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Sample records for vegetation surveys geochemical

  1. Geochemical Survey of Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, A.; Duarte, P.J.; Almeida, M.G. de; Medeiros, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    The area studied i this work is located in a triangle formed by the Sibiro and Boca da Mata Sugar-Mills and Serinhaem country. In the Cabo Formation the search determinated conglomerates, arcos and clays. Although the highest geochemical activity have been done in the decomposed crystalin, and the values from Cabo Formation don't be encourager, this formation has lithology compatible with uranium mineralization. The Cabo Formation's sediments presents lithologic variations very expressives, with conglomerates, arcoses and clay silts, which determinate the choise of the area. This area presented favorable to uranium prospecting and to others elements interesting to ragional geochemistry. The atomic absorption analysis, fluorimetry and spectrometry were done for the following elements: Zn, V, Ti, Ni, Pb, Mn, Ga, Cu, Co, Bi, Ag, B, Mo, and U. (C.D.G.) [pt

  2. Panay carborne radiometric and geochemical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A carborne radiometric survey and stream sediments collection were conducted in Panay and Guimaras Islands. An area in Nabas, Aklan, situated in the northwestern tip of Panay (Buruanga Peninsula) which indicated 2 to 3 times above background radioactivity was delineated. Uranium content in the stream sediment samples collected from Buruanga Peninsula was generally higher than those obtained in other parts of the island. Radioactivity measurements and uranium content in stream sediments were found to be within background levels. It is recommended that follow-up radiometric and geochemical surveys be undertaken in Buruanga Peninsula and additional stream sediments samples be collected in Panay to achieve better sampling density and coverage. (author)

  3. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  4. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  5. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  6. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Stream sediment geochemical surveys for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Stream sediment is more universally available than ground and surface waters and comprises the bulk of NURE samples. Orientation studies conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory indicate that several mesh sizes can offer nearly equivalent information. Sediment is normally sieved in the field to pass a 420-micrometer screen (US Std. 40 mesh) and that portion of the dried sediment passing a 149-micrometer screen (US Std. 100 mesh) is recovered for analysis. Sampling densities usually vary with survey objectives and types of deposits anticipated. Principal geologic features that can be portrayed at a scale of 1:250,000, such as major tectonic units, plutons, and pegmatite districts, are readily defined using a sampling density of 1 site per 5 square miles (13 km 2 ). More detailed studies designed to define individual deposits require greater sampling density. Analyses for elements known to be associated with uranium in a particular mineral host may be used to estimate the relative proportion of uranium in several forms. For example, uranium may be associated with thorium and cerium in monazite, and with zirconium and hafnium in zircon. Readily leachable uranium may be adsorbed to trapped in oxide coatings on mineral particles. Soluble or mobile uranium may indicate an ore source, whereas uranium in monazite or zircon is not likely to be economically attractive. Various schemes may be used to estimate for form of uranium in a sample. Simple elemental ratios are a useful first approach. Multiple ratios and subtractive formulas empirically designed to account for the presence of particular minerals are more useful. Residuals calculated from computer-derived regression equations or factor scores appear to have the greatest potential for locating uranium anomalies

  8. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtelot, H A

    1979-12-11

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.

  9. Neutron activation analysis in reconnaissance geochemical survey of Northwestern Mindoro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique was used to analyze stream sediments collected in Northwestern Mindoro. The concentration levels of 18 elements were determined. It was noted that NAA is suitable for the determination of rare earth, gold, arsenic and cobalt among others because of favorable high neutron cross sections. Samples collected in regional reconnaissance geochemical surveys could be analyzed usng NAA technique to complement other non-nuclear techniques, such as atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author). 11 figs.; 2 tabs.; 12 refs

  10. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Marysvale, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Vreeland, J.L.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Marysvale detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 397 stream sediment samples and 160 radiometric readings. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Stream sediments containing significant amounts of soluble uranium (greater than or equal to 16.93 ppM) occur in numerous areas, the most prevalent being in the western portion of the survey area, within and surrounding the Mount Belknap Caldera. Thorium, beryllium, cerium, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, potassium, yttrium, zinc, and zirconium occur in concentrations greater than or equal to 84th percentile in many sediment samples taken from within and surrounding the Mount Belknap Caldera. The uranium and related variables are associated with highly silicic intrusions and extrusions of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, as well as hydrothermal activity which has occurred in the Marysvale volcanic field

  11. Semi-detailed uranium geochemical survey in Northwestern Samar (27 March 1979 - 4 July 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Ogena, M.; Tauli, G.

    1980-04-01

    A uranium geochemical survey was conducted to delineate in detail the uranium prospective area(s) in northwestern Samar. A total of 805 stream sediments and 1.115 water samples were obtained from the target areas from uranium analysis. Geochemical anomalies were indicated in San Isidro and Mauo. Geochemical correlations between uranium and trace elements (Pb, Ag, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn) were generally poor. (ELC)

  12. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  13. Orientation geochemical survey for uranium exploration using 230Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dingliang.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of 230 Th in soils, rocks and ores and its relationship with respect to uranium ore formation are discussed for its possible use in geochemical exploration for U. 230 Th, U and Ra, being members of the same decay series, are different in their geochemical behavior upon which the study is orientated. Twenty uranium deposits and occurrences located in western and southern Hunan province are tested. Geochemical data obtained are comprehensively correlated. It is suggested that 230 Th is useful not only in U-Ra disequilibrium study but also in understanding the geochemical evolution of U ores. The data aid to interpret the genesis of uranium deposits and to assess the radioactive anomalies and uranium-bearing zones. Therefore, it can be adopted as a tool for searching in deep-buried uranium ores. The field procedure is rather simple and flexible to meet any geological environment. It is easy to read out and is less influnced by any kind of interference. In case of disequilibrium caused by oxidation and reduction during the period of ore formation it still gives good indication compared with that of radiometry, radonmetry and geochemical sampling for U

  14. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  15. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas. Solitario survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Payne, A.G.; Grimes, J.G.; Helgerson, R.N.; Bard, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Solitario survey area portion of the detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 119 groundwater and 520 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are breifly discussed. Groundwaters having concentrations of uranium greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB are observed in the western half of the survey area. These wells generally produce from the Chisos Formation and Buck Hill Volcanic Series or alluvium derived from these units. Lithium, sodium, boron, uranium/specific conductance, uranium/boron, and uranium/sulfate are noted to be most highly associated within the area of anomalously high uranium. The highest potential for uranium mineralization, in view of these groundwater data, lies in the LaVuida and Bandera Mesa areas. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 2.57 ppM soluble uranium occur in numerous areas within the survey area. The highest concentrations of uranium occur in sediments derived from the Buck Hill Volcanic Series and Cretaceous limestones. Above background concentrations of arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, nickel, calcium, and strontium were noted to be associated with areas of anomalously high uranium. These elements are most prominently associated with uranium anomalies occurring in Cretaceous limestone

  16. Reconnaisance geochemical survey of heavy minerals in Northern Luzon, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Seguis, J.E.; Fernandez, L.G.

    1983-07-01

    A reconnaissance sampling was undertaken in northern Luzon to study the distribution of uranium as well as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, cobalt and nickel in heavy minerals. The average background and threshold values of the elements were determined. Uranium content in the heavy mineral was low, in the order of 0.5-0.6 ppm U. Three uranium anomaly zones were delineated in Malanas Rever-Licuan area, Abra, Itogon, Benguet and Bambang, Nueva Viscaya, all within the Central Cordillera. The anomalous zones appeared to be related to copper-gold mineral areas. Geochemical correlations between uranium and the other elements were generally poor. (author)

  17. Geochemical drainage surveys for uranium: sampling and analytical methods based on trial surveys in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Keith, M.L.; Suhr, N.H.

    1976-01-01

    Geochemical surveys near sandstone-type uranium prospects in northeastern and north-central Pennsylvania show that the deposits can be detected by carefully planned stream sediment surveys, but not by stream water surveys. Stream waters at single sites changed in U content by x10 to 50 during the 18 months of our studies, and even near known prospects, contain less than 0.2 ppB U most of the time. Uranium extractable from stream sediment by acetic acid--H 2 O 2 provides useful contrast between mineralized and nonmineralized drainages of a square mile or less; total U in sediment does not. High organic material results in increased U content of sediments and must be corrected. Changes in U content of sediment with time reach a maximum of x3 and appear to be of short duration. A sediment of about 200 mi 2 near Jim Thorpe detects anomalies extending over several square miles near known occurrences and a second anomaly about two miles northeast of Penn Haven Jct. A similar survey in Lycoming-Sullivan Counties shows anomalous zones near known prospects of the Beaver Lake area and northwest of Muncy Creek. As, Mn, Pb, and V are enriched in the mineralized zones, and perhaps in surrounding halo zones, but do not appear to be pathfinder elements useful for reconnaissance exploration

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas. Tascotal survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Payne, A.G.; Grimes, J.G.; Helgerson, R.N.; Bard, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Tascotal survey area portion of the detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 337 groundwater and 611 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 80.0 ppB uranium were detected in three areas largely producing from acidic volcanoclastics in the south central portion of the survey area. High specific conductance and an association of lithium, selenium, and sodium were observed in these areas of anomalously high uranium. High uranium/specific conductance, uranium/boron, and uranium/sulfate ratios are also associated with areas of the highest uranium concentrations. Alkalinities in these areas were noted to be highly variable over short distances within the same hydrologic unit. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 2.57 ppM soluble uranium are located in the southwestern and the north and south central portions of the survey area. High U-FL/U-NT and low thorium/U-NT values are observed with sediments derived from acidic volcanics in the southern portions of the survey area. In areas of anomalously high uranium, an association of above background concentrations of thorium, lithium, potassium, beryllium, and zirconium were noted. In view of these data, areas containing the Buck Hill Volcanic Series, the Mitchell Mesa, and Tascotal Formations provide the best possibilities of an economical uranium deposit

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Peco, Texas. Sierra Vieja survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Payne, A.G.; Grimes, J.G.; Helgerson, R.N.; Bard, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Sierra Vieja survey area of the detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 29 groundwater and 240 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Highest concentrations of uranium in groundwater predominantly occur in areas marginal to the Rio Grande. These wells and spring produce from Quaternary alluvium or the Vieja Group. High specific conductance is also associated with most of the wells located marginal to the Rio Grande. The specific conductance of wells in other areas with greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB uranium are notably lower. Higher than background concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic, and vanadium are observed with wells containing greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB uranium. Total alkalinity and pH display a variable distribution throughout the survey area. Stream sediment from several areas contain greater than or equal to 2.57 soluble uranium. In areas where these concentrations account for greater than or equal to 83% of the uranium present in the sediment, above background concentrations of sodium, aluminum, barium, potassium, zirconium, cerium, and strontium are detected. The degree to which these elements are associated with favorably high uranium concentrations is related to the relative amounts of volcaniclastic and calcareous sedimentary material incorporated in the sample

  20. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay: Hydro-geochemical study and impacts of vegetation and sand on remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Liang, Xu

    2018-10-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling. Two important issues associated with this passive and auto-sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the hydrogeochemical study of the mixture in terms of the percentages of AC and CR, and, 2) impacts of vegetation cover and a saturated sand barrier on the remediation. Both the field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local coal waste site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments and the geochemical modeling, alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD, in terms of achieving a neutral pH in the leachate and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the use of vegetation and a saturated sand barrier are beneficial. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked downward the oxygen and water diffusion, reducing pyrite oxidation rates. The proposed remediation approach ensures that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconnaissance geochemical survey for uranium and related industrial minerals in Cebu Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.Y.; Ramos, A.F.; Magsambol, W.N.; Hernandez, E.

    1989-03-01

    Consistent with the program of evaluating the nuclear mineral resource potential and related industrial minerals of the Philippines, a reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in Cebu with considerable success. The total area covered by the survey was about 5,088 sq. kms. The survey consisted of systematic collection of 857 geochemical stream and water and heavy mineral samples, and measurement of radioactivity in over 352 stations. The average sampling density was about one set of samples per 15 to 30 sq. kms. All solid samples were analyzed for U, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ag, Co and Ni. Uranium, radon and conductivity were measured on most water samples collected. A total of 4,518 elemental determinations were involved. All field and analytical data were treated by statistics, and the computed parameters data were correlated with the geology of the area to establish anomalous zones. Four areas were delineated for possible uranium mineralization. Of the areas, the Mandaue river area is the most interesting for uranium. The contact zone between the diorite and the sedimentary rocks in this area appears to be a favorable geological environment for uranium mineralization. The other anomalous uranium values were found to be related with the guano and phosphate deposits. Uranium was also shown to be independent of the other seven elements in the geologic environment of Cebu. No definite elemental association could be established at present. This study also marks the thorough utilization of Q'GAS, Cadplot and Autocad, all microcomputer-based programs/systems, in the evaluation and interpretation of exploration-oriented geochemical and geological data, and with more significance in the sense that computer generated quality geochemical maps were produced, a first in the country. (Author). Appendices (23); 23 figs; 13 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Sulfide geochemical survey in Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte (Southern Luzon), Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    Sulfide geochemical activation analysis survey was conducted in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Trace elements in the rocks of Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte, particularly in the sulfide fraction of the rocks were determined and correlated in the search for mineral deposits in the project area. The study has shown that the Cu, V, Co, Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Au, Ag and As distributions in Dawahan are log normal with Cu, As and V having an excess of low values. There is a direct relationship between the mineralizations of Ag and Pb with Cu mineralization. Fair geochemical correlations were observed between Cu-Zn, Cu-As and Cu-Co. Low negative or inverse correlation exists between Cu-Mn, Cu-V and Cu-Au. Silver is a good pathfinder for copper deposits in Dawahan and adjacent areas and most probably including the Paracale mining district

  3. A national-scale geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sampling for national-scale soil geochemical and mineralogical survey completed for conterminous USA. → Natural variation for most elements is approximately three orders of magnitude. → Composition of soil parent material is the major controlling factor. → Climate (average annual precipitation) is also an important controlling factor for some elements. → Sample archive (4800 sites) available for future investigations. - Abstract: In 2007, the US Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km 2 , c. 4800 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous USA. The ideal sampling protocol at each site includes a sample from 0-5 cm depth, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a sample from the soil C horizon. The 3 , HClO 4 and HF. Separate methods are used for As, Hg, Se and total C on this same size fraction. The major mineralogical components are determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. Sampling was completed in 2010 with chemical and mineralogical analysis currently underway. Preliminary results for a swath from the central USA to Florida clearly show the effects of soil parent material and climate on the chemical and mineralogical composition of soils. A sample archive will be established and made available for future investigations.

  4. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Tonsina area, Valdez Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 128 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Tonsina area in the Chugach Mountains, Valdez quadrangle, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies

  5. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Zane Hills, Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential.The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska.For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 105 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Zane Hills area in the Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies.

  6. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  7. Detailed geochemical survey for east-central Minnesota, geology and geochemistry of selected uranium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morey, G.B.; Lively, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a detailed geochemical survey of approximately 6820 km 2 in parts of Aitkin, Carlton, Kanabec, and Pine Counties, east-central Minnesota are reported. Geochemical data are presented for 883 groundwater samples and 200 bedrock samples. Although all of the groundwaters in the study area have similar major-element concentrations and therefore presumably a common ancestry, small differences in the minor-element concentrations serve to characterize various aquifers, both in the Quaternary deposits and in the bedrock. All of the aquifers locally yield waters having statistically anomalous concentrations of uranium or radon, but these anomalies are spatially coincident only in a few places and particularly in three geologic environments considered favorable for uranium mineralization. These include the following: (1) Thomson Formation near the unconformably overlying Fond du Lac Formation, (2) Hinckley Sandstone near a major fault system, and (3) Denham Formation near the unconformity with the McGrath Gneiss, particularly where these rocks are faulted and overlain by the Fond du Lac Formation. One additional uranium environment characterized by thin laminae of uraniferous apatite was located in the Thomson Formation during outcrop reconnaissance and sampling. The coincidence of this and other anomalously high uranium values in the bedrock with specific uranium and radon anomalies in the groundwater confirms the usefulness of the hydrogeochemical data to uranium exploration in this glaciated terrane

  8. A stream sediment geochemical survey of the Ganga River headwaters in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.K.; Purohit, K.K.; Saini, N.K.; Khanna, P.P.; Rathi, M.S.; Grosz, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    This study models geochemical and adjunct geologic data to define provinces that are favorable for radioactive-mineral exploration. A multi-element bed-sediment geochemical survey of streams was carried out in the headwaters region of the Ganga River in northern India. Overall median values for uranium and thorium (3.6 and 13.8 ppm; maxima of 4.8 and 19.0 ppm and minima of 3.1 and 12.3 ppm respectively) exceed average upper crustal abundances (2.8 and 10.7 ppm) for these radioactive elements. Anomalously high values reach up to 8.3 and 30.1 ppm in thrust zone rocks, and 11.4 and 22.5 ppm in porphyroids. At their maxima, these abundances are nearly four- and three-fold (respectively) enriched in comparison to average crustal abundances for these rock types. Deformed, metamorphosed and sheared rocks are characteristic of the main central thrust zone (MCTZ). These intensively mylonitized rocks override and juxtapose porphyritic (PH) and proterozoic metasedimentary rock sequences (PMS) to the south. Granitoid rocks, the major protoliths for mylonites, as well as metamorphosed rocks in the MCT zone are naturally enriched in radioelements; high values associated with sheared and mylonitized zones are coincident with reports of radioelement mineralization and with anomalous radon concentrations in soils. The radioelement abundance as well as REE abundance shows a northward enrichment trend consistent with increasing grade of metamorphism indicating deformation-induced remobilization of these elements. U and Th illustrate good correlation with REEs but not with Zr. This implies that zircon is not a principal carrier of U and Th within the granitoid-dominant thrust zone and that other radioelement-rich secondary minerals are present in considerable amounts. Thus, the relatively flat, less fractionated, HREE trend is also not entirely controlled by zircon. The spatial correlation of geologic boundary zones (faults, sheared zones) with geochemical and with geophysical (Rn

  9. Geochemical and mineralogical controls on mine tailings rehabilitation and vegetation, Otago Schist, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craw, D.; Rufaut, C.

    2017-01-01

    Large areas (square kilometre scale) of mine tailings have been deposited from placer gold mines in Central Otago, and are being deposited at Macraes orogenic gold mine in east Otago. Establishment of vegetation on these tailings involves at least some provision of plant nutrients from the rock. Phosphorus is the principal limiting nutrient, as the c. 1000 mg/kg P in accessory apatite, most abundant in micaceous schist, is only sparingly bioavailable on timescales of weeks to months. Nitrogen is an important limiting nutrient but schist, especially micaceous schist, typically contains 500-1000 mg/kg N, and this nitrogen is readily leachable with water on timescales of weeks to months. Arsenic uptake from tailings by pasture species is significant (< 90 mg/kg dry weight), but elevated As in tailings substrates (c. 1500 mg/kg) does not adversely affect plant health. Capping of tailings with variably oxidised schist is the most effective way of facilitating revegetation, and some addition of phosphatic fertiliser is desirable but other nutrients, including nitrogen, are adequately bioavailable in a schist cap and underlying tailings. (author).

