Resultados: el consumo total de grasa vegetal procedente de aceites vegetales fue similar en los pacientes con DM1 frente a los sujetos control (3,02 ± 1,14 vs. 3,07 ± 1,27 Raciones (R)/día, P = 0,822) y de frutos secos (1,35 ± 2,24 vs. 1,60 ± 2,44 R/semana, P = 0,560). El grupo DM1 consumió menos aceite de oliva que el grupo control (2,55 ± 1,17 vs. 3,02 ± 1,34 R/día, P = 0,046). Se detectó un menor consumo de ácido -linolénico respecto al grupo control (1,13 ± 2,06 vs. 2,64 ± 4,37 g/día, P = 0,018), mientras que no hubo diferencias en el resto de ácidos grasos (oleico 28,30 ± 18,13 vs. 29,53 ± 16,90 g/día, P = 0,703; linoleico 13,70 ± 16,80 vs. 15,45 ± 19,90 g/día, P = 0,605). En los DM1 no se demostró una influencia del consumo de las grasas vegetales procedentes de aceites y frutos secos en los parámetros antropométricos, metabólicos y variables específicas de la diabetes. Conclusiones: en las personas con DM1 el consumo total de aceites vegetales y frutos secos no

  9. An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: system development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Li, Pu; Zhao, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An environment-friendly decentralized wastewater treatment process that is comprised of activated sludge process (ASP) and wetland vegetation, named as vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP), was developed for decentralized wastewater treatment. The long-term experimental results evidenced that the vegetation sequencing batch reactor (V-SBR) process had consistently stable higher removal efficiencies of organic substances and nutrients from domestic wastewater compared with traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The vegetation allocated into V-SBR system could not only remove nutrients through its vegetation transpiration ratio but also provide great surface area for microorganism activity enhancement. This high vegetation transpiration ratio enhanced nutrients removal effectiveness from wastewater mainly by flux enhancement, oxygen and substrate transportation acceleration, and vegetation respiration stimulation. A mathematical model based on ASM2d was successfully established by involving the specific function of vegetation to simulate system performance. The simulation results on the influence of operational parameters on V-ASP treatment effectiveness demonstrated that V-SBR had a high resistance to seasonal temperature fluctuations and influent loading shocking. PMID:26880524

  10. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  11. Spatial-seasonal variation of soil denitrification under three riparian vegetation types around the Dianchi Lake in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojun; Cao, Zilin; Li, Xiaoying; Liao, Zhouyu; Hu, Binghui; Ni, Jie; Ruan, Honghua

    2013-05-01

    Outbreaks of nuisance cyanobacterial bloom are predicted to occur frequently under the effect of severe eutrophication in the water body of Lake Dianchi since the 1990s. Riparian buffers are now well recognized for their roles in the removal of inorganic nitrogen mainly via denitrification. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of nitrate removal in the riparian buffers of Lake Dianchi. We investigated the wet and dry seasonal dynamics of denitrification rate (DNR) in the soil profiles along the topographic gradient in three riparian buffers with different vegetation types (i.e. forest, open forest, and grass). A strong vertical pattern was observed in soil organic C and N concentrations (i.e. total N, DON, NO3-N, and NH4-N) along the soil layers. We also found significantly higher in situ denitrification activity in the upper horizon along each topohydrosequence while the activities of soil denitrification could be detected down to deeper soil horizons (0.1 to 0.8 mg N per kg dry soil per day), which may contribute significantly to the reduction of the ground water nitrate. Meanwhile, the DNR in the zones near the lake was significantly higher than that in zones near the border with the upland terrace, and also in the wet seasons than in dry seasons. Denitrification rates in the forest, open forest and grass sites were significantly different only in wet seasons. Especially, we found soil organic C had a strong correlation with denitrification in all sites, despite the large intersite variability of soil and vegetation. Our data suggested spatial heterogeneity of substrate availability along a hydrologic and topographic gradient can be the primary control on spatial-seasonal patterns of denitrification in riparian buffers.

  12. Extensive vegetated roofs in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses extensive vegetated roofs, i.e. vegetation systems placed on top of buildings as an aesthetical and/or ecological cover. Specific objectives was to (1) quantify how establishment techniques, substrates and plant mixes influence establishment and development of extensive vegetated roofs, (2) investigate effect of vegetated roofs on stormwater quality, and quantify how maintenance and starting fertilisation influences stormwater quality, and (4) investigate the role of veg...

  13. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken H; Dieckmann, Ulf; Brännström, Åke

    2015-09-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference competition at intermediate intensity sometimes significantly increases the abundance of adult individuals and the population׳s reproduction rate. We find that foraging and metabolic interference evolutionarily favor smaller maturation size when interference is weak and larger maturation size when interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size-structured communities. Like other types of trait-mediated competition, all four types of interference competition can induce disruptive selection and thus promote initial diversification. Even though foraging interference and reproductive interference are more potent in promoting initial diversification, they catalyze the formation of diverse communities with complex trophic structure only at high levels of interference intensity. By contrast, survival interference does so already at intermediate levels, while reproductive interference can only support relatively smaller communities with simpler trophic structure. Taken together, our results show how the type and intensity of interference competition jointly affect coexistence patterns in structured population models.

  14. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area) in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4%) than that at Datian (16.7%). This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer.

  15. Growth potential of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in nine types of ready-to-eat vegetables stored at variable temperature conditions during shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Barbosa, Matheus S; Destro, Maria Teresa; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-06-15

    Growth potential (δ) is defined as the difference between the population of a microorganism at the end of shelf-life of specific food and its initial population. The determination of δ of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in RTE vegetables can be very useful to determine likely threats to food safety. However, little is known on the behavior of these microorganisms in several RTE vegetables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the δ of both pathogens in nine different types of RTE vegetables (escarole, collard green, spinach, watercress, arugula, grated carrot, green salad, and mix for yakisoba) stored at refrigeration (7°C) and abuse temperature (15°C). The population of aerobic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria, including those showing antimicrobial activity has been also determined. Results indicated that L. monocytogenes was able to grow (δ≥0.5 log(10)) in more storage conditions and vegetables than Salmonella. Both microorganisms were inhibited in carrots, although a more pronounced effect has been observed against L. monocytogenes. The highest δ values were obtained when the RTE vegetables were stored 15°C/6days in collard greens (δ=3.3) and arugula (δ=3.2) (L. monocytogenes) and arugula (δ=4.1) and escarole (δ=2.8) (Salmonella). In most vegetables and storage conditions studied, the counts of total aerobic microorganisms raised significantly independent of the temperature of storage (p<0.05). Counts of lactic acid bacteria were higher in vegetables partially or fully stored at abuse temperature with recovery of isolates showing antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes may grow and reach high populations in RTE vegetables depending on storage conditions and the definition of effective intervention strategies are needed to control their growth in these products.

  16. Reconstructing Past Vegetation Types During the Late Holocene Using Stable Carbon Isotopes of Leporids from Archaeological Sites in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.; Kemp, L.; Hard, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) from bone collagen in leporids provide high-resolution vegetation reconstruction. Leporids [e.g., cottontails (Sylvilagus sp.), jackrabbits (Lepus sp.)] die young (ca. 2 years) and use small home ranges (diet, and their bone collagen, provides a high-resolution view of the carbon isotopic values present in their local plant community. Here we provide an example of the use of leporid bone collagen for reconstruction of past vegetation types using data from several archaeological sites as well as modern collections. All samples are from a basin and range setting within the Chihuahuan Desert in far west Texas and southern New Mexico, USA. The sites span a period back to roughly 1350 BP. Isotopic patterns in leporid collagen show clear evidence of change in vegetation from around 775 BP to the modern period, with a dramatic shift of 4.2‰ in median δ13C values over this period in jackrabbit collagen and a 7.3‰ decrease in median carbon isotopic values in cottontail rabbits. These data suggest a significant increase in C3 plants in leporid diet, and by extension a relative increase in these plant types in the local environment sampled by leporids. This shift is consistent with historic accounts of more C3 mesquite, possibly because of historic land use and ranching practices in the 1800s. However, while this shift may have been accelerated by historic land use changes, our data suggest that the vegetation shift began several hundred years earlier during the prehistoric period. The prehistoric collagen isotopic record also shows increased sample variability through time in both species, suggesting that year-to-year variability in vegetation may have increased late in that sequence. Our results, then, clearly show the potential of leporids for high resolution tracking of vegetation shifts. As leporids are common in paleontological and archaeological sites throughout the temperate zones, their use as a vegetation and climate proxy has

  17. SOIL EMISSIONS OF N2O, NO AND CO2 IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS: EFFECTS OF VEGETATION TYPE, SEASONALITY, AND PRESCRIBED FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using closed chamber techniques, soil fluxes of NO, N20 and C02 were measured from September 1999 through October 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) subjected to prescribed fires. Our studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto sensu (20-50% canopy cov...

  18. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau(1981―2006):Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981―1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990―1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999―2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002―2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation

  19. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau (1981―2006): Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981-1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990-1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999-2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002-2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation construction has

  20. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Time-effect Relationship of Acupuncture in Improving Cardiac Vegetative Nerve Function in Patients with Type Ⅱ DM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-mei; SI Hui; ZHANG Ya-xi; KONG Li-hong; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    Forty cases of type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus were treated by puncturing point Neiguan (PC 6), and the effect on their cardiac vegetative nerve functions were observed at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min after acupuncture respectively. The findings showed that all heart rate variables improved remarkably at the three time periods after acupuncture treatment, with significant differences (P<0.01); but there was no significant difference in the curative effects among the three time periods.%对40例已确诊Ⅱ型糖尿病患者,给予针刺内关穴治疗,分别观察针刺20 min,40 min和60min不同时段对其心脏植物神经功能的影响.检测短时心率变异诸项指标,结果不同针刺时间均能改善各项指标,针刺前后疗效有非常显著性差异(P<0.01).3组组间疗效没有显著性差异(P>0.05).

  2. Soil Organic Carbon and Its Fractions Across Vegetation Types: Effects of Soil Mineral Surface Area and Microaggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-Biao; WANG Xiao-Ke; OUYANG Zhi-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) can act as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide;therefore,it is important to understand the amount and composition of SOC in terrestrial ecosystems,the spatial variation in SOC,and the underlying mechanisms that stabilize SOC.In this study,density fractionation and acid hydrolysis were used to assess the spatial variation in SOC,the heavy fraction of organic carbon (HFOC),and the resistant organic carbon (ROC) in soils of the southern Hulun Buir region,northeastern China,and to identify the major factors that contribute to this variation.The results showed that as the contents of clay and silt particles (0-50 μm) increased,both methylene blue (MB) adsorption by soil minerals and microaggregate contents increased in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers (P<0.05).Although varying with vegetation types,SOC,HFOC,and ROC contents increased significantly with the content of clay and silt particles,MB adsorption by soil minerals,and microaggregate content (P<0.05),suggesting that soil texture,the MB adsorption by soil minerals,and microaggregate abundance might be important factors influencing the spatial heterogeneity of carbon contents in soils of the southern Hulun Buir region.

  3. Types and soil conservation capacity of riparian vegetation at middle reach of Shiyang river%石羊河中游河岸植被及其护岸能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆钟; 刘世增; 刘虎俊; 袁宏波; 李银科; 郭春秀; 刘淑娟; 张莹花

    2012-01-01

    调查分析石羊河中游河岸植被及其保护河岸能力可为河岸管理与植被恢复提供参考。通过植被组成与结构以及河岸地貌调查,选用植被密度、覆盖度、根系主分布层深度计算河岸植被的保持土壤能力指数。结果表明:石羊河中游的植被可分为12个群丛。灌丛或灌丛+乔木群落成块状或条带状夹在其他植被类型之间,成为河岸植被的骨架。从河岸完整性以及群落保持土壤能力指数综合判断,沼泽化草甸以及盐化草甸+灌木的护岸能力较强,其次为灌丛,再次为灌丛+乔木。河岸植被保护石羊河中游两岸,使其形成限制性河床,不仅增加了河岸稳定性,而且提高了防治灾害能力。%Shiyang River basin is one of the inland river basins where the ecological environment is strongly disturbed by artificial action which leads to the degraded environment.It is signality to study the riparian vegetation of Shiyang River for management and protection of bank and returning to ecological environment.The element and structure of the riparian vegetation at middle reach of Shiyang River was investigated,and the density of plant,coverage ratio,the spreading depth of root density,vegetation type and biotype of dominant species were employed to comprehensively evaluate the riparian vegetation for protecting bank.The results are as follows: there are 11 associations.The shrubland or tree-shrub forest,which is the support of the riparian vegetation,thread amount others of vegetation.The number of coverage ratio and density of swamp-meadow are the biggest,but the depth of root is shallow and simple,so the meadow + shrub with second of coverage ratio and density and more depth of root have the strong capacity to protect the bank.The shrubland that is constituted of by Tamarix ramosissima or Salix lineaisriputlaris is stronger to protect bank than that of tree-land with Populus gansuensis or Elaiagnus angustifolia,and it is

  4. Collembola populations under sclerophyllous coppices in Provence (France): comparison between two types of vegetation, Quercus ilex L. and Quercus coccifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortet, Jérôme; Poinsot-Balaguer, Nicole

    1998-10-01

    A comparative analysis of soil Collembola using two types of sclerophyllous vegetation ( Quercus ilex and Quercus coccifera) was performed at a calcareous site in Provence (France). Collembola populations were examined over a one-year period (11 successive months) in three different soil layers. Although no statistically significant differences could be observed for Collembola abundance and diversity, multivariate analyses (FCA) differentiated the two coppices. Phenologies of some species showed specific responses to the microclimate induced by edaphic conditions. Even though the two coppices were sclerophyllous, the structure of each vegetation, the quantity and quality of litter, which were different, could influence environmental conditions and thus the dynamics of collembolan populations.

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Polysaccharides from Two Ecological Types of Leymus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-jing; BI Hong-tao; YAN Ji-hong; SUN Fang; FAN Sha-sha; CAO Gang; ZHOU Yi-fa; CHEN Xi-guang

    2012-01-01

    Leymus chinensis(Trin.) Tzvel.,widely distributed at eastern Eurasian steppe and divided into gray-green type and yellow-green type,has different stress resistance to environment.In the present study,the water-soluble polysaccharides from two ecotypes ofL.chinensis were analyzed in detail,and the differences between polysaccharides from the two ecotypes ofL.chinensis in the yield,monosaccharide composition,molecular weight and structure were clarified.The polysaccharides of L.chinensis were composed of both neutral and acidic polysaccharides.The neutral polysaccharides contained mannose,glucose,galactose,xylose and arabinose,and mainly consisted of β-1,4-Glcp,α-1,3-Galp and α-1,2-Xylp residues.The acidic polysaccharides contained mannose,rhamnose,glucuronic acid,galacturonic acid,glucose,galactose,xylose and arabinose.However,the yields,monosaccharides contents and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides from the two ecotypes of L.chinensis were different.Moreover,the resistance type(gray-green type) of L.chinensis contained a number of α-1,3-Manp and reducing end of β-Glcp residues,and much more O-methyl groups than normal type(yellow-green type) of L.chinensis.The differences of the polysaccharides of the two ecotypes ofL.chinensis might be due to the long-term environmental adaptability of plant,and the differences of the polysaccharides might influence the stress resistance of L.chinensis.

  8. A Blueprint for the Problem Formulation Phase of EPA-Type Ecological Risk Assessments for 316(b Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Van Winkle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between management objectives focused on sustainability of fish populations and the indigenous aquatic community, and a management objective focused on minimizing entrainment and impingement losses accounts for much of the ongoing controversy surrounding §316(b. We describe the EPA’s ecological risk assessment framework and recommend that this framework be used to more effectively address differences in management objectives and structure §316(b determinations. We provide a blueprint for the problem formulation phase of EPA-type ecological risk assessments for cooling-water intake structures (CWIS at existing power plant facilities. Our management objectives, assessment endpoints, conceptual model, and generic analysis plan apply to all existing facilities. However, adapting the problem formulation process for a specific facility requires consideration of the permitting agency’s guidelines and level of regulatory concern, as well as site-specific ecological and technical differences. The facility-specific problem formulation phase is designed around the hierarchy of biolo gical levels of organization in the generic conceptual model and the sequence of cause-effect events and risk hypotheses represented by this model. Problem formulation is designed to be flexible in that it can be tailored for facilities where §316(b regulatory concern is low or high. For some facilities, we anticipate that the assessment can be completed based on consideration of susceptibility alone. At the other extreme, a high level of regulatory concern combined with the availability of extensive information and consideration of costly CWIS mitigation options may result in the ecological risk assessment relying on analyses at all levels. Decisions on whether to extend the ecological risk assessment to additional levels should be based on whether regulatory or generator concerns merit additional analyses and whether available information is adequate to

  9. 河岸带植被对河流生态功能影响研究进展%Progresses in Researches on the Influence of Riparian Vegetation on River Ecological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彬; 翟文静; 赵警卫

    2015-01-01

    综述了河岸带植被的遮荫作用,廊道效应,截污效应,及外来生物入侵等对河流生态功能影响的相关研究成果。结果表明,河岸带植被的遮荫可以影响河水的化学过程和生物过程;河岸带植被在地域景观中还起着重要的廊道功能,对生物多样性保护有重要意义;河岸带植被对于控制面源污染,过滤污染物,保护水质起着缓冲作用。外来生物入侵对河岸带植被生态功能造成了较大的负面影响,消除河岸带中入侵生物的不利影响,恢复河岸带植被是一项刻不容缓的任务。%This article summarizes the influences of shading,corridor effect and buffering pollution of riparian vegetation as well as alien plants′invasion on river′s ecological functions based on a review of related findings.The main results indicate that the shade of riparian vegetation influences chemical and biological processes of river;riparian vegetation in al landscape plays a role of corridor which promotes biodiversity conservation;at the same time riparian vegetation is a buffer belt in controlling non-point pollution,con-tributing to protect water quality;invasion of alien plants puts a huge negative impact on the ecological functions of riparian vegeta-tion,accordingly,it is an urgent task to eliminate the adverse effects of alien invasion,and continuously restore riparian vegetation.

  10. Uniform persistence of multispecies ecological competition predator-pray system with Holling Ⅲ type functional response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the persistence of the general multispecies competition predator-pray system with Holling Ⅲ type functional response.In this system,the competition among predator species and among prey species are simultaneously considered.By using the comparison theory and qualitative analysis,the sufficient conditions for uniform strong persistence are obtained.

  11. Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Kang, S. [University of Oklahoma; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reganold, John P. [Washington State University

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

  12. Diurnal variation of tension-type headache intensity and exacerbation: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Tension-type headache is a common psychosomatic disease. However, diurnal variation of headache is yet to be clarified, perhaps due to the lack of an appropriate method to investigate it. Like other painful diseases, it would be helpful to know if there is diurnal variation in tension-type headaches, both for managing headaches and understanding their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine if there is diurnal variation in the intensity and exacerbation of tension-type headache. Methods Patients (N = 31 with tension-type headache recorded for one week their momentary headache intensity several times a day and their acute headache exacerbations using a watch-type computer as an electronic diary (computerized ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effects of time of day on momentary headache intensity and on the occurrence of acute exacerbations. Results A significant diurnal variation in momentary headache intensity was shown (P = 0.0005, with the weakest headaches in the morning and a peak in the late afternoon. A between-individual difference in the diurnal pattern was suggested. On-demand medication use was associated with a different diurnal pattern (P = 0.025, suggesting that headache intensity decreases earlier in the evening in subjects who used on-demand medication, while headache subtype, prophylactic medication use, and sex were not associated with the difference. The occurrence of acute headache exacerbation also showed a significant diurnal variation, with a peak after noon (P = 0.0015. Conclusions Tension-type headache was shown to have a significant diurnal variation. The relation to pathophysiology and psychosocial aspects needs to be further explored.

  13. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  14. Understanding the Spatial Temporal Vegetation Dynamics in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ndayisaba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of current vegetation dynamics and an ability to make accurate predictions of ecological changes are essential for minimizing food scarcity in developing countries. Vegetation trends are also closely related to sustainability issues, such as management of conservation areas and wildlife habitats. In this study, AVHRR and MODIS NDVI datasets have been used to assess the spatial temporal dynamics of vegetation greenness in Rwanda under the contrasting trends of precipitation, for the period starting from 1990 to 2014, and for the first growing season (season A. Based on regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index methods, we have investigated the spatial temporal characteristics and the interrelationships between vegetation greenness and precipitation in light of NDVI and gridded meteorological datasets. The findings revealed that the vegetation cover was characterized by an increasing trend of a maximum annual change rate of 0.043. The results also suggest that 81.3% of the country’s vegetation has improved throughout the study period, while 14.1% of the country’s vegetation degraded, from slight (7.5% to substantial (6.6% deterioration. Most pixels with severe degradation were found in Kigali city and the Eastern Province. The analysis of changes per vegetation type highlighted that five types of vegetation are seriously endangered: The “mosaic grassland/forest or shrubland” was severely degraded, followed by “sparse vegetation,” “grassland or woody vegetation regularly flooded on water logged soil,” “artificial surfaces” and “broadleaved forest regularly flooded.” The Hurst exponent results indicated that the vegetation trend was consistent, with a sustainable area percentage of 40.16%, unsustainable area of 1.67% and an unpredictable area of 58.17%. This study will provide government and local authorities with valuable information for improving efficiency in the recently targeted countrywide efforts of

  15. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12) ≥ endosulfan sulfate (10-11) > ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7) ≥ pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6) > α-endosulfan (8.3-9.3) > chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2)  = 0.90, p = 0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation.