  10. Geochemical and radiometric surveys of Sabkhet Al-Jaboul area by investigating trace elements, radon measurements and gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hilal, M.

    1999-08-01

    Radiometric and geochemical surveys were carried out over various geological formations in Sabkhet Al-Jaboul and its surrounding environment for evaluating the levels of radioactivity in the area. Therefore, a number of exploration techniques were used in this study such as gamma ray spectrometry, geochemical exploration and soil radon measurements. Although the results of this survey indicate some slight variations of which might be useful to distinguish between various lithological units, most of the obtained data do not reveal any significant radiometric values that could be considered important from the exploration point of view. However, these data were successfully handled to estimate the natural background of radioactivity throughout the geological units of the region. The results also showed the importance of the sedimentary transition contact zone where the continental fresh and salt favourable geochemical environment for uranium precipitation when other fundamental geological requirements for developing such concentrations are available. (author)

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines

  13. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  14. Interpretation of aerial gamma-ray surveys - adding the geochemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, B.L.; Scott, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveying reflects the geochemical variations of potassium, uranium and thorium in the upper 30 cm of the Earth's surface. This thin layer is subject to the effects of weathering, which leads to loss of K in all rock types and, for felsic rocks, loss of U and Th as well. The extent of the loss depends on many factors, but is typically 20-30 per cent for all three radioelements. Intermediate and basic rocks show little change in radioelement concentrations during initial weathering, but pedogenesis can result in soils with 2-3 times the U and Th content of the parent rock. However, wide ranges in radioelement compositions occur for a given rock type and its weathered products. Mineralizing processes can also affect radioelement contents. For example, K is increased in altered rocks at the Copper Hill and Goonumbla porphyry Cu deposits in central NSW. Thorium concentration shows both depletion and enrichment during hydrothermal alteration, as illustrated by the Au prospects at Bimurra, in northeast Queensland. Uranium is even more erratically affected by alteration and is generally not a useful indicator of alteration. Regolith processes can affect these alteration signatures. Highly weathered deposits may lose their K, particularly if hosted by K-feldspar, as at Goonumbla. Transported soils may disguise or change rock signatures often in unexpected ways. The Mt Leyshon gold deposit, in north Queensland, is seen in the aerial survey as a K-rich area because its signature is not contaminated by material weathered from late-Silurian dolerites. Detailed interpretation of aerial gamma-ray surveys for exploration purposes requires the delineation of the major geological units of the survey area, then examination of the subtle variations within the most prospective units, aided by other data sets and field checking of the anomalous areas identified. 42 refs.,2 tabs., 13 figs

  15. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu

    2017-01-01

    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  16. Geochemical survey of an illegal waste disposal site under a waste emergency scenario (Northwest Naples, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, L; Iannace, M; Patelli, A M; Arienzo, M

    2013-03-01

    Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled landfills. The aim was to characterise a former cave located in Roccarainola (Naples, Italy) for its eventual destination to a controlled landfill site. A detailed hydro-geochemical survey of the area was carried out through drilling of 14 boreholes and four monitoring wells. Samples of water, sediment and soil were analysed for heavy metals and organic contaminants from a dew pond placed in the middle of the cave. The underneath aquifer was also surveyed. The nature of gases emitted from the site was investigated. Results of the geognostic survey revealed the presence of huge volumes of composite wastes, approximately half a million of cubic metre, which accumulated up to a thickness of 25.6 m. In some points, wastes lie below the free surface level of the aquifer. The sampled material from the boreholes revealed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Tl and Zn exceeding the intervention legal limits. Outstanding loads of Cd, Pb and Zn were found, with levels exceeding of about 50, 100 and 1,870 times the limit. In several points, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was extremely high, 35 vs 1 mg kg(-1) of the threshold. The aquifer was also very heavily polluted by Cd, Cr-tot, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, with impressive high load of Cr and Mn, up to 250-370 times the limits. Hot gases up to 62 °C with presence of xylene and ethylbenzene were found. Results indicated that the site needs an urgent intervention of recovery to avoid compromising the surrounding areas and aquifers of the Campania plain.

  17. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Thomas Range-Wasatch, Utah. Farmington Project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; Witt, D.A.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Farmington project area of the Thomas Range-Wasatch detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 71 groundwater samples, 345 stream sediment samples, and 178 radiometric readings. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the project area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Uranium concentrations in groundwater range from <0.20 to 21.77 ppB. The highest values are from groundwaters producing from areas in or near the Norwood Tuff and Wasatch, Evanston, and/or Echo Canyon Formations, and the Farmington Canyon Complex. The uranium:boron ratio delineates an anomalous trend associated with the Farmington Canyon Complex. Variables associated with uranium in groundwaters producing from the Norwood Tuff and Wasatch, Evanston, and/or Echo Canyon Formations include the uranium:sulfate ratio, boron, barium, potassium, lithium, silicon, chloride, selenium, and vanadium. Soluble uranium concentrations (U-FL) in stream sediments range from 0.99 to 86.41 ppM. Total uranium concentrations (U-NT) range from 1.60 to 92.40 ppM. Thorium concentrations range from <2 to 47 ppM. Anomalous concentrations of these variables are associated with the Farmington Canyon Complex. Variables which are associated with uranium include cerium, sodium, niobium, phosphorus, titanium, and yttrium

  19. A reconnaissance survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Smith

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park (NLNP was carried out over a period of two years. The main aims of the survey were to describe the major vegetation communities in the park and to produce a vegetation map of the NLNP Initial differentiation of vegetation units was established by the appearance of the vegetation on aerial photographs Further information was derived from 353 ground plots in which > 20 000 woody plants were identified and measured Thirteen broad vegetation types were recognised in the NLNP Details of their physiognomy, species composition, distribution, topography and edaphic associations are given.

  20. A new approach for geochemical surveys of large areas for uranium resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.; Butz, T.R.; Cagle, G.W.; Kane, V.E.; Nichols, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Grand Junction, Colorado office of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to evaluate the uranium resources in the United States and Alaska. The program is designed to identify favorable areas for uranium exploration, to assess the supply of domestic resources, and to improve exploration technology. The Nuclear Division of the Union Carbide Corporation has been assigned the responsibility of conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment survey of the mid-continental states in the United States. This survey covers approximately 2,500,000 km 2 (1,000,000 mi 2 ) and includes the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. The uranium potential of sandstones, Precambrian conglomerates, veins, granites, and phosphorites is being assessed utliizing a three-part program consisting of pilot surveys in each geological province and two phases of reconnaissance sampling of drainage basins. Samples of stream sediment, stream water, groundwater, algae, and vegetation are analyzed for uranium and some 20 additional elements. Data resulting from this program is released to private industry by ERDA as it becomes available. Analysis of results from a typical three-part survey are given. For distinctive geological regions, the pilot survey will: (1) define characteristic concentration background levels of the elements of interest, (2) identify potential uranium pathfinder elements, (3) determine relationship between stream, stream sediment and botanical samples, (4) identify any necessary modification to field sampling techniques, and (5) determine necessary sensitivities required for chemical analysis. The first reconnaissance phase average sample spacing of one station per 250 km 2 (100 mi 2 ) drainage basin is shown to delineate general boundaries of uranium provinces, and the second

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Thomas Range-Wasatch, Utah. Cottonwood project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; Witt, D.A.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of Cottonwood project area of the Thomas Range-Wasatch detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 15 groundwater samples, 79 stream sediment samples, and 85 radiometric readings. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the project area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Uranium concentrations in groundwater range from 0.25 to 3.89 ppB. The highest concentrations are from groundwaters from the Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Stocks. Variables that appear to be associated with uranium in groundwater include cobalt, iron, potassium, manganese, nickel, sulfate, and to a lesser extent, molybdenum and strontium. This association is attributed to the Monzonitic Little Cottonwood Stock, granodioritic to granitic and lamprophyric dikes, and known sulfide deposits. Soluble uranium concentrations (U-FL) in stream sediments range from 0.31 to 72.64 ppM. Total uranium concentrations (U-NT) range from 1.80 to 75.20 ppM. Thorium concentrations range from <2 to 48 ppM. Anomalous values for uranium and thorium are concentrated within the area of outcrop of the Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Stocks. Variables which are areally associated with high values of uranium, thorium, and the U-FL:U-NT ratio within the Little Cottonwood Stock are barium, copper, molybdenum, and zinc. High concentrations of these variables are located near sulfide deposits within the Little Cottonwood Stock

  2. Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Naftz, David L.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research by the U.S. Geological Survey has characterized contaminant sources and identified important geochemical processes that influence transport of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling wastes. 1) Selective extraction studies indicated that alkaline earth sulfates and hydrous ferric oxides are important hosts of 226Ra in uranium mill tailings. The action of sulfate-reducing and ironreducing bacteria on these phases was shown to enhance release of radium, and this adverse result may temper decisions to dispose of uranium mill tailings in anaerobic environments. 2) Field studies have shown that although surface-applied sewage sludge/wood chip amendments aid in revegetating pyritic spoil, the nitrogen in sludge leachate can enhance pyrite oxidation, acidification of groundwater, and the consequent mobilization of metals and radionuclides. 3) In a U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyfunded study, three permeable reactive barriers consisting of phosphate-rich material, zero-valent iron, or amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide have been installed at an abandoned uranium upgrader facility near Fry Canyon, UT. Preliminary results indicate that each of the permeable reactive barriers is removing the majority of the uranium from the groundwater. 4) Studies on the geochemistry of rare earth elements as analogues for actinides such as uranium and thorium in acid mine drainage environments indicate high mobility under acid-weathering conditions but measurable attenuation associated with iron and aluminum colloid formation. Mass balances from field and laboratory studies are being used to quantify the amount of attenuation. 5) A field study in Colorado demonstrated the use of 234U/238U isotopic ratio measurements to evaluate contamination of shallow groundwater with uranium mill effluent.

  3. A case for a vegetation survey in a developing country based on Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Müller

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a vegetation survey in Zimbabwe, a developing country, is discussed. It is proposed that such a survey should produce a classification which is based on floristic criteria, and in which the vegetation types relate as nearly as possible to homogeneous environmental units. The practical application of such a classification is outlined with reference to the management of natural vegetation resources, land use planning and the preservation of species diversity.

  4. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the northeastern Alaska Range, Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 670 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the northeastern Alaska Range, in the Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical

  5. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Kougarok area, Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 302 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Kougarok River drainage as well as smaller adjacent drainages in the Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated

  6. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Relationships between aquatic vegetation and water turbidity: A field survey across seasons and spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, ?sa N.; Hansen, Joakim P.; Donadi, Serena; Ekl?f, Johan S.

    2017-01-01

    Field surveys often show that high water turbidity limits cover of aquatic vegetation, while many small-scale experiments show that vegetation can reduce turbidity by decreasing water flow, stabilizing sediments, and competing with phytoplankton for nutrients. Here we bridged these two views by exploring the direction and strength of causal relationships between aquatic vegetation and turbidity across seasons (spring and late summer) and spatial scales (local and regional), using causal model...

  8. Relationships between aquatic vegetation and water turbidity: A field survey across seasons and spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Åsa N; Hansen, Joakim P; Donadi, Serena; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Field surveys often show that high water turbidity limits cover of aquatic vegetation, while many small-scale experiments show that vegetation can reduce turbidity by decreasing water flow, stabilizing sediments, and competing with phytoplankton for nutrients. Here we bridged these two views by exploring the direction and strength of causal relationships between aquatic vegetation and turbidity across seasons (spring and late summer) and spatial scales (local and regional), using causal modeling based on data from a field survey along the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The two best-fitting regional-scale models both suggested that in spring, high cover of vegetation reduces water turbidity. In summer, the relationships differed between the two models; in the first model high vegetation cover reduced turbidity; while in the second model reduction of summer turbidity by high vegetation cover in spring had a positive effect on summer vegetation which suggests a positive feedback of vegetation on itself. Nitrogen load had a positive effect on turbidity in both seasons, which was comparable in strength to the effect of vegetation on turbidity. To assess whether the effect of vegetation was primarily caused by sediment stabilization or a reduction of phytoplankton, we also tested models where turbidity was replaced by phytoplankton fluorescence or sediment-driven turbidity. The best-fitting regional-scale models suggested that high sediment-driven turbidity in spring reduces vegetation cover in summer, which in turn has a negative effect on sediment-driven turbidity in summer, indicating a potential positive feedback of sediment-driven turbidity on itself. Using data at the local scale, few relationships were significant, likely due to the influence of unmeasured variables and/or spatial heterogeneity. In summary, causal modeling based on data from a large-scale field survey suggested that aquatic vegetation can reduce turbidity at regional scales, and that high

  9. Relationships between aquatic vegetation and water turbidity: A field survey across seasons and spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa N Austin

    Full Text Available Field surveys often show that high water turbidity limits cover of aquatic vegetation, while many small-scale experiments show that vegetation can reduce turbidity by decreasing water flow, stabilizing sediments, and competing with phytoplankton for nutrients. Here we bridged these two views by exploring the direction and strength of causal relationships between aquatic vegetation and turbidity across seasons (spring and late summer and spatial scales (local and regional, using causal modeling based on data from a field survey along the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The two best-fitting regional-scale models both suggested that in spring, high cover of vegetation reduces water turbidity. In summer, the relationships differed between the two models; in the first model high vegetation cover reduced turbidity; while in the second model reduction of summer turbidity by high vegetation cover in spring had a positive effect on summer vegetation which suggests a positive feedback of vegetation on itself. Nitrogen load had a positive effect on turbidity in both seasons, which was comparable in strength to the effect of vegetation on turbidity. To assess whether the effect of vegetation was primarily caused by sediment stabilization or a reduction of phytoplankton, we also tested models where turbidity was replaced by phytoplankton fluorescence or sediment-driven turbidity. The best-fitting regional-scale models suggested that high sediment-driven turbidity in spring reduces vegetation cover in summer, which in turn has a negative effect on sediment-driven turbidity in summer, indicating a potential positive feedback of sediment-driven turbidity on itself. Using data at the local scale, few relationships were significant, likely due to the influence of unmeasured variables and/or spatial heterogeneity. In summary, causal modeling based on data from a large-scale field survey suggested that aquatic vegetation can reduce turbidity at regional scales

  10. Report on the survey of geothermal development at Okushiri Island, Hokkaido. Geochemical survey (Finger print method); Hokkaido Okushiritou chinetsu kaihatsu chosa chikagaku chosa (Finga print ho) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    The geochemical survey by the finger print method was carried out in the Okushiri Island area, Hokkaido, and places of fracture existence were extracted and districts of possible geothermal existence were estimated. The finger print method is a geochemical survey method of soil gas, and the soil gas was collected along the main roads and mountain streams at measuring intervals of 100-300m. The gas collector was buried 30cm deep from the ground surface for 17 days, and the soil gas that rose from deep underground was adsorbed/accumulated into activated carbon. The gas analysis was made by the high sensitivity Curie point pyrolysis/quadrupole mass spectrometer. As a result of the survey analysis, the existence of fracture zone was presumed in the district along the Shiromizusawa that is a branch of the Horonai River, district along the road of the Okushiri Island line and district 1.5km WSW from the 5.8K Pass. Further, out of all 12 specimens, 6 specimens of Type X were distributed in a group in the district 1km square in north, south, east and west with the top of Mt. Shokan almost as the center. The possible existence of geothermal reservoirs was presumed. (NEDO)

  11. The outlier sample effects on multivariate statistical data processing geochemical stream sediment survey (Moghangegh region, North West of Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Y.; Habibnia, A.; Memar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In geochemical stream sediment surveys in Moghangegh Region in north west of Iran, sheet 1:50,000, 152 samples were collected and after the analyze and processing of data, it revealed that Yb, Sc, Ni, Li, Eu, Cd, Co, as contents in one sample is far higher than other samples. After detecting this sample as an outlier sample, the effect of this sample on multivariate statistical data processing for destructive effects of outlier sample in geochemical exploration was investigated. Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient methods and cluster analysis were used for multivariate studies and the scatter plot of some elements together the regression profiles are given in case of 152 and 151 samples and the results are compared. After investigation of multivariate statistical data processing results, it was realized that results of existence of outlier samples may appear as the following relations between elements: - true relation between two elements, which have no outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - false relation between two elements which one of them has outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - complete false relation between two elements which both have outlier frequency in the outlier sample

  12. Notes on the geochemical survey for uranium in Mindoro Island, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.; Villamater, D.T.; Seguis, J.E.; Ibe, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Geochemical reconnaisance using stream sediment and heavy-mineral concentrates panned from coarse alluvium has been carried out in Mindoro Island, one of the oldest and diverse geologic terrains in the Philippines. A total of 135 selected sampling points situated near accessible areas along the periphery of the island were sampled. The samples were collected at a density of one sample per 53 sq. km. A set minus 80 mesh stream sediment fraction and heavy-mineral concentrates was obtained from each sampling point. Mobile or extractable and total uranium were determined. A large uranium anomaly was delineated over the Carboniferous Mindoro Metamorphics as well as in areas underlain by Early Tertiary sedimentary formations. Another group of anomalies were outlined in the southern part of the island underlain by Jurassic Mansalay Formation and Early to Middle Tertiary sedimentary rocks with associated limestone and coal measures. (author)

  13. A Literature Survey on the Wetland Vegetation of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    filling. Reindeer were once herded for grazing on gravel areas near Barrow that are now devoid of vegetation. The coarse sand of a beach crest has a very...Tanana, and Porcupine . Thaw and oxbow lakes abound in the lowlands and moraine-dammed lakes are found in the mountains. During the Pleistocene

  14. Microbiological and Geochemical Survey of CO2-Dominated Mofette and Mineral Waters of the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Krauze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cheb Basin (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic is a shallow, neogene intracontinental basin. It is a non-volcanic region which features frequent earthquake swarms and large-scale diffuse degassing of mantle-derived CO2 at the surface that occurs in the form of CO2-rich mineral springs and wet and dry mofettes. So far, the influence of CO2 degassing onto the microbial communities has been studied for soil environments, but not for aquatic systems. We hypothesized, that deep-trenching CO2 conduits interconnect the subsurface with the surface. This admixture of deep thermal fluids should be reflected in geochemical parameters and in the microbial community compositions. In the present study four mineral water springs and two wet mofettes were investigated through an interdisciplinary survey. The waters were acidic and differed in terms of organic carbon and anion/cation concentrations. Element geochemical and isotope analyses of fluid components were used to verify the origin of the fluids. Prokaryotic communities were characterized through quantitative PCR and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Putative chemolithotrophic, anaerobic and microaerophilic organisms connected to sulfur (e.g., Sulfuricurvum, Sulfurimonas and iron (e.g., Gallionella, Sideroxydans cycling shaped the core community. Additionally, CO2-influenced waters form an ecosystem containing many taxa that are usually found in marine or terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. Multivariate statistics highlighted the influence of environmental parameters such as pH, Fe2+ concentration and conductivity on species distribution. The hydrochemical and microbiological survey introduces a new perspective on mofettes. Our results support that mofettes are either analogs or rather windows into the deep biosphere and furthermore enable access to deeply buried paleo-sediments.

  15. Fruit and vegetable radioactivity survey, Nevada Test Site environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.; Vandervort, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    During the 1974 growing season, the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, collected samples of fruits and vegetables grown in the off-site area surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The objective was to estimate the potential radiological dose to off-site residents from consumption of locally grown foodstuffs. Irrigation water and soil were collected from the gardens and orchards sampled. Soil concentrations of cesium-137 and plutonium-239 reflected the effects of close-in fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. The only radionuclide measured in fruit and vegetable samples which might be related to such fallout was strontium-90, for which the first year estimated dose to bone marrow of an adult with an assumed rate of consumption of the food would be 0.14 millirad

  16. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  17. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  18. Stream Sediment Geochemical Survey of Selected Element In Catchment Area Of Saguling Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Eka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saguling Lake is one of the largest lakes in West Java Province that accommodates domestic and non-domestic wastes via the Citarum River as its main water source. This study aims to determine the geochemical background concentration (Cbg in water catchment area of Saguling Lake. The knowledge of the Cbg of heavy metals is essential for defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for sediments. The value of Cbg will be used for assessment of the sediment quality in Saguling Lake. Assessment of sediment quality is very important to determine the actual condition of water in the lake and as the basis for management of waters environment in the future. The search was taken at 22 sampling points in the unpolluted water catchment area. Samples were collected and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. Each sample was digested in agua regia and analyzed by ICP-EOS. Results showed Cbg which are: Cd 0.34 ± 0.10 mg/kg, Cr 110.57 ± 28.61 mg/kg, Cu 49.93 ± 9.28 mg/kg, and Pb 18.62 ± 9.83 mg/kg. Based on the assessment result, it is concluded that the sediment quality in Saguling Lake is categorized as polluted by Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb metals.

  19. Historical reconstruction of oil and gas spills during moderate and strong earthquakes and related geochemical surveys in Southern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Ferrari, Graziano; Pizzino, Luca; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the assessment of natural hazards in a seismically active area of southern Italy through the joint analysis of historical sources and fluid geochemistry. In particular, our studies have been focalized in the Val d'Agri basin, in the Apennines extensional belt, since it hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high seismogenic potential (up to M7). The work was organized into three main themes: 1) literature search aimed at identifying fluid emissions during previous moderate-strong earthquakes; 2) consultation of local and national archives to identify historic local place names correlated to natural fluids emissions; 3) geochemical sampling of groundwater and gas issuing at surface, identified on the basis of the bibliographic sources. A reasoned reading of written documents and available historical data was performed. Moreover, we reworked information reported in historical catalogues, referred to liquid and gas hydrocarbon leakages occurred during seismic events of the past (in a range of magnitude from 5 to 7) in the Southern Apennines (with a particular focus on the Val d'Agri). Special attention was given to the phenomena of geochemical emissions related to major historical earthquakes that took place in the area, most notably that of 16 December 1857 (M = 7). A careful analysis of the Robert Mallet's report, a complete work aimed at describing the social impact and the effects on the environment produced by this earthquake through illustrated maps and diagrams, included several hundred monoscopic and stereoscopic photographs, was done. From archival sources (at national and/or local administrations), "sensitive" sites to the onset of leakage of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in the past were identified. A soil-gas survey (22 gas concentrations and flux measurements) and 35 groundwater samplings were carried out in specific sites recognized through the above studies. From a

  20. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Haines area, Juneau and Skagway quadrangles, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 212 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Chilkat, Klehini, Tsirku, and Takhin river drainages, as well as smaller drainages flowing into Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets near Haines, Skagway Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska. Additionally some samples were also chosen from the Juneau gold belt, Juneau Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical

  1. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  4. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  5. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure

  6. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  7. To what extent can vegetation change and plant stress be surveyed by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toemmervik, Hans

    1998-12-31

    Air pollution from the nickel processing industry in the Kola region of Russia accounts for a large part of the environmental problems in the north-eastern parts of Norway and Finland. The objectives of this thesis were to examine if vegetation damage and plant stress can be surveyed by remote sensing and to assess the use of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to detect plant stress in the field. The study was carried out in the border area between Norway and Russia. Two spaceborne and one airborne sensors were used. Changes in vegetation cover could be monitored with a degree of accuracy varying from 75 to 83%. A hybrid classification method monitored changes in both lichen dominated vegetation and in vegetation cover types dominated by dwarf shrubs and green plants, which were significantly associated with the differences in SO{sub 2} emission during the period from 1973 to 1994. Vegetation indices, change detection maps and prediction maps provided information on biomass and coverage of green vegetation. This was associated with the differences in the SO{sub 2} emissions during the same period. The vegetation and land cover types with the greatest stress and damage had the largest modelled SO{sub 2} concentration levels in the ground air layer while the vegetation cover types with the lowest degree of stress had the lowest. Comparison of the airborne casi map with the previously processed Landsat TM map from the same area showed that the casi map separated the complete vegetation cover into more detail than the Landsat TM map. The casi images indicated a red-edge shift for the medium to heavily damaged vegetation cover types. Problems with using airborne remote sensing by casi include variable clouds, lack of synoptic view, and cost. The variation in chlorophyll fluorescence of 11 plant species at 16 sites was most influenced by precipitation, temperature and continentality. 373 refs., 49 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. A survey of some insect pests of cultivated vegetables in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    ABSTRACT. The survey aimed at identifying insect pests that attack vegetables grown in three irrigation areas along Jakara River in Kano, Nigeria. The areas were Kwarin gogau, Nomansland and. Kwakwaci. Two methods of trapping the insects were employed, namely hand capture for wingless insects as well as hand net ...

  9. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  10. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Geochemical survey of stream sediments of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    A stream sediment survey was conducted in the Piceance Creek Basin to study the spatial distribution of Zn, Mo, Hg, Cd and As for future baseline considerations. The pH and organic matter were also measured. From samples taken at the mouths (junctions) of most of the named creeks in the basin, it is concluded that none of the streams contained sediments with anomalous trace element concentrations with respect to the basin. But it is thought that Mo and possibly As could be potentially toxic because of their abundance and their mobility under the stream sediments' alkaline condition. From a different sampling plan, designed to describe the background variance of five streams (Roan, Black Sulfur, Parachute, Yellow and Piceance Creeks), it was found that most of the variance occurred at distances from 0-10 m within 2 km stream segments 10 km apart for Mo, Hg, Az, and organic matter. When the variance between the five streams was considered, it was found to dominate the variances of the other factors for Mo, Hg, and Zn. This variance between streams is actually thought to represent the variance between the major drainage system in the basin. When comparison is made between the two sampling design results, it is thought that the trace element concentrations of stream junction samples represented the best range of expected values for the entire basin. The expected ranges of the trace elements from the nested design are thought to be reasonable estimates of preliminary baselines for Parachute Creek, Roan Creek and Black Sulfur Creek within the restricted limits of the streams defined in the text. From the experience gained in pursuing this study, it is thought that composite sampling should be considered, where feasible, to reduce the analytical load and to reduce the small scale variance.

  12. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb 2 O 5 /Ta 2 O 5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  13. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Turner, K.J.; Bohannon, R.G.; Berry, M.E.; Williams, V.S.; Miggins, D.P.; Ren, M.; Anthony, E.Y.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.; Gray, J. E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Manning, A.H.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Hellgren, E.C.; Stricker, C.A.; Onorato, D.P.; Finn, C.A.; Anderson, E.; Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  14. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    media. Samples of ice and snow have been used for limited geochemical surveys. Both geobotanical and biogeochemical surveys have been successful in locating copper deposits in many parts of the world. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and algae, are other unproved media that should be studied. Animals can be used in geochemical-prospecting programs. Dogs have been used quite successfully to sniff out hidden and exposed sulfide minerals. Tennite mounds are commonly composed of subsurface material, but have not as yet proved to be useful in locating buried mineral deposits. Animal tissue and waste products are essentially unproved but potentially valuable sampling media. Knowledge of the location of areas where trace-element-associated diseases in animals and man are endemic as well as a better understanding of these diseases, may aid in identifying regions that are enriched in or depleted of various elements, including copper. Results of analyses of gases in the atmosphere are proving valuable in mineral-exploration surveys. Studies involving metallic compounds exhaled by plants into the atmosphere, and of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere are reviewed these methods may become important in the future. Remote-sensing techniques are useful for making indirect measurements of geochemical responses. Two techniques applicable to geochemical exploration are neutron-activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry. Aerial photography is especially useful in vegetation surveys. Radar imagery is an unproved but potentially valuable method for use in studies of vegetation in perpetually clouded regions. With the advent of modern computers, many new techniques, such as correlation analysis, regression analysis, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, trend-surface analysis, and moving-average analysis can be applied to geochemical data sets. Selective use of these techniques can provide new insights into the interpretatio

  15. Using repeat electrical resistivity surveys to assess heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-04-01

    As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater

  16. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  17. Geochemical prospecting for uranium and thorium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of analytical geochemical prospecting methods for uranium and thorium is given excluding radiometric techniques, except those utilized in the determination of radon. The indicator (pathfinder) elements useful in geochemical surveys are listed for each of the types of known uranium and thorium deposits; this is followed by sections on analytical geochemical surveys based on rocks (lithochemical surveys), unconsolidated materials (pedochemical surveys), natural waters and sediments (hydrochemical surveys), biological materials (biogeochemical surveys) and gases (atmochemical surveys). All of the analytical geochemical methods are applicable in prospecting for thorium and uranium, particularly where radiometric methods fail due to attenuation by overburden, water, deep leaching and so on. Efficiency in the discovery of uranium and/or thorium orebodies is promoted by an integrated methods approach employing geological pattern recognition in the localization of deposits, analytical geochemical surveys, and radiometric surveys. (author)

  18. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  19. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  20. Predicted risk of cobalt deficiency in grazing sheep from a geochemical survey; communicating uncertainty with the IPCC verbal scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Ander, E. L.; Cave, M. R.; Knights, K. V.; Glennon, M. M.; Scanlon, R. P.

    2014-05-01

    Deficiency or excess of certain trace elements in the soil causes problems for agriculture, including disorders of grazing ruminants. Farmers and their advisors in Ireland use index values for the concentration of total soil cobalt and manganese to identify where grazing sheep are at risk of cobalt deficiency. We used cokriging with topsoil data from a regional geochemical survey across six counties of Ireland to form local cokriging predictions of cobalt and manganese concentrations with an attendant distribution which reflects the joint uncertainty of these predictions. From this distribution we then computed conditional probabilities for different combinations of cobalt and manganese index values, and so for the corresponding inferred risk to sheep of cobalt deficiency and the appropriateness of different management interventions. The challenge is to communicate these results effectively to an audience comprising, inter alia, farmers, agronomists and veterinarians. Numerical probabilities are not generally well-understood by non-specialists. For this reason we presented our results as maps using a verbal scale to communicate the probability that a deficiency is indicated by local soil conditions, or that a particular intervention is indicated. In the light of recent research on the effectiveness of the verbal scale used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to communicate probabilistic information we reported the geostatistical predictions as follows. First, we use the basic IPCC scale with intensifiers, but we also indicate the corresponding probabilities (as percentages) as recommended by Budescu et al. (2009). Second, we make it clear that the source of uncertainty in these predictions is the spatial variability of soil Co and Mn. The outcome under consideration is therefore that a particular soil management scenario would be indicated if the soil properties were known without error, possible uncertainty about the implications of particular soil

  1. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  2. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  3. Pesticide contamination of fruits and vegetables - A market basket survey from selected regions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiedu, Eric

    2013-07-01

    A market - basket survey was carried out with the aim of determining the concentration levels of pesticides, in lettuce, garden eggs, pineapple and mango from some selected regions in Ghana and to assess the potential health risk associated with exposure to the pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables consumption. A total of 192 fresh samples of fruits and vegetables were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 12 major towns and cities in the three regions of Ghana. The samples were extracted and analyzed for organophosphates, synthetic pyrethroids and organo chlorine pesticides. The percentage of samples of fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues in Lettuce, Garden eggs, Pineapple and Mango were 52%, 40%, 45%, 48% respectively and concentrations of pesticides did not vary significantly in samples as well as the sampling areas (p>0.05) even though there were differences in residual concentrations of pesticides . The differences in residual concentrations of pesticides could be due to different agricultural practices adopted by farmers and also accessibility of the pesticides. The average residue concentrations range from 0.01-0.45 mg/kg, 0.01-0.30 mg/kg and 0.01-1.27 mg/kg for organophosphates, synthetic pyrethroids and organo chlorine pesticides respectively. Lindane, chloropyrifos and cypermethrin were the most frequent organo chlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides respectively while lettuce was the most frequently contaminated sample. Comparing the concentration levels of organo chlorine pesticides residue with the maximum residue limits (MRLs) adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarious Commission shows that some of the fruits and vegetables sold on Ghanaian markets are contaminated even though the levels are generally low. Health risk analysis indicates that heptachlor in particular may be of public concern since its concentration levels exceeded the reference dose in all the four different types of samples

  4. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  5. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  6. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  7. Geochemical survey maps of the wildernesses and roadless areas in the White Mountains National Forest, Coos, Grafton, and Carroll counties, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, F.C.; Howd, F.H.; Domenico, J.A.; Nakagawa, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine what mineral values, if any, may be present. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results a geochemical survey of the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wilderness Areas; the Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Jobildunk, Carr Mountain, Sandwich Range, and the Dry River Extention (2 parcels) Roadless Areas; and the intervening and immediately surrounding areas in the White Mountain National Forest, Coos, Grafton, and Carroll Counties, New Hampshire. The Great Gulf Wilderness was established when the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964, and the Presidential Range-Dray Wiver Wilderness was established by Public Law 93-622, January 3, 1975. The Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Carr Mountain, and Jobildunk areas were classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  8. A preliminary report of geochemical investigations in the Blackbird District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, F.C.; Hawkes, H.E.; Richmond, G.M.; Vhay, J. S.

    1953-01-01

    This paper reviews an experimental geochemical prospecting survey in the Blackbird cobalt-copper mining district. The district is in east-central Idaho, about 20 miles west-southwest of Salmon. The area is one of deeply weathered nearly flat-topped upland surfaces cut by steep-walled valleys which are tributary to the canyon of Panther Creek. Most of the area has a relatively heavy vegetative cover, and outcrops are scarce except on the sides of the steeper valleys* Because of the importance of the surficial deposits and soils and the physiographic history of the region on the interpretation of the geochemical data, a separate chapter on this subject by Gerald H. Richmond follows the following brief description of the geology of the district.

  9. The Survey of hydro-geochemical and health related of water quality in Ramian city, Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fahimeh Khanduzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Investigation of water quality is an important step for the suitable use of water resources in order to drinking and irrigation. Water quality affects agriculture programming.  Hence the need of the study of water quality is strongly considered in the water resources management. Material and Methods: In this study Hydro-geochemical quality of ground water resources in the Ramian city -Golestan province has been studied for drinking and agriculture purpose. For this purpose, 15 qualitative characteristics of the 13 wells of Golestan province in two dry and wet seasons in 2011-2012 were analyzed by Aua Chem and Aq-qa. Results: The results showed that the ground water in the study area is classified in hard and very hard water. The original cations and anions in water are Ca2+> Mg2+> Na+ and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-. Based on hydro-chemical diagram the dominant of water type is classified as Ca-HCO3. Salinity index of water indicated that more samples in two seasons are in the middle class. According to Schuler and Wilcox groundwater quality index, they are moderate suitable for agricultural and drinking consumption and in for agricultural purpose and 77% cases are in C3-S1 category. Conclusion: The results show that too much salt is one of the most important problems of water supply in the Ramian city for irrigation. This reduced plant growth or even stops the growth of some plant. If water resources in this area do not manage, after shortly time the soil will be suffered and polluted.

  10. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  11. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Hantoro, I.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of

  12. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of studying an expanse and characteristics of the geothermal system and a possibility of geothermal development in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, geochemical survey was conducted. In the survey, various kinds of analyses were made for 13 specimens of hot spring water and 5 specimens of surface water in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 402 measuring points of the concentration of Hg in soil gas. The results of the survey were as follows: In this survey area, it was thought that the HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water of a comparatively low temperature which was heated by the wide-spread conduction heat from the depths was widely distributed deeper than the depth of 500-700m, and it was presumed that a possibility was low of existence of a high geothermal potential which can be used for the geothermal power generation in the part deeper than the drilling depth of 700m. In the Noya area in the southwest part of the survey area, the high temperature deep geothermal reservoir was confirmed. In this area, the high temperature neutral-alkalescent Cl-SO{sub 4} type geothermal water was distributed in the depth of several 100 meters or deeper. The geothermal water seemed to flow from NE to SW along the structure in the NE-SW direction, and it was concluded that the area was the most promising one. (NEDO)

  13. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  14. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  15. A survey on parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables in Ihiala LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in some selected markets in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State Nigeria between January and June 2014. Vegetable samples which includes Amaranthus spp (green leaf), Telfara Occidentalis (pumpkin leaf), Talinium ...

  16. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Automatically Generated Vegetation Density Maps with LiDAR Survey for Orienteering Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovič, Dušan

    2018-05-01

    The focus of our research was to automatically generate the most adequate vegetation density maps for orienteering purpose. Application Karttapullatuin was used for automated generation of vegetation density maps, which requires LiDAR data to process an automatically generated map. A part of the orienteering map in the area of Kazlje-Tomaj was used to compare the graphical display of vegetation density. With different settings of parameters in the Karttapullautin application we changed the way how vegetation density of automatically generated map was presented, and tried to match it as much as possible with the orienteering map of Kazlje-Tomaj. Comparing more created maps of vegetation density the most suitable parameter settings to automatically generate maps on other areas were proposed, too.

  18. Geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The basic purpose of this book is to present an analysis of the various geochemical methods applicable in the search for all types of thorium and uranium deposits. The general chemistry and geochemistry of thorium and uranium are briefly described in the opening chapter, and this is followed by a chapter on the deposits of the two elements with emphasis on their indicator (pathfinder) elements and on the primary and secondary dispersion characteristics of thorium and uranium in the vicinity of their deposits. The next seven chapters form the main part of the book and describe geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium, stressing selection of areas in which to prospect, radiometric surveys, analytical geochemical surveys based on rocks (lithochemical surveys), unconsolidated materials (pedochemical surveys), natural waters and sediments (hydrochemical surveys), biological materials (biogeochemical surveys), gases (atmochemical surveys), and miscellaneous methods. A final brief chapter reviews radiometric and analytical methods for the detection and estimation of thorium and uranium. (Auth.)