  16. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  17. Analysis of heavy metals in different soil types and the vegetables%不同类型土壤及蔬菜中的重金属分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娟; 田恬; 王莉平; 韩融; 陈爱侠; 何克; 王柱命; 张江华

    2015-01-01

    为了研究不同类型土壤及种植蔬菜中重金属含量,选择两块试验田,种植不同品种蔬菜,分析了土壤及蔬菜中的重金属含量. 试验结果表明:土壤深度为0~80 cm时,两种类型土壤中的重金属Pb、Cu、Zn、Cd、Cr含量随着土壤深度的增加而减小;A区土壤Pb、Cu、Zn含量比B区高;种植的小青菜、小白菜中Pb、Cd、Cr含量A区大于B区;果实类蔬菜对重金属的累积量小于叶菜类.本研究成果可为土壤污染治理提供参考,为人体健康提供依据.%In order to study the content of heavy metals in different soil types and the vegetables planted,this pa-per chooses two plots to plant different varieties of vegetables,and analyzes the heavy metals content in the soil and vegetables.The results show that within the scope of 0 cm to 80 cm,the concentration of heavy metals Pb,Cu,Zn,Cd, Cr in two types of soil decreases with the soil depth.The content of heavy metals Pb,Cu,Zn in A area is higher than B area.The content of heavy metals Pb,Cd,Cr in small brassinca chinensis and small cabbages planted in A area is more than that in B area.Heavy metals accumulation amount in fruit vegetables is less than leaf vegetables.This study pro-vides reference for the soil pollution control and the basis for human health management.

  18. EcologicOther_ELT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial photography. Using...

  19. Reconciling ecology and economy in modern commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Schrijver, R.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: heathland ecology, cultural history, vegetation ecology, heathland fauna, ecotourism, stake-holder analysis, cost-benefit analysis, food production, ecosystem services, heathland management, land use, agriculture, Europe, Natura 2000

  20. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  1. Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Ching-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter 10] and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specificity. Methods We conducted an ecological study and calculated annual average concentration of 6 air pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO, O3, and PM10 using data from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration air quality monitoring stations. The Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between SO2 and age-standardized incidence rate of female lung cancer by two major pathological types (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]. In order to understand whether there is a dose-response relationship between SO2 and two major pathological types, we analyzed 4 levels of exposure based on quartiles of concentration of SO2. Results The Poisson regression results showed that with the first quartile of SO2 concentration as the baseline, the relative risks for AC/SCC type cancer among females were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.37/1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.01 for the second, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43/1.58 (95% CI, 1.06-2.37 for the third, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.06-1.52/1.80 (95% CI, 1.15-2.84 for the fourth quartile of SO2 concentration. The tests for trend were statistically significant for both AC and SCC at P = 0.0272 and 0.0145, respectively. Conclusion The current study suggests that SO2 exposure as an air pollutant may increase female lung cancer incidence and the associations with female lung cancer is much stronger for SCC than for AC. The findings of this study warrant further investigation on the role of SO2 in the etiology of SCC.

  2. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Trondman; M.-J. Gaillard; F. Mazier; S. Sugita; R. Fyfe; A.B. Nielsen; C. Twiddle; P. Barratt; H.J.B. Birks; A.E. Bjune; L. Björkman; A. Broström; C. Caseldine; R. David; J. Dodson; W. Dörfler; E. Fischer; B. van Geel; T. Giesecke; T. Hultberg; L. Kalnina; M. Kangur; P. van der Knaap; T. Koff; P. Kuneš; P. Lagerås; M. Latałowa; J. Lechterbeck; C. Leroyer; M. Leydet; M. Lindbladh; L. Marquer; F.J.G. Mitchell; B.V. Odgaard; S.M. Peglar; T. Persson; A. Poska; M. Rösch; H. Seppä; S. Veski; L. Wick

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objec

  3. Comparative study of the net exchange of CO2 in 3 types of vegetation ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; LI Yingnian; ZHAO Xinquan; XU Shixiao; TANG Yanhong; YU Guirui; GU Song; DU Mingyuan; WANG Qinxue

    2005-01-01

    Using the eddy covariance method,from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2004, we conducted the observation and analysis of ecosystem CO2 flux in 3 types of alpine meadow vegetation (Kobresia humilis, Potentilla fruticosa shrub and Kobresia tibetica swamp meadows) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The results show that the Kobresia humilis meadow, the shrub meadow and the swamp meadow's highest CO2 uptake rates are 16.78, 10.42 and 16.57 μmol·m-2·s-1 respectively, while their highest CO2 release rates are 8.22, 7.73 and 18.67 μmol·m-2·s-1 respectively. The Kobresia humilis meadow and shrub meadow's annual atmospheric uptakes are 282 g CO2/m2 and 53 g CO2/m2, respectively, while swamp meadow's annual atmospheric release is 478 g CO2/m2. This proves that the Kobresia humilis meadow and the shrub meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau have relatively low potential for CO2 uptake and release compared to C4 grasslands, a number of lowland grasslands, and forests. Moreover, swamp meadow has relatively high release potential. This, in turn, reveals clear differences in carbon source/sink between different types of vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau alpine meadow ecosystem. These differences are mainly brought by differences in the vegetations' photosynthetic capacity and soil respiration.

  4. Variation in trait trade-offs allows differentiation among predefined plant functional types: implications for predictive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kattge, Jens; Van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) aggregate the variety of plant species into a small number of functionally different classes. We examined to what extent plant traits, which reflect species' functional adaptations, can capture functional differences between predefined PFTs and which traits optimally describe these differences. We applied Gaussian kernel density estimation to determine probability density functions for individual PFTs in an n-dimensional trait space and compared predicted PFTs with observed PFTs. All possible combinations of 1-6 traits from a database with 18 different traits (total of 18 287 species) were tested. A variety of trait sets had approximately similar performance, and 4-5 traits were sufficient to classify up to 85% of the species into PFTs correctly, whereas this was 80% for a bioclimatically defined tree PFT classification. Well-performing trait sets included combinations of correlated traits that are considered functionally redundant within a single plant strategy. This analysis quantitatively demonstrates how structural differences between PFTs are reflected in functional differences described by particular traits. Differentiation between PFTs is possible despite large overlap in plant strategies and traits, showing that PFTs are differently positioned in multidimensional trait space. This study therefore provides the foundation for important applications for predictive ecology. PMID:26352461

  5. Grain Quality and Genetic Analysis of Hybrids Derived from Different Ecological Types in Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Yan; HONG De-lin

    2004-01-01

    The performance and inheritance of 7 quality traits were studied using F2 rice grain derived from 8×8 diallel crossing made by employing 8 parents of different ecological japonica rice types. Differences in each trait among 8 parents were not obvious, but in F2 generation, transgressive phenomena were found in all the traits studied, indicating that the genes controlling these traits among parents were segregated. The inheritance of grain width, grain weight, chalkiness score (CS), gelatinization temperature (GT) and gel consistency (GC) were suitable to additive-dominant model, and dominant effect contributed mainly for the 5 traits. The inheritance of grain length (GL) and amylose content (AC) did not fit into additive-dominant model, existing epistatic interactions. Dominant genes for grain width and grain weight had the efficiency of decreasing effect, and dominant genes for CS, GT and GC had the efficiency of enhancing effect. Koshihikari contained more recessive genes for gelatinization temperature than other varieties. Zhendao 88 had more dominant genes in grain width and grain weight than other varieties.Xiushui 04 possessed more dominant genes for GL and GC, and more recessive genes for CS than other varieties.

  6. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products.

  7. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products. PMID:16842875

  8. Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jiménez-Pinilla; E. Lozano; Mataix-Solera, J.; V. Arcenegui; L.M. Zavala; Jordán, A.; A. Morugan-Coronado

    2013-01-01

    After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control) soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain) were establish...

  9. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Mvitu M; Longo-Mbenza B; Tulomba D; Nge A

    2012-01-01

    Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications....

  10. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Saldaña; Ana Lúcia da Silva Corrêa Lemos; Miriam Mabel Selani; Fernanda Papa Spada; Marcio Aurélio de Almeida; Carmen Josefina Contreras-Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, su...

  11. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  12. The dynamics of cork oak systems in Portugal: the role of ecological and land use factors

    OpenAIRE

    Acácio, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation degradation and desertification occur in many semiarid ecosystems worldwide, particularly in the Western Mediterranean Basin. A peculiar semiarid Mediterranean land use system dominates the landscape of southern Portugal where cork oak (Quercus suber) is the main tree species. This system is the result of both ecological and land use dynamics that shaped the landscape for centuries and created a fine-grained mosaic landscape, which includes four main types of vegetation patches: co...

  13. Measurement of ecological capital of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem based on remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Yaozhong; SHI; Peijun; ZHU; Wenquan; GU; Xiaohe; FAN

    2005-01-01

    The biosphere of the Earth is essential to human survival and development. The services of ecosystems are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare both directly and indirectly. Ecological capital refers to the sum of the direct biological resources value and the indirect ecosystem services value. It is necessary to estimate the ecological capital in order to bring it to the society and market economic system, and draw the social attention to ecological environment constructions. An estimation model for ecological capital based on remote sensing is presented in this paper. The parameters in the model are quantitatively measured using NOAA/AVHRR and other ancillary data, including the land cover types, the vegetation coverage, and the vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem. Based on the economic parameters in previously published studies and a few original calculations, the annual ecological capital of the entire terrestrial ecosystem of China is quantitatively estimated at 6.44 trillion (1012) yuan (RMB), and the spatial distribution of the ecological capital is also analyzed. Traditional ecological methods to ecological capital measurement are based on homogeneous plot scales, and the regional scaling is a key problem in their applications. As the proposed remote sensing approach, it provides a new method to ecological capital measurement completely based on observation data. It can not only overcome the regional scaling problem easily, but also allows the ecological capital to be estimated objectively and spatial-explicitly.

  14. Physiological and ecological studies of the vegetation on ore deposits. I. Zinc flora and indicator plants on the 2nd Yunwha mine. [Sedum sp. ; Dianthus sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.K.; Chang, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    During the period of 1975-76, a survey was carried out to find out zinc indicators in the natural vegetation in Korea. The symptoms of chlorosis were observed in flowering plants in the areas of zinc outcrop of Wolgok-A, Seokgok-9, and Sowolgok. Although 28 species were found to be chlorotic, the total quantity of chlorotic foliage observed was small. Reasons for chlorosis in the areas of zinc ore deposits is considered as effects of zinc, lead, copper and calcium ions. Sedum sp. and Dianthus sinensis were confined to soil containing more than exchangeable zinc of 30 ppm and to accumulation in the plants contained at least 1,300-14,000 ppm of zinc. Therefore, Sedum sp. and Dianthus sinensis might be used as zinc indicators in Korea. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  16. The sensitivity of simulated competition between different plant functional types to subgrid-scale representation of vegetation in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V. K.; Melton, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme coupled to the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model is used to simulate competition between the model's seven non-crop plant functional types (PFTs) for available space. Our objective is to assess if the model is successfully able to reproduce the observed mix of PFTs and their fractional coverages and to what extent the simulated competition is affected by the manner in which the subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. The model can be run either in a composite (single tile) configuration, where structural vegetation attributes of PFTs are aggregated for use in grid-averaged energy and water balance calculations, or a mosaic (multiple tiles) configuration, where separate energy and water balance calculations are performed for each PFT. The model realistically simulates the fractional coverages of trees, grasses, and bare ground, as well as that of individual tree and grass PFTs and their succession patterns. Our results show that the model is not overly sensitive to the manner in which subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. Of the seven sites chosen across the globe to illustrate the difference between the two configurations, the simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are generally very similar (root-mean-square difference, RMSD, 5%).

  17. Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Pinilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain were established. Three treatments were applied: in some of the plots, the original ash layer was kept on the ground; in a second group, the ash layer was removed for simulating the effects of erosion; finally, in a third group, percolating irrigation was conducted to simulate a possible good input of water into the soil profile after burning, that could occur if the first rains were with high quantity but low intensity. During the dry season, soil moisture content was significantly lower in burned plots due to fire-induced water repellency and reduced vegetation cover. During the wet season, soil moisture decreased in the control unburnt plots due to direct evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation and consumption by roots. Fire increased soil water repellency only in plots under pine. Water repellency decreased during the wet season, disappearing in January and reappearing after declining rainfalls. This baseline recovery of soil water repellency was lower where ash removal was simulated. In unburned plots, seasonal fluctuations were less important. In general, ash removal promotes a rapid reduction of water repellency, since it can induce washing of hydrophobic compounds. Irrigation performed immediately after the fire also contributed to decreased water repellency.

  18. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  19. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  20. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raj Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase germination and found higher early stand. Days from sowing to 50% flowering and 90% maturity were short in the case of higher minimum temperature and low rainfall. Among the genotypes, AGS-377, AGS-378, AGS-379 and Tarkari Bhattmas-1 were more sensitive. However, seed yield decreased in the case of higher temperatures and low rainfall. Cool night temperatures and high moisture increased disease incidence in soybean which, eventually reduced yield. In last three years, plant suffered from moisture stress during early vegetative stage and high moisture during late vegetative stage which reduced seed yield and seed weight. In conclusion, we found that genotypes like AGS- 360, Sathiya and Tarkari Bhatmas-1 are very sensitive to climatic variation.

  1. La ecología espacial como punto de encuentro entre la ecología animal y vegetal. Modelos espacialmente explícitos de dispersión endozoócora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santamaría

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos espacialmente explícitos de dispersión endozoócora. En este artículo, utilizamos los sistemas de dispersión de semillas como ejemplo para exponer la importancia de la ecología espacial en las interacciones planta-animal. Estos sistemas han recibido la atención prioritaria de los ecólogos vegetales, lo que ha conllevado tanto una simplificación excesiva del papel que juegan el comportamiento y fisiología de los animales dispersantes. Además, el enfoque casi exclusivo en los "kernel de dispersión" unidimensionales involucra asunciones que son generalmente violadas en los sistemas de estudio, como la isometría del kernel dispersivo o la ausencia de heterogeneidad espacial en dicho kernel. La mayoría de estas limitaciones pueden corregirse mediante la inclusión explícita del componente espacial, pasando de modelos de dispersión unidimensionales a modelos bi- o tri-dimensionales. Este enfoque se ilustra con dos ejemplos: la dispersión de semillas de Ephedra fragilis por la lagartija balear, Podarcis lilfordii, y el papel del elefante asiático, Oliphas maximus, en la dispersión de especies nativas e invasoras del bosque tropical seco de Sri Lanka.

  2. Vegetation Growth Monitoring Under Coal Exploitation Stress by Remote Sensing in the Bulianta Coal Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coal exploitation inevitably damages the natural ecological environment through large scale underground exploitation which exhausts the surrounding areas and is the cause of surface subsidence and cracks.These types of damage seriously lower the underground water table.Deterioration of the environment has certainly an impact on and limits growth of vegetation, which is a very important indicator of a healthy ecological system.Dynamically monitoring vegetation growth under coal exploitation stress by remote sensing technology provides advantages such as large scale coverage, high accuracy and abundant information.A scatter plot was built by a TM (Thematic Mapper) infrared and red bands.A detailed analysis of the distributional characteristics of vegetation pixels has been carried out.Results show that vegetation pixels are affected by soil background pixels, while the distribution of soil pixels presents a linear pattern.Soil line equations were obtained mainly by linear regression.A new band, reflecting vegetation growth, has been obtained based on the elimination of the soil background.A grading of vegetation images was extracted by means of a density slice method.Our analysis indicates that before the exploitation of the Bulianta coal mining area, vegetation growth had gradually reduced; especially intermediate growth vegetation had been transformed into low vegetation.It may have been caused by the deterioration of the brittle environment in the western part of the mining area.All the same, after the start of coal production, vegetation growth has gradually improved, probably due to large scale aerial seeding.Remote sensing interpretation results proved to be consistent with the actual situation on the ground.From our research results we can not conclude that coal exploitation stress has no impact on the growth of vegetation.More detailed research on vegetation growth needs to be analyzed.

  3. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexin Shao

    Full Text Available Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC. The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1 and DOC (306 mg kg-1, while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1, and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1. Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1, and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1 and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1; however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1, β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1, and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1. Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  4. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands. PMID:26560310

  5. Improvement of boreal vegetation modelling and climate interactions through the introduction of new bryophyte and artic-shrub plant functional types in a land surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Krinner, Gerhard; Peylin, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and tundra vegetation, which represents 22% of the global land area, has had a significant impact on climate through changes of albedo, snow cover, soil thermal dynamics, etc. However, it is frequently poorly represented in earth system models used for climate predictions. We improved the description of high-latitude vegetation and its interactions with the environment in the ORCHIDEE land surface model by creating new plant functional types with specific biogeochemical and biophysical properties: boreal shrubs, bryophytes (mosses and lichens) and boreal C3 grasses. The introduction of shrub specificities allows for an intermediate stratum between trees and grasses, with a new carbon allometry within the plant, inducing new interactions between wooden species and their environment, especially the complex snow-shrubs interaction. Similarly, the introduction of non-vascular plants (i.e. bryophytes) involves numerous changes both in physical and biological processes, such as the response of photosynthesis to surface humidity, the decomposition of carbon and the soil thermal conductivity. These changes in turn lead to new processes and interactions between vegetation and moisture (soil and air), carbon cycle, energy balance, etc. For the boreal C3 grasses we did not include new processes compared to the generic C3 grass PFT, but improved the realism of the carbon and water budgets with new boreal adjusted parameters. We assess the performance of the modified ORCHIDEE land surface model and in particular its ability to represent the new plant types (their phenology etc.), and evaluate the effects of these new PFTs on the simulated energy, water and carbon balances of boreal ecosystems. The potential impact of these refinements on future climate simulations will be discussed.

  6. 不同植被恢复模式下煤矸石山复垦土壤性质及煤矸石风化物的变化特征%Reclaimed soil properties and weathered gangue change characteristics under various vegetation types on gangue pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽艳; 韩有志; 张成梁; 裴宗阳

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨植被恢复模式对煤矸石山复垦土壤和矸石风化物的影响,对煤矸石山6种主要植被类型(刺槐林、刺槐-柠条混交林、榆树-紫穗槐混交林、侧柏-刺槐混交林、荆条林、紫花苜蓿草丛)下土壤和煤矸石风化物的理化性状及重金属进行了比较研究.结果表明:(1)煤矸石山上种植植被可使土壤容重、土壤持水量和孔隙度明显改善.乔木模式更明显.矸石山植被恢复后,可明显增加土壤养分含量.不同植被模式下,土壤养分增加存在显著差异.侧柏-刺槐和榆树-紫穗槐混交模式效果较好.(2)植被对煤矸石风化物容重和机械组成改善作用依次为针阔混交林>乔灌林>乔木纯林>灌木林>草本.植被促进有机质与全氮积累依次为:侧柏-刺槐>刺槐>刺槐-柠条>榆树-紫穗槐>荆条>紫花苜蓿.荆条林下煤矸石风化物全P含量最大.荆条林与侧柏-刺槐混交林利于速效P积累.对速效K积累有利的是荆条林与榆树-紫穗槐混交林.(3)植被种植可以减少煤矸石风化物中重金属含量.榆树-紫穗槐混交模式对减低超标重金属Cd的效果好,其次是针阔混交林(侧柏-刺槐).对于超标重金属As而言,侧柏-刺槐模式优于其它植被模式,基本达到重金属As不超标.%The main obstacles to restoration of the vegetation and ecological reconstruction of abandoned mines are from the special and poor physical and chemical properties of the land, particularly to gangue piles. Vegetation is based on soil and also affects soil formation, nutrient cycling and development. Study of nutrient change in soil is important to understand soil fertility and mechanism of nutrient cycling. The study of re-vegetation for coal gangue piles has mainly focused on growth of young forest, soil matrix improvement, vegetation restoration patterns, vegetation dynamics and vegetation restoration techniques and mechanisms, etc. However, there are no

  7. Rational groundwater table indicated by the eco-physiological parameters of the vegetation: A case study of ecological restoration in the lower reaches of the Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yaning; WANG Qiang; LI Weihong; RUAN Xiao; CHEN Yapeng; ZHANG Lihua

    2006-01-01

    The eco-physiological response and adaptation of Populus euphratica Oliv and Tamarix ramosissima Ldb during water release period were investigated. Nine typical areas and forty-five transects were selected along the lower reaches of Tarim River. The groundwater table as well as plant performance and the contents of proline, soluble sugars,and plant endogenous hormone (ABA, CTK) in leaves were monitored and analyzed. The groundwater table was raised in different areas and transects by water release program. The physiological stress to P. euphratica and T. ramosissima had been reduced after water release. Our results suggested that the groundwater table in the studied region remained at-3.15 to -4.12 m, the proline content from 9.28 to 11.06 (mmol/L), the soluble sugar content from 224.71 to 252.16 (mmol/L), the ABA content from 3.59 to 5.01 (ng/g FW), and the CK content from 4.01 to 4.56 (ng/g FW), for the optimum growth and restoration of P. euphratica indicated by the plant performance parameters and the efficiency of water application was the highest. The groundwater table in the studied region remained at -2.16 to -3.38 m, the proline content from 12.15 to 14.17 (mmol/L), the soluble sugar content from 154.71 to 183.16 (mmol/L), the ABA content from 2.78 to 4.86 (ng/g FW), and the CK content from 3.78 to 4.22 (ng/g FW), for the optimum growth and restoration of T. ramosissima indicated by the plant performance parameters and the efficiency of water application was the highest. The rational groundwater table for the restoration of vegetation in the studied region was at -3.15 to -3.38 m.