  19. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Owens, Lara [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kennedy, Burton M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  20. A phytosociology survey and vegetation description of inselbergs in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous scientific surveys have been conducted on inselbergs in the Drakensberg. The aim of this study was to collect specimens, identify, describe and name the vegetation clusters and assess biogeographical connections with other Afromontane regions. A total of 103 relevés where sampled from six inselbergs. The plant sampling was carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method with the plant and environmental data entered in TURBOVEG and exported as a Cornell Condensed format file (CC! into Juice. Classification was completed using TWINSPAN (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (modified, resulting in 4 major communities, 11 communities, 13 sub-communities and 18 variants. Ordination (indirect was carried out using CANOCO (version 4.5 to investigate the relationship between species. The four major communities identified are Rhodohypoxis rubella (wetland grass and forblands, Scirpus ficinioides – Crassula peploides (sheet rock grass and forblands, Pentaschistis exserta (high-altitude alpine grassland, previously undescribed, and Merxmuellera drakensbergensis – Helichrysum trilineatum (high-altitude alpine fynbos grassland, described in other vegetation and floristic studies. Four habitats were identified, namely wetlands, sheet rock shallow soil, highaltitude alpine grassland and deep soil high-altitude fynbos grasslands. Substrate and moisture availability appeared to be the defining micro-climatic conditions determining the different vegetation clusters whilst altitude is the overriding environmental factor influencing all vegetation. Conservation implications: Rising temperatures as a result of carbon dioxide increase is predicted to drastically decrease the number of endemic and near-endemic montane species, whilst altering the composition of vegetation units which comprise the alpine vegetation.

  1. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Smith, A.T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program

  2. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  3. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111936 Gao Yuyan(School of Earth Sciences and Resourses,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Wang Mingqi Study on the Geogas Composition of the Concealed Metal Deposit and Its Background Area:Taking Zhangquanzhuang Gold Deposit as an Example(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,33(3),2010,p.198-206,4 illus.,6 tables,10 refs.)Key words:metal ores,geogas methods,Hebei ProvinceStudy on the ore-forming elements,trace elements,REE and their spatial distribution of the geogas in the Zhangquanzhuang gold deposit shows the anomaly compositions o

  4. A survey of drought and Variation of Vegetation by statistical indexes and remote sensing (Case study: Jahad forest in Bandar Abbas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamassoki, E; Soleymani, Z; Bahrami, F; Abbasgharemani, H

    2014-01-01

    The damages of drought as a climatic and creeping phenomenon are very enormous specially in deserts. Necessity of management and conflict with it is clear. In this case vegetation are damaged too, and even are changed faster. This paper describes the process of vegetation changes and surveys it with drought indexes such as statistical and remote sensing indexes and correlation between temperature and relative humidity by Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in forest park of Bandar Abbas in successive years. At the end the regression and determination-coefficient for showing the importance of droughts survey are computed. Results revealed that the correlation between vegetation and indexes was 0.5. The humidity had maximum correlation and when we close to 2009 the period of droughts increase and time intervals decrease that influence vegetation enormously and cause the more area lost its vegetation

  5. MARKET BASKET SURVEY FOR SOME PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Ghana. For this purpose, a total of 309 fruits and vegetable samples, were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The obtained results showed that the predominance of organochlorine followed by organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concentrations of them were most significant in vegetable samples. The results obtained showed that 39.2 % of the fruits and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 51.0 % of the samples gave results with trace levels of pesticide residues below the maximum residue limit (MRL, while 9.8 % of the samples were above the MRL. The findings point to the urgent need to establish reliable monitoring programs for pesticides, so that any exceedance in concentration over environmental quality standards can be detected and appropriate actions taken.

  6. Microbiological survey of raw and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losio, M N; Pavoni, E; Bilei, S; Bertasi, B; Bove, D; Capuano, F; Farneti, S; Blasi, G; Comin, D; Cardamone, C; Decastelli, L; Delibato, E; De Santis, P; Di Pasquale, S; Gattuso, A; Goffredo, E; Fadda, A; Pisanu, M; De Medici, D

    2015-10-01

    The presence of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica and norovirus) in fresh leafy (FL) and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable products, sampled at random on the Italian market, was investigated to evaluate the level of risk to consumers. Nine regional laboratories, representing 18 of the 20 regions of Italy and in which 97.7% of the country's population resides, were involved in this study. All laboratories used the same sampling procedures and analytical methods. The vegetable samples were screened using validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods and standardized reference ISO culturing methods. The results show that 3.7% of 1372 fresh leafy vegetable products and 1.8% of 1160 "fresh-cut" or "ready-to-eat" (RTE) vegetable retailed in supermarkets or farm markets, were contaminated with one or more foodborne pathogens harmful to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey of avifauna and vegetation communities in Hadejia-Nguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two globally threatened species namely, European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur) and Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) were also recorded. Results showed that neither vegetation diversity nor density correlated with bird diversity nor density in both PAs and UPAs (p > 0.05), suggesting that there could be other factors ...

  8. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; 60 Co and 9O Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area)

  9. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  10. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Assinatura geoquimica de columbita-tantalita e levantamento radiometrico de pegmatitos radioativos da regiao de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  11. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Assinatura geoquimica de columbita-tantalita e levantamento radiometrico de pegmatitos radioativos da regiao de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  12. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Land cover and vegetation data from an ecological survey of "key habitat" landscapes in England, 1992-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Smart, Simon M.; Barr, Colin J.

    2018-05-01

    Since 1978, a series of national surveys (Countryside Survey, CS) have been carried out by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) (formerly the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, ITE) to gather data on the natural environment in Great Britain (GB). As the sampling framework for these surveys is not optimised to yield data on rarer or more localised habitats, a survey was commissioned by the then Department of the Environment (DOE, now the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, DEFRA) in the 1990s to carry out additional survey work in English landscapes which contained semi-natural habitats that were perceived to be under threat, or which represented areas of concern to the ministry. The landscapes were lowland heath, chalk and limestone (calcareous) grasslands, coasts and uplands. The information recorded allowed an assessment of the extent and quality of a range of habitats defined during the project, which can now be translated into standard UK broad and priority habitat classes. The survey, known as the "Key Habitat Survey", followed a design which was a series of gridded, stratified, randomly selected 1 km squares taken as representative of each of the four landscape types in England, determined from statistical land classification and geological data ("spatial masks"). The definitions of the landscapes are given in the descriptions of the spatial masks, along with definitions of the surveyed habitats. A total of 213 of the 1 km2 square sample sites were surveyed in the summers of 1992 and 1993, with information being collected on vegetation species, land cover, landscape features and land use, applying standardised repeatable methods. The database contributes additional information and value to the long-term monitoring data gathered by the Countryside Survey and provides a valuable baseline against which future ecological changes may be compared, offering the potential for a repeat survey. The data were analysed and described in a series of

  14. Land cover and vegetation data from an ecological survey of "key habitat" landscapes in England, 1992–1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Wood

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, a series of national surveys (Countryside Survey, CS have been carried out by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH (formerly the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, ITE to gather data on the natural environment in Great Britain (GB. As the sampling framework for these surveys is not optimised to yield data on rarer or more localised habitats, a survey was commissioned by the then Department of the Environment (DOE, now the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, DEFRA in the 1990s to carry out additional survey work in English landscapes which contained semi-natural habitats that were perceived to be under threat, or which represented areas of concern to the ministry. The landscapes were lowland heath, chalk and limestone (calcareous grasslands, coasts and uplands. The information recorded allowed an assessment of the extent and quality of a range of habitats defined during the project, which can now be translated into standard UK broad and priority habitat classes. The survey, known as the "Key Habitat Survey", followed a design which was a series of gridded, stratified, randomly selected 1 km squares taken as representative of each of the four landscape types in England, determined from statistical land classification and geological data ("spatial masks". The definitions of the landscapes are given in the descriptions of the spatial masks, along with definitions of the surveyed habitats. A total of 213 of the 1 km2 square sample sites were surveyed in the summers of 1992 and 1993, with information being collected on vegetation species, land cover, landscape features and land use, applying standardised repeatable methods. The database contributes additional information and value to the long-term monitoring data gathered by the Countryside Survey and provides a valuable baseline against which future ecological changes may be compared, offering the potential for a repeat survey. The data were analysed and described

  15. Market basket survey of essential elements in some core vegetables in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, D.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Yeboah, P.O.; Fianko, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of essential trace elements of nutritional and toxicological significance in 5 vegetables that constitute an essential part of Ghanaian diet have been studied, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results of the study revealed that the elements As, Ca, Co, K, Mg, Mn and Na were present in all 5 vegetables analyzed. Elements of nutritional importance detected in very high concentrations are K, Ca and Mg whilst only trace levels of Mn, Na and Co were detected. Onions were found to have adequate amounts of As, Br, Ca, Cl, Mg and Mn and therefore a good source of these trace elements. Garden eggs have high concentration of K whiles Carrot is a good source of Co, Na and V. The precision and accuracy of the methods were tested with standard reference material, IAEA-359 (cabbage). The results obtained were within 5% of the certified values in all cases. The precision of the methods were calculated as percentage relative standard deviation. (au)

  16. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS Consumption frequencie...

  17. Geochemical Constraints for Mercury's PCA-Derived Geochemical Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockstill-Cahill, K. R.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    PCA-derived geochemical terranes provide a robust, analytical means of defining these terranes using strictly geochemical inputs. Using the end members derived in this way, we are able to assess the geochemical implications for Mercury.

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Alexandra; Yngve, Agneta; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    for data collection. The current paper presents dietary intake data obtained by a precoded 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The consumption levels of fruit and vegetables (without fruit juice) were in line with World Health Organization recommendations of > or =400 g/day for only......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used...

  19. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Winter, Pieta R; McBreen, Ben; Stewart, Georgia; Roets, Rianda; Nutsford, Daniel; Bowie, Christopher; Donnellan, Niamh; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM) selling local produce (n = 3), other F&V markets (OFVM) (n = 5), supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8), and more distant supermarkets (n = 8), (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand). Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18) were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18) were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek) prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant) supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76), online supermarket ($113), nearby supermarkets ($124), distant supermarkets ($127), and FMs ($138). This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26) by using OFVMs relative to (non-online) supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  20. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L Pearson

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. METHODS: Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM selling local produce (n = 3, other F&V markets (OFVM (n = 5, supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8, and more distant supermarkets (n = 8, (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand. Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18 were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18 were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76, online supermarket ($113, nearby supermarkets ($124, distant supermarkets ($127, and FMs ($138. This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26 by using OFVMs relative to (non-online supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. CONCLUSIONS: In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  1. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The processes and types of dispersion that produce anomalies in stream water, stream sediment, and ground water, and the factors that must be considered in planning and interpreting geochemical surveys are reviewed. Examples of surveys near known deposits show the types of results to be expected. Background values depend mainly on the content of U in rocks of the drainage area. In igneous rocks, U tends to increase with potassium from ultramafic rocks (0.01 ppM) to granitic rocks (1 to 5 ppM). Some alkalic rocks have unusually high contents of U (15 to 100 ppM). Uranium-rich provinces marked by igneous rocks unusually rich in U are recognized in several areas and appear to have a deep crustal or mantle origin. In western U.S., many tertiary tuffaceous rocks have a high U content. Sandstones, limestones, and many shales approximate the crustal abundance at 0.5 to 4 ppM, but black shales, phosphates, and some organic materials are notably enriched in U. Uranium is very soluble in most oxidizing waters at the earth's surface, but is precipitated by reducing agents (organic matter, H 2 S) and adsorbed by organic material and some Fe oxides. In most surface and ground waters, U correlates approximately with the total dissolved solids, conductivity, and bicarbonate concentration of the water, and with the U content of rocks it comes into contact with. Most surveys of stream water near known districts show distinct anomalies extending a few km to tens of km downstream. A complication with water is the large variability with time, up to x 50, as a result of changes in the ratio of ground water to direct runoff, and changes in rate of oxidation and leaching. Collection and analysis of water samples also pose some difficulties

  2. Research Note: A time and motion study for two vegetation survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Linear regressions of species number versus time taken for the beginning and middle and end of the survey data sets were generated for both methods with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.900 ...

  3. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  4. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and health status of Mexican children from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Flores-Aldana, Mario

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the current consumption of fruits and vegetables based on the international recommendations, as well as its relationship to certain variables of interest in Mexican children aged 6 to 12 years. Adherence to the international recommendations for the consumption of fruits and vegetables was estimated based on data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012). Logistic regression models were developed. Only 34.4% of children met the recommendations. Their age (years) (OR:074; p< 0.01) and the fact that they lived in the Central (OR:2.48; p< 0.01) or Southern (OR:2.66; p< 0.01) regions of Mexico or in Mexico City (OR:2.37; p< 0.01) versus the Northern region were significantly associated with adherence. An interaction was observed between the educational level of the head of the family and his or her kinship with the child. Only 3 out of every 10 Mexican children meet the recommendations; therefore, the implementation of a public policy with the appropriate legislation, financing and regulation is required.

  5. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  6. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of

  7. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  8. Management of Reclaimed Produced Water in the Rocky Mountain States Enhanced with the Expanded U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Reidy, M. E.; Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Rowan, E. L.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Engle, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain states; Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico and Utah produce annually approximately 470,000 acre-feet (3.66 billion barrels) of produced water - water that coexists with oil and gas and is brought to the surface with the pumping of oil and gas wells. Concerns about severe drought, groundwater depletion, and contamination have prompted petroleum operators and water districts to examine the recycling of produced water. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water reuse. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use inside and outside of the petroleum industry. Since a great proportion of petroleum wells in the Rocky Mountain states, especially coal-bed methane wells, have produced water with relatively low salinity (generally oil recovery, and even for municipal uses, such as drinking water. The USGS Produced Waters Geochemical Database, available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp, has 60,000 data points in this region (this includes 35,000 new data points added to the 2002 database) and will facilitate studies on the management of produced water for reclamation in the Rocky Mountain region. Expanding on the USGS 2002 database, which contains geochemical analyses of major ions and total dissolved solids, the new data also include geochemical analyses of minor ions and stable isotopes. We have added an interactive web map application which allows the user to filter data on chosen fields (e.g. TDS data set can provide critical insight for better management of produced waters in water-constrained regions of the Rocky Mountains.

  9. Novel geochemical techniques integrated in exploration for uranium deposits at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral deposits are in fact geochemical anomalies, and as such their detection and assessment of their impact on the environment should be facilitated using geochemical techniques. Although geochemistry has been used directly in the discovery of uranium deposits and more indirectly in shaping deposit models, the novel applications of geochemistry and integration with other data can be more effective in formulating exploration and remediation strategies. Recent research on the use of geochemistry in detecting uranium deposits at depth include: (1) more effective integration of geochemical with geophysical data to refine targets, (2) revealing element distributions in and around deposits to adequately assess the total chemical environment associated with the deposit, (3) the use of element tracing using elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions in the near surface environment to detect specific components that have migrated to the surface from uranium deposits at depth, (4) understand the effects of both macro- and micro-environments on element mobility across the geosphere-biosphere interface to enhance exploration using select media for uranium at depth. Geophysical data used in exploration can identify areas of conductors where redox contrasts may host mineralization, structures that act to focus fluids during formation of the deposits and act as conduits for element migration to the surface, and contrasts in geology that are required for the deposits. However, precision of these data is greatly diminished with depth, but geochemical data from drill core or surface media can enhance target identification when integrated with geophysical data. Geochemical orientation surveys over known unconformity-related deposits at depth clearly identify mineralization 900m deep. Drill core near the deposit, clay-size fractions separated from soil horizons and vegetation over and far from the deposit record element migration from the deposit as radiogenic He, Rn and Pb

  10. The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.

    2016-06-21

    A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density and extent of data coverage for statewide mapping of element distributions, we compiled and integrated analyses of more than 175,000 sediment and soil samples from three major, separate sources: the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys geochemical databases. Various types of heterogeneity and deficiencies in these data presented major challenges to our development of coherently integrated datasets for modeling and mapping of element distributions. Researchers from many different organizations and disparate scientific studies collected samples that were analyzed using highly variable methods throughout a time period of more than 50 years, during which many changes in analytical techniques were developed and applied. Despite these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new systematically integrated compilation of sediment and soil geochemical data with an average sample site density of approximately 1 locality per 10 square kilometers (km2) for the entire State of Alaska, although density varies considerably among different areas. From that compilation, we have modeled and mapped the distributions of 68 elements, thus creating an updated geochemical atlas for the State.

  11. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  12. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-01-01

    Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. (1) To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2) to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue ® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Findings indicate that well over half (57.9%) of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Ghose

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. Objectives (1 To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2 to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Results Findings indicate that well over half (57.9% of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. Conclusion The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  15. Reconnaissance Geochemical Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distribution patterns. The geochemical distribution maps of the elements reveal that Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Sc, Ni, Cr, .... After filtration, the leached solutions were diluted with ultra ...... some other rare earth elements in the study area. The occurrence ...

  16. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  17. Fiscal 1989 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Geochemical survey report - No. 32: Hachijojima district); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Chikagaku chosa hokokusho - No.32 Hachijojima chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A geochemical survey was conducted by examining soil gas and hot spa water temperature for contributing to the clarification of the subsurface geothermal structure in the Hachijojima district, Tokyo. Mercury concentration, carbon dioxide gas concentration, and 1 m-deep temperature were measured at 155 sites; and chemical and isotope analyses were conducted for 10 specimens of hot spa water and 6 specimens of surface water. After examination, 5 significant locations were isolated at the regions of Yaene-Ogago, Taredo, the northern foot of Mt. Nishi to Weather Station, the southern foot of Mt. Higashi, and the region to the south of Mt. Higashi with hot spa distributed therein. The significant locations are situated in the vicinity of a mar that produced deposit by magma-steam eruption, an alteration zone, and the parasitic volcano in Mt. Higashi, and in an area with hot spa distributed therein. It is therefore concluded that they are closely related with volcanic activities. It is inferred that geothermal signs in the Mt. Nishi area reflect a relatively deep-seated structure. As for the mercury and carbon dioxide gas concentration levels in the Mt. Higashi area, it is inferred that they again represent geothermal signs reflecting a relatively deep-seated structure. (NEDO)

  18. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-08-01

    This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits more than once a day significantly decreased in 2011 compared to 2006 based on Chi-square test conducted for every factor employed in the study. Analysis of factors showed that consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits were reduced in both study years as subjective income decreased, whereas intake frequencies increased with mother's education level and reduction of adolescent stress level. In general, consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits decreased in 2011 compared to those in 2006. Thus, future research needs to improve dietary guidelines for nutrition education in order for students to recognize the importance of food consumption and necessity of increasing daily serving sizes of vegetables and fruits for their balanced consumption.

  19. Uruguay mining Inventory: Geochemical prospecting results of Valentines mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.; Filippini, J.

    1985-01-01

    This work is about geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Valentines mapping. Florida, Durazno and Treinta y Tres provinces of Uruguay .

  20. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Postfire Vegetation Survey Campaigns through Large and Heterogeneous Areas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability. Additionally, we compared the spatial information provided by the drone orthomosaic at ultra-high spatial resolution with another image provided by the WorldView-2 satellite at high spatial resolution. The drone raw imagery presented some anomalies, such as horizontal banding noise and non-homogeneous radiometry. Camera locations showed a lack of synchrony of the single frequency GPS receiver. The georeferencing process based on ground control points achieved an error lower than 30 cm in X-Y and lower than 55 cm in Z. The drone orthomosaic provided more information in terms of spatial variability in heterogeneous burned areas in comparison with the WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The drone orthomosaic could constitute a viable alternative for the evaluation of post-fire vegetation regeneration in large and heterogeneous burned areas.

  1. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  2. Modeling background radiation using geochemical data: A case study in and around Cameron, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Kara E; Burnley, Pamela C; Adcock, Christopher T; Haber, Daniel A; Malchow, Russell L; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2016-12-01

    This study compares high resolution forward models of natural gamma-ray background with that measured by high resolution aerial gamma-ray surveys. The ability to predict variations in natural background radiation levels should prove useful for those engaged in measuring anthropogenic contributions to background radiation for the purpose of emergency response and homeland security operations. The forward models are based on geologic maps and remote sensing multi-spectral imagery combined with two different sources of data: 1) bedrock geochemical data (uranium, potassium and thorium concentrations) collected from national databases, the scientific literature and private companies, and 2) the low spatial resolution NURE (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) aerial gamma-ray survey. The study area near Cameron, Arizona, is located in an arid region with minimal vegetation and, due to the presence of abandoned uranium mines, was the subject of a previous high resolution gamma-ray survey. We found that, in general, geologic map units form a good basis for predicting the geographic distribution of the gamma-ray background. Predictions of background gamma-radiation levels based on bedrock geochemical analyses were not as successful as those based on the NURE aerial survey data sorted by geologic unit. The less successful result of the bedrock geochemical model is most likely due to a number of factors including the need to take into account the evolution of soil geochemistry during chemical weathering and the influence of aeolian addition. Refinements to the forward models were made using ASTER visualizations to create subunits of similar exposure rate within the Chinle Formation, which contains multiple lithologies and by grouping alluvial units by drainage basin rather than age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Pyrolysis produces more biogasoline than biodiesel fuel. Soap pyrolysis products of vegetable oils can be used as alternative Diesel engine fuel. Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The main factors affecting transesterification are the molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalyst, reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time and the contents of free fatty acids and water in oils. The commonly accepted molar ratios of alcohol to glycerides are 6:1-30:1

  4. Geochemical prospecting in Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, R.

    1957-01-01

    During the last few years geochemical prospecting techniques have become common usage in the field of mineral deposit prospecting. The real scope of these methods lies in their use in the prospecting of large areas. The most promising use of the geochemistry and hydro-geochemistry of uranium is in heavily forested tropical territories, with few outcrops, where radiometry is strongly handicapped. (author) [fr

  5. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  6. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (Survey of geothermal water) (No.36 - Hongu area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chikagaku chosa (Nessui no chosa) hokokusho (No.36 Hongu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The test on jetting of geothermal water by the induced jetting, sampling of geothermal water and analysis/survey were carried out in the structure drilling well of N4-HG-2 in the Hongu area, Wakayama Prefecture. The induced jetting of the well was conducted by the Swabbing method up to the total pumping amount of 459.9m{sup 3} that is equal to about 24 times as much as the inner quantity of the well, but it did not result in jetting. The maximum temperature of geothermal water was 65.6 degrees C, pH was 6.6-7.5, electric conductivity was 2,800-2,900 {mu}S/cm, and Cl concentration was 500-700ppm. The geothermal water was classified into the HCO{sub 3} type that is neutral, and the spring quality and liquidity were the same as those of existing hot springs in this area. In the Hongu area, the distribution of new volcanic rocks has not known. The K-Ar age of quartz porphyry intrusive rocks was made about 13Ma, and it was considered that a possibility was low of the rocks being heat sources of geothermal activities. It was also considered that the geothermal water/hot spring water in this area, which originate in the surface water, were heated in heat transfer by magma activities in the deep underground and were flowing forming a small scale of hydrothermal convection system. (NEDO)

  7. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mburu, D.N; Drennan, D.S.H

    1999-01-01

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  8. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Adil'bayeva, Т. E.; Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has...

  9. Geochemical modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted

  10. Geochemical modeling: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted.

  11. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  12. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,

  13. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. I: a review of the method and of the geochemical behavior of K, Th and U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is part of a research project on the Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), cropping out in the Ponta Grossa Arch (Parana state, SE Brazil). An initial study used the gamma-spectrometric data of the Serra do Mar Sul Aero geophysical Project, performed during the 70's for CPRM. Later, terrestrial gamma-spectrometric surveys focused on the study of the differentiated Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG) in the NW corner of CGC, and the Serra do Carambei Granite, to the SW. In this paper, the results obtained for JMG are presented in two parts. The first deals with methodology and the presentation of several gamma-spectrometric 'color-scale' maps, indicating that results obtained in granites depend strongly on a climatic factor, given the mobility of K during weathering in subtropical climates with strong rainfalls, also favoring a greater mobility of U. Minerals that are U and Th hosts, documented in granites, are reviewed, together with the weathering processes that control the mobility of K, U and Th in soils. Strong K signals in granitic areas submitted to these climates document the presence of fresh rock and/or effects of hydrothermal alteration, while weak or nil signals are evidence of strong leaching of K during weathering. U and Th will be retained in the residual soils, in part leading to their selective enrichment, also coupled with soil migration to lower topographic levels by colluvial transport. The larger solubility of U (as uranyl ion) allows its liberation under oxidizing conditions, and its migration, limited by the possibility of absorption in newly formed mineral and organic soil phases. Th should be retained almost totally in resistant phases and, when liberated in solution, will mostly be fixed in organic and inorganic soil substances. (author)

  14. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Matthew [Mill Valley, CA

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  15. Geochemical mapping study of Panjang island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Sumardjo

    2010-01-01

    Impact of industrial and regional development are not only related to an improvement of socio-economic, but also to an environmental conservation and sustainable. This impact could be observed on a change of geochemical mapping before and after an operational of the industry. In the relation with a regional development and resources utilization, the geochemical mapping have been done in the aim to know a resources and an elemental distribution at Panjang island. In this research, ko-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k_0-INAA) have been applied in an elemental quantification on the geochemical mapping. Pencuplikan of geochemical sample have been carried out by using a grid systematic method with a sample density of about 10 sample per square kilometre involved 85 pencuplikan point. The geochemical sample of sediment and soil have been provided as a dry weight of 100 mesh. Internal quality control have done by using a number of Standard Reference Materials obtained from US. Geological Survey. Fifteen elements of Sc, Co, In, Rb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu, La, Yb, Th, U, lr and Hf contained in standard materials have been evaluated. The analysis result show that a relative standard deviation less than 11 %, except for Mo (13 %) and lr (26 %). Fourteen elements of Al, Br, Ca, Co, Eu, Fe, La, U, Na, Ce, Mn, As, Sc and Th have been mapped and presented in this paper. The major elements of Ca, Al and Fe, and minor elements of Mn, U and Sc are distributed at all region. The lanthanide elements of La, Ce and Eu have vary concentration and could be found at the middle to the north of the island. (author)

  16. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  17. The influence of proximity on the potential demand for vegetable oil as a diesel substitute: A rural survey in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, Dorian; Dabat, Marie-Helene; Gazull, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Bio-energy demand is known to be influenced by geographical origin and social equity. This paper aims to highlight the influence of the proximity between biomass production and energy consumption on the demand for alternative bio-fuels. In the context of Burkina Faso, we explore potential demand for vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcas) as a diesel substitute among engine owners. Survey data are based on a between-groups design: one group of respondents experiencing a local supply chain, while the other a global one. Results show that proximity has a significant effect on potential demand itself and on the formation and strength of beliefs regarding vegetable oil. In a local supply chain context, the demand is superior and seems to be guided more by a certain economic and technical rationality. Conversely, the prospect of a vegetable oil produced outside the village restrains demand and this latter is more determined by contextual factors and social interaction. Our analysis confirms that demand does not only depend on technical and economic factors such as price but also on the integration of the biomass production and processing in the socioeconomic life of local rural populations. Understanding demand construction and assessing underlying beliefs are key success factors for bio-energy projects. (authors)

  18. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Pinard, Courtney A; Nebeling, Linda C; Moser, Richard P; Shaikh, Abdul R; Resnicow, Ken; Oh, April Y; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support), and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia). FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted. Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (peating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05) with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05) with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption. These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  19. Uranium geochemical exploration in northwestern Luzon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.; Ogena, M.; Tauli, G.

    1980-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical stream water and sediment survey which was conducted in northwestern Luzon was able to detect ten (10) uranium anomalous areas. These anomalous areas are located along a north-south trending zone of Miocene marine clastics and sedimentary rocks with tuffaceous sediment intercalations. In general, northwest Luzon has low radioactivity except for two anomalous areas which have 3 to 6 times background radioactivity. Radon anomalies occur in sparsely scattered locations. The anomalous zones appear to be related to major north-south faults and secondary northeast-southwest trending structures. Geochemical correlations between uranium and other elements such as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, cobalt and nickel are generally very poor. (author)

  20. A National Survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A national survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain information about environmental and social effects of the program on participants, farms, and communities...

  1. Mangrove forests submitted to depositional processes and salinity variation investigated using satellite images and vegetation structure surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Lignon, M.; Kampel, M.; Menghini, R.P.; Schaeffer-Novelli, Y.; Cintrón, G.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper examines the growth and spatio-temporal variation of mangrove forests in response to depositional processes and different salinity conditions. Data from mangrove vegetation structure collected at permanent plots and satellite images were used. In the northern sector important environmental changes occurred due to an artificial channel producing modifications in salinity. The southern sector is considered the best conserved mangrove area along the coast of São Paulo State, Br...

  2. Revegetation and survey of vegetation transition of repaired old shotcrete slope; Rokyukashita morutaru fukitsuke norimen no ryokka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, H.; Deguchi, C. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yakabe, H. [Dia Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuura, H.

    1996-06-01

    The National road No.220 run from Miyazaki city to Kagoshima city mostly along the seashore and has many slopes by the roadside composed of mudstone which is apt to weather. Although renewal of slopes which were shotcreted for reinforcement around 1970 are coming into question, repair works accompanied with vegetation transition have to be required from the viewpoint of natural environmental management. A part of a slope (9.6 {times} 15m) offered for experiment had been reinforced by RC frame and this time was reshotcreted. Each of eighty compartments surrounded by frames was made into a flower bed respectively having a porous board at the bottom which was 5,10 or 15cm in thickness. And also some vegetation boxes were prepared partially. At the time when just two years have passed from seeding (Dec.1993), in pastures, Bermuda grass and Jaguar the 2nd., in flowers, coreopsis and in the vegetation boxes bird`s-foot trefoil and vitex rotundifolia have grown well. On the other conventional slope, oenothera odorata, chrysanthemum japonense and pampas grass were grown spontaneously, which are considered as hopeful grasses in future. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Fruit and vegetable intake of Korean children and adolescents according to cooking location and daily meal: study based on 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yangsuk

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents. For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled. The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g). Regarding meal serving location, the combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake was 159 g at home, 206 g at commercial locations, and 104 g at institutions. The combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake in snack form was 128 g, which was higher than that during daily meals. In total, 24.9% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake (>=400 g), according to the guidelines created by the World Health Organization/World Cancer Research Fund. Logistic regression analysis results revealed that the fruit and vegetable intake of girls was 1.4 times higher than that of boys, and the number of people who ate more than 400 g of fruits and vegetables was 1.7 times higher in the group with higher education. Based on the above results, in-depth measures to continuously increase intake of fruits and vegetables in children and adolescents are needed. This study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for dietary improvements.

  4. Report on the survey of geothermal development at Okushiri Island, Hokkaido. Geochemical survey (GC/MS and MS method); Hokkaido Okushiritou chinetsu kaihatsu chosa chikagaku chosa (GC/MS and MS ho) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    To elucidate chemical components of soil gas in the Okushiri Island area, soil gas was collected by the method using charcoal adsorbent, and analysis was made by the GC/MS method. Out of the 19 measuring points, 17 points were set up near the measuring points in the FY 1998 survey by the finger print method. At the same measuring points, analytical survey by the MS method was also conducted to sort the type of soil gas. As a result of the GC/MS analysis, xylene or ethyl benzene was detected at 12 measuring points of all 19 measuring points, and from the distribution, it was predicted that there were anomaly zones in the district along the road of the Okushiri Island line and the district southward from the 5.8K Pass. These results were in harmony with the results of the survey by the finger print method. As to the sorting of soil gas based on the results of the MS analysis, the results were different at 8 measuring points from those of the survey by the finger print method in FY 1998. It was considered that the cause was the accidental vaporization of a large quantity of acetaldehyde, and acetaldehyde was regarded as a noise gas component that does not reflect the geothermal structure. (NEDO)

  5. Predictive geochemical mapping using environmental correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilford, John; Caritat, Patrice de; Bui, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of chemical elements at and near the Earth's surface, the so-called critical zone, is complex and reflects the geochemistry and mineralogy of the original substrate modified by environmental factors that include physical, chemical and biological processes over time. Geochemical data typically is illustrated in the form of plan view maps or vertical cross-sections, where the composition of regolith, soil, bedrock or any other material is represented. These are primarily point observations that frequently are interpolated to produce rasters of element distributions. Here we propose the application of environmental or covariate regression modelling to predict and better understand the controls on major and trace element geochemistry within the regolith. Available environmental covariate datasets (raster or vector) representing factors influencing regolith or soil composition are intersected with the geochemical point data in a spatial statistical correlation model to develop a system of multiple linear correlations. The spatial resolution of the environmental covariates, which typically is much finer (e.g. ∼90 m pixel) than that of geochemical surveys (e.g. 1 sample per 10-10,000 km 2 ), carries over to the predictions. Therefore the derived predictive models of element concentrations take the form of continuous geochemical landscape representations that are potentially much more informative than geostatistical interpolations. Environmental correlation is applied to the Sir Samuel 1:250,000 scale map sheet in Western Australia to produce distribution models of individual elements describing the geochemical composition of the regolith and exposed bedrock. As an example we model the distribution of two elements – chromium and sodium. We show that the environmental correlation approach generates high resolution predictive maps that are statistically more accurate and effective than ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting interpolation

  6. Vegetative and minimally conscious state(s) survey: attitudes of clinical neuropsychologists and speech and language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F Colin; Harpur, Jocelyn; McConnell, Nigel

    2007-11-30

    To gauge the understanding and opinions of clinical neuropsychologists and speech and language therapists (SLT) in relation to vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) patients relative to available practice guidelines. Semi-structured questionnaires were sent to all UK Practitioner Full Members of the BPS Division of Neuropsychology (307) and SLT managers (371) in March to April 2002 examining post qualification clinical practice, professional-family involvement and views on neuro-rehabilitation access. Difference(s) in clinical practice among clinical neuropsychologists and SLTs were observed. Some 27% returned questionnaires (n=184). Despite significant working experience, most respondents poorly defined both VS and MCS. Among clinical neuropsychologists and speech and language therapists not working with these patients, less positive attitudes regarding the value of neuro-rehabilitation were endorsed. Despite the development of SMART training for VS, there is a dearth of specific training in MCS assessment and management. The need to improve professional understanding among these staff groups is highlighted.

  7. Vegetation of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana-Recent plant communities with comparison to a three-decade-old survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in plant community composition and structure can affect the quality of habitat for wildlife species. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Louisiana was established in 1937 with a primary goal of providing habitat for wintering waterfowl species. A large freshwater impoundment constructed on the refuge to improve waterfowl habitat value was completed in 1943. About 10 years after construction was completed, staff at the refuge became concerned that emergent vegetation cover was increasing in the impoundment over time while open water areas, which are critical as foraging and resting areas for waterfowl, were decreasing. To document vegetation change over time, we collected information on plant community species composition for comparison to similar data collected in 1973. A total of 84 sampling plots was established in 2006 within the impoundment to coincide as closely as possible to plots sampled in the earlier study. Plant species composition and cover were recorded at each plot in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Change between sampling events separated by more than three decades was determined by comparing the frequency of occurrence of 20 species identified in 1973 to their frequency in 2006 and 2007. Interannual variation was determined by comparing plot data between 2006 and 2007. In plots dominated by emergent vegetation, it was found that Bacopa caroliniana, Eleocharis equisetoides, Leersia hexandra, Panicum hemitomon, and Sagittaria lancifolia were significantly less frequent in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973. The frequency of Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Nitella gracilis, and Nymphoides aquatica was significantly lower in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973 in plots dominated by floating-leaved plants, submersed plants, or open water. In 2007, Hydrocotyle sp. and Sacciolepis striata were more frequent than in 1973 in emergent vegetation plots, and Utricularia sp. was more frequent in submersed or open-water plots. We documented

  8. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  9. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), Psnacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical interpretation of geochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carambula, M.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical results have been obtained from a geochemical research from the following four aerial photographies Zapican, Carape, Las Canias, Alferez. They have been studied 3020 samples in total, to 22 chemical elements using plasma emission spectrometry methods.

  11. Computer analysis to the geochemical interpretation of soil and stream sediment data in an area of Southern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In southern Uruguay there are several known occurrences of base metal sulphide mineralization within an area of Precambrian volcanic sedimentary rocks. Regional geochemical stream sediment reconnaissance surveys revealed new polymetallic anomalies in the same stratigraphic zone. Geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in one of these anomalous areas is presented.

  12. Baseline Geochemical Data for Medical Researchers in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2017-12-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, Kentucky has the highest cancer incidence and death rates in the country. New efforts by geochemists and medical researchers are examining ways to diagnose the origin and sources of carcinogenesis. In an effort to determine if naturally occurring geochemical or mineral elements contributes to the cancer causation, the Kentucky Geological Survey has established a Minerals and Geochemical Database that is available to medical researchers for examination of baseline geochemistry and determine if naturally occurring mineral or chemical elements contribute to the high rate of cancers in the state. Cancer causation is complex, so if natural sources can be accounted for, then researchers can focus on the true causation. Naturally occurring minerals, metals and elements occur in many parts of the state, and their presence is valuable for evaluating causation. For example, some data in the database contain maps showing (a) statewide elemental geochemistry, (b) areas of black shale oxidation occurrence, which releases metals in soil and surface waters, (c) some clay deposits in the state that can contain high content of rare earth elements, and (d) site-specific uranium occurrences. Knowing the locations of major ore deposits in the state can also provide information related to mineral and chemical anomalies, such as for base metals and mercury. Radionuclide data in soil and water analyses are limited, so future research may involve obtaining more analyses to determine radon potential. This database also contains information on faulting and geology in the state. Although the metals content of trees may not seem relevant, the ash and humus content of degraded trees affects soil, stream sediment and water geochemistry. Many rural homes heat with wood, releasing metals into the surrounding biosphere. Stressed vegetation techniques can be used to explore for ore deposits and look for high metal contents in soils and rocks. These

  13. Uruguay mining Inventory: geochemical prospecting results of Cerro de las Cuentas mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.; Filippini, J.