  8. Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology in fire degraded tropical peat swamp forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Berg, van den J.; Eijk, van P.; Gevers, G.J.M.; Giesen, W.B.J.T.; Hooijer, A.; Aswandi Idris,; Leenman, P.H.; Dipa Satriadi Rais,; Siderius, C.; Silvius, M.J.; Suryadiputra, N.; Iwan Tricahyo Wibisono,

    2006-01-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology are established for the Air Hitam Laut watershed in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The developed relational diagram shows how modelled regional groundwater levels and flooding patterns are related to the occurrence of different vegetation types i

  9. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  10. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  11. Changes in Growing Season Vegetation and Their Associated Driving Forces in China during 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the monitoring of vegetation dynamics has become crucial because of its important role in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was combined with climate factors to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation change during the growing season, as well as their driving forces in China from 2001 to 2012. Our results showed that the growing season NDVI increased continuously during 2001–2012, with a linear trend of 1.4%/10 years (p < 0.01. The NDVI in north China mainly exhibited an increasing spatial trend, but this trend was generally decreasing in south China. The vegetation dynamics were mainly at a moderate intensity level in both the increasing and decreasing areas. The significantly increasing trend in the NDVI for arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China was attributed mainly to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the spring, whereas that for the north and northeast of China was due to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the summer and autumn. Different vegetation types exhibited great variation in their trends, where the grass-forb community had the highest linear trend of 2%/10 years (p < 0.05, followed by meadow, and needle-leaf forest with the lowest increasing trend, i.e., a linear trend of 0.3%/10 years. Our results also suggested that the cumulative precipitation during the growing season had a dominant effect on the vegetation dynamics compared with temperature for all six vegetation types. In addition, the response of different vegetation types to climate variability exhibited considerable differences. In terms of anthropological activity, our statistical analyses showed that there was a strong correlation between the cumulative afforestation area and NDVI during the study period, especially in a pilot region for ecological restoration, thereby suggesting the important role of ecological restoration programs in ecological recovery

  12. Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; Frescura, Viviane; Fiel, Luana; Coradini, Karine; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Quatrin, Andréia; Tedesco, Solange; Silva, Cristiane B da; Guterres, Silvia Staniçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-11-01

    The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230  nm, polydispersity index oils did not present genotoxic potential. Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168  h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36  mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40  mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45  mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs.

  13. The distribution, dominance patterns and ecological niches of plankton functional types in Dynamic Green Ocean Models and satellite estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Hashioka, T.; Payne, M. R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Alvain, S.; Aita, M. N.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Hirata, T.; Lima, I.; Sailley, S.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We compare the spatial and temporal representation of phytoplankton functional types (pPFTs) in four different Dynamic Green Ocean Models (DGOMs; CCSM-BEC, NEMURO, PISCES and PlankTOM5) to derived phytoplankton distributions from two independent satellite estimates, with a particular focus on diatom distributions. Global annual mean surface biomass estimates for diatoms vary between 0.23 mmol C m-3 and 0.77 mmol C m-3 in the models, and are comparable to a satellite-derived estimate (0.41 mmol C m-3). All models consistently simulate a higher zonal mean diatom biomass contribution in the high latitudes than in the low latitudes, but the relative diatom contribution varies substantially between models with largest differences in the high latitudes (20% to 100% of total biomass). We investigate phytoplankton distribution in terms of annual and monthly mean dominance patterns, i.e. the distribution of locations where a given PFT contributes more than 50% to total biomass. In all models, diatoms tend to dominate large areas of the high latitudes of both hemispheres, and the area of the surface ocean dominated by diatoms is significantly higher in the models than in the satellite estimates. We estimate the realized ecological niches filled by the dominant pPFT at each location as a function of annual mean surface nitrate concentration (NO3), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed layer depth. A general additive model (GAM) is used to map the probability of dominance of all pPFTs in niche and geographic space. Models tend to simulate diatom dominance over a wider temperature and nutrient range, whereas satellites confine diatom dominance to a narrower niche of low-intermediate annual mean temperatures (annual mean SST niches in different ranges of surface NO3 concentrations. For annual mean diatom dominance, the statistically modelled probability of dominance explains the majority of the variance in the data (65.2-66.6%). For the satellite estimates, the explained

  14. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  15. Analyzing nonlinear variations in terrestrial vegetation in China during 1982-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxu; Liu, Xianfeng; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the long-term trends of changes in terrestrial vegetation on a large scale is an effective method for detecting the effects of global environmental change. In view of the trend towards overall restoration and local degradation of terrestrial vegetation in China, it is necessary to pay attention to the spatial processes of vegetative restoration or degradation, as well as to clarify the temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetative growth in greater geographical detail. However, traditional linear regression analysis has some drawbacks when describing ecological processes. Combining nonparametric linear regression analysis with high-order nonlinear fitting, the temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial vegetative growth in China during 1982-2012 were detected using the third generation of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset. The results showed that high-order curves could be effective. The region joining Ordos City and Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia on the Loess Plateau may have experienced restoration-degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth. In the Daloushan Mountains, degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth may have occurred, and the occurrence of several hidden vegetative growth processes was located in different regions of eastern China. Changes in cultivated vegetation were inconsistent with changes in other vegetation types. In southern China and some high-altitude areas, temperature was the primary driver of vegetative growth on an interannual scale, while in the north, the effect of rainfall was more significant. Nevertheless, the influence of climate on vegetation activity in large urban areas was weak. The trend types of degradation-restoration processes in several regions were inconsistent with the implements of regional land development and protection strategy. Thus, the role of human activity cannot be ignored. In future studies, it will be still necessary to quantify the

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gateway National Recreation Area provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation Classification System...

  17. Remote sensing analysis of desert vegetation and its landscape changes: The case in middle reaches of Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王让会; 樊自立; 张慧芝; 陈亚萍; 马映军

    2002-01-01

    Based on remote sensing information sources including B/W aerial photos of 1983,pseudo-color aerial photos of 1992 and JERS-1/OPS VNIR image of 1996, vegetation types ofYingbazha, in the middle reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China are mapped usingARC/INFO and related software. The changes in vegetation areas and distribution conditions areanalyzed. As a result of natural and human influences, vegetation changes have temporal andspatial characteristics. According to the principles of landscape ecology and geographical informa-tion science, the landscape changes are indicated. Moreover, the remote sensing and GIS tech-niques are integrated to study vegetation and its landscape.

  18. Geophysical Applications of Vegetation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    J. O. Kaplan

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and selected applications of a global vegetation model, BIOME4. The model is applied to problems in high-latitude vegetation distribution and climate, trace gas production, and isotope biogeochemistry. It demonstrates how a modeling approach, based on principles of plant physiology and ecology, can be applied to interdisciplinary problems that cannot be adequately addressed by direct observations or experiments. The work is relevant to understanding the p...

  19. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; YANG XiaoLan; ZHENG ZhenHua

    2007-01-01

    and Nitraria, and their pollen percentages are less than 1% where original plant are absent. Caragana and Spiraea pollen percentages have some relations with vegetation cover. The relations between pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not clear for Rosaceae and Saxifragaceae. For herb pollen types, Cyperaceae pollen has the closest correlation with vegetation cover, where pollen percentages are more than 20% when Cyperaceae are constructive or dominant species in vegetation, and pollen percentages are less than 5% where Cyperaceae are not constructive or dominant species(cover less than 30%).Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages mainly have close relations with ecological regions. The relations between pollen percentages and cover are not clear for Gramineae, Leguminosae nosae and Compositae.

  20. Vegetation type and age drive changes in soil properties, nitrogen and carbon sequestration in urban parks under cold climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martti Setälä

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide ecosystem properties fundamental to the provision of ecosystem services, such as the sequestration of carbon and nutrients and serving as a reservoir for organic matter. Although urban vegetation influences soil physico-chemical properties, it remains unknown whether ecosystem properties depend on plant species portfolios. We tested the influence of three common functional plant groups (evergreen trees, deciduous trees, grass/lawn for their ability to modify soils in parks of various ages under cold climatic conditions in Finland. We hypothesized that (i plant functional groups affect soils differently resulting in divergent ecosystem properties, and (ii that these ecosystem properties also depend on park age. We included 41 urban parks of varying ages (10, 50 and > 100 years and additional control forests. Park soils were sampled for physico-chemical parameters up to 50 cm depth. Our data indicate that plant functional groups modify soils differently, especially between the evergreen and lawn treatments at 50 and > 100 year old parks. Soils under evergreen trees had the lowest pH and generally the highest percentage organic matter, percentage total carbon and percentage total nitrogen. Soil pH remained the same, whereas concentrations of organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen declined by depth. Soils in the reference forests had lower pH but higher percentages organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen than those in parks. We estimate that old parks with evergreen trees can store 35.5 kg C m-2 and 2.3 kg N m-2 – considerably more than in urban soils in warmer climates. Our data suggest that plant-soil interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar to those in natural forests.

  1. Applicability of a carbamate insecticide multiresidue method for determining additional types of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, R T; August, E M

    1983-03-01

    Several fruits and vegetables were fortified at a low (0.02-0.5 ppm) and at a high (0.1-5 ppm) level with pesticides and with a synergist, and recoveries were determined. Analyses were performed by using 3 steps of a multiresidue method for determining N-methylcarbamates in crops: methanol extraction followed by removal of plant co-extractives by solvent partitioning and chromatography with a charcoal-silanized Celite column. Eleven compounds were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a reverse phase column and a fluorescence detector. Twelve additional compounds were determined by using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a nonpolar packed column and an electron capture or flame photometric detector. Recoveries of 10 pesticides (azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azinphos methyl oxygen analog, carbaryl, carbofuran, naphthalene acetamide, naphthalene acetic acid methyl ester, napropamide, phosalone, and phosalone oxygen analog) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide, which were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, averaged 100% (range 86-117) at the low fortification level and 102% (range 93-115) at the high fortification level. Quantitative recovery of naphthalene acetamide through the method required that an additional portion of eluting solution be passed through the charcoal column. Recoveries of 7 additional pesticides (dimethoate, malathion, methyl parathion, mevinphos, parathion, phorate oxygen analog, and pronamide), which were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), averaged 108% (range 100-120) at the low fortification level and 107% (range 99-122) at the high fortification level. DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, phorate, and pirimiphos ethyl, which were determined by GLC, were not quantitatively recovered. PMID:6853408

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of incident of type 2 diabetes: results from the consortium on health and ageing network of cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamluk, L; O'Doherty, M G; Orfanos, P; Saitakis, G.; Woodside, J.V.; Liao, L. M.; Sinha, R.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kee, F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is limited information to support definitive recommendations concerning the role of diet in the development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results of the latest meta-analyses suggest that an increased consumption of green leafy vegetables may reduce the incidence of diabetes, with either no association or weak associations demonstrated for total fruit and vegetable intake. Few studies have, however, focused on older subjects.SUBJECTS/METHODS: The relation...

  3. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  4. Enrichment Difference of Different Types of Vegetables to Heavy Metals%不同种类蔬菜对土壤重金属的富集差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峰; 高雪; 陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of planting vegetaldes on the land with heavy metal content above the national standard,a field contrast experiment was conducted to analyze the contents of heavy metals (Cd,Hg,As,Pb)in 12 vegetable variety samples planted in soils with heavy metals exceed standard,and the pollution levels were evaluated in the paper.The results indicated that cucumber had the strongest enrichment capacity for Cd,celery had the strongest enrichment capacity for Hg,all vegetables had weak enrichment capability on As and Pb.Single factor pollution index Cd in cucumber,cabbage,lettuce, radish and kidney beans were 3.260,3.140,2.900,2.520,and 1.900,respectively,which were moderate and above pollution level.Hg reached severe and above polluted in celery,radish,carrot,eggplant, lettuce loofah,and cabbage.Whereas,both As and Pb had no significant effect on quality in different vegetable varieties,which reached clean level.Therefore,it was suggested that under the detection of heavy metal contents in the soil,and according to the differences of heavy metal absorption in different vegetables,selectively plant different vegetables types to avoid the exceed of heavy metal contents,and to expand the planting areas of vegetables in Guizhou.%为探索重金属含量超标的耕地种植蔬菜的可行性,通过田间种植对比试验,分析了 Cd、Hg、As、Pb 超标土壤上12个蔬菜品种中的重金属含量,并对污染程度进行了评价。结果表明:黄瓜、芹菜分别对 Hg、Cd 的富集能力最强,各类蔬菜均对 As 和 Pb 富集能力较弱。黄瓜、大白菜、生菜、萝卜和棒豆中 Cd的单因子污染指数分别为3.260、3.140、2.900、2.520和1.900,达中度及以上污染水平;Hg 达到重度污染水平以上的蔬菜品种有芹菜、萝卜、胡萝卜、茄子、生菜、丝瓜和大白菜;As 和 Pb 均达清洁水平,对不同蔬菜品种质量均无显著影响。在 As、Pb

  5. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes using HJ-1 and SPOT satellite data over Hulunbeier grassland, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Zhang; Ying Li; Sihan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Yanting Wu

    2014-03-01

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape patterns and ecological processes. With remote sensing technology, the relationships between landscape patterns and ecological processes were analyzed quantitatively from multi-scale, multitemporal and time series perspective. Firstly, the information about the current situation and change of landscape patterns and ecological processes are obtained from HJ-1 (Environmental and Disaster Small Satellite) and LANDSAT TM (Thermal Mapper) data. Secondly, SPOT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data during 2000–2008 are used to analyze the dynamic changes of ecological processes, and to simulate its inter-annual variety at pixel scale. Finally, the dynamic change trends of ecological processes of grassland vegetation are described. The results indicate that the unchanged ecosystem types account for most of the study area, unused land in the central part expands continuously which results in the increase of desertification, and most ecosystem types in the eastern part are changed to grassland and woodland. Furthermore, the vegetation vulnerability is the highest in the grassland-dominated region, the second in grassland–farmland–woodland transition, and the smallest in the woodland-dominated region, where the stability is enhanced in turn. Due to the dynamic change of vegetation, it can be concluded that the study area underwent ecological processes of vegetation cover with a negative trend and a changed phenology.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.

    2016-01-01

    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  8. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  9. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles − a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses − to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  10. Does stream flow structure woody riparian vegetation in subtropical catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Cassandra S; Mackay, Stephen J; Arthington, Angela H; Capon, Samantha J; Barnes, Anna; Pearson, Ben

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the relevance of hydrological classification and class differences to the characteristics of woody riparian vegetation in a subtropical landscape in Queensland, Australia. We followed classification procedures of the environmental flow framework ELOHA - Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration. Riparian surveys at 44 sites distributed across five flow classes recorded 191 woody riparian species and 15, 500 individuals. There were differences among flow classes for riparian species richness, total abundance, and abundance of regenerating native trees and shrubs. There were also significant class differences in the occurrence of three common tree species, and 21 indicator species (mostly native taxa) further distinguished the vegetation characteristics of each flow class. We investigated the influence of key drivers of riparian vegetation structure (climate, depth to water table, stream-specific power, substrate type, degree of hydrologic alteration, and land use) on riparian vegetation. Patterns were explained largely by climate, particularly annual rainfall and temperature. Strong covarying drivers (hydrology and climate) prevented us from isolating the independent influences of these drivers on riparian assemblage structure. The prevalence of species considered typically rheophytic in some flow classes implies a more substantial role for flow in these classes but needs further testing. No relationships were found between land use and riparian vegetation composition and structure. This study demonstrates the relevance of flow classification to the structure of riparian vegetation in a subtropical landscape, and the influence of covarying drivers on riparian patterns. Management of environmental flows to influence riparian vegetation assemblages would likely have most potential in sites dominated by rheophytic species where hydrological influences override other controls. In contrast, where vegetation assemblages are

  11. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

    2007-11-15

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1

  12. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1

  13. 石羊河流域海拔、植被覆盖与景观类型空间关系研究%Spatial relationship between elevation, vegetation cover and landscape types in Shiyang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 石培基; 赵军; 王旭峰

    2012-01-01

    complex,and the regression result about them were not very perfect. Seen from the whole study area, the landscape developed to the heterogeneous direction, this indi- cated that the proportional difference among various landscapes types was increasing, this kind of change has reflec- ted the human activity's influence to the whole landscape to a certain extent. However, the study provides a refer- ence to the landscape pattern and its optimization as well as ecological planning and management. The thoughtway and results were significant for vegetation and ecological environment changes in the arid inland revier basin. Using RS and GIS technology, we can understand the spatial relationship betwwen elevation, vegetation cover and land- scape Types through quantitative analysis in spatial patterns. This technology can explore idiographic landscape structures and related problems of the study area. However, the analysis data is not very ideal. For example, RS im- ages scan cycle is long and its spatial resolution is poor. So it is difficult to get better images of grassland in the growing season under the interferential condition. The data is too complex to analyze one by one. Some results have shortages in calculating and analyzing precision. It will be ameliorated in the future study.%以Landsat/TM为数据源,在桌面GIS支持下解译出研究区各景观类型,根据植被的生长周期,结合植被指数NDVI作为研究因子,采用目前较为流行的主成分变换法(PCA),结合景观类型图和数字高程模型(DEM),参考相关地理基础图件,对石羊河流域海拔和植被覆盖进行分级分类。运用叠置分析法研究了不同海拔高度和不同植被覆盖下NDVI变化情况;同时分析了各景观类型与海拔和植被覆盖三者之间的空间关系。结果表明:研究区各景观类型大体依海拔呈垂直性分布,各自然要素组成垂直分异性特征亦较为明显。植被覆盖、景观类

  14. Exposure of trees to drought-induced die-off is defined by a common climatic threshold across different vegetation types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Hayes, Keith R; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Increases in drought and temperature stress in forest and woodland ecosystems are thought to be responsible for the rise in episodic mortality events observed globally. However, key climatic drivers common to mortality events and the impacts of future extreme droughts on tree survival have not been evaluated. Here, we characterize climatic drivers associated with documented tree die-off events across Australia using standardized climatic indices to represent the key dimensions of drought stress for a range of vegetation types. We identify a common probabilistic threshold associated with an increased risk of die-off across all the sites that we examined. We show that observed die-off events occur when water deficits and maximum temperatures are high and exist outside 98% of the observed range in drought intensity; this threshold was evident at all sites regardless of vegetation type and climate. The observed die-off events also coincided with at least one heat wave (three consecutive days above the 90th percentile for maximum temperature), emphasizing a pivotal role of heat stress in amplifying tree die-off and mortality processes. The joint drought intensity and maximum temperature distributions were modeled for each site to describe the co-occurrence of both hot and dry conditions and evaluate future shifts in climatic thresholds associated with the die-off events. Under a relatively dry and moderate warming scenario, the frequency of droughts capable of inducing significant tree die-off across Australia could increase from 1 in 24 years to 1 in 15 years by 2050, accompanied by a doubling in the occurrence of associated heat waves. By defining commonalities in drought conditions capable of inducing tree die-off, we show a strong interactive effect of water and high temperature stress and provide a consistent approach for assessing changes in the exposure of ecosystems to extreme drought events.