    1986-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Cerro de las Cuentas mapping. Cerro Largo department. Scale 1 / 50000.

  14. Predator Presence and Vegetation Density Affect Capture Rates and Detectability of Litoria aurea Tadpoles: Wide-Ranging Implications for a Common Survey Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine R Sanders

    Full Text Available Trapping is a common sampling technique used to estimate fundamental population metrics of animal species such as abundance, survival and distribution. However, capture success for any trapping method can be heavily influenced by individuals' behavioural plasticity, which in turn affects the accuracy of any population estimates derived from the data. Funnel trapping is one of the most common methods for sampling aquatic vertebrates, although, apart from fish studies, almost nothing is known about the effects of behavioural plasticity on trapping success. We used a full factorial experiment to investigate the effects that two common environmental parameters (predator presence and vegetation density have on the trapping success of tadpoles. We estimated that the odds of tadpoles being captured in traps was 4.3 times higher when predators were absent compared to present and 2.1 times higher when vegetation density was high compared to low, using odds ratios based on fitted model means. The odds of tadpoles being detected in traps were also 2.9 times higher in predator-free environments. These results indicate that common environmental factors can trigger behavioural plasticity in tadpoles that biases trapping success. We issue a warning to researchers and surveyors that trapping biases may be commonplace when conducting surveys such as these, and urge caution in interpreting data without consideration of important environmental factors present in the study system. Left unconsidered, trapping biases in capture success have the potential to lead to incorrect interpretations of data sets, and misdirection of limited resources for managing species.

  15. Forest soil survey and mapping of the nutrient status of the vegetation on Olkiluoto island. Results from the first inventory on the FEH plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, P.; Aro, A.; Salemaa, M.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the inventory was to determine the status of the forest soils and to map the current nutrient status of forest vegetation on Olkiluoto Island in order to create a basis for monitoring future changes in the forests and to provide data for a biospheric description of the island. The study was carried out on 94 FEH plots, which were selected from the forest extensive monitoring network (FET plots) on the basis of the forest site type distribution and tree stand characteristics measured on the island during 2002 - 2004. Forest soils on Olkiluoto are very young and typical of soils along the Finnish coast, i.e. stony or shallow soils overlying bedrock, but with more nutrients than the forest soils inland. In addition to nutrients, the heavy metal concentrations are clearly higher on Olkiluoto than the average values for Finnish forest soils. The soil in the alder stands growing along the seashore is different from the other soils on Olkiluoto and the control soils inland. These soils are less acidic and have large reserves of sodium, magnesium and nitrogen. Macronutrient concentrations in vascular plant species were relatively similar to those reported for Southern Finland. However, it is obvious that the accumulation of particulate material on the vegetation, especially on forest floor bryophytes, has increased due to emissions derived from the construction of roads, drilling and rock crushing, as well as the other industrial activities on Olkiluoto Island. Leaf and needle analysis indicated that the tree stands had, in the main, a good nutrient status on Olkiluoto Island. The surveying methods used on Olkiluoto are better suited to detect systematic changes over a larger area or within a group of sample plots than the changes on individual plots. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Charlotte 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.H.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a synthesis of published geological, geophysical, and geochemical information for portions of Cabarrus and Rowan Counties, NC, where uranium geochemical anomalies have been described by Heffner and Ferguson (1978). The results of a ground radiation survey in selected areas are also described. Based on an evaluation of published information and the data obtained in the field study, conclusions are made regarding the possible occurrence of uranium concentration. Recommendations for detailed surveys in certain areas are also presented

  17. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  18. Effects on water, soil and vegetation of an increasing atmospheric supply of sulfur: a survey on ecological bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmer, N; Nilsson, F M.I.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper a critical survey is given of the research work carried out on the ecological effects of the increasing rate of sulfur deposition, especially with reference to Swedish conditions. It also contains information about soil types and soil conditions of importance for the understanding of the problems. In several lakes and rivers this increased supply of sulfur (mainly as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) has brought about a considerable decrease in pH. In most lakes and rivers of the oligotrophic type the concentration of bicarbonate ion (the main buffer of pH changes) was already low, and it has now been reduced to the extent that a further increase in the deposition of sulfate will immediately result in marked and much more widespread acidification. The increase in the supply of sulfur which has already occurred will influence the conditions of the soil in several ways. A distinct decrease in forest productivity is to be expected. Due to the short time that has passed since the supply of sulfur started to increase it is, however, doubtful whether such a decrease is yet measurable with the measurement methods commonly used in forest taxation. 88 references.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kaistila, M.

    1983-06-01

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  20. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO 3 - type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab

  1. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  2. Food survey: levels and potential health risks of chromium, lead, zinc and copper content in fruits and vegetables consumed in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherfi, Abdelhamid; Abdoun, Samira; Gaci, Ouardia

    2014-08-01

    A food survey was carried out with the aim to investigate the levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in various fruits and vegetables sold in Algeria. Concentrations (mg/kgdry wt.) in selected foodstuffs were detected within the following ranges: 4-29.49, 11.17-49, 12.33-39.33 and 3-16.33 for Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr respectively. The food ingestion rate of the selected items was investigated by self-administered questionnaires which were filled by a total of 843 people randomly recruited at the exit of markets. The potential health risk for consumers was investigated by estimating the daily intake (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) for each heavy metal. For all foodstuffs, the EDI and the THQ were below the threshold values for Cu, Zn and Cr while they exceeded the thresholds for Pb (EDI: 15.66μgPb/kg body weight/day; THQ: 4.37), indicating an obvious health risk over a life time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay. GEOCHEMICAL AND .... tries, as filling material in the pulp and paper, toothpaste and paint industries as well ..... tions very vital to human health and other ac- tivities of man.

  4. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  5. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  6. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria...... samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups. RESULTS: The results show...

  7. Geochemical approach values to the base line (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and P) for environmental studies in Montevideo coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnoli, E.; Burone, L.; Hutton, M.; Tuduri, A.; Bueno, C.; Muniz, P.; Venturini, N.; Garcia-Rodriguez, F.

    2012-01-01

    The geochemical base line values (background) represent the natural chemical concentrations (heavy metals) in sediments and soils. These are used in archaeological surveys to identify anomalies, and environmental studies of contaminated areas. In Montevideo coastal zone are explored the base line values for geochemical application and enrichment index

  8. Availability and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables Among Non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in the USA: Findings from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Adult Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaipeng

    2017-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption have been widely studied in the USA. While previous studies focused on the differences of fruit and vegetable availability between racial groups, the equivalence of the association between consumption and availability across racial groups has been rarely examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between availability of fruits and vegetables and their consumption across racial groups. The 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data (N = 36,302) were used for the study. Results of negative binomial regression show that the association between perceived availability of fruits and vegetables on consumption differs significantly between non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians: (1) the association between fruit consumption and availability is only significant for non-Hispanic Whites (IRR = 1.303, 95 % CI 1.188, 1.429), and (2) the association between vegetable consumption and availability is only significant for non-Hispanic Whites (IRR = 1.242, 95 % CI 1.152, 1.340) and Hispanics (IRR = 1.141, 95 % CI 1.025, 1.271). This study highlights the importance of interventions that emphasize not only potential access but also social and cultural factors that relate to realized access to healthy food.

  9. The relationship between sleep duration and fruit/vegetable intakes in UK adults: a cross-sectional study from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria J; Hardie, Laura J

    2018-01-01

    Objectives There is increasing evidence to suggest an association between sleep and diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sleep duration and fruit/vegetable (FV) intakes and their associated biomarkers in UK adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Data from The National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Participants 1612 adults aged 19–65 years were included, pregnant/breastfeeding women were excluded from the analyses. Outcome measures Sleep duration was assessed by self-report, and diet was assessed by 4-day food diaries, disaggregation of foods containing FV into their components was conducted to determine total FV intakes. Sleep duration was divided into: short (8 hours/day) sleep periods. Multiple regression adjusting for confounders was used for analyses where sleep duration was the exposure and FV intakes and their associated biomarkers were the outcomes. Restricted cubic spline models were developed to explore potential non-linear associations. Results In adjusted models, long sleepers (LS) consumed on average 28 (95% CI −50 to −6, p=0.01) g/day less of total FV compared to reference sleepers (RS), whereas short sleepers (SS) consumed 24 g/day less (95% CI −42 to –6, p=0.006) and had lower levels of FV biomarkers (total carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene) compared to RS. Restricted cubic spline models showed that the association between sleep duration and FV intakes was non-linear (pimportant implications for lifestyle and behavioural change policy. PMID:29703857

  10. Regional geochemical prospecting of uranium in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.; Hohn, H.

    1982-01-01

    A regional geochemical prospecting program for uranium in the Serra dos Carajas area, south of Para, was performed by NUCLEBRAS using stream sediment samples obtained from other companies acting in this area. The results of the survey are presented compared to regional geology and an aerial total count map. The different data showed a good correlation, particularly in areas mapped regionally as granitic rocks. (Author) [pt

  11. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  12. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  13. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  14. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  15. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  16. Computer analysis to the geochemical of soil and stream sediments data in an area of Southern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in Southern of Uruguay .This zone has several occurrences of metal sulphide mineralization

  17. Is fruit and vegetable intake associated with asthma or chronic rhino-sinusitis in European adults? Results from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Arthur, Rhonda; Potts, James F.

    2017-01-01

    was negatively associated with intake of dried fruits (β-coefficient -2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.09, -0.59), whilst CRS was statistically negatively associated with total intake of fruits (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55, 0.97). Conversely, a positive association was observed between asthma score and alliums......Background: Fruits and vegetables are rich in compounds with proposed antioxidant, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, which could contribute to reduce the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases. Objective: We investigated the association between asthma, and chronic rhino......-sinusitis (CRS) with intake of fruits and vegetables in European adults. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15-75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Asthma score (derived from...

  18. Status report on geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the findings of a review undertaken on behalf of the project management group of the programme 'Endlagersicherheit in der Nachbetriebsphase' based at GSF-IfT (Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit - Institut fuer Tieflagerung) to establish the current status of research into the simulation of geochemical processes relevant to radiological assessment. The review is intended to contribute to Stage 1 of a strategy formulated to enhance the use of geochemical models in Germany. Emphasis has been placed on processes deemed to be of greatest relevance to performance assessment for a HLW-repository in a salt dome principally, speciation-solubility in high salinity solutions, complexation by natural organics and generation-transport of colloids. For each of these and other topics covered, a summary is given of fundamental concepts, theoretical representations and their limitations, highlighting, where appropriate, the advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches. The availability of data to quantify any given representation is addressed, taking into account the need for information at elevated temperatures and pressures. Mass transfer is considered in terms of aqueous, particulate and gas-mediated transport, respectively. (orig.) [de

  19. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  20. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  1. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  2. Coupled geochemical and solute transport code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, J.R.; Hostetler, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of coupled geochemical hydrologic codes have been reported in the literature. Some of these codes have directly coupled the source-sink term to the solute transport equation. The current consensus seems to be that directly coupling hydrologic transport and chemical models through a series of interdependent differential equations is not feasible for multicomponent problems with complex geochemical processes (e.g., precipitation/dissolution reactions). A two-step process appears to be the required method of coupling codes for problems where a large suite of chemical reactions must be monitored. Two-step structure requires that the source-sink term in the transport equation is supplied by a geochemical code rather than by an analytical expression. We have developed a one-dimensional two-step coupled model designed to calculate relatively complex geochemical equilibria (CTM1D). Our geochemical module implements a Newton-Raphson algorithm to solve heterogeneous geochemical equilibria, involving up to 40 chemical components and 400 aqueous species. The geochemical module was designed to be efficient and compact. A revised version of the MINTEQ Code is used as a parent geochemical code

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices.

  5. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  6. Circumpolar Arctic vegetation: a hierarchic review and roadmap toward an internationally consistent approach to survey, archive and classify tundra plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D A Walker; F J A Daniels; I Alsos; U S Bhatt; A L Breen; M Buchhorn; H Bultmann; L A Druckenmiller; M E Edwards; D Ehrich; H E Epstein; William Gould; R A Ims; H Meltofte; M K Raynolds; J Sibik; S S Talbot; P J Webber

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-derived remote-sensing products are providing a modern circumpolar perspective of Arctic vegetation and its changes, but this new view is dependent on a long heritage of ground-based observations in the Arctic. Several products of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna are key to our current understanding.Wereview aspects of the PanArctic Flora, the...

  7. Drill site selection process using geophysical (seismic, EM, magnetic) surveys and regional geochemical uranium deposit vectors within the Keefe Lake Uranium Property and its vicinity – Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.; Annesley, I.; Takacs, E.

    2014-01-01

    defined several highly favorable structural features in the basement; with some extending into the overlying sandstones. Close correlation between features of potential field data anomalies and the seismic signatures, together with the geochemical uranium deposit vectors, established the north-western corner of the property as a significant site for drilling. (author)

  8. Geochemical variations during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Galli, Gianfranco; Cinti, Daniele; Pizzino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Several geochemical surveys (soil gas and shallow water) were performed in the Modena province (Massa Finalese, Finale Emilia, Medolla and S. Felice sul Panaro), during 2006-2014 period. In May-June 2012, a seismic sequence (main shocks of ML 5.9 and 5.8) was occurred closely to the investigated area. In this area 300 CO2 and CH4 fluxes measurements, 150 soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6), 30 shallow waters and their isotopic analyses (δ13C- CH4, δD- CH4 and δ13C- CO2) were performed in April-May 2006, October and December 2008, repeated in May and September 2012, June 2013 and July 2014 afterwards the 2012 Emilia seismic sequences. Chemical composition of soil gas are dominated by CH4 in the southern part by CO2 in the northern part. Very anomalous fluxes and concentrations are recorded in spot areas; elsewhere CO2 and CH4 values are very low, within the typical range of vegetative and of organic exhalation of the cultivated soil. After the seismic sequence the CH4 and CO2 fluxes are increased of one order of magnitude in the spotty areas, whereas in the surrounding area the values are within the background. On the contrary, CH4 concentration decrease (40%v/v in the 2012 surveys) and CO2 concentration increase until to 12.7%v/v (2013 survey). Isotopic gas analysis were carried out only on samples with anomalous values. Pre-seismic data hint a thermogenic origin of CH4 probably linked to leakage from a deep source in the Medolla area. Conversely, 2012/2013 isotopic data indicate a typical biogenic origin (i.e. microbial hydrocarbon production) of the CH4, as recognized elsewhere in the Po Plain and surroundings. The δ13C-CO2 value suggests a prevalent shallow origin of CO2 (i.e. organic and/or soil-derived) probably related to anaerobic oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons. Water samples, collected from domestic, industrial and hydrocarbons exploration wells, allowed us to recognize different families of waters. Waters are meteoric in origin and

  9. Organic matter geochemical signatures (TOC, TN, C/N ratio, δ13C and δ15N) of surface sediment from lakes distributed along a climatological gradient on the western side of the southern Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sergio; Werne, Josef P; Araneda, A; Urrutia, R; Conejero, C A

    2018-07-15

    Paleolimnological studies in western South America, where meteorological stations are scarce, are critical to obtain more realistic and reliable regional reconstructions of past climate and environmental changes, including vegetation and water budget variability. However, climate and environmental geochemical indicators must be tested before they can be applied with confidence. Here we present a survey of lacustrine surface sediment (core top, 0 to ~1cm) biogeochemical proxies (total organic carbon [TOC], total nitrogen [TN], carbon/nitrogen ratio [C/N ratio] and bulk organic δ 13 C and total δ 15 N) from a suite of 72 lakes spanning the transition from a Mediterranean climate with a patchwork of cultivated vegetation, pastureland, and conifers in central Chile to a rainy temperate climate dominated by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forest further south. Sedimentary data are compared to the latitudinal and orographic climatic trends of the region based on the climatology (precipitation and temperature) produced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the modern Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SWW) location. The geochemical data show inflection points at ~42°S latitude and ~1500m elevation that are likely related to the northern limit of influence of the SWW and elevation of the snow line, respectively. Overall the organic proxies were able to mimic climatic trends (Mean Annual Precipitation [MAP] and temperature [MAT]), indicating that they are a useful tool to be included in paleoclimatological reconstruction of the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  11. Field vegetable production in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production

  12. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  13. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Ohno, Tetsuji; Hoshino, Mihoko; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Murakami, Hiroyasu; Tsunematsu, Maiko; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements (REEs), in total, 200 samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparison of the two methods broadly indicates positive correlations of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y), in particular Y and La having a strong correlation. As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite (89.89 wt%) and includes xenotime (0.26 wt%) and monazite (0.21 wt%) grains as REE minerals. Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime (0.27 wt%) and monazite (0.41 wt%) grains. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

  14. Role of geochemical background at evaluation of investment attractiveness of recreational territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol'ga Konstantinovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of natural geochemical background when estimating investment attractiveness of recreational areas. It is noted, that geochemical background influence on people's sickness rate isn't considered now. Though it's understood, that even insignificant increase of geochemical background in relation to percentage abundance of Earth crest may lead to endemic diseases of people, animals and plants. An indicator of geochemical endemicity areas was proposed for assessing the impact of storage elements and of a lack of geological environment on human health. Thanks to this measure, and taking into account landscape features of the area, the authors allocated lands, dangerous and potentially dangerous in terms of endemicity. The importance of ratings was achieved by the use of those factors that could have a great influence on the cost of land development. This includes, first of all, the factors that affect population health, and economic and geographic factors that minimize the cost of the territory development and the factors that give rise to financial risks and risks of human losses. The main risk factors include: potential ecological and geochemical risk; high absolute heights, development and activity of dangerous geological processes and phenomena. Systemacity of researches was reached by using factors, that characterize the object from different aspects; readiness of area infrastructure to its exploration and possible risks. Objectivity was achieved by the use of figures obtained from the results of geochemical and engineering surveys with their metrological support.