  15. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Analyses on types and characteristics of community of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐城市半自然植被群落类型及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南伟疆; 昝勤; 姜逢清; 王蕾; 严成; 尹林

    2011-01-01

    Based on previous study results and combined with investigation of typical sampling plots,community types of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi were classified, and characteristics of community structure, species composition and plant growth-form spectrum were analyzed. The results show that types of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi can be divided into four vegetation races,thirty-three vegetation types and thirty-eight association groups. In which, broadleaved forest vegetation race includes eight vegetation types and eleven association groups; shrub vegetation race does twelve vegetation types and twelve association groups; herb vegetation race does ten vegetation types and eleven association groups; vegetation race associated with human does three vegetation types and four association groups. The number of vegetation types and association groups in shrub vegetation race are the most,while those in vegetation race associated with human are the fewest. In the urban semi-natural vegetation community, the synusium of broadleaved forest vegetation race are two- and three- layers, that of shrub vegetation race mainly two-layer, those of herb vegetation race and vegetation race associated with human one-layer. The synusium types mainly are single herb type, arbor-shrub type and shrub-herb type. There are eighty-eight species of spermatophyte belonging to seventy-four genera of twenty-four families in the urban semi-natural vegetation community, the dominant families are Gramineae, Chenopodiaceae,Leguminosae, Compositae, Rosaceae and Cruciferae, containing forty-seven genera and fifty-seven species accounting for 63.51% and 64.77% of total number of genera and species of spermatophyte respectively in the community. In the community, annual and perennial herbs and perennial semishrub species are more with a percentage of 29.55%, 34.10% and 17.04% of total species, respectively.According to related results, the differences between the urban semi

  17. Main ecological service functions in riparian vegetation buffer zone:Research progress and prospects%河岸植被缓冲带主要生态服务功能研究的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭二辉; 孙然好; 陈利顶

    2011-01-01

    河岸植被缓冲带是河流生态系统和陆地生态系统之间的生态交错带,具有独特的生态系统结构和服务功能,也是近年来生态学和环境科学研究的热点之一.本文对河岸带的生态系统结构及其在生物多样性维持、非点源氮素污染防治等主要生态服务功能方面的研究进行了系统总结和分析.由于岸边缓冲带具有结构复杂、系统内外干扰因子多、时空异质性强等特征,要实现对河岸带生态系统的科学有效管理,还需要进行大量的理论和案例研究.从系统生态学和景观生态学的角度,展望了该领域的研究前景:(1)加强人类活动干扰如土地利用的时空变化对河岸区域生物多样性分布特征和生态环境效应的影响研究;(2)加强不同河岸植被缓冲带结构和区域环境特征对非点源氮素污染净化机理和控制过程的研究;(3)在小尺度长期定位观测和机理研究的基础上,综合运用数学方法、遥感(RS)和地理信息系统(GIS)等工具,开发适合我国地域特点和环境特征的生态系统管理模型,定量研究河岸带生态系统结构、过程与功能动态变化及其与人类活动干扰之间的相互关系和影响机制,为区域社会经济的可持续发展提供科学依据和管理对策.%Riparian vegetation buffer zone is the ecotone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, which has unique spatial structure and ecological service functions, being a research hotspot in ecological and environmental sciences. In this paper, the researches on the ecosystem structure of the riparian zone and its main ecological service functions in biodiversity conservation and non-point nitrogen pollution prevention were summarized and analyzed. Owing to the complicated structure, multiple interference factors, and high spatial-temporal heterogeneity of the riparian zone, more theoretical and case studies are needed to improve the scientific management of riparian

  18. Cobertura vegetal do estado de São Paulo: I - Levantamento por fotointerpretação das áreas cobertas com cerrado, cerradão e campo, em 1962 Vegetation covering the state of São Paulo: I - Survey in 1962 by means of photo-interpretation of the areas covered by various types of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Borgonovi

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, com base em fotografias aéreas, o levantamento da cobertura vegetal de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, em 1962. Separaram-se as áreas com o cerrado pròpriamente dito (tipo da savana brasileira, cerradão (tipo de cerrado mais alto e mais denso e de campo (tipo de vegetação herbácea. Na caracterização dessas coberturas, levaram-se em conta apenas as áreas ainda sem utilização agrícola e com a vegetação pouco alterada pelo homem. A fotointerpretação foi feita com base na caracterização das texturas por amostragem de campo. O trabalho mostrou a situação seguinte: cerradão. 724.900, cerrado 2.668.000, e campo, 458.600 ha, representando, respectivamente, 2,9, 10,8 e 1,7% da área do Estado.A survey was achieved in 1962 based on aerial photographs covering the whole area of the state of São Paulo and areas were separated, by photo-interpretation, according to the type of vegetation, as follows: the «cerrado» which is a type of Brazilian savanna, the «cerradão», a type of shrubbery, mostly tall and rather dense, and grasslands, a type of herbaceous vegetation. In the characterization of the latter were considered just those areas that had not been under cultivation as yet or with but a little interference by man, altering somewhat their texture. Photo-interpretation was performed on a basis of characterization of texture by field sampling. This paper shows the situation with regard to the various types of plants covering the areas: «cerrado» covered 724,900 ha, «cerradão» 2,668,000 and grasslands 458,600 ha, these figures representing 2.9, 10.8 and 1.8% of the total area of the state.

  19. Mercury mobilisation from soils and ashes after a wildfire and rainfall events: effects of vegetation type and fire severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel; Abrantes, Nelson; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Vale, Carlos; Serpa, Dalila; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance of forests worldwide, with huge environmental impacts. The number of catastrophic wildfires is increasing over the past few decades mainly due to a combined effect of climate change and poor land-use management. Interestingly, wildfires have an important role in contaminants production and mobilization and, thus, on their biogeochemical cycles. For instance, trace elements could be mobilized during a wildfire from burnt vegetation and ashes and may eventually achieve the aquatic systems upon a rainfall period. In this regard, wildfires represent a relevant diffuse source of trace elements to aquatic systems that has, so far, been poorly investigated. The current study aims to mitigate such lack of knowledge for mercury, a well-recognized persistent toxicant with potential harmful impacts on the environment and on human health. Thus, a field study was conducted in two Portuguese forests (Ermida and S. Pedro do Sul, North-centre of Portugal) with distinct fire severity. Fire was classified as moderate in Ermida and moderate to high severity in S. Pedro do Sul. In Ermida, soil samples and ashes were collected in the seven hillslopes (three burnt eucalypt, three burnt pine and one unburnt eucalypt) immediately and 4 months after the fire, the latter following an episode of intense rainfall. In S. Pedro do Sul, sampling took place immediately after the fire in four hillslopes (one burnt eucalypt and three burnt pine). Mercury analysis was performed in an Hg analyser in which samples were thermally decomposed by controlled heating. The final decomposition products were passed through an Hg amalgamator heated to 700 °C and Hg(0) was released and detected by absorption spectrometry at 254 nm. Burnt soil samples showed significantly lower levels of mercury than non-burnt soil, confirming the potential of a forest fire to release accumulated mercury in soil prior to the burning. Such process could be particularly relevant for this element due

  20. Germination ecology in orchids

    OpenAIRE

    TĚŠITELOVÁ, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Germination ecology of four Epipactis species (E. albensis, E. atrorubens, E. helleborine, E. purpurata) was studied. Habitat preferences of adult plants were analyzed using phytosociological relevés from the Czech Phytosociological Database. A field experiment was carried out to determine course of germination of Epipactis seeds sown in different habitat types. Relationship between ecological preferences and germination ecology, and spatial aspects of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment ...

  1. 湖南省铅锌尾矿污染区植被修复适生植物选择研究%Screening of Vegetation for Ecological Restoration around Lead-Zinc Tailings Site in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王琼; 张望; 吴亮亮; 周连碧

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a very effective way to remedy heavy metal polluted site. The investigations and tests on vegetation and plants of Qiaokou & Yongxing Peng lead-zinc tailings area in Zixing city, Hunan shows that: ①Herbs have perfect ability to adapt lead-zinc tailings contaminated land; ②Absorption capacity of heavy metals by plants are mutually influenced by genetic factor and environment domestication;③Caulis Fici Tikouae, Lespedeza bicolor Turc. and Lolium perenne L. have perfect ability of migrating and gathering Pb and zinc, and could be used for ecological restoration at Pb and zinc pollution site.%植物修复技术是重金属污染场地修复十分有效的方法。本研究通过调查、测试湖南资兴市东江湖桥口和永兴棚铅锌尾矿污染区的植物与土壤,分析得出:淤草本植物对铅锌尾矿污染土地有强适应能力;于植物对重金属吸收能力受遗传特性与环境的驯化共同影响;盂地枇杷、胡枝子和黑麦草分别对Pb和Zn有较强的迁移能力和富集能力,可用于Pb和Zn污染地区的生态修复。

  2. Airborne Spectral BRDF of Various Surface Types (Ocean, Vegetation, Snow, Desert, Wetlands, Cloud Decks, Smoke Layers) for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; King, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe measurements of the bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) acquired over a 30-year period (1984-2014) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). Our BRDF database encompasses various natural surfaces that are representative of many land cover or ecosystem types found throughout the world. CAR's unique measurement geometry allows a comparison of measurements acquired from different satellite instruments with various geometrical configurations, none of which are capable of obtaining such a complete and nearly instantaneous BRDF. This database is therefore of great value in validating many satellite sensors and assessing corrections of reflectances for angular effects. These data can also be used to evaluate the ability of analytical models to reproduce the observed directional signatures, to develop BRDF models that are suitable for sub-kilometer-scale satellite observations over both homogeneous and heterogeneous landscape types, and to test future spaceborne sensors. All of these BRDF data are publicly available and accessible in hierarchical data format (http:car.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

  3. Enhancing Nutraceutical Bioavailability from Raw and Cooked Vegetables Using Excipient Emulsions: Influence of Lipid Type on Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Guodong; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    The influence of the nature of the lipid phase in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility and transformation of carotenoid from carrots was investigated using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient emulsions were fabricated using whey protein as an emulsifier and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, or corn oil as the oil phase. Changes in particle size, charge, and microstructure were measured as the carrot-emulsion mixtures were passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine regions. Carotenoid bioaccessibility depended on the type of lipids used to form the excipient emulsions (corn oil > fish oil ≫ MCT), which was attributed to differences in the solubilization capacity of mixed micelles formed from different lipid digestion products. The transformation of carotenoids was greater for fish oil and corn oil than for MCT, which may have been due to greater oxidation or isomerization. The bioaccessibility of the carotenoids was higher from boiled than raw carrots, which was attributed to greater disruption of the plant tissue facilitating carotenoid release. In conclusion, excipient emulsions are highly effective at increasing carotenoid bioaccessibility from carrots, but lipid type must be optimized to ensure high efficacy. PMID:26585671

  4. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  5. Decreased surface albedo driven by denser vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has fundamental ecological and environmental significance to China and Asia through its influence on regional and continental climates. In recent years, climate warming has caused unprecedented changes to land surface processes on the TP, which would unavoidably undermine the ecological and environmental functions of the TP. Among the numerous land surface processes potentially impacted by climate warming, the effect of vegetation greenness on surface energy balance is one of the most critical, but has been long ignored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface albedo (LSA) on the TP and evaluated the vegetation greenness in relation to patterns of LSA. We found that LSA has been decreasing in most of the vegetated grasslands on the TP from 2000 to 2013, as compared to a flat trend for desert area. The regions where LSA has been decreasing were spatially correlated to areas of increased vegetation greenness. Along rising altitude, LSA decreasing rate exhibited an overall decreasing trend. Across the TP, elevated vegetation greenness in grasslands acted as a primary factor pulling down LSA. The driving effects of vegetation greenness on LSA vary with grassland types, as revealed by a more significant relationship between vegetation greenness and LSA for the sparsely vegetated zone (i.e. steppe) than the more densely vegetated zone (i.e. meadow). Furthermore, the driving effect of vegetation greenness on LSA exhibited an obvious dependence on altitude as effects with rising altitude were relatively strong up to 3000 m, then weakened from 3500 m to 5000 m, and then the effects again increased from 5000 to 6000 m. The growing season LSA trend revealed in this study emphasizes the need to give greater attention to the growing season LSA flux in future surface energy balance studies. (letter)

  6. Ecological bioavailability of permethrin and p,p'-DDT: toxicity depends on type of organic matter resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perre, Chloé; Trimble, Andrew J; Maul, Jonathan D; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants readily partition from aqueous to organic phases in aquatic systems with past research largely focusing on sediment. However, within many aquatic systems, matrices such as leaf material and detritus are abundant and ecologically important, as they may represent a primary exposure route for aquatic invertebrates. The objectives of the present study were to examine partitioning and toxicity to Hyalella azteca among permethrin and p,p'-DDT contaminated sediment, leaf, and a sediment-leaf mixture. Log organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients ranged from 4.21 to 5.82 for both insecticides, and were greatest within sediment and lowest in coarse leaf material. H. azteca lethal concentrations for 50% of the population (LC50s) ranged from 0.5 to 111μgg(-1) organic carbon, and were dependent on the matrix composition. The variation in sorption and toxicity among matrices common within stream ecosystems suggests that the ecological niche of aquatic organisms may be important for estimating risk of hydrophobic pesticides.

  7. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  8. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  9. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  10. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn,.

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from the...

  11. Plant Type and Its Effects on Canopy Structure at Heading Stage in Various Ecological Areas for a Two-line Hybrid Rice Combination, Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; XIA Shi-jian; QI Qing-ming

    2010-01-01

    A two-line hybrid rice combination, Liangyoupeijiu, was used to estimate several factors of plant type, and environmental models for these factors at the heading stage were established using the data of eight ecological experimental sites in 2006 and 2007. According to climatic data from 1951 to 2005, the differences in those factors and their effects on plant canopy were analyzed for four rice cropping areas in China, including South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Basin, and river valley in Yunnan, China. The thickness of leaf layer (the distance from pulvinus of the third leaf from the top to the tip of flag leaf) and distribution of leaf area could be used as candidate indices for the plant type of a rice canopy.

  12. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y P Tng

    Full Text Available Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  13. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  14. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  16. 庄河口湿地不同土地利用方式下土壤线虫群落特征%The Characteristic of Soil nematodes Communities under Different Vegetation Types in Zhuanghe Estuary Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪毅; 张伟东; 王雪峰; 王诚楠

    2014-01-01

    researched by applying diversity and ecological indices of nematodes. A total of 5895 nematodes from 44 genera were found in this study. Results showed correlation coefficients between community indices of nematodes and soil component were significant. The effect of soil pH and salinity affected most significantly, which showed a significant negative correlation. Soil nematodes Communities Structure in different vegetation types were different. The richest one wasSabina chinensis community, in which has minimum soil pH.Sabina chinensis community, coniferous pine community andSalix babylonica community had abundant nematodes communities, because they were cultivated community with a more stable pH and lower salinity compared to the other three communities. In four trophic groups, the proportion of predatory/omnivorous was the highest (50.6%) and bacterivores was the lowest (8.1%). Study showed that acid soil was Conducive to the growth of bacterivores rather than the pH of area between 6.08~7.11. The number of soil nematode changed along with seasons, summer (44.9%)>autumn (32.1%)>spring (23.0%). Results indicated that different seasons and different vegetation types have a significant impacted on soil nematode communities in Zhuanghe estuary wetland. Soil pH and salinity were the most important factors, which provided a scientific basis for the healthy development of the soil ecological system.

  17. 浅析发展高山反季节蔬菜在贵州生态环境建设中的作用%The Functional Analysis of Developing Off-season Vegetables in the Ecological Environment Construction in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明智; 陈明霞; 高建强; 方小宁

    2011-01-01

    贵州省地处云贵高原东侧,是我国石漠化较为严重且经济欠发达的农业地区,但这些地区具有适合高山反季节蔬菜种植所需的温度、光照、水分和土壤等自然条件.黔西北、黔西南等地区近些年来的高山反季节蔬菜生产实践表明,贵州海拔500 m以上山区适合种植蔬菜,特别是夏秋蔬菜.在贵州高山地区发展反季节蔬菜,能促进石漠化地区的农业发展和现代生态农业模式的建立,进而促进生态环境的良性发展.%Guizhou is located at the northern Yunnan plateau,it is the agricultural area that is stony desertification badly and economic underdevelopment, but the area has the natural conditions of temperature, highlight, moisture and soil that is suitable for the mountain anti -season vegetables cultivation. The producing practice of the mountain anti -season vegetables in Northwest and Southwest Guizhou indicated that, the mountain area with an elevation of 500 m in Guizhou is suitable for planting vegetables, especially the Xia Qiu vegetables. Developing anti -season vegetables cultivation in mountain area of Guizhou could promote the agricultural development of stony desertification area and the establishment of modern ecological agriculture model, thereby promote the healthy development of ecological environment.

  18. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  19. Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e 20cm e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg. Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados.The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax® were tested

  20. The relationship between vegetables and fruits intake and glycosylated hemoglobin values, lipids profiles and nitrogen status in type II inactive diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Tabesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the glycosylated hemoglobin, therefore choosing the appropriate diet with high fruits and vegetables may help to develop antioxidant defense and reduce the HbA1C in diabetic patients but it did not have any impact on lipids profiles, BUN/creatinine and urine protein 24 h.

  1. Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

    2014-05-01

    Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

  2. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated corn, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of [CO2] corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated corn and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for corn, from 2000 to 2050 (–18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (–30 mm y−1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  3. Status of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Dong-sheng; CHEN Yu-juan

    2003-01-01

    According to a survey for the urban vegetation of Guangzhou, urban vegetation has a significantly difference from natural vegetation because of intense human impacts. The research was conducted in a synthetic survey for soil, species diversity, roadside trees and ecological function of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City. The results showed that: (1) soil densities of urban roadside and park forests were higher than mean density of natural forest soil. The pH values of soil in urban roadside were higher too, and the content of organic matter and the concentration of nitrogen were lower. (2) Species diversity of urban vegetation was lower. The most number of species was only 16 species in tree layers of urban forest. (3) Tree growth was limited by narrow space in high-density urban area, where the trees with defects and disorders were common. (4) Comparing with mature natural forests, the productivity of urban vegetation was lower. The effect of urban vegetation on balance of carbon and oxygen were influenced by the low primary production of urban vegetation. Therefore, the growth condition for urban vegetation should be improved. Biodiversity, primary production and ecological function should be increased for urban vegetation in order to improve urban eco-environment.

  4. Diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to food environment sub-types: a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Census, and food establishment data

    OpenAIRE

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Leslie, Timothy F; Makara, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Background Social and spatial factors are an important part of individual and community health. The objectives were to identify food establishment sub-types and evaluate prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to these sub-types in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. A measure of retail food environment was calculated as the ratio of number of sources of unhealthier food options (fast food, ...

  5. 牵引式小型钵体蔬菜移栽机的设计%The Design of Traction Type Small Pot Body Vegetable Transplanting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范修文; 张云秀; 童飞特; 李传峰

    2014-01-01

    针对我国蔬菜移栽行业发展的现状和现有蔬菜移栽机存的投苗率低、伤苗率高及设备庞大等问题,设计开发了牵引式小型钵体蔬菜移栽机。该机型能满足农户的需求,提高作业效率,苗钵通用性强,并且移栽后行距、株距和直立度等性能良好。该小型蔬菜移栽机采用吊篮及鸭嘴装置移栽苗体,人工投苗,实现半自动移栽。该蔬菜移栽机在已经耕整过的土地上作业,无需开沟器,机型小巧灵活,设计结构合理,可实现多种蔬菜的移栽,为我国农作物移栽提供了技术支持。%Taking into account the present situations of the vegetable transplantation , the machine issues such as low see-ding rate , high seedling injury rate , large volume of the machine , this paper is aimed to design and develop small-type tractor bowl transplanter , which can meet the need of farmers , improve the operation efficiency , possess high versatility of seed bowl , and the seeds show acceptable line spacing , vertical spacing and so on .It will transplant seeds by suspen-ded basket and duckbill device , together with artificial seeding , which marks the semi-automatic transplantation .In terms of the components, it consists of assembly of traction frames , ground wheels, transplanters ,seed racks, gratifying-ly , it has been operated on the prepared soils without furrow opener , because of the compact and flexible design , reason-able structure , it can transplant a variety of vegetables , supporting crop transplantation at home technically .

  6. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P. subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity.

  7. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  8. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  9. Remote sensing of plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, Susan L; Gamon, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conceptually, plant functional types represent a classification scheme between species and broad vegetation types. Historically, these were based on physiological, structural and/or phenological properties, whereas recently, they have reflected plant responses to resources or environmental conditions. Often, an underlying assumption, based on an economic analogy, is that the functional role of vegetation can be identified by linked sets of morphological and physiological traits constrained by resources, based on the hypothesis of functional convergence. Using these concepts, ecologists have defined a variety of functional traits that are often context dependent, and the diversity of proposed traits demonstrates the lack of agreement on universal categories. Historically, remotely sensed data have been interpreted in ways that parallel these observations, often focused on the categorization of vegetation into discrete types, often dependent on the sampling scale. At the same time, current thinking in both ecology and remote sensing has moved towards viewing vegetation as a continuum rather than as discrete classes. The capabilities of new remote sensing instruments have led us to propose a new concept of optically distinguishable functional types ('optical types') as a unique way to address the scale dependence of this problem. This would ensure more direct relationships between ecological information and remote sensing observations. PMID:20569415

  10. The soil microbial community composition and soil microbial carbon uptake are more affected by soil type than by different vegetation types (C3 and C4 plants) and seasonal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griselle Mellado Vazquez, Perla; Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of different vegetation types (C3 and C4 plants), soil type and seasonal changes on the soil microbial biomass, soil microbial community composition and soil microbial carbon (C) uptake. We collected soil samples in winter (non-growing season) and summer (growing season) in 2012 from an experimental site cropping C3 and C4 plants for 6 years on two different soil types (sandy and clayey). The amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their compound-specific δ13C values were used to determined microbial biomass and the flow of C from plants to soil microorganisms, respectively. Higher microbial biomass was found in the growing season. The microbial community composition was mainly explained by soil type. Higher amounts of SOC were driving the predominance of G+ bacteria, actinobacteria and cyclic G- bacteria in sandy soils, whereas root biomass was significantly related to the increased proportions of G- bacteria in clayey soils. Plant-derived C in G- bacteria increased significantly in clayey soils in the growing season. This increase was positively and significantly driven by root biomass. Moreover, changes in plant-derived C among microbial groups pointed to specific capabilities of different microbial groups to decompose distinct sources of C. We concluded that soil texture and favorable growth conditions driven by rhizosphere interactions are the most important factors controlling the soil microbial community. Our results demonstrate that a change of C3 plants vs. C4 plants has only a minor effect on the soil microbial community. Thus, such experiments are well suited to investigate soil organic matter dynamics as they allow to trace the C flow from plants into the soil microbial community without changing the community abundance and composition.

  11. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-08

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  12. Generic index of aquatic vegetation (IVAM) for a rapid assessment of ecological quality of Spanish rivers: taxonomic resolution and application to Castilla-La Mancha region; Indice Generico de Vegetacion Acuatica (IVAM): Propuesta de evaluacion rapida del estado ecologico de los rios ibericos en aplicacion de la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J. L.; Navarro, C.; Hera, J. de las

    2005-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive proposes the use of aquatic flora as a valid bio indicator for assessing the ecological status of European rivers. Due to the lack of an aquatic vegetation index for Spanish rivers, we present an index to assess trophic status or eutrophication in rivers and streams. Thus, we calculated tolerance scores and indicator values for tax from nutrient levels. the index is called IVAM (Macroscopic Aquatic Vegetation Index). The index takes into account either macrophyte or microphytes (the latter making up macroscopic growth forms) including briophytes. The IVAM showed the best correlation with nutrients besides other quality indices, indicating a solid tool to assess trophic status or eutrophication. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora para plantio direto, em dois solos com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal Performance of a no-tillage seeder, in two soils with different types of vegetable coverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILSON LOPES DE OLIVEIRA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho operacional de uma semeadora-adubadora de plantio direto, versão soja e milho, foi avaliado em um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico, fase terraço, e um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. A máquina foi testada em três tipos de cobertura do solo e em duas velocidades de trabalho. Por ocasião do plantio, foram avaliados a patinagem do trator e da semeadora-adubadora, o consumo de combustível e a potência exigida, a distribuição de fertilizante e o nível de danos às sementes. Depois do plantio, foram avaliados o número de sementes distribuídas, o estande final, a profundidade de plantio e a distribuição longitudinal da semente. A uniformidade de distribuição longitudinal foi avaliada pela porcentagem de espaçamentos aceitáveis, distribuição dupla e falhas na distribuição, e pelo coeficiente de variação dos espaçamentos entre sementes. A demanda de potência foi maior no Podzólico, por sua maior densidade e resistência à penetração. Independentemente do tratamento, o número de sementes distribuídas e o estande final não apresentaram diferenças significativas. As sementes distribuídas não tiveram sua qualidade afetada pelos dosadores da máquina. A análise de variância não indicou diferença significativa entre os porcentuais de espaçamentos aceitáveis, a distribuição dupla e as falhas.The performance of a no-tillage seeder, version soybean and corn was evaluated under two classes of soil, a cambic Red-Yellow Podzolic terrace phase and a Red-Yellow Latosol, at Zona da Mata, MG. The machine was tested under three different vegetable coverages in two work speeds. During test, tractor and planter slipping, fuel consumption and the power required by the machine, distribution fertilizer, and seeds damage were evaluated. After planting, the number of seeds by hectare, final stand, planting depth and seed longitudinal distribution, were also evaluated. The uniformity of

  14. Experimental and numerical study on hydrodynamics of riparian vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UOTANI Takuya; KANDA Keiichi; MICHIOKU Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many channelized rivers tend to be heavily vegetated due to regime shifts in hydrological, fluvial and ecological processes. Dense vegetation in a river frequently obstructs a flood flow and reduces conveyance capacity of channels. On the other hand, river vegetation provides various ecological services such as habitats for various species and life, natural cycle of organic and inorganic substances, etc.. It is of engineering importance to understand vegetation hydrodynamics in order to preserve vegetation nature and keep a certain level of flow conveyance capacity. In view that willows tend to be densely vegetated along the shoreline of floodplains or sandbars, a field measurement, a physical model experiment and a numerical analysis were carried out for investigating hydrodynamics in an open channel with riparian vegetation. Discussion was made focusing on flow and shear layer structures developed around the vegetation canopy.

  15. Drought-induced vegetation shifts in terrestrial ecosystems: The key role of regeneration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing climate change is modifying climatic conditions worldwide, with a trend towards drier conditions in most regions. Vegetation will respond to these changes, eventually adjusting to the new climate. It is unclear, however, how close different ecosystems are to climate-related tipping points and, thus, how dramatic these vegetation changes will be in the short- to mid-term, given the existence of strong stabilizing processes. Here, we review the published evidence for recent drought-induced vegetation shifts worldwide, addressing the following questions: (i) what are the necessary conditions for vegetation shifts to occur? (ii) How much evidence of drought-induced vegetation shifts do we have at present and where are they occurring? (iii) What are the main processes that favor/oppose the occurrence of shifts at different ecological scales? (iv) What are the complications in detecting and attributing drought-induced vegetation shifts? (v) What ecological factors can interact with drought to promote shifts or stability? We propose a demographic framework to classify the likely outcome of instances of drought-induced mortality, based upon the survival of adults of potential replacement species and the regeneration of both formerly dominant affected species and potential replacement species. Out of 35 selected case studies only eight were clearly consistent with the occurrence of a vegetation shift (species or biome shift), whereas three corresponded to self-replacements in which the affected, formerly dominant species was able to regenerate after suffering drought-induced mortality. The other 24 cases were classified as uncertain, either due to lack of information or, more commonly, because the initially affected and potential replacement species all showed similar levels of regeneration after the mortality event. Overall, potential vegetation transitions were consistent with more drought-resistant species replacing less resistant ones. However, almost half (44

  16. Vegetation, soil and hydrology management influence denitrification activity and the composition of nirK-type denitrifier communities in a newly afforested riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Bruno; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Bottegal, Mariangela; Basaglia, Marina; Squartini, Andrea; Gumiero, Bruna; Casella, Sergio

    2013-09-25

    Soil microbial community composition and activity could be affected by suitable manipulation of the environment they live in. If correctly applied such an approach could become a very effective way to remediate excess of chemicals. The concentration of nitrogen, especially nitrate deriving from agricultural managements, is generally found to increase in water flow. Therefore, by forcing the water flow through a buffer strip specifically designed and possibly afforested with suitable plant species, may result effective in reducing high nitrogen contents. The management of a riparian buffer may definitely affect the soil microbial activities, including denitrification, as well as the composition of the community. The present study reports on the changes occurred in terms of denitrifying microbial community composition, as compared to that of a neighbouring agricultural area, as a consequence of hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and to the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation. With this aim, denitrification was repeatedly measured and the data obtained were related to those deriving from a specific analysis of bacterial groups involved in denitrification. nirK, encoding for nitrite reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide and considered the key step in the denitrification process, was chosen as the target gene. The main results obtained indicated that denitrification activity changes in riparian buffer as compared to agricultural soil and it is strongly influenced by carbon availability and soil depth. Although no significant differences on the community composition between superficial (0-15 cm) and medium (40-55 cm) layers were observed, the nirK-type denitrifier community was shown to significantly differ between riparian and agricultural soils in both surface and medium layers.

  17. Preliminary analysis of agriculture land for vegetable farming system

    OpenAIRE

    HAYTOVA, Dimka; STEFANOVA, Vera; ARNAUDOVA, Zhulieta; BILEVA, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable sector is one of the important components of Bulgarian agriculture where diversity in vegetable cropping brought by different agro-ecological regions of the country. The main aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the state of the sector and Bulgarian agriculture land for vegetables crop production with relevance for GIS database. The article suggests that the results in the horticulture sector are far below of biological potential of vegetables and effectively using of lands...

  18. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land

  19. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.; Wittkugel, U. [Amec Earth and Environmental, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.e.taylor@amec.com; uwe.wittkugel@amec.com; Kleb, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: klebh@aecl.ca

    2006-07-01

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land

  20. Monitoring on vitality dynamics of tugai vegetation in the lower reaches of Tarim River by ecological water delivery%塔里木河下游生态输水过程中荒漠河岸林活力恢复监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙代提·木沙; 玉米提·哈力克; 托乎提·艾合买提; Bernd Cyffka; 柴政

    2009-01-01

    根据近5年来对塔里木河下游荒漠河岸林植被的监测数据,分析了生态输水后植物活力的恢复状况.结果显示:应急生态输水增加了塔里木河下游的生物多样性,使原本面临死亡的荒漠河岸植被重新复活,而且不同程度上促进了胡杨群落的自然更新;在近河道50 m的范围内均出现了少量的胡杨、柽柳实生苗,并且在离河道150 m的范围内已经有相当数量的胡杨次生苗,在离河道400 m范围内大约有25%的胡杨均有不同程度的基部新枝萌蘖.通过生态输水后地下水位的逐步抬升,河道两岸的低阶地发育着一定面积的草甸植被,形成了由胡杨、柽柳和草本植物所组成的干旱区非地带性河岸稀疏植被群落,说明应急生态输水对于胡杨为建群种的荒漠河岸林植被的恢复和自然更新产生了积极的影响.%The Tarim River is about 1 320 km long and thus one of the longest continental inland waterways worldwide. The rising water consumption in the upper and middle reaches and massive hydrotechnical interventions during the development of uncultivated land use (cotton growing) in the past decades, led to the widespread destruction of the natural ecosystems, particularly in the lower reaches of the river where on 320 km the floodplain forests of Euphrat poplars (Populus euphratica Oliv.) are either highly degraded or dead. Since 2000 the Chinese government has made efforts to restore these ecosystems and conducted ecological water delivery.According to monitoring results after the ecological water delivery in the past five years, the paper analyses the vitality dynam-ics of the Tugai vegetation in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The results show: Due to ecological water delivery, there are a lot of changes. The biological diversity in the lower reaches of theTarim River has increased, a lot of plants that disappeared for a long time have reappeared, and the P. Euphratica community has regenerated

  1. Desempenho de um trator operando em solo com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal Tractor performance in soil with different types of plants covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de um trator para desenvolver esforço tratório depende da interação entre o rodado e o solo, envolvendo um complexo conjunto de fatores: característica do rodado, patinagem, transferência de peso do trator, tipo de solo, umidade, estado de compactação, tipo de cobertura do solo, entre outros, que proporcionam diferentes condições de trabalho e interferem no desempenho do trator. Assim, conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o propósito de avaliar alguns desses fatores no desempenho de um trator agrícola, em área coberta com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (aveia, ervilhaca, nabo, aveia e nabo e sem cobertura. O trator foi submetido a cargas por meio do acoplamento a um escarificador de arrasto e instrumentado para a obtenção da força de tração, velocidade de deslocamento, patinagem e consumo de combustível sendo os dados armazenados por meio de um sistema de aquisição de dados. A patinagem foi maior onde a massa de matéria seca era maior, porém não influenciou na potência requerida na barra de tração. A melhor eficiência de tração foi obtida nas parcelas sem cobertura. O coeficiente de tração foi maior nos tratamentos com cobertura de aveia, ervilhaca e nabo comparados com a área sem cobertura. Conclui-se que a cobertura do solo interfere na capacidade do trator em desenvolver esforço para tracionar máquinas e implementos e que o tipo de cobertura pode causar mudanças na patinagem e na eficiência tratória.The efficiency of a tractor to draft development depends on the interaction among the wheeled and the soil where it moves and it involves a complex group of factors, such as: characteristic of the tire, slip, the tractor weight transfer, soil type, water texture and soil compactation, type of soil covering, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acting of an agricultural tractor in an area covered with different types of plants. It was used five types of soil covering (oat

  2. Mapping ecological states in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Burkett, L. M.; Ayers, E.; Romig, K.; Slaughter, A.

    2013-12-01

    analysis provides a platform for classification that more closely resembles human recognition of objects within a remotely sensed image. The analysis presented here compares multiple thematic maps created for test locations on the USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range ranch. Three study sites in different pastures, each 300 ha in size, were selected for comparison on the basis of their ecological site type (';Clayey', ';Sandy' and a combination of both) and the degree of complexity of vegetation cover. Thematic maps were produced for each study site using (i) manual interpretation of digital aerial photography (by five independent interpreters); (ii) object-oriented, decision-tree classification of fine and moderate spatial resolution imagery (Quickbird; Landsat Thematic Mapper) and (iii) ground survey. To identify areas of uncertainty, we compared agreement in location, areal extent and class assignation between 5 independently produced, manually-digitized ecological state maps and with the map created from ground survey. Location, areal extent and class assignation of the map produced by object-oriented classification was also assessed with reference to the ground survey map.

  3. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  4. 地枫皮营养器官解剖结构特征及其叶片结构的生态适应性%Anatomical Features of Vegetative Organs and Ecological Adaptability of Leaf Structure of Illicium difengpi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德鑫; 李雁群; 梁惠凌; 王满莲; 史艳财; 蒋运生

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the structural characteristic of Illicium difengpi, and the difference of leaf anatomy between leaves from trees which grow in the limestone mountaintop and the open mountainside forest, the paraffin and half thin section technology were used to observe the vegetative organs of Illicium difengpi and the responses of leaf structure in different ecological environments were also evaluated. The results show that in roots, the secondary vascular tissue is well developed and the xylem ray and phloem ray are all obvious. In stem, the storage substance in secondary structure is abundant and has large stone cells group, and the xylem ray and phloem ray are apparent as well, while marrow cells containe a large number of druse and a few of single crystal. In the cross section, the leaf is typically bifacial, and epidermal cells are only in one layer and no stomata is in the upper epidermis. Moreover, there are sclereids scattered in parenchyma cells of main vein. The anatomical features of leaf show that the /. difengpi has the characters of typical xerophytic plants when it grows in naked limestone mountaintop. The cuticle of leaf epidermis cell wall is thicker and the ratio of palisade to spongy tissuesis increased, but the cells of spongy tissue become to be organized loosely rather than tightly, In addition, there are a large number of oil cells distributed in velamen, bark and mesophyll.%为了明确地枫皮的结构特征及其在石灰岩山顶和山腰疏林间两种环境下生长的叶片解剖结构的差异,本研究采用石蜡切片和半薄切片对地枫皮营养器官进行解剖观察并评价了叶片结构对不同生态环境的响应.结果表明:地枫皮根中次生维管组织发达,木射线和韧皮射线明显.老茎的次生构造中,皮层贮藏物质丰富,内有大的石细胞群,韧皮射线和木射线明显;而髓细胞内含有大量晶簇和少量单晶.在叶片横切面观上,叶为异面叶,表皮细胞一层,上表

  5. Ecological aspects of the use of fuels and lubricants from plant and animal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In attacking the problems involved in preventing or mitigating the growing ecological crisis and its consequences, the leading place is occupied by the search for an alternative ecologically clean raw material for the production of various types of energy and the manufacture of chemical products. Fuels and lubricants, whether of petroleum or synthetic origin, pose a significant threat to the environment. Here, the authors are generally speaking of ecologically dangerous products, but in many cases even toxic products. They pollute the air, soil, and water with automotive exhaust, spills of used oils, and the incineration and burial of wastes. Vegetable and animal fats do not have any of the shortcomings that are enumerated above. They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and do not form xenobiotics. The use of fats and oils as base stocks or components of fuels and lubricants may well facilitate and accelerate the solution of certain ecological problems. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  7. Vegetation of the rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plan Endemism, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the ultramafic rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 100 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 17 plant communities, which are classified into 13 associations belonging to four proposed alliances. Many new syntaxa are ecologically interpreted and described. For each syntaxon, the species richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to specific habitat preference. The floristic and habitat information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key are provided to aid future identification of conservation areas, land use planning and research. An ordination (DECORANA based on floristic data confirmed potential relationships that could exist between the plant communities and associated habitats and environmental gradients.

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  11. Vegetated foreshores as coastal protection strategy: Coping with uncertainties and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Bas; Bouma, Tjeerd; De Vries, Mindert; Timmermans, Jos; Vuik, Vincent; Hermans, Leon; Hulscher, Suzanne; Jonkman, Bas

    2014-05-01

    Promising Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, such as vegetated foreshores, inherently have a dynamic nature. Therefore there is a relatively large degree of uncertainty with respect to their contribution to flood protection. This hampers innovation and the implementation of vegetated foreshores in flood risk management worldwide. We aim to develop new methods to assess how, and how much vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will lead to a better understanding of (uncertainties in) the functioning and stability of these ecosystems and the development of novel governance arrangements. This requires integration of knowledge from ecology, biogeomorphology, hydraulic engineering, and governance. By field observations on several sites and flume measurements we will analyse fundamental ecological and physical processes for various types of wetland vegetations. The knowledge obtained will be applied in one implementation case study for a location in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is needed in the future. This case study integrates fundamental knowledge from all the disciplines. It is used to design governance and implementation arrangements, and to demonstrate how vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will provide the knowledge, methods and tools (e.g. a maptable) required for the design and implementation of vegetated foreshores as a safe, ecologically desirable, and cost effective alternative in flood management. Strong cooperation with end-users from the private sector, government and non-governmental organizations is embedded in the project to enhance the implementation of our findings in practice. In the full-paper, we present a multidisciplinary research agenda how to address the uncertainties hampering application, how to develop probabilistic tools to derive failure chance in legally imposed terms and how to derive at suitable governance arrangements.

  12. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  13. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

  14. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  15. 江河源区的草地资源特征与草地生态变化%Characteristics of Grassland and Ecological Changes of Vegetations in the Source Regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王根绪

    2001-01-01

    Based on the grassland survey and remote sensing technology, theecological types and their spatial distribution of grassland, the features of grassland resources and their utilization statues in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow rivers were studied. The production capacity of the grassland was estimated. By the regional eco-environment investigation and three periods remote sensing information, the eco-environmental changes of the grassland in recent 40 years were analyzed. Those results showed: (1) The types of grassland in the study area were mainly the high-cold meadow and the high-cold steppe. The high-cold meadow was one of the most important grassland types in the study area, could be divided into four sub-types: high-cold typical meadow, high-cold swamp, high-cold steppe meadow and high-cold shrub meadow. The high-cold meadow area was about 53.78% of the whole study area. (2) The coarse protein contents of the main forage grass were over 10%, and the coarse fat contents over 2%, and the energy reserves over 9.34 kJ.g-1. (3) Since 1970s, because of the rapidly improvement of livestock husbandry the grazing over the cold season pastureland was very heavy with the 1~5 fold larger than the theoretical carry capacity. The most of the warm pasturelands were over grazing too. Those resulted in the seriously degradation of grassland with the annual degredating rate of 6.64%~34.45%. Rodent damages also play an important role in the ecological degradation. It was the most urgent need in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers to rationally utilize the grassland resources and to study possible rehabilitation measures for the eco-environment of the regions so as to ensure a sustainable development.X%通过对江河源区草地生态类型与分布、草地资源特征及其利用现状的研究和生产力的评价,并根据70年代以来3期遥感资料和区域调查结果,分析了江河源区草地生态变化态势。结果表明:

  16. 石羊河上游林区景观空间邻接特征及生态安全分析%Spatial neighboring characteristics among forest landscape types patches on the upper reaches of Shiyang River Basin and its ecological security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤萃文; 张忠明; 苏研科; 郭明; 杨莎莎; 王天强; 杨啸林

    2013-01-01

    在干旱区山地,荒地斑块特征可反映植被的破碎化及退化状况,农田斑块特征可反映自然植被景观受农田开垦的威胁程度,而其它景观类型与这两种类型斑块的邻接特征可间接反映这些类型潜在的植被退化风险大小或受农田开垦的威胁程度.以Landsat/TM及林相图作为数据源,在桌面GIS下解译出石羊河上游的哈溪林区各景观类型,计算了各景观类型与荒地和农田的空间邻接长度和数目比例,并利用缓冲区分析方法计算了荒地和农田对各景观的影响面积.在此基础上通过计算各类型植被退化风险大小和受农田开垦的威胁程度,定量分析了研究区各景观类型的生态安全性.结果表明:灌丛和草地与荒地的邻接边长和数目较大,由放牧活动引起的植被破碎化和退化的风险较大,而乔木林种与农田的邻接长度、数目较大,受农田开垦的威胁较为严重;景观整体植被退化的风险(0.28)高于受农田威胁程度(0.11);各类型植被退化风险值的差别不明显,但灌丛草地相对较高,而各乔木林种受农田开垦的威胁程度明显高于灌丛和草地;基于景观类型空间邻接的生态安全评价分析可以初步反映干旱区山地景观受人类活动影响的威胁程度.%There is highly significant to estimate the ecological security of the forest landscape ecosystem in the upper reaches of Shiyang River basin which has become the typical ecological degeneration region in arid inland river basin in China recently. In the arid mountains area, the patches characteristics of wasteland can reflect the state of degeneration of vegetation, and the patches characteristic of farmland can reflect the threatening degree of natural vegetation damaged by farmland reclamation. So the magnitudes of potential risk of vegetation degeneration and the threatening degree of farmland reclamation of the forest landscape types should be indicated by

  17. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  18. Variation in soil enzyme activity as a function of vegetation amount, type, and spatial structure in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Goirán, Silvana B.; Vallejo, Ramón V.; Bautista, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands may be seriously threatened by land degradation due to progressive opening of the vegetation cover driven by increasing drought and fire recurrence. However, information about the consequences of this opening process for critical ecosystem functions is scant. I

  19. A SUGGESTION ON A SUITABLE INVENTORY METHOD FROM ANALYTIC APPLICATION INTENDED FOR WILDLIFE ECOLOGY POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kürşad ÖZKAN

    2009-01-01

    Inventory methods of wildlife ecology and vegetation ecology are different with each other from the analytic processes point of view due to the fact that the survey intended for vegetation ecology can be done in sample plots. Thus, it can be obtained the same sizes matrixes belonging to vegetation and environment characteristics for analytical process. Nevertheless the situation is different for wildlife ecology. Wild animals can move unlike plant species. Hence, the inventory must be phased ...