  15. Uranium exploration data and global geochemical baselines: The need for co-ordinated action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnley, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Public concern about environmental problems continues. In order to assess the magnitude of potential problems it is necessary to have comprehensive information. The absence of quantitative geochemical data to map the surface composition of the earth is one of the major information gaps in present day environmental science. An IAEA Technical Committee meeting held in November 1993 reviewed the uses of uranium exploration data for environmental purposes. Most attention was focussed on data involving radiation measurements. Uranium exploration programmes conducted since 1970 in many countries collected a considerable amount of geochemical survey data, providing information about the distribution of non-radioactive elements in the natural environment. Canada is one of several countries where such data provided the foundation for national geochemical mapping; other countries could benefit from similar actions. Increasing importance is being attached by governments to the need to enact effective environmental legislation concerning ''safe levels'' of many chemical substances. Such legislation requires geochemical variations in the natural environment. It is becoming necessary to make quantitative comparisons of element abundances across national boundaries, and from continent to continent. In 1995 the IAEA, with other organizations, supported UNESCO to publish a report concerned with the establishment of a Global Geochemical Reference Network. This is designed to provide a framework to connect all types of geochemical survey, to move towards international compatibility of data. The report contains recommendations relating to the standardization of field and laboratory methods; the use of the most sensitive analytical techniques; and standardization of data management. Ground and airborne gamma ray spectrometry, and nuclear laboratory techniques are all discussed. Following the publication of the report, the International Union of Geological Sciences has now established a

  16. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, J [comp.

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  17. Proceedings of 2. Brazilian Geochemical Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Some works about geochemistry are presented, including themes about geochemical exploration, lithogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, analytical geochemistry, geochemistry of carbonatites and rare earth elements and organic geochemistry. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. Coupling of transport and geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This report considers mass transport in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository, and detailed geochemical modelling of the ground-water in the near-field. A parallel approach to this problem of coupling transport and geochemical codes is the subject of another CEC report (ref. EUR 10226). Both studies were carried out in the framework of the CEC project MIRAGE. (Migration of radionuclides in the geosphere)

  19. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1980-06-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  20. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes

  1. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  2. Predictive geophysics: geochemical simulations to geophysical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.; Cleverley, J.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing focus on deep exploration for covered targets, new methods are required to target mineral systems under cover. Geophysical responses are driven by physical property contrasts; for example, density contrasts provide a gravity signal, acoustic impedance contrasts provide a seismic reflection signal. In turn, the physical properties for basement, crystalline rocks which host the vast majority of mineral systems are determined almost wholly by the mineralogy of the rocks in question. Mineral systems, through the transport of heat and reactive fluids, will serve to modify the physical properties of country rock as they chemically alter the hosting strata. To understand these changes, we have performed 2D reactive transport modelling that simulates the formation of Archean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. From this, we derive a model of mineralogy that we can use to predict the density, magnetic susceptibility and seismic reflection changes associated with ore formation. It is then possible to predict the gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection responses associated with these deposits. Scenario mapping, such as testing the ability to resolve buried ore bodies or the geophysical survey spacing required to resolve the mineral system, can be performed to produce geophysical targets from these geochemical simulations. We find that there is a gravity response of around 9% of the unaltered response for deposits even buried by 1km of cover, and there is a magnetic spike associated with proximal alteration of the ore system. Finally, seismic reflection response is mostly characterised by additional reflections along faults that plumb the alteration system.

  3. The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of geochemical surveys changes with scale. Regional surveys identify areas where mineral deposits are most likely to occur, whereas intermediate surveys identify and prioritize specific targets. At detailed scales specific deposit models may be applied and deposits delineated. The interpretation of regional geochemical surveys must take into account scale-dependent difference in the nature and objectives of this type of survey. Overinterpretation of regional data should be resisted, as should recommendations to restrict intermediate or detailed follow-up surveys to the search for specific deposit types or to a too limited suite of elements. Regional surveys identify metallogenic provinces within which a variety of deposit types and metals are most likely to be found. At intermediate scale, these regional provinces often dissipate into discrete clusters of anomalous areas. At detailed scale, individual anomalous areas reflect local conditions of mineralization and may seem unrelated to each other. Four examples from arid environments illustrate the dramatic change in patterns of anomalies between regional and more detailed surveys. On the Arabian Shield, a broad regional anomaly reflects the distribution of highly differentiated anorogenic granites. A particularly prominent part of the regional anomaly includes, in addition to the usual elements related to the granites, the assemblage of Mo, W and Sn. Initial interpretation suggested potential for granite-related, stockwork Mo deposits. Detailed work identified three separate sources for the anomaly: a metal-rich granite, a silicified and stockwork-veined area with scheelite and molybdenite, and scheelite/powellite concentrations in skarn deposits adjacent to a ring-dike complex. Regional geochemical, geophysical and remote-sensing data in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico, define a series of linear features interpreted to reflect fundamental, northeast-trending fractures in the crust that served as the prime

  4. Uruguay mining Inventory: Geochemical prospecting results of Valentines mapping; Inventario minero del Uruguay : Resultados de la prospeccion geoquimica del fotoplano Valentines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangenberg, J; Filippini, J

    1985-07-01

    This work is about geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Valentines mapping. Florida, Durazno and Treinta y Tres provinces of Uruguay .

  5. Geochemical maps of stream sediments in central Colorado, from New Mexico to Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Giles, Stuart A.; Klein, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a series of geologic, mineral resource, and environmental assessment studies in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, from Leadville eastward to the range front and from New Mexico to the Wyoming border. Regional stream-sediment geochemical maps, useful for assessing mineral resources and environmental effects of historical mining activities, were produced as part of the study. The data portrayed in this 56-parameter portfolio of landscape geochemical maps serve as a geochemical baseline for the region, indicate element abundances characteristic of various lithologic terranes, and identify gross anthropogenic effects of historical mining. However, although reanalyzed in this study by modern, sensitive methods, the majority of the stream-sediment samples were collected in the 1970s. Thus, metal concentrations portrayed in these maps represent stream-sediment geochemistry at the time of collection.

  6. Geochemical landscapes of the conterminous United States; new map presentations for 22 elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, N.; Bolviken, B.; Smith, D.B.; Severson, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical maps of the conterminous United States have been prepared for seven major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Ti) and 15 trace elements (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, Y, Zn, and Zr). The maps are based on an ultra low-density geochemical survey consisting of 1,323 samples of soils and other surficial materials collected from approximately 1960-1975. The data were published by Boerngen and Shacklette (1981) and black-and-white point-symbol geochemical maps were published by Shacklette and Boerngen (1984). The data have been reprocessed using weighted-median and Bootstrap procedures for interpolation and smoothing.

  7. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi Pem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK, BMI, Energy Intake (EI, Physical Activity Level (PAL, Dietary Intake (DI and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG and 175 intervention group (IG were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05. NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05. No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05. Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  8. Manual hierarchical clustering of regional geochemical data using a Bayesian finite mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of regional scale, multivariate geochemical data is aided by a statistical technique called “clustering.” We investigate a particular clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data collected in the State of Colorado, United States of America. The clustering procedure partitions the field samples for the entire survey area into two clusters. The field samples in each cluster are partitioned again to create two subclusters, and so on. This manual procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters, and the different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical and geological processes occurring at different spatial scales. Although there are many different clustering methods, we use Bayesian finite mixture modeling with two probability distributions, which yields two clusters. The model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability density function, which usually has multiple modes. Each mode has its own set of model parameters; each set is checked to ensure that it is consistent both with the data and with independent geologic knowledge. The set of model parameters that is most consistent with the independent geologic knowledge is selected for detailed interpretation and partitioning of the field samples. - Highlights: • We evaluate a clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data. • The procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters. • Different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical processes at different spatial scales. • The clustering method is Bayesian finite mixture modeling. • Model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling.

  9. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    and variations in water chemistry that are caused by large scale geochemical processes taking place at the timescale of thousands of years. The most important geochemical processes are ion exchange (Valreas and Aveiro) where freshwater solutes are displacing marine ions from the sediment surface, and carbonate......Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... dissolution (East Midlands, Valreas and Aveiro). Reactive transport models, employing the code PHREEQC, which included these geochemical processes and one-dimensional solute transport were able to duplicate the observed patterns in water quality. These models may provide a quantitative understanding...

  10. Robust statistics and geochemical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages of robust procedures over ordinary least-squares procedures in geochemical data analysis is demonstrated using NURE data from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, USA. Robust principal components analysis with 5% multivariate trimming successfully guarded the analysis against perturbations by outliers and increased the number of interpretable factors. Regression with SINE estimates significantly increased the goodness-of-fit of the regression and improved the correspondence of delineated anomalies with known uranium prospects. Because of the ubiquitous existence of outliers in geochemical data, robust statistical procedures are suggested as routine procedures to replace ordinary least-squares procedures

  11. Coupling of transport and geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This contract stipulated separate pieces of work to consider mass transport in the far-field of a repository, and more detailed geochemical modelling of the groundwater in the near-field. It was envisaged that the far-field problem would be tackled by numerical solutions to the classical advection-diffusion equation obtained by the finite element method. For the near-field problem the feasibility of coupling existing geochemical equilibrium codes to the three dimensional groundwater flow codes was to be investigated. This report is divided into two sections with one part devoted to each aspect of this contract. (author)

  12. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Yoo-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis. The prevalence of rhinitis decreased with increasing kimchi consumption. The quintile 4 (range of kimchi intake: 108.0-180.0 g) groups, compared with the reference of quintile 1 (0-23.7 g), showed a decrease of 18.9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.672-0.979) in Model 4. In conclusion, consumption of kimchi lowers the risk of rhinitis, suggesting that its use should be encouraged among the Korean population.

  13. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    children studied did not eat vegetable and fruit in the week preceding the survey, respectively. .... refer to households who never saw a single fruit/ vegetable, even once ..... did not eat vegetables even once, let alone three times in a week is.

  14. Parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables: a function of the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of some stable vegetables and their surrounding soils by parasites in Uyo, Nigeria. Out of the 780 leaves from six vegetables and 50 soil samples screened, 498 (63.9%) of vegetables and 36 (72%) of the soil samples were positive for parasite ova, larvae ...

  15. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Holzman; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report of a statewide project investigating vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands in California is presented. Vegetation plots taken in the 1930s, as part of a statewide vegetation mapping project, were relocated and surveyed. Species composition, cover and tree stand structure data from the earlier study were...

  16. Geochemical Interactions and Viral-Prokaryote Relationships in Freshwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. E.; Ferris, G.

    2009-05-01

    Viral and prokaryotic abundances were surveyed throughout southern Ontario aquatic habitats to determine relationships with geochemical parameters in the natural environment. Surface water samples were collected from acid mine drainage in summer of 2007 and 2008 and from circum-neutral pH environments in October to November 2008. Site determination was based on collecting samples from various aquatic habitats (acid mine drainage, lakes, rivers, tributaries, wetlands) with differing bedrock geology (limestone and shale dominated vs granitic Canadian Shield) to obtain a range of geochemical conditions. At each site, measurements of temperature, pH, and Eh were conducted. Samples collected for microbial counts and electron imaging were preserved to a final concentration of 2.5 % (v/v) glutaraldehyde. Additional sample were filtered into 60 mL nalgene bottles and amber EPA certified 40 mL glass vials to determine chemical constituents and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively. Water was also collected to determine additional physiochemical parameters (dissolved total iron, ferric iron, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity). All samples were stored at 4 °C until analysis. Viral and prokaryotic abundance was determined by staining samples with SYBR Green I and examining with a epifluorescence microscope under blue excitation. Multiple regression analysis using stepwise backwards regression and general linear models revealed that viral abundance was the most influential predictor of prokaryotic abundance. Additional predictors include pH, sulfate, phosphate, and magnesium. The strength of the model was very strong with 90 % of the variability explained (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.007). This is the first report, to our knowledge, of viruses exhibiting such strong controls over prokaryotic abundance in the natural environment. All relationships are positively correlated with the exception of Mg, which is negatively correlated. Iron was also noted as a

  17. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.; Wolf, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Date Creek Supplement is to characterize the chemistry of sediment samples representing stream basins in which the Anderson Mine (and related prospects) occur. Once characterized, the chemistry is then used to delineate other areas within the Date Creek Basin where stream sediment chemistry resembles that of the Anderson Mine area. This supplementary report examines more closely the data from sediment samples taken in 239 stream basins collected over a total area of approximately 900 km 2 (350 mi 2 ). Cluster and discriminant analyses are used to characterize the geochemistry of the stream sediment samples collected in the Date Creek Basin. Cluster and discriminant analysis plots are used to delineate areas having a potential for uranium mineralization similar to that of the Anderson Mine

  18. Notes on the radiometric and geochemical survey of Leyte Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements using the Scintrex GIS-4 portable scintillometer were conducted along the periphery of the island. These radiometric readings as well as sediments were obtained along the streams draining into the sea. A total of 174 stream sediments samples were collected. Minus 80 mesh sediment fraction was analyzed for mobile or extractable uranium. Results indicated that the background values of radioactivity and uranium in stream sediments were 25 counts per second (cps) and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The San Isidro and Vilaba areas which are located in the northern part of Leyte have greater than 3 times above background radioactivity and uranium in the stream sediments. (author)

  19. Geochemical prospect ion results of Treinta y Tres aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Bonnefoy, D.; Garau, M.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the multielemental geochemical strategy. The samples were studied by e spectrometry in the laboratories of Orleans.

  20. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China). Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang ...

  1. Kriging - a challenge in geochemical mapping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štojdl, J.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Popelka, J.; Váchová, T.; Hošek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, APR (2017) ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly 2017. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : kriging * geochemical mapping Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-3615.pdf

  2. Appliance of geochemical engineering in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Zhang Chengjiang; Ni Shijun; Li Kuanliang

    2008-01-01

    The basic foundation of applying geochemical engineering to control environment, common engineering models of disposal radioactive waste and the functions of the engineering barriers are introduced in this paper. The authors take the geochemical engineering barrier materiel research of a radioactive waste repository as an example to explain the appliance of geochemical engineering in the disposal of radioactive waste. And the results show that it can enhance the security of the nuclear waste repository if we use geochemical engineering barrier. (authors)

  3. Proceedings of 13. International Geochemical Exploration Symposium. 2. Brazilian Geochemical Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Some works about geochemistry are presented, including themes about geochemical exploration, lithogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, analyical geochemistry, geochemistry of carbonatites and rare earth elements and organic geochemistry. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  5. Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1989-12-01

    In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments

  6. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical Data Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory of Australia is being studied to evaluate the processes involved in the geochemical alteration of the ore body and the formation of the uranium dispersion fan. A broad range of research is being undertaken into the geochemistry and hydrology of the site with the aim of understanding the transport of radionuclides through the system. During the project a range of geochemical and hydrogeochemical models have been developed to account for measured data from the site and with which to predict site evolution. The majority of these models are based on the premise of thermodynamic chemical equilibrium and employ fundamental thermodynamic data to characterise the chemistry of the system. From the differences which exist between the thermodynamic data bases (Appendices I and II) it is possible to gain a view of the level of uncertainty associated with thermodynamic data in each set of calculations. This report gives a brief introduction to the geochemical processes underlying the models, and details the equations used to quantify the more common of these processes (e.g. aqueous speciation and mineral solubility). A description is given of the computer codes (EQ3/6, PHREEQE, MINTEQ) most commonly used during the project for geochemical modelling. Their key features are highlighted and comparisons made. It is concluded that the degree of uncertainty in geochemical modelling studies arising as a result of using one code rather than another is relatively insignificant when compared to that related to differences in the underlying data bases. 73 refs., 3 figs

  7. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  8. The Survey and Measurement of Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and V Content in Green Vegetables of South Area of Tehran Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemzadeh Khoyi, J.; Noori, A. S.; Pourang, N.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghoreishi, H.; Padash, A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most critical soil and water pollutant. Areas which are subjected to oil industry may have this kind of pollution by different ways such as extraction, transformation and refining. The example of these areas is south east of Tehran refinery which is surrounded by agricultural fields and are subjected by pollution via Tehran refinery, oil transforming lines, waste water and industrial activities. Since the crops from this area is providing the needs of neighbor cities like Tehran, to realize their oil pollution, the content of some heavy metals like Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn has been measured. The results analyzed by analytical method include SPSS and MVSP. Finally the relation between elements and pollution has been recognized. The result of this survey showed the high heavy metal content in most plants which were higher than similar research. Onion had the highest amount of most heavy metals. Ni and Pd content were high in plants which are indicator of oil pollution.

  9. Lateritinga project: a geochemical orientation study for Amazon lateritic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of systematic geochemical orientation survey in lateritic weathered terrain, like those form Amazon Region. The main selected targets (sheets) are: Turiacu, Cajuapara and Serra dos Carajas, with 690 samples collected (soils and lateritic rocks). For the Aurizona-Serra do Pirocaua target (Turiacu sheet), within the purpose of this work, 49 samples were collected in a 100x 200m regular grid. From all samples the fraction minor than 200 mesh was taken to analyses (by XRF, AA, OES, ICP and fire assay) for SiO sub(2), Fe sub(2) O sub(3), TiO sub(2), P sub(2) O sub(5), Sr, Ba, Y, Nb, Zr, Ga, Sc, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, As, Bi, Pt, Pd, Th, Au and REE, as well for their mineralogy by XRD. The chemical results were submitted to statistical treatment with the Geoquant-software for IBM-compatible microcomputer. (author)

  10. Geochemical Constraints on Archaeal Diversity in the Vulcano Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Amend, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    The shallow marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano, Italy hosts a wide diversity of cultured thermophilic Archaea, including Palaeococcus helgesonii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to name a few. However, recent studies have revealed a plethora of uncultured archaeal lineages in the Vulcano system. For example, a 16S rRNA gene survey of an onshore geothermal well identified a diverse archaeal community including deeply-branching uncultured Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Additionally, culture-independent hybridization techniques suggested that Archaea account for nearly half of the microbial community in the Vulcano system. Furthermore, geochemical characterization of fluids revealed numerous lithotrophic and heterotrophic exergonic reactions that could support as yet uncultured organisms. Archaeal diversity throughout the Vulcano hydrothermal system was investigated using 16S rRNA gene surveys at five submarine vents and an onshore sediment seep. Overall, archaeal diversity was higher (10 groups) at submarine vents with moderate temperatures (59°C) compared with higher temperature (94°C) vents (4 groups). Archaeal communities at the moderately thermal vents were dominated by Thermococcales and also contained Archaeoglobales, Thermoproteales, and uncultured archaea among the Korarchaeota, Marine Group I, and the Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE). Fluid composition also affects the microbial community structure. At two high-temperature sites variations in archaeal diversity can be attributed to differences in iron and hydrogen concentrations, and pH. Comparing sites with similar temperature and pH conditions suggests that the presence of Desulfurococcales is limited to sites at which metabolic energy yields exceed 10 kJ per mole of electrons transferred. The Vulcano hydrothermal system hosts diverse archaeal communities, containing both cultured and uncultured species, whose distribution appears to be constrained by

  11. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics are driven by climate, and at the same time they play a key role in forcing the different bio-geochemical cycles. As climate change leads to an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological extremes, vegetation is expected to respond to these changes, and subsequently feed back on their occurrence. This response can be analysed using time series of different vegetation diagnostics observed from space, in the optical (e.g. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) and microwave (Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD)) domains. In this contribution, we compare the climatic drivers of different vegetation diagnostics, based on a monthly global data-cube of 24 years at a 0.25° resolution. To do so, we calculate the wavelet coherence between each vegetation-related observation and observations of air temperature, precipitation and incoming radiation. The use of wavelet coherence allows unveiling the scale-by-scale response and sensitivity of the diverse vegetation indices to their climatic drivers. Our preliminary results show that the wavelet-based statistics prove to be a suitable tool for extracting information from different vegetation indices. Going beyond traditional methods based on linear correlations, the application of wavelet coherence provides information about: (a) the specific periods at which the correspondence between climate and vegetation dynamics is larger, (b) the frequencies at which this correspondence occurs (e.g. monthly or seasonal scales), and (c) the time lag in the response of vegetation to their climate drivers, and vice versa. As expected, areas of high rainfall volumes are characterised by a strong control of radiation and temperature over vegetation. Furthermore, precipitation is the most important driver of vegetation variability over short terms in most regions of the world - which can be explained by the rapid response of leaf development towards available water content

  12. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. Application of cluster analysis to geochemical compositional data for identifying ore-related geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuguang; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Jinlin; Yang, Genfang; Wang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    Cluster analysis is a well-known technique that is used to analyze various types of data. In this study, cluster analysis is applied to geochemical data that describe 1444 stream sediment samples collected in northwestern Xinjiang with a sample spacing of approximately 2 km. Three algorithms (the hierarchical, k-means, and fuzzy c-means algorithms) and six data transformation methods (the z-score standardization, ZST; the logarithmic transformation, LT; the additive log-ratio transformation, ALT; the centered log-ratio transformation, CLT; the isometric log-ratio transformation, ILT; and no transformation, NT) are compared in terms of their effects on the cluster analysis of the geochemical compositional data. The study shows that, on the one hand, the ZST does not affect the results of column- or variable-based (R-type) cluster analysis, whereas the other methods, including the LT, the ALT, and the CLT, have substantial effects on the results. On the other hand, the results of the row- or observation-based (Q-type) cluster analysis obtained from the geochemical data after applying NT and the ZST are relatively poor. However, we derive some improved results from the geochemical data after applying the CLT, the ILT, the LT, and the ALT. Moreover, the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms are more reliable than the hierarchical algorithm when they are used to cluster the geochemical data. We apply cluster analysis to the geochemical data to explore for Au deposits within the study area, and we obtain a good correlation between the results retrieved by combining the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms and the potential zones of Au mineralization. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms is an effective tool to identify potential zones of mineralization from geochemical data.