  20. Vegetation development on extensive vegetated green roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Technology for establishment of vegetated roofs (green roofs) has developed rapidly over recent years but knowledge about how these systems will develop over time is still limited. This study investigates vegetation development on unfertilised thin extensive vegetated roofs during a 3-year period. The vegetation systems investigated were designed to be low maintenance and had a saturated weight of 50 kg/m2, a thickness of 4 cm and drought-resistant succulent and bryophyte vegetation. Vegetati...

  1. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  2. Soil Characteristics of Different Forests with Different Vegetation Type in Xishui Natural Reserve, Guizhou%贵州习水自然保护区不同森林植被类型的土壤特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 朱军; 陈骏; 姜霞

    2012-01-01

    为揭示贵州习水自然保护区不同森林植被类型与土壤特性的关系,为该保护区或类似森林土壤资源的科学评价与管理,森林植被的恢复与更新提供参考依据和基础数据,对贵州习水自然保护区内海拔高度基本相同的5种典型森林植被类型下的土壤理化性状进行了检测分析.结果表明:鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense)林下的土壤表层容重最小,孔隙度、持水量、初渗和稳渗速率表现最高,土壤平均有机质、氮素、磷素、速效钾的含量和阳离子交换量最高.说明,该森林植被类型下土壤较疏松、通气性能好,具有较高的水源涵养和水土保持功能,土壤的肥力状况最好.丝栗栲—山矾林(Castanopsis argesii-Symplocos sumuntia)在土壤的理化性状方面综合表现最差.%The soil physical and chemical characteristics of five typical forest vegetation types at similar elevation in Xishui Natural Preserve, Guizhou was determined to study the relationship between different forest vegetation types and soil characteristics, and to provide the scientific basis and basic data for evaluation and management of forest soil resources, and recovery and renewal of forest vegetation. The results showed that the bulk density of surface soil under L. Chinense was the lowest, its porosity, water-holding capacity, initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, average contents of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity were the highest in five forest vegetation types, which indicated that the soil under L. Chinense was of good aeration, high water restraint and water and soil conservation function, and best fertility. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil under Castanopsis fargesii-Symplocos sumuntia was the poorest in the five forest vegetation types.

  3. On the integration of ecology in remote sensing science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Zev

    Remotely sensed data is increasingly being used by ecologists to answer a wide array of questions in their respective fields. In order to fully take advantage of the potential of these types of data, ecologists should engage actively in the remote sensing problem. To these ends, ecologists can look within their own discipline for a wealth of principles and techniques for integrating remote sensing methodologies in the science they practice. In this dissertation I highlight three general areas in which advances in ecological sciences have the potential to improve remote sensing science, and consequently, result in improved tools for ecological research. These areas are: (1) Physiological ecology; (2) Sampling design and spatial considerations; (3) Species Distribution modeling. In the first chapter I outline an experiment that develops a direct and more mechanistic relationship between passively collected spectral data and plant photosynthetic functioning through the characterization of photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching and its effects on steady-state fluorescence. I found that simple reflectance indices can track heat and water stress induced changes in steady-state fluorescence at the canopy scale. This technique takes advantage of advances in physiological ecology to make remote and rapid measurements of plant stress in real-time. The second and third chapters are case studies in vegetation mapping within the Lake Tahoe Basin and within the American River watershed. In these studies I utilize sample stratification techniques for locating plots in support of the mapping process. Additionally, I incorporate regression based distribution modeling in the mapping process in order to distill the large number of topographic variables available, into ecologically meaningful response surfaces that can be incorporated into the classification problem. I found that incorporating general additive modeling results in the mapping process results in consistent and

  4. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  5. 农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性%The Fragility of Rural Financial Ecological Environment and New-type Rural Financial Institutions' Based on SEM Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖媛

    2013-01-01

    农村金融生态环境是新型农村金融机构生存和发展的环境基础.为了深入揭示农村金融生态环境对新型农村金融机构脆弱性的影响程度,在分析农村金融生态环境属性构成基础上,构建了农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性的关系模型,并在问卷调查基础上运用结构方程模型进行实证检验,研究结果表明:除了农村法律环境的影响假设未得到支持外,农村经济环境、农村金融环境、农村政策环境和农村信用环境在降低新型农村金融机构脆弱性方面有显著正向影响.%Rural financial ecological environment provides the basis for the existence and development of new-type rural financial institutions. In order to reveal how much the rural financial ecological environment has influenced the fragility of new-type rural financial institutions this paper, based on an analysis of the components of rural financial ecological environment, constructs a relation model between the rural financial ecological environment and the new-type rural financial Institutions' fragility. SEM is used to analyze the questionnaires. The result proves that rural financial ecological environment consists of five parts: except rural legal environment, rural economic environment, rural financial environment, rural policy environment, rural legal environment and rural credit environment all have a significant positive effect on New-type rural financial Institutions' fragility.

  6. Spatial and temporal vegetation change in Southern Brazilian Amazon using GIS and NOAA /AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S.; Yoshikawa, S.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past two decades, environmental alteration in the Amazon Basin due to land development, population increase, and the consequent deforestation, has become a serious ecological problem in this region known to be, both climatologically and biogenetically, one of the most important regions in the world. In Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate, vegetation cover change has been reported to occur over large areas due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and slash-and-burn cultivation. Spatial and temporal land cover (vegetation) change is noted to potentially set up temperature increase and rainfall decrease. We stress on the importance of vegetation change information as crucial inputs for eco-climatic analysis of these spatial patterns of change and their temporal trend at local scale, as well as for real-time monitoring or detection of the deforestation events for appropriate action by the Brazilian government. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed onto NOAA AVHRR remote-sensed and multi- spectral data covering the 1981-2003 period, using GIS. Our investigation focuses on developing a vegetation quantification algorithm for change detection in the vegetation cover over every few years, using the PCA first component, which is shown to characterize the overall vegetation cover types. Land cover features and their spatio-temporal change over the Southern Brazilian Amazon are analyzed and discussed, and their relationships with global and regional eco-climatic phenomena is highlighted.

  7. An Evaluation of the Romanian Fruits and Vegetables Producers Access to Different Types of Common Agricultural Policy Instruments. Is there Any Real Consistency with the Policy Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu MARCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables sectors are considered to be strategic in the European Union due to their contribution to a better human health. Among others positive effects, their intake increase reduce mortality and obesity, assuring in the same time harmonised development for young children. The present study thus focused to reveal the consistency of the measure implemented in the Common Agricultural Policy to support fruits and vegetables production in Romania in liaison with the policy objectives. The country is one of the main ten important European producers of horticultural products in terms of production volumes and acreage. Results showed that over the last seven years (2007-2014, the sectorial production drawbacks have not been ameliorated very much. Both sectors are dominated by small-size farms that can produce only seasonally and mainly for short-market chains. In the same time, the greenhouses area shrink to levels that made the country extremely dependent to imports especially for tomatoes. The analysis of the pillar one payments schemes revealed that the fruits and vegetables producers could have access to only one payment that was half from European averages. Moreover, almost half of the producers had low sizes that left them outside the eligible criteria. The measures designed for the second pillar also penalized producers through the selection criteria. These results showed that for Romania there was not a real consistency between the actual policy measures and the objectives assumed by policy makers. The future measures (2014-2020 seem to correct these negative findings being better tailored to the situation of the local fruits and vegetables producers.

  8. ECOLOGICAL SERIES OF SOIL ANIMALS IN DARLIDAI MOUNTAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The ecological series of soil animals under the broad-leaved and pine mixed forest in Darlidai Mountainwas studied. Seven sample plots were selected according to different altitude gradients, which belong to different vegeta-tion types. By investigating and analyzing soil animals in every sample plot it is found that there are 45 groups and 1956individuals, which are involved in 3 phylums, 7 classes, 16 orders, respectively. The altitude is a key factor which af-fects ecological series of soil animals. Both the groups and individuals of soil animals increase with altitude increasingunder certain conditions, which contrastes with ordinary cases, resulting from special micro-climate in studied area. Thegroups and individuls of soil animals are the most under the broad-leaved and pine forest on the top of the mountain, andthe least under Picea-Abies forest in the foot of the mountain.

  9. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  10. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  11. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  12. [Review of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ming-Liang; Chen, Bao-Zhang; Wang, Ying; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) is an important and efficient tool for study on the terrestrial carbon circle processes and vegetation dynamics. This paper reviewed the development history of DGVMs, introduced the basic structure of DGVMs, and the outlines of several world-widely used DGVMs, including CLM-DGVM, LPJ, IBIS and SEIB. The shortages of the description of dynamic vegetation mechanisms in the current DGVMs were proposed, including plant functional types (PFT) scheme, vegetation competition, disturbance, and phenology. Then the future research directions of DGVMs were pointed out, i. e. improving the PFT scheme, refining the vegetation dynamic mechanism, and implementing a model inter-comparison project. PMID:24765870

  13. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  14. Ecological shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  15. Studying the effect of elevation and edaphic variables on vegetation composition in Khezrabad rangelands using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah TAGHIZADEH MEHRJARDI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A major scientific challenge in plant ecology is to identify and quantify the strength of environmental factors that are responsible for the distribution and abundance of plant species within and among ecosystems. Hence, this study is focused on relation between plant communities and environmental variables in Khezrabad region of Iran. Based on field surveys, eight vegetation types including Artemisia sieberi-Acantholimon erinaceum, Artemisia sieberi-Hertia angustifolia, Artemisia sieberi-Launea acanthodes, Artemisia sieberi-Salsola tomentosa, Artemisia sieberi-Zygophyllum atriplicoides, Artemisia aucheri-Astrgalus albispinus, Artemisia sieberi-Fortuynia bungei, Haloxylon aphyllum were identified. With respecting to the present variance between vegetation and environmental factors, four samples were established in each vegetation type in 0–30 cm depth. The studied soil variables affecting plant communities were texture, EC, pH, Na+, k+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SP, O.M, CaCO3, HCO3 - and CEC. Among the topographic conditions, elevation was recorded in sampling regions as well. Data matrix of environmental factors and vegetation type was made using the windows (ver. 4.17 of PC-ORD. Results according to PCA showed that in the study area, among different environmental factors, the distribution of vegetation types was most strongly correlated with some agents such as soil texture, salinity and sodicity. In fact, soil texture controls distribution of plant species by affecting moisture availability, ventilation and distribution of plant roots. Beside, soil salinity and sodicity because of habitat condition, plant ecological needs and tolerance range can have negative affect on plant diversity. In addition, results indicated that increasing of elevation had negative effect on plant distribution. However, soil characteristics have more influence on vegetation separation than to the elevation in this study.

  16. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  17. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  18. Soil ecology and pedogenesis on ophiolitic materials in the western Alps (Mont Avic Natural Park, North-western Italy): soil properties and their relationships with substrate, vegetation and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amico,

    2009-01-01

    Soils formed from ultramafic rocks are normally by pH values close to neutrality, a high base status and are usually rich in Mg, Fe and heavy metals. The low Ca/Mg ratio and the high heavy metal content could cause toxic effects in the biological communities. Plant communities, in particular, are usually different from nearby areas with different substrates and rich in endemisms and adapted species and subspecies. Despite their great environmental and ecological interest, pedological and e...

  19. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  20. A Case Study on a Trial Site in Western Austria to Assess Benefits of Railway Lineside Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lineside vegetation along railways can provide a wide range of ecosystem services and benefits. At the same time, there are several specific demands on the vegetation systems ensuring maintenance of highest standards of safety and operational performance. As a first step of the study, these demands on lineside vegetation but also their potentials for both rail specific internal and external benefits were summarized. For further analyses a case study was performed. A trial site, located in Austriás western federal state of Vorarlberg, was selected. The overall trial corridor was 22 km long and offered a large diversity in geomorphology, embankment types and surrounding land cover. A GIS-based classification of location types was conducted by using available open source geodata. Additionally, images, taken every fifty meters by a camera, mounted on a locomotive, supported the classification process. Following parameter were assessed: type of the track body, geomorphology, site conditions, technical facilities and surrounding land cover. Along railway infrastructure facilities, ecosystem services, provided by the lineside vegetation, are closely associated with improvement of the stability and resilience of embankments and cuttings. At the same time, specific criteria that must be fulfilled at every location type. These are safety and technical issues, such as keeping the railway clearance profile, economical issues respectively avoiding additional maintenance costs by strong plant growth. Supplementary ecosystem services are strongly related to the position in the landscape and the surrounding land cover. Along urban structures, that can be noise- or sight protection, provided by the lineside vegetation. On location types along agricultural land, lineside vegetation can provide ecological corridors or enhance the landscape structure. In this context, ecosystem services were derived to the previously assigned location types. The result of the case study is a GIS

  1. Empirical Analysis of the Vegetable Industry in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We first introduce the status quo of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province,and then conduct empirical analysis of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province.Further,we analyze the development advantage of the vegetable industry in Hebei Province using SAI(Scale Advantage Indices) and SCA(Symmetric Comparative Advantage),drawing the conclusion that the vegetable industry in Hebei Province has much room for development;at the same time,we analyze the factors influencing vegetable consumption of residents in Hebei Province through the regression model,drawing the conclusion that the vegetable consumer price index is the main factor affecting the consumption.Finally we make recommendations for the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province as follows:increasing financial input,promoting policy guarantee capacity;implementing brand strategy,promoting the competitiveness of products;improving the ecological environment,promoting industrialization of pollution-free vegetables.

  2. The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C

    2016-02-01

    Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix. PMID:26787350

  3. Mediterranean Biomes: Evolution of their Vegetation, Floras and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Arroyo, Mary T.K.; Cowling, R.M.; Keeley, J. E.; Lamont, B.B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) possess the highest levels of plant species richness in the world outside of the wet tropics. Sclerophyll vegetation similar to today’s mediterranean-type shrublands was already present on oligotrophic soils in the wet and humid climate of the Cretaceous, with fire-adapted Paleogene lineages in southwestern Australia and the Cape Region. The novel MTC seasonality present since the mid-Miocene has allowed colonization of MTEs from a regional species pool with associated diversification. Fire persistence has been a primary driving factor for speciation in four of the five regions. Understanding the regional patterns of plant species diversity among the MTEs involves complex interactions of geologic and climatic histories for each region as well as ecological factors that have promoted diversification in the Neogene and Quaternary. A critical element of species richness for many MTE lineages has been their ability to speciate and persist at fine spatial scales, with low rates of extinction.

  4. 半干旱黄土丘陵区人工植被深层土壤干化效应%Soil desiccation in deep soil layers under different vegetation types in the semi-arid loess hilly region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 卫伟; 陈利顶; 蔡国军; 贾福岩

    2012-01-01

    科学评估不同植被恢复模式的土壤干化效应是目前黄土高原生态恢复一个亟需解决的关键问题。本文以半干旱黄土丘陵区14种典型人工植被为例,通过构建土壤水分相对亏缺指数CSWDI和样地土壤水分相对亏缺指数PCSWDI,定量评估了不同植被深层土壤干化效应。研究发现:除农地和撂荒草地外,各植被深层土壤水分均随土层深度的增加而升高,深层土壤水分含量同土层深度之间呈一元线性关系。不同人工植被深层土壤相对干化程度存在差异,以油松林地最高,杨树侧柏混交林地最低。不同植被类型受其自身蒸腾耗水、根系特征和耕作等影响,土壤干化的程度在剖面上存在差异,但总体趋势为随深度增加而降低。针阔叶植被配置模式土壤水分状况要稍好于阔叶纯林的配置模式。%Artificial vegetation restoration as an effective way to control serious soil erosion and improve environment conditions has taken several positive environmental effects. However, serious soil desiccation as one of negative effects also appears associated with artificial vegetation restoration lack of scientific guidance, especially in deep soil layers. To recover the fragile ecosystem of the Loess Plateau and maintain sustainable development of this region, proper artificial vegetation types should be selected based on local soil water conditions. However, methods to quantitatively evaluate soil water effect based on local rainfall and soil water conditions is urgently needed to improve, which is one of the top priorities in current research. To quantitatively evaluate the soil desiccation degree in veg- etation types, 14 vegetation types were selected to analyze the eco-hydrological effect in deep soil layers in the typical semi-arid loess hilly region. Compared Soil Water Deficit In- dex (CSWDI) and Plot Compared Soil Water Deficit Index (PCSWDI) were induced to

  5. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  6. Improvement of equipment for manufacture of vegetable convenience foods

    OpenAIRE

    Кіптела, Людмила Василівна; Загорулько, Олексій Євгенович; Загорулько, Андрій Миколайович

    2015-01-01

    In view of the difficult ecological situation in Ukraine and other European countries, there is an increasing demand for vegetable convenience foods, including fruit and vegetable raw materials that contain significant amounts of biologically active substances. To improve vegetable raw material processing, technical modernization of enterprises with effective and reliable equipment that has high performance, efficiency and reliability that will allow to substantially eliminate damage and loss...

  7. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2013/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Frontasyeva, Marina; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2014-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  8. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2014/2015

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Frontasyeva, Marina; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2015-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  9. 不同植被类型的滩涂湿地土壤线虫群落特征%Characteristics of soil nematode communities in coastal wetlands with different vegetation types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贝贝; 叶成龙; 虞丽; 焦加国; 刘满强; 胡锋; 李辉信

    2012-01-01

    对江苏盐城湿地保护区内不同植被带土壤线虫的群落结构特征进行了研究.结果表明:调查共鉴定出20科39属,优势属和常见属的数量占总个体数的90%以上;不同植被类型的滩涂湿地土壤线虫总数存在明显差异性,线虫数量范围为每100 g干土79~449条,小麦地显著高于其他植被带,光滩地数量最少.线虫群落生态指数对植被带有不同的响应,土壤线虫群落多样性指数H、均匀度指数J在不同植被带的分布依次为:苇草带>盐蒿带>小麦地>米草带>光滩带,而优势度指数λ的分布为:光滩带>米草带>小麦地>盐蒿带>苇草带,表明光滩带的线虫群落多样性和稳定性小于其他植被带,土壤线虫群落趋于单一化;成熟度指数MI表现为保护区内未开垦植被带高于已开垦的小麦地,说明农田受外界干扰明显.不同植被带间的线虫群落结构存在显著差异,各植被带的最大贡献物种各不相同.土壤理化性状与线虫数量、营养类群、生态指数存在明显的相关关系.表明线虫群落的变化能很好地反映植被带生境的多样性,土壤线虫可作为湿地生态系统中一个重要的生物指示因子.%An investigation was conducted on the characteristics of soil nematode communities in different vegetation belts (Spartina alterniflora belt, Sa; Suaeda glauca belt, Sg; bare land, Bl; Phragmites australis belt, Pa; and wheat land, Wl) of Yancheng Wetland Reserve, Jiangsu Province of East China. A total of 39 genera and 20 families of soil nematodes were identified, and the individuals of dominant genera and common genera occupied more than 90% of the total. The total number of the nematodes differed remarkably with vegetation belts, ranged from 79 to 449 individuals per 100 grams of dry soil. Wheat land had the highest number of soil nematodes, while bare land had the lowest one. The nematode ecological indices responded differently to the

  10. 城市森林主要植被类型碳储量研究——以崇明岛为例%Carbon Storage of Main Vegetation Types of Urban Forest, Chongming Island of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞静; 赵敏; 高峻

    2011-01-01

    In the context of global change, research on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle has become a big trend. Due to human activities and the impact of urbanization, such native terrestrial ecosystem as Amazon is becoming less and less. On the contrary, such region as Chongming Island which has been seriously affected by human activities is getting more and more. In this study, the carbon storage of vegetation types in Chongming Island was studied based on an method combining field sampling survey and laboratory simulation. Firstly, stratified sampling method was used and randomly picked 234 sample plots with vegetation in Chongming Island; Secondly, biotic parameters (e. g. diameter at breast height DBH, tree height, etc. ) were investigated; Thirdly, the improved volume-derived biomass method was used to calculate the carbon storage of main vegetation types. The results showed that: 1 ) In Chongming island, the carbon storage among different forest type was different, coniferous forests ( e. g. , M. glyptostroboides, C. fortunei, and P. thunbergii ) had the higher carbon storage compared with the broadleaved forests ( e. g. , C. camphora). 2) The disparity of carbon storage in spatial distribution existed in Chongming Island, and vegetation carbon storage is mainly distributed in the river banks, both sides of roads, and residential areas. 3) The carbon storage of the main vegetation in Chongming Island is 491 212.16 mg, and mean vegetation carbon density is 18.70 mg/ha. And 4) the future work in this study area was explored based on this study results. Not only does this study provide a scientific method in studing peri-urban forest vegetation carbon issues, but also scientific data for building Chongming eco-island and managing "zero carbon emission" city.%以崇明岛为研究区域,采用野外样方调查和实验室模拟相结合方法,研究崇明岛主要植被类型碳储量.结果表明:(1)崇明岛不同森林植被类型其碳储量是不同,从大到

  11. Study on species diversity of three different forest types of karst vegetation in Guiyang%喀斯特城市3种森林类型物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽平; 田大伦; 闫文德; 刘茜; 郭颖; 朱军

    2011-01-01

    采用典型样方法,研究了喀斯特贵阳市3种林分(杨树林、刺槐+梓树林、灌木林)的物种多样性,分别计算各林分的物种丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、Pielou均匀度指数和生态优势度指数.结果表明:(1)杨树林林分中出现植物19种,隶属于14科18属.刺槐+梓树林林分中出现植物12种,隶属于10科11属.灌木林林分中出现植物26种,隶属于17科25属.(2)3种林分中,杨树林和刺槐+梓树林乔木层结构简单,均存在明显的优势种,灌木层和草本层物种多样性均匀度高,表明优势种不突出,分布均匀.灌木林植物种类及个体丰富,多样性较高,草本层种类稀少,均匀度高,但灌木林总体均匀度低.各林分的物种多样性总体呈现逐渐升高,优势度趋于下降,而林分的均匀度基本上保持比较高而稳定的状态.(3)在林分生长过程中,乔木层物种丰富度逐渐增加,灌木层的物种丰富度在灌木林阶段达到最大值,以后随着乔木树种的发展而下降;草本层的多样性指数在不同阶段呈先上升后下降,其中群落复杂程度是影响植物物种多样性的一个重要因子.研究结果可为喀斯特地区城市森林植被演替的物种选择和保护生物多样性提供科学依据.%Based on plant communities and plots investigation in three forest types (Populus forest, Robinia pseudoacacia+Catalpabungei forest, shrubbery) in karst vegetation of Guiyang, indices of Margalef species richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou evenness index, and ecological dominance index of the plots were calculated by using typical quadrat sampling method. The results show that: (1) there were 19 species belonging to 14 families 18 genera in Populus forest, 12 species belonging to 10 families 11 genera in Robinia pseudoacacia+Catalpabungei forest, 26 species belonging to 17 families 25 genera in shrubbery. (2)in the three forests, for

  12. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  13. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  14. Influence of variation of soil spatial heterogeneity on vegetation restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinrong

    2005-01-01

    Numerous hypotheses and conceptional models dealing with the grassland desertification or degradation processes recognize that the invasion of shrubs in grasslands is the most striking feature of the variation of vegetation patterns in the grassland degradation or desertification processes in arid and semiarid regions. This is because the invasion of shrubs in grasslands increases the heterogeneity of the temporal and spatial distribution of primary vegetation and soil resources. As a result, the biological processes of the soil-vegetation system are increasingly concentrated in the "fertile islands" under shrub canopies, and the soil between shrubs gradually turns into bare area or moving sand under the influences of prolonged wind and water erosion. Most of relative researches support this bio-ecological interpretation for the degraded process of grassland. However, as viewed from the other aspect, the shrub vegetation distributed in patches also serves as the "trigger spots" for the grassland restoration or desertification reversion, and this has been demonstrated by the practices of combating desertification in China. Nearly 50 years of succession of artificial sand-binding vegetation in the Shapotou area and the regional restoration of eco-environment are the theoretical verification and successful example for the desertification reversion. The establishment of artificial vegetation in the region began with the installation of sand fences and planting xerophytic shrubs relying on less than 200 mm of annual precipitation under the non-irrigation condition, this made the moving sand, an originally uniformly distributed soil resource, occur the variation of spatial heterogeneity. Through the redistribution of precipitation and dustfall by the canopy of xerophytic shrubs, litter accumulation and cryptogamic crust development, soil-forming processes under shrub canopies were accelerated; in the meantime, it also created a favorable condition for the invasion and

  15. Research in remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, Barry J.; Ripple, William J.; Isaacson, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    The research topics undertaken were primarily selected to further the understanding of fundamental relationships between electromagnetic energy measured from Earth orbiting satellites and terrestrial features, principally vegetation. Vegetation is an essential component in the soil formation process and the major factor in protecting and holding soil in place. Vegetation plays key roles in hydrological and nutrient cycles. Awareness of improvement or deterioration in the capacity of vegetation and the trends that those changes may indicate are, therefore, critical detections to make. A study of the relationships requires consideration of the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; characteristics of detector system; synergism that may be achieved by merging data from two or more detector systems or multiple dates of data; and vegetational characteristics. The vegetation of Oregon is sufficiently diverse as to provide ample opportunity to investigate the relationships suggested above several vegetation types.

  16. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  17. 武汉现代新型城市圈文化生态培育的路径选择%Access Selecting of Cultural Ecological Cultivation in the Modern New-type Urban Circle of Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方爱清

    2011-01-01

    The changing time leads to the change of our cultural ecology.The fact that the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan was approved by the state government as a reforming experimental zone comprehensively assorted with construction of the "two-type society" is a good chance for historical development in constructing cultural ecology.The paper is to analyze the logical relationships between construction of the "two-type society" and cultural ecology,to observe the new demand of the construction of "two-type society" for the cultural ecology in the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan,and to raise basic way of thinking about the construction of the cultural ecology of the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan from a point of the chance and difficulties concerning the present construction of "two-type" society" faced by Wuhan City".Special attention is given to Wuhan's reality.%时代的变迁使我们的文化生态发生了变化。武汉现代新型城市圈被国家正式批准为"两型社会"建设综合配套改革试验区,对于文化生态建设来说,是一个难得的历史性发展机遇。剖析"两型社会"建设与文化生态之间的逻辑关系,透视"两型社会"建设对武汉现代新型城市圈文化生态的新要求,从武汉市当前"两型社会"建设所面临的机遇和困境着手,重点结合武汉实际,提出武汉现代新型城市圈生态文化建设的基本思路。

  18. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  19. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  20. An ecohydrological approach to predicting hillslope-scale vegetation patterns and dynamics in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Trenton; King, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Drylands are an important ecosystem, as they cover over 40% of the Earth's land surface and are know to exhibit threshold behavior in response to climatic change and anthropogenic disturbance. Where dryland vegetation supports pastoralist livestock production, catastrophic ecological shifts present a grave concern because of the direct coupling between the livestock forage available and human livelihoods. In this research we investigate the spatiotemporal organization of grazing resources on hillslopes by developing a relatively simple spatially explicit daily stochastic ecohydrological 1-layer bucket model with dynamic vegetation and grazing components. The model, MVUA MINGI (Mosaic Vegetation Using Agent-based Modeling Incorporating Non-linear Grazing Impacts), was constructed using a 2-year observational study in central Kenya combining in-situ sensors with near surface hydrogeophysical surveys. The data were used to derive an empirical patch water balance of three representative patch types, bare soil, grass, and tree. Visual and hydrogeophysical observations indicated the system is dominated by Hortonian runoff, overland flow, and vertical infiltration of water into vegetation patches. The patch-based water balances were next incorporated into a Cellular Automata model allowing us to simulate a range of surface flowpath convergence states across the hillslope during a rain event. The model also allows the root to canopy radius of the tree patches to vary affecting the length scale of water competition. By changing the length scales of facilitation and competition, we find the model demonstrates a range of most efficient static vegetation patterns from random to highly organized. In order simulate the vegetation dynamics we incorporated continuous transition probabilities for each patch type based on the frequency and duration of drought and grazing intensity. The modeled vegetation dynamics indicate various stable states and the timescales between the state

  1. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  2. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

  3. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Phairat Usubharatana; Harnpon Phungrassami

    2016-01-01

    There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA) and ecological footprint (EF). This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn...

  4. Monitoring vegetation using DOAS satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigemeier, Ellen; Beirle, Steffen; Marbach, Thierry; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation-cycles are of general interest for many applications. Be it for harvest-predictions, global monitoring of climate-change or as input to atmospheric models. From novel spectrally resolving UV/vis satellite instruments (like GOME or SCIAMACHY) the spectral signatures of different types of vegetation can be identified and analysed. Although the spatial resolution of GOME and SCIAMACHY observations is much coarser than those of conventional satellite instruments for vegetation monitoring, our data sets on different vegetation types add new and useful information, not obtainable from other sources. Common vegetation indices are based on the fact that the difference between Red and Near Infrared reflection is higher than in any other material on Earth's surface. This gives a very high degree of confidence for vegetation-detection. The spectrally resolving data from GOME and SCIAMACHY provide the chance to concentrate on finer spectral features throughout the red and near infrared spectrum. We look at these features using a technique known as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Although originally developed to retrieve information on trace gases, it can also be used to gain information on vegetation. Another advantage is that this method automatically corrects for atmospheric effects. This renders the vegetation-information easily comparable over long time-spans. In addition, high-frequency-structures from vegetation also effect the retrieval of tropospheric trace-gases and aerosols. To optimize vegetation monitoring with DOAS we produce spectrally resolved reference spectra from different vegetation types using our own instrumentation. We analyze the effect of different Pigments on high-frequency-structures of the DOAS Retrieval. Applying these results we investigate how well we can distinguish vegetation types from space.

  5. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  6. Fractals in Spatial Patterns of Vegetation Formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhiyuan; HUANG Daming; Masae Shiyomi; WANG Yusheng; Shigeo Takahashi; Hori Yoshimichi; Yasuo Yamamuru; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution patterns of species are always scale-dependent and spatially self-similar in ecological systems. In this work, vegetation distribution data collected from the vegetation map of the Xigazê region was analyzed using a box-counting method. The power law of the box-counting dimension (DB) across a range of scales (5-160 km) confirms the fractal patterns for most vegetation formations, while the fluctuations of the scale-specific DB among the different abundance groups indicate limitations of fractal coherence. The fractal method is shown to be a useful tool for measuring the distribution patterns of vegetation formations across scales, which provides important information for both species and habitat conservation, especially in landscape management.

  7. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  8. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6–8 years grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  9. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000-2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies.

  10. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000–2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies.

  11. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000–2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies. PMID:27470948

  12. The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W. Powrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets, the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  13. Effects of Wood Vinegar on the Growth of Vegetables in Several Types%木酢液对几种类型蔬菜生长调节效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志斌; 塔娜; 孙江; 戴伟; 马珣

    2011-01-01

    大棚种植了西红柿、辣椒、大白菜、黄瓜和萝卜等6种4类蔬菜.苗期时,喷施木酢液1000倍液;定植后,采用喷施200倍液、300倍液、400倍液、500倍液、600倍液等5个浓度处理,以此来分析施用木酢液对各类蔬菜产量、根长及株高的影响.结果表明:木酢液对不同类型的蔬菜都有一定的增产作用,但效果不同,300倍液适用面较广、200倍液对不同类型蔬菜都有生理毒害效应、600倍液对蔬菜的生长长势有明显的促进作用.总体看来,适宜浓度的木酢液能促进植株生长,提高蔬菜产量.%Tomatoes, peppers, cabbages, cucumbers and radishes were planted in the greenhouse. This protected ground experiment was conducted to study the effects of wood vinegar on output, root length and plant height of vegetables. The experiments sprayed P1000 (diluted wood vinegar 1000 times) in seedling stage and P200、P300、P400、P500、P600 in field planting stage. Results showed that the application of wood vinegar increased production spotty and P300 could be used in 2 types of vegetables. P200 evidently poisoned vegetables of different types. P600 promoted the growth of roots and stems significantly. In general, wood vinegar with proper concentration can raise the production and be suitable for vegetable growth.

  14. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  15. Multiple stable states of tree cover in a global land surface model due to a fire-vegetation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasslop, G.; Brovkin, V.; Reick, C. H.; Bathiany, S.; Kloster, S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of multiple stable states has far-reaching consequences for a system's susceptibility to disturbances, including the possibility of abrupt transitions between stable states. The occurrence of multiple stable states of vegetation is supported by ecological theory, models, and observations. Here we describe the occurrence of multiple stable states of tree cover in a global dynamic vegetation model and provide the first global picture on multiple stable states of tree cover due to a fire-vegetation feedback. The multiple stable states occur in the transition zones between grasslands and forests, mainly in Africa and Asia. By sensitivity simulations and simplifying the relevant model equations we show that the occurrence of multiple states is caused by the sensitivity of the fire disturbance rate to the presence of woody plant types.

  16. Comparative analysis of two vegetation types and its ecotone, Miranda - MS Análise comparativa de duas formações vegetacionais e de seu ecótono, Miranda - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chaves Mota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal consists of different vegetation types, including the Paratudal, a monodominat floodable savanna, and Riparian vegetation. This study aimed to analyze diversity and similarity in samples ofthese two vegetations, and its ecotone. The study was developed in the region of Passo do Lontra, at the Miranda river margins. Five plots 10 x 10m, were allocated in each area, where all individuals above 1m height were counted and identified. Nine hundred and thirteen individuals were registered, distributed in 70 taxa, of which 60 were identified in species level. The Shannon diversity index (H’ was 2.715 with Pielou Eveness (J’ of 0.806 in Paratudal, 3.010 and 0.835 in Riparian vegetation, and 2.739 and 0.797 in ecotone, respectively. These results show highest diversity in the Riparian vegetation, as expected, since the Paratudal’s ambient conditions are more restrictive. The floristic similarity between the Paratudal and the Riparian vegetation, according to the Sorensen index, was of 0.2, what distinguish both environments. Therefore, this study evidences the distinction among Riparian vegetation andParatudal, as well the existence of an intermediary values with ecotone. O Pantanal é constituído por diferentes formações vegetacionais, entre elas o Paratudal e a Mata Ciliar. Este trabalho objetivou analisar comparativamente essas duas formações, e o ecótono entre elas, quanto à diversidade e similaridade. O estudo foi desenvolvido na região do Passo do Lontra, às margens do rio Miranda, MS. Foram estabelecidas cinco parcelas de 10 x 10m em cada área e nelas todos os indivíduos acima de 1m de altura foram contados e identificados. Foram registrados 913 indivíduos, distribuídos em 70 taxa, dos quais 60 foram identificados em nível de espécie. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ foi 2,715 com equidade de Pielou (J’ de 0,806 no Paratudal; 3,010 e 0,835 na MataCiliar; e 2,739 e 0,797 no ecótono, respectivamente

  17. Jinsha River Basin Forest Vegetation Status and Forest Ecological Protection in Diqing Prefecture%迪庆州金沙江流域森林植被现状及森林生态保护思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦茂军

    2011-01-01

    The special geographical position, rich forest resources and biodiversity of Jinsha river basin determine its ecological status importance. Forest ecological protection now is facing problems, followed as contradiction of forestry and grazing, excessive acquisition of forest resource, backward resource using, and low value consumption of natural resources. Countermeasures of forest protection, which as coordinating contradiction, rational development of forest resource, accelerating rural energy resources construction, improving the collective forest tenure system reform, strengthen non-commercial forest management, intensifing the development of forest industry, correctly handling the relationship between protection and development of forest have been put forward.%迪庆州金沙江流域特殊的地理位置、丰富的森林资源和生物多样性决定了其生态地位的重要性.森林生态保护面临着林牧矛盾突出,林下资源采集过度,资源利用方式落后,对森林资源的低价值消耗严重,生态保护资金投入不足等问题.提出统筹协调林牧矛盾,合理开发林下资源,加快农村能源建设步伐,完善集体林权制度配套改革,加强对公益林的管理,加大发展林产业,正确处理保护与开发的关系等森林生态保护与治理思路.

  18. Analysis of Adenoid Vegetation Children with Different Types of Tympanograms and Secretory Otitis Media%腺样体肥大患儿鼓室导抗图与分泌性中耳炎的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永平; 田从哲; 刘会清; 孟胜环; 刘海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨腺样体肥大患儿的不同鼓室导抗图与分泌性中耳炎的关系。方法回顾性分析2009年1月~2011年6月收治的328例腺样体肥大患儿的临床资料,分析统计分泌性中耳炎的发病例(耳)数及声导抗测试诊断分泌性中耳炎的阳性率。结果328例腺样体肥大患儿中有104例(169耳)最终经鼓膜穿刺或鼓膜置管确诊为分泌性中耳炎(31.71%,104/328),其中鼓室导抗图为B型者89例152耳,最终确诊为分泌性中耳炎者为86例147耳,阳性率为96.71%(147/152);鼓室导抗图为C型(负压在-150 daPa以上)者33例49耳,最终确诊为分泌性中耳炎者为16例20耳,阳性率为40.82%(20/49);鼓室导抗图为A s型者2例2耳最终均确诊为分泌性中耳炎。结论腺样体肥大患儿无论有无听力下降主诉,均应行声导抗测试,B型鼓室导抗图对鼓室积液判断的准确率最高,C型次之,As型也有鼓室积液的可能。%Objective To explore the relationship between adenoid vegetation children with different types of tympanograms and secretory otitis media in children and diagnosis of secretory otitis media .Methods A retrospec-tive study was carried out among 328 cases with adenoid vegetation in children ,including simple adenoid vegetation and associated with chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy ,from August 2010 to May 2012 .The incidence of secretory otitis media and outcomes of tympanometry for the diagnosis were analyzed .Results 104 cases were diag-nosed with secretory otitis media by tympanic membrane puncture or tympanostomy tube in 328 cases with adenoid vegetation (32 .31% );86 cases (147 ears) were finally diagnosed as secretory otitis media among 89 cases (152 ears) with type B tympanogram (147/152 ,96 .63% );16 cases (20 ears) were finally diagnosed secretory otitis media among 33 cases (49 ears) with type C tympanogram (20/49 ,40 .82% );2 cases (2 ears) with

  19. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research findings on visitor impacts to wilderness and protected natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff; Leung, Yu-Fai; Eagleston, Holly; Burroughs, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the US Wilderness Act of 1964 presents a worthy opportunity to review our collective knowledge on how recreation visitation affects wilderness and protected natural area resources. Studies of recreation impacts, examined within the recreation ecology field of study, have spanned 80 years and generated more than 1,200 citations. This article examines the recreation ecology literature most relevant to wilderness and backcountry, with a focus on visitor impacts to vegetation, soil, wildlife, and water resources. We also review relationships with influential factors, such as the amount of use, visitor behavior, and vegetation type. An understanding of these impacts and their relationships with influential factors is necessary for land managers seeking to identify acceptable limits of impact or selecting management actions that will effectively avoid or minimize resource impacts.

  20. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current revival...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  1. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland–shrubland–woodland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland–shrubland–woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management. (letter)

  2. Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms, and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous studies. Vegetation biomass samples were collected along transects across Water Conservation Area 3A South (3AS). Ten community types were present between November 2002 and 2005. Separate analyses for key a priori groups (slough, wet prairie, and sawgrass) provided detailed conclusions about effects of historic hydrology on the vegetation of 3AS. Communities were affected by hydrologic variables LIP to four years previous to the sample. We identified wet prairie/slough species such as Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata as short-term sentinel species of community change. Sawgrass and N. odorata should be monitored for long-term change. Comparisons to preceding studies indicated that many of the communities of previous times, when conditions were drier, no longer exist in our study area and have been replaced by deeper water community types.

  3. Influences of prior wildfires on vegetation response to subsequent fire in a reburned Southwestern landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, Jonathan D; Parks, Sean A; McClernan, Sarah R; Holsinger, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Large and severe wildfires have raised concerns about the future of forested landscapes in the southwestern United States, especially under repeated burning. In 2011, under extreme weather and drought conditions, the Las Conchas fire burned over several previous burns as well as forests not recently exposed to fire. Our purpose was to examine the influences of prior wildfires on plant community composition and structure, subsequent burn severity, and vegetation response. To assess these relationships, we used satellite-derived measures of burn severity and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling of pre- and post- Las Conchas field samples. Earlier burns were associated with shifts from forested sites to open savannas and meadows, oak scrub, and ruderal communities. These non-forested vegetation types exhibited both resistance to subsequent fire, measured by reduced burn severity, and resilience to reburning, measured by vegetation recovery relative to forests not exposed to recent prior fire. Previous shifts toward non-forested states were strongly reinforced by reburning. Ongoing losses of forests and their ecological values confirm the need for restoration interventions. However, given future wildfire and climate projections, there may also be opportunities presented by transformations toward fire-resistant and resilient vegetation types within portions of the landscape. PMID:27209778

  4. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  5. Influence of Watering with an enriched solution of surfactants on the soil properties and vegetation growth. Experimental model with two types of soils: district cambisol and calcaricum cambisol; Influencia del riego con solucion enriquecida en tensoactivos sobre las propiedades del suelo y el desarrollo vigetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Caravaca, M. T.; Crespo Alia, M. A. [Universidad Complutense. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A study done on the the influence of watering with an enriched solution of surfactants on the soil properties and vegetation growth using an experimental model with two types of soils, each one with different characteristic: district Cambisol and calcaricum Cambisol. The results show significant differences in conductivity, organic carbon content, clay content and in phosphates. As well, the sodium enrichment of the adjuvants components of the detergent employed significantly influence the content of free clay and the SAR values. The chosen vegetation was seen to be affected in these areas: sprouting, vegetal mass and principally in the amount of calcium foliage. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza across Two Vegetation Types in Shangri-la Subalpine Areas of Northwest Yunnan%香格里拉亚高山两种植被类型主要植物的丛枝菌根研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 景跃波; 张劲峰; 李勇鹏; 李荣波

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrzhizal (AM) colonization and spore density in barren grassland and primary forest in Shangri-la subalpine areas of northwest Yunnan province were investigated. All the ten plant species in barren grassland and nine plant species in primary forest were found to be colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) , and the average AMF spore density in two vegetation types were 674 ±221/100g soil and 290 ±72/100 g soil respectively. One-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA) showed that the AMF hypha colonization and spore density varied significantly between the two vegetation types. The plant species common to the two sampled sites had high AM fungal colonization in primary forest and high AMF spore density in barren grassland. No significant correlation between AM colonization and spore density was observed when vegetation types were either considered separately or together.%以滇西北香格里拉亚高山地区生态严重退化的荒草坡植被类型和基本实现恢复的近原生林地植被类型中主要植物的丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)作为研究对象,对这些植物根系的AMF感染率及其根际土壤中的AMF孢子密度进行了调查研究.结果表明,荒草坡的10种植物和近原生林地的9种植物,均形成典型的丛枝菌根(AM).荒草坡和近原生林植物根际土壤中的平均孢子密度分别为674±221(SE)个/100g(土)和290±72个/100g土.单因素方差分析表明,两植被类型的主要植物在根系AMF菌丝感染率以及根际土壤中AMF孢子密度方面的差异都极显著.同种植物在近原生林地具有较高的AMF感染率,而根际土壤中的孢子密度则是在荒草坡为高.相关性分析表明,所调查植物的根系AMF菌丝感染率与根际土壤中的AMF孢子密度间不存在相关性.

  7. 琅琊山不同植被枯落物下土壤性状调查与分析%Analysis on the Properties of Soil under Different Vegetation Types in the Langya Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑀

    2014-01-01

    Based on the flora of Langya mountain for reference,selected eleven typical Langya mountain veg-etation type,and collected soil samples. By using the method of field sampling and indoor test analysis, physicochemical properties of soil in different vegetation types in Langya mountain was analyzed. The re-sults show that:(1)The difference of soil physical properties under different types of vegetation is larger, from the content of soil moisture,the soil moisture of metasequoia is the maximal and the elderberry is the minimum;from the soil bulk density,the soil bulk density of elderberry is the maximal,and the german oak is the minimum. (2)From the chemical properties of soil,the pH of lycoris radiata is the maximal and the phyllostachys praecox is the minimum;the organic matter of Ulmus chenmoui is the maximal and the german oak is the minimum.%以琅琊山植物志为参考,选取11个典型的琅琊山植被类型,并采集土壤样本。利用野外采样与室内测试分析相结合的方法,对琅琊山不同植被类型下土壤的理化性质进行了分析。结果表明:(1)不同植被类型下土壤物理性质差异较大,从土壤含水量看,含水量最大的是水杉,最小的是接骨木;从土壤容重看,容重最大的是接骨木,最小的是麻栎。(2)从土壤化学性质看,pH值最大是石蒜,最小的是早竹;有机质含量最高的是金线松,最少的是麻栎。

  8. 污染足迹:一种基于生态系统服务的生态足迹%Pollution Footprint: A Type of Ecological Footprint Based on Ecosystem Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵庆文; 焦雯珺; 成升魁

    2011-01-01

    impacts lies in that the assumption of the exclusive land function has prevented the non-bioproductive commodities and services from being considered.To overcome the limitations in conventional ecological footprint theories, the authors suggested that the multi-functionality of land should be acknowledged.Furthermore, a concept of ecosystem services-based ecological footprint was proposed.The ecosystem services-based ecological footprint is defined as the aggregated area of land and water in a variety of ecological categories that is claimed by a certain group of population to provide all types of ecosystem services they consume.The authors also elaborated the model construction and calculation methods of ecosystem services-based ecological footprint, in particular pollution footprint.The pollution footprint, an ecological footprint based on pollution absorption, is a typical ecosystem services-based ecological footprint.It is noted that the pollution footprint is not a simple replacement of energy footprint in the conventional ecological footprint; it is able to account for most pollutants incurred by human activities and to be further clarified in terms of different classes or types of pollutants.Difficulties in pollution footprint calculation include 1) pollutant transfer mechanisms and 2) the determination of the quantity of pollutants for each type of land cover and the capability of these land covers to accommodate pollution.The difficulty in application rests on the determination of the relationship among footprints of different classes or types of pollutants.

  9. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

  10. Soil organic carbon storage and profile inventory in the different vegetation types of Luya Mountain%芦芽山典型植被土壤有机碳剖面分布特征及碳储量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小钢; 郭晋平; 杨秀云; 田旭平

    2011-01-01

    The patterns and controls of soil organic carbon ( SOC) storage are critical for our understanding of the biosphere , given the importance of SOC for ecosystem process and feedback of this pool to atmospheric composition and the rate of climate change. Understanding the distribution of organic carbon inventories in soil profile is crucial for assessing regional, continental and global soil C storage and predicting and ameliorating the consequences of global change. This study was conducted to determine the soil organic carbon inventories of 0-1. 0m depth at 21 plots in four vegetation types from 1703m to 2756m in Luya Mountain. The four vegetation types were subalpine meadow ( SM) , cold-temperate needleleaf forest ( CNF) , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest ( CBF) and shrub-grassland ( SG) ( former cropland) .The results showed that the profile distribution of SOC was different under different vegetation types , indicating the effect of vegetation on SOC. The SOC storage in the profiles decreased generally with increasing depth under the four vegetation types, with sharp reduction at the depth of 20cm for SM, 50cm for CNF, 20cm for CBF and 40cm for SG. The maximum SOC storage occurred at the depth of 10-20cm in most cases. The four vegetation types had no significant difference for SOC storage at the 0-10cm soil profile. The SOC content of the SM was closer to that of SG at all the soil profiles, but was significantly higher than that of CBF and lower than that of CNF at the 20-50cm soil depth. The SOC storage was positively correlated with soil total nitrogen and water content, but negatively with bulk density. Soil organic carbon was significantly related with clay and silt content in deeper soil layers. The result of stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the SOC storage was correlated with total nitrogen, water content and bulk density for SM, with TN for CNF, TN and BD for CBF and BD for SG. Within 50 cm depth, the SOC storage was 13. 564 , 11

  11. Digitally determining forest inventory units with an ecological classification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Lina; WANG; Qingli; Guofan; Shao; DAI; Limin; WANG; Shunzhong; LI; Xiufen

    2006-01-01

    Management-level forest resource data in China were obtained with a combination of two forest inventories. However, inconsistencies in the spatial attributes of forest data vary between the two inventory types and between two inventories of the same type. The inconsistencies make it inconvenient for long-term forest management planning with digital technologies. Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs) have been mapped in selected forestry regions in northeast China, where important forest industries are located. The boundaries of ELTs are determined by geomorphic conditions, which are quantified by Digital Elevation Models (DEM); ELTPs are classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers that are obtained with both remotely sensed and ground data. The ELTPs represent the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore they are reliable units for forest inventories and management. This paper introduces a case study for digitally determining forest inventory units in Benxi City, Liaoning Province, northeast China. The general objective of the study was to explain how a compatible forest inventory system should be designed and why the compatible forest inventory system was significant to digital forestry in China.

  12. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ)

  13. Global change and climate-vegetation classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three phrases of the quantitative study of climate-vegetation classification and their characteristics are presented based on the review of advance in climate-vegetation interaction, a key issue of "global change and terrestrial ecosystems (GCTE)" which is the core project of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP): (ⅰ) characterized by the correlation between natural vegetation types and climate; (ⅱ) characterized by climatic indices which have obviously been restricted to plant ecophysiology; (ⅲ) characterized by coupling both structure and function of vegetation. Thus, the prospective of climate-vegetation classification for global change study in China was proposed, especially the study coupling climate-vegetation classification models with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) was emphasized.

  14. Bio-ecology of Taxus Baccata l. in Kakheti

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the bio-ecology of Taxus baccata L. in Kakheti (eastern Georgia), particularly in Tsinandali Park. Yew (Taxus baccata L.) preserved in Tsinandali Park (Telavi region, Georgia) was chosen as an object for long-lasting observation over plant vegetation. Vegetation of 47 new specimens were studied during the period 2001-2010. It was observed the buds opening, the vegetation finishing, the cambium active periods beginning and finishing, the sprout stiffen process, the rate a...

  15. Carbon Source Utilization of Microbes in Saline Soil of Three Vegetation Types in Xinjiang, China%新疆盐渍土3种植被类型土壤微生物碳源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗倩; 黄宝灵; 唐治喜; 来利明; 魏伟; 郑元润

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial process plays an important role in the conversion of soil organic carbon into inorganic carbon, which is significant for the global carbon cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial functional diversity of carbon source utilization in three vegetation types under natural conditions along Sangong River basin in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The three typical vegetation types were dominated by Haloxylon ammodendron, Reaumuria soongorica, and Cleistogenes chinensis, respectively. The soil type is saline soil in this area with varied alkalinity. BIOLOG method was used to determine capability of soil microorganisms in utilizing 31 types of single carbon source. Correlation between soil physicochemical property (pH, water content, total soluble salt) and AWCD (the average well color development), Shannon diversity index, richness value were analyzed. Microbial AWCD in H. ammodendron plot was significantly higher than that of the other two plots (P<0.01). pH value (pearson correlation=0.798, P<0.01) and total carbon content (pearson correlation=0.655, P<0.05) of the soil were closely associated with the value of AWCD, while the effect of water content and total soluble salt was not significant. In this study, the H. ammodendron vegetation had the highest soil total carbon content as well as the highest soil alkalinity while the ability of utilizing carbon source of its soil microbial community was higher than the other two vegetation types. The analysis of normalised optical density (OD) data with PCA (principal component analysis) showed that eleven carbon sources (five types of carbohydrates, two types of amino acid, four types of carboxylic acids) were well used by the soil microbes of H, ammodendron vegetation, six carbon sources (one of the carbohydrates, three of amino acid, two of carboxylic acids) were better metabolized in R. soongorica community. In addition, the soil microbes in C. chinensis vegetation only effectively utilized five

  16. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  17. Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils, Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks, Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats, Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites. They significantly (P < 0.05 differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

  18. The vegetation types and species diversity in Lanzhou section of the Yellow River wetland%黄河兰州段湿地物种多样性及保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2014-01-01

    Based on investigating the wetland resources of Yellow River in Lanzhou on,analysis the wetland flora composition,species diversity and ecological characteristics systematicly.The results show that:there are 132 plants in wetland plant along the Yellow River,belonging to 33 families and 90 genera.Asteraceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,Cyperaceae and Fabaceae species is the number of families accounted for the top five,share to 59.85% of the total amount,Artemisia,Chenopodium,Polygonum spec and mariqueter is the number of genera accounted for the top four,dominant families,single-species phenomenon obviously.wetland vegetation at Lanzhou section of the Yellow river is divided into 9 associations.Including 2 woody associations,there are Salix matsudana Ass.Tamarix chinensis + Lycium chinense ,and 7 herbaceous associations,there are Phrag-mites + Polygonum aviculare Ass.Artemisia anethoides Ass.Polygonum lapathifolium +Chenopodium glau-cum Ass.Calamagrostis pseudophragmites + Phragmites Ass.Roegneria nustans +Lepidium latifolium Ass. Suaeda glauca Ass.Kochia scoparia +Agropyron cristatum. And proposed countermeasures of wetland vegeta-tion protection and utilization of the Yellow River in Lanzhou.%对黄河兰州段湿地植物区系组成、生态特征和物种多样性进行了系统分析。结果表明:黄河兰州段湿地共有植物132种,隶属于33科90属,菊科、禾本科、藜科、莎草科和蝶形花科是物种数占前5位的科,占总种数的59.85%;蒿属、藜属、蓼属和藨草属是含物种数占前4位的属,优势科、单种属现象明显。湿地植被分为9个群丛,包括木本群丛2个(旱柳群丛、柽柳-枸杞群丛),草本群丛7个(芦苇-萹蓄群丛、莳萝蒿群丛、酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群丛、垂穗鹅观草-宽叶独荇菜群丛、碱蓬群丛和地肤-冰草群丛);并提出了对黄河兰州段湿地植被保护利用的对策。

  19. Challenges in writing ecological site descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) adopted the Ecological Site Description (ESD) concept in 1997. The State and Transition Model (STM) is used to describe vegetation dynamics and is an integral component of ESDs that meet users needs. NRCS is currently developing ESDs for much of the ...

  20. An ecoclimatic framework for evaluating the resilience of vegetation to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J; Arndt, Stefan K; Blackman, Chris J; Duursma, Remko A; Fensham, Rod J; Hilbert, David W; Nitschke, Craig R; Norris, Jaymie; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Ruthrof, Katinka X; Tissue, David T

    2016-05-01

    The surge in global efforts to understand the causes and consequences of drought on forest ecosystems has tended to focus on specific impacts such as mortality. We propose an ecoclimatic framework that takes a broader view of the ecological relevance of water deficits, linking elements of exposure and resilience to cumulative impacts on a range of ecosystem processes. This ecoclimatic framework is underpinned by two hypotheses: (i) exposure to water deficit can be represented probabilistically and used to estimate exposure thresholds across different vegetation types or ecosystems; and (ii) the cumulative impact of a series of water deficit events is defined by attributes governing the resistance and recovery of the affected processes. We present case studies comprising Pinus edulis and Eucalyptus globulus, tree species with contrasting ecological strategies, which demonstrate how links between exposure and resilience can be examined within our proposed framework. These examples reveal how climatic thresholds can be defined along a continuum of vegetation functional responses to water deficit regimes. The strength of this framework lies in identifying climatic thresholds on vegetation function in the absence of more complete mechanistic understanding, thereby guiding the formulation, application and benchmarking of more detailed modelling. PMID:26643922

  1. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on abundance and community structure of the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in greenhouse vegetable soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi-Bai; Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Bai, Ling-Yu; Li, Lian-Fang; Duan, Ran; Su, Shi-Ming; Wu, Cui-Xia

    2014-02-01

    The community structure and abundance of nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in different soil layers (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) under various fertilization regimes in Wuwei, Gansu Province were investigated by the combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR. Results showed that the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria community structure was significantly affected by fertilization regimes, especially for 70, 156 and 190 bp T-RFs that represented the dominant populations in greenhouse soil. Fertilization regimes significantly influenced the abundance of nirK gene in the 0-20 cm soil layer with the highest abundance of nirK gene copy number (2.16 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil) detected in the manure treatment (M), which was 2.04 and 2.02 times of that in the control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (NPK) treatments, respectively. Both the dominant population and abundance of nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in the greenhouse soil were significantly different between the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers, and the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria community structure and abundance in the greenhouse soil were obviously different from that in the field. Soil pH, soil organic matter content and nitrate-N content had the greatest influence on the bacterial community composition. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were not only anaerobic nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in greenhouse soil, but also aerobic denitrifying bacteria, such as Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Agrobacterium. PMID:24830252

  2. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  3. 毛乌素沙地南缘不同植被恢复类型的土壤养分效应%Effects of Different Vegetation Restoration Types on Soil Nutrients in Southern Edge of Mu Us Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越; 谷斯; 孙保平; 杜会石; 赵岩; 钟晓娟

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨植被恢复对土壤养分的影响,研究了毛乌素沙地南缘天然草地、人工封育草地、撂荒地、退耕还林地、固定沙地5种不同植被恢复类型区的土壤养分特征.结果表明:不同植被恢复类型对土壤有机质、全氮、有效氮、速效磷的影响存在明显差异;灌草结合的人工封育草地、退耕还林地、固定沙地土壤有机质、全氮、有效氮的含量高于以草本为主的天然草地和撂荒地,但土壤速效磷的含量刚好相反;植被对表层0~20 cm土壤养分的影响大于下层20~60 cm土壤,植被作用下土壤养分向表层富集;采用柠条进行退耕还林,能够充分发挥其根系特性,有利于改良深层土壤养分.%In order to discuss the effects of vegetation restoration on soil nutrient status, the variation characteristics of soil nutrients among S different vegetation restoration types (natural grassland, enclosed grassland, abandoned land, land as returning farmland to woodland, fixed sandy land) on soil nutrient status were studied in southern edge of Mu Us sandy land. The results showed that: the influence of different vegetation restoration types on soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and available phosphorus were conspicuously different. The contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen in these lands (enclosed grassland, land as returning farmland to woodland and fixed sandy land) which were the combination of shrub and herb, were higher than in those lands (natural grassland and abandoned land) with mainly herb. But just the opposite, the contents of soil available phosphorus in these were lower than in those. The influence of vegetation on the surface 0-20 cm soil nutrient was greater than that on the deep 20-60 cm soil, also the soil nutrient was to surface enrichment under the action of vegetation. Planting the species (Caragana korshinskh) for converting cropland to forest could

  4. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Cruz-Elizalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zona sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP, con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE, con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo.The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF, with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF, with 12

  5. 漓江鱼类生态类型及生物多样性变化情况%Ecological Types and Biodiversity of Fish in Lijiang River,Guilin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑜; 蔡德所; 周解; 韩耀全

    2012-01-01

    The ecological environment of the river is monitored through investigation of the ecological types and biodiversity of fish in Lijiang river. The results show that the biodiversity of fish in Lijiang river was higher,but with more genu of single species,sensitive species reduced greatly,the submucosa and benthic fish reduced significantly,the proportion of omnivorous fish increased,CPUE reduced,economic fish was of miniatunization and younger age. The ecological envirment of water is under great pressure.%本文通过对漓江水流域鱼类生态类型和鱼类生物多样性的变化进行调查,监测河流生态系统的情况.结果是,漓江鱼类物种多样性指数较高,但单种属较多;敏感性鱼类种类大幅度减少,中下层鱼类和底栖鱼类明显减少,杂食性鱼类比例上升;单位捕捞努力量渔获量减少,经济鱼类小型化,低龄化.水域生态环境存在较大的压力.

  6. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  7. Chemical ecology of marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-07-28

    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions. PMID:27090772

  8. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  9. Reassembling ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    In its general form, stakeholder theory posits an extension of the ecology. It claims that there are other stakes and interests than those posited by shareholder value theory (Freeman et al. 2004; Jensen and Sandström 2011), and some stakeholder theory proponents argue that the natural environment is also to be considered as a stakeholder (Driscoll and Starik 2004; Norton 2007). It is a positive claim – there are more stakes and interests – and a moral one – we should look towards more intere...

  10. Classification of Ecological Twin Species and Plant Functional Type for Natural Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Middle Part of Qinling Mountains%秦岭中段天然油松林生态种对和功能群划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺雨阳; 王得祥; 雷瑞德; 雍小华

    2009-01-01

    利用20个野外调查的样地资料,分析了油松天然林主要种群种间联结及其生态位重叠特征,结果表明,秦岭中段油松天然林生态种对有8个:山杨-栓皮栎、秦岭木姜子-黄连木、光皮桦-青杄、色木槭-刺叶栎、色木槭-铁杉、盐肤木-槲栎、梾木-少脉椴、桦叶四蕊槭-青榨槭.在此基础上,利用聚类分析结果结合种群的生态位特征,将该区油松天然林划分为4个生态种组,其中油松独立成为了生态关键种的种组.结合生态种对,把第4个生态种组近一步划分为4个功能群:"广泛伴生种"、"嗜热物种"、"嗜湿物种"和"潜在建群种",各功能群都具有明显的生态过程(主要是物理过程和生物过程),能帮助解释物种对生态系统过程影响的机理.生态种对和生态种组两者结合分析植物功能群得出的结果合理,功能群之间的界定也比较清晰,符合各种群的生物学等的特征.%The interspecific association of main populations of natural Pinus tabulaeformis forests in the middle part of Qinling Mountains and the characteristics of niche overlap were analysed base on field investigation. Results show that there are eight preliminary ecological twin species, namely Populus davidiana Dode-Quercus variabilis Blume, Litsea tsinlingensis Yang et P. H. Huang-Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Betula luminifera-Picea wilsonii Mast, Acer mono Maxim-Quercus spinosa David, Acer mono Meaim-Tsuga chinensis ( Franch. ) Pritz, Rhus chinensis WXL-Quercus aliena Blume, Swida macrophylla ( Wall. ) Sojak-Tilia amurensis, and Acer tetramerum Pax var. betulifolium ( Maxim. ) Rehd-Acer davidii Franch. Natural P. tabulaeformis forests in this area are classified into four ecological species groups according to the cluster analysis re-sults , in which Chinese pine become an independent species group of the ecological keystone species. The fourth ecological species group is divided into four plant functional types, all that

  11. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  12. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  13. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  14. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  15. Ecological Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  16. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in