  14. Retention/sorption and geochemical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, D.; Grandia, F.; Domenech, C. [Enviros Spain, S.L., Barcelona (Spain); SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Sellin, P. [SKB - Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, SE, Stockholm (Sweden); Hunter, F.M.I.; Bate, F.; Heath, T.G.; Hoch, A. [Serco Assurance, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Werme, L.O. [SKB - Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bruggeman, C.; Maes, I.A.; Breynaert, E.; Vancluysen, J. [Leuven Katholieke Univ., Lab. for Colloid Chemistry (Belgium); Montavon, G.; Guo, Z. [Ecole des Mines, 44 - Nantes (France); Riebe, B.; Bunnenberg, C.; Meleshyn, A. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Zentrum fur Strahlenschutz und Radiookologie, Hannover (Germany); Dultz, S. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Institut fur Bodenkunde, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 4 articles dealing with: the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 HLNW repository: insights from reactive transport modelling (D. Arcos, F. Grandia, C. Domenech, P. Sellin); the investigation of iron transport into bentonite from anaerobically corroding steel: a geochemical modelling study (F.M.I. Hunter, F. Bate, T.G. Heath, A. Hoch, L.O. Werme); SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} adsorption on conditioned Na-illite: XAS spectroscopy, kinetics, surface complexation model and influence of compaction (C. Bruggeman, A. Maes, G. Montavon, E. Breynaert, Z. Guo, J. Vancluysen); the influence of temperature and gamma-irradiation on the anion sorption capacity of modified bentonites (B. Riebe, C. Bunnenberg, A. Meleshyn, S. Dultz)

  15. Geochemical approach to evaluate deforest of mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiga, Hiroaki; Diallo, Ibrahima M'bemba; Bah Mamadou Lamine Malick,; Ngulimi. Faustine Miguta,; Magai. Paschal Justin,; Shati Samwel Stanley,

    2016-01-01

    Processes of mangrove deforest related human activities were examined. To evaluate changes of soil feature, multielements geochemical compositions of mangrove muds and soils of deforest were analyzed. To describe present situation of the mangrove, Conakry in Guinea, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Sundarbans of Bangladesh and Nago in Okinawa of Japan were selected. Soil samples of the forests were evaluated enrichment of biologically concentrated heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and Fe, and TS (total s...

  16. Geochemical indicators of gold ore fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Yu.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principles of selection of indicators for genetic reconstructions and prognostic valuations of gold mineralization of diverse morphological and geochemical types have been substantiated. The neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation and detection limit of 1-10 -8 %, instrumental neutron-activation analysis and atomic-absorption analysis are the main methods of determination of gold low contents in the rocks, as well as diverse elements, including transition, rare earth elements and tellurium, in gold. 50 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  17. Synthesizing Earth's geochemical data for hydrogeochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Kubicki, J.; Miller, D.; Richter, D.; Giles, L.; Mitra, P.

    2007-12-01

    For over 200 years, geochemical, microbiological, and chemical data have been collected to describe the evolution of the surface earth. Many of these measurements are data showing variations in time or in space. To forward predict hydrologic response to changing tectonic, climatic, or anthropogenic forcings requires synthesis of these data and utilization in hydrogeochemical models. Increasingly, scientists are attempting to synthesize such data in order to make predictions for new regions or for future time periods. However, to make such complex geochemical data accessible requires development of sophisticated cyberinfrastructures that both invite uploading as well as usage of data. Two such cyberinfrastructure (CI) initiatives are currently developing, one to invite and promote the use of environmental kinetics data (laboratory time course data) through ChemxSeer, and the other to invite and promote the use of spatially indexed geochemical data for the Earth's Critical Zone through CZEN.org. The vision of these CI initiatives is to provide cyber-enhanced portals that encourage domain scientists to upload their data before publication (in private cyberspace), and to make these data eventually publicly accessible (after an embargo period). If the CI can be made to provide services to the domain specialist - e.g. to provide data analysis services or data comparison services - we envision that scientists will upload data. In addition, the CI can promote the use and comparison of datasets across disciplines. For example, the CI can facilitate the use of spatially indexed geochemical data by scientists more accustomed to dealing with time-course data for hydrologic flow, and can provide user-friendly interfaces with CI established to facilitate the use of hydrologic data. Examples of the usage of synthesized data to predict soil development over the last 13ky and its effects on active hydrological flow boundaries in surficial systems will be discussed for i) a N

  18. Summary report on geochemical barrier special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Long-term management of uranium mill tailings must provide assurance that soluble contaminants will not migrate beyond the Point of Compliance. Conventional management alternatives provide containment through the use of physical barriers which are designed to prevent migration of water through the tailings pile. An alternative is to geochemically modify the tailings to immobilize the contaminants. This investigation examined three potential geochemical modifiers to determine their ability to immobilize inorganic groundwater contaminants found in uranium mill tailings. These modifiers were hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ), limestone (CaCO 3 ), and a sphaegnum peat moss. This investigation focused on both the geochemical interactions between the tailings and the modifiers, and the effects the modifiers had on the physical strength of the tailings. The geochemical investigations began with characterization of the tailings by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This was followed by batch leaching experiments in which various concentrations of each modifier were added to tailings in shaker flasks and allowed to come to equilibrium. Finally, column experiments were conducted to simulate flow through a tailings pile. The results show that all of the modifiers were at least moderately effective at immobilizing most of the groundwater contaminants of concern at uranium mill tailings sites. Hydrated lime was able to achieve 90 percent concentration reduction of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, uranium, and sulfate when added at a two percent concentration. Limestone was somewhat less effective and peat removed greater than 90 percent of arsenic, lead, uranium, and sulfate at a one percent concentration. The column tests showed that kinetic and/or mass transfer limitations are important and that sufficient time must be allowed for the immobilization reactions to occur

  19. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  20. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  1. Sharp fronts within geochemical transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider some reactive geochemical transport problems in groundwater systems. When incoming fluid is in disequilibrium with the mineralogy sharp transition fronts may develop. They show that this is a generic property for a class of systems where the timescales associated with reaction and diffusion phenomena are much shorter than those associated with advective transport. Such multiple timescale problems are relevant to a variety of processes in natural systems: mathematically methods of singular perturbation theory reduce the dimension of the problems to be solved locally. Furthermore, they consider how spatial heterogeneous mineralogy can impact upon the propagation of sharp geochemical fronts. The authors developed an asymptotic approach in which they solve equations for the evolving geometry of the front and indicate how the non-smooth perturbations due to natural heterogeneity of the mineralogy on underlying ground water flow field are balanced against the smoothing effect of diffusion/dispersive processes. Fronts are curvature damped, and the results here indicate the generic nature of separate front propagation within both model (idealized) and natural (heterogeneous) geochemical systems

  2. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  3. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  4. A survey on lifestyle and attitudes on fruit and vegetable consumption and participation in physical activity in a sample of secondary school and university students from Palermo, Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and physical activity (PA, are thought to be some of the most important protective factors that can improve long-term health quality of life. Many epidemiological studies indicate, in fact, that F&V consumption and PA are health-promoting and are correlated with the beneficial effects and positive outcomes such as preventing some chronic diseases. Evidence, however, indicates that large proportions of adolescents are not consuming the minimum servings of F&V as recommended by experts and a high percentage of them have sedentary habits.

    Objective and method: The purpose of this research was to investigate knowledge and behaviors in a sample of secondary school, (250, and university students, (200, referred to F&V consumption and PA. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 19 items with multiple choice answers. Data were codified, descriptive analysis and ÷2 tests were computed through Openstat and Statistica software.

    Results: Only 24,2% of the individuals identified welfare as including healthy eating, and this attitude seemed to be associated with the students’ families educational level. Educational level was also positively associated with the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet for well-being and with PA practice. The percentage of students having knowledge of the expert recommendations on PA and eating guidelines about F&V consumption was about one third of the entire population. Students who met the expert recommendation for daily servings of fruit and vegetables were 27,8%, while only 17,8% practiced regular PA. The principal source of information was university/school, (48,0% and 57,0%.

    Conclusions: Healthy dietary and PA habits are far from the optimal in our sample of students. Because of the importance for the prevention of many diseases and long term health

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake in the Mexican population: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de frutas y verduras en la población mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Ramírez-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify fruit and vegetable (FV dietary intake in the Mexican population and compliance with international recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: FV dietary intake (FV-DI and compliance with international recommendations were obtained in a representative sample of a Mexican population ages 1-59 years old using dietary data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTS: Average FV-DI for different age groups range from 61 to 72 g for fruits and 26 to 56 g for vegetables. Average total FV intakes were 88.7 g in preschool-age, 103.1 g in school-aged children, 116.3 g in adolescents and 122.6 g in adults. The lowest intakes were observed in the northern region and among the population with the lowest wellbeing levels. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 30% of the Mexican population had adequate intakes of FV. Developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing intake of these food groups is a national priority.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones internacionales en la población mexicana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones fueron obtenidas en una muestra representativa de la población mexicana de entre 1 a 59 años de edad, usando datos sobre dieta de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de ingestión dietética para los diversos grupos de edad fluctuaron entre 61 y 72 g en frutas y 26 y 56 g en verduras. Los promedios de ingestión dietética total de frutas y verduras fueron: 87.5 g en preescolares, 103.1 g en escolares, 116.3 g en adolescentes y 122.6 g en adultos. Los menores consumos se observaron en la región norte y en la población con los menores niveles de bienestar. CONCLUSIONES: Menos de 30% de la población tuvo consumos adecuados. El desarrollo e implementación de estrategias y programas que contribuyan a aumentar el

  6. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  7. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  8. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  9. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  10. Some results of NURE uranium geochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some technical developments of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program which are of general application in geochemical exploration are being studied. Results of stream water and suspended and bottom sediment analyses are compared for an area near Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Variations of uranium content of water samples with time in the North Carolina Piedmont are seen to correlate with rainfall. Ground water samples from coastal and piedmont areas were analyzed for helium. All media sampled provide useful information when properly analyzed and interpreted as part of a total geological analysis of an area

  11. Landscape-geochemical factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batulin, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of landscape-geochemical factors on hydrogenic formation of uranium ores is considered. The primary attention is paid to finding reasons for hydrogeochemical background increase in the regions of arid climate. Problems of uranium distribution in alluvial landscapes, hydrogeochemical regime of ground waters, reflecting the effect of waters of the zone of aeration are revealed. Chemical composition of porous solutions in the zone of aeration, as well as historical geochemindstry of landscape a its role from the view point of uranium solution formation in the arid zone are considered [ru

  12. Geochemical modelling. Pt.1, Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte Jensen, B.; Jensen, H.; Pearson, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    This work is carried out under cost-sharing contract with the European Atomic Energy Community in the framework of its fourth research programme on radioactive waste management and radioactive waste storage. This final report is subdivided into two parts. In the first part, JENSEN, a computer code for the computation of chemical equilibria in aqueous systems, describes the structure, function and use of a new geochemical computer program intended for PC's. The program, which is written in Turbo Pascal, version 4, is fundamentally similar to most other geochemical programs, but combines in one program several of the merits these programs have. The intention has been to make an advanced program, which also should be user friendly and fast, and to attain this several new algorithms have been developed and implemented. The program has a built-in database mainly based on the CHEMVAL compilation containing data for 395 soluble species and 149 minerals. The program can find equilibria in the presence of all or some of these soluble species, under conditions or fixed or floating pH and / or Redox potential. The program by itself eliminates a bad guess of a candidate for precipitation. In the present version, the program can identify which minerals and how much of them there will be formed when equilibrium is established. In the second part, LITTLE JOE, an expert system to support geochemical modelling, describes the construction of a minor expert system for use in the evaluation of analytical data for the composition of ground waters from limestone formation. Although the example given is rather limited in scope, the application of the expert system for the evaluation of the analytical data clearly demonstrates the mature expert knowledge imbedded in the system which is contrasted with the uncritical acceptance of analytical or theoretical data. With the overall neglect of ion-exchange and the formation of solid solutions in geochemical calculations, geochemistry is

  13. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  14. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  15. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  17. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as 228 Ac, 214 Bi and 214 Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  18. Investigation of a natural geochemical barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    Groundwater data from lysimeters and monitor wells in the vicinity of the Bowman, North Dakota, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site indicated that there is a mechanism in the subsurface which cleans up downward-percolating fluids. It was hypothesized that clays and organic materials in the sediments sequestered hazardous constituents from infiltrating fluids. A program was designed to collect sediment cores from various locations on and around the site and to analyze the sediments to determine whether there has been a build up of hazardous constituents in any specific type of sedimentary material. Materials that concentrate the hazardous constituents would be potential candidates to be used in constructed geochemical barriers. The water quality of the groundwater contained within the sedimentary section indicates that there is a transport of contaminants down through the sediments and that these contaminants are removed from solution by the iron-bearing minerals in the organic-rich lignite beds. The data gathered during the course of this investigation indicate that the lignite ashing operations have added very little of the hazardous constituents of concern--arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, or uranium--to the sediments beneath the UMTRA Project site. At both locations, the hazardous constituents are concentrated in the upper most lignite bed. These data offer a natural analog for laboratory tests in which sphagnum peat was used to sequester hazardous constituents. Constructed geochemical barriers are a viable mechanism for the clean-up of the majority of hazardous constituents from uranium mill tailings in groundwater

  19. Geochemical Characterization of the Upper and Middle Floridan Aquifer System, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirecki, J.; Richardson, E.; Bennett, M.; Hendel, J.

    2008-05-01

    Our study focus is to characterize the water quality and geochemical environment of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) throughout the regional flowpath. A synoptic survey of 21 wells (n=15, upper FAS; n=6 middle FAS) was supplemented by additional samples (n=11) obtained during exploratory well development at 4 aquifer storage recovery (ASR) pilot sites. Synoptic survey samples were analyzed intensively, yielding a dataset that consists of major and trace dissolved constituents (including metals), stable isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, δD, δ34S in sulfate and sulfide), carbon species (carbonate alkalinity and organic carbon), uranium-series radionuclides, nutrients, and selected microbes and pathogens. The objectives of this study are three-fold: 1) to provide baseline water-quality and geochemical information prior to initiation of ASR activities that are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan; 2) to quantify the major controls on geochemical evolution along upper and middle FAS flowpaths using geochemical modeling methods; and 3) to identify areas where water- quality may limit the feasibility of ASR methods in the FAS. Preliminary interpretations water quality changes along the regional FAS flowpath can be summarized as follows. Concentrations of dissolved constituents increase from north to south along the flow path; generally, the upper FAS has lower total dissolved solids than the middle FAS at locations where well pairs were analyzed. The redox environment changes from oxic to strongly anoxic, very close to the recharge area. Redox measurements, dissolved iron, sulfide, and sulfur isotope data are consistent with sulfate-reducing conditions. Uranium-series isotope concentrations and activities generally are below regulatory criteria, with few exceptions in both the upper and middle FAS. Areas with greater radionuclide activity occur primarily at distal flowpath locations or at the coast.

  20. The Application and Evaluation of Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Aine, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to optimise the processing and storage of selected vegetable within the parameters of extended shelf life, time/temperature relationships and sensory quality. The vegetables were selected on the basis of the results of a survey of the Irish vegetable industry. The current literature in the field of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the Irish vegetable industry was reviewed. The current state and future requirements of the Irish vegetable industry was in...

  1. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  2. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  3. Behaviour of nature and technogenic radioisotopes in buried geochemical barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Onoshko, M.P.; Generalova, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Behaviour of potassium 40, radium 226, thorium 232, strontium 90 and cesium 137 on geochemical barriers connected with buried soils and cut-off meander sediments of the Holocene age of the Sozh river valley are examined. Some sides of the barrier geochemical structure caused by syngeneic and epigenetic processes have been taken into consideration

  4. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  5. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  6. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  7. Methodological approaches in estimating anomalous geochemical field structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, R; Rudmin, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical statistic methods were applied to analyze the core samples from vertical expendable wells in Chertovo Koryto gold ore field. The following methods were used to analyse gold in samples: assay tests and atomic absorption method (AAS), while emission spectrum semiquantative method was applied to identify traces. The analysis of geochemical association distribution in one central profile demonstrated that bulk metasomatic aureoles are characteristic of concentric zonal structure. The distribution of geochemical associations is correlated to the hydrothermal stages of mineral formation identified in this deposit. It was proved that the processed geochemical data by factor and cluster analyses provided additional information on the anomalous geochemical field structure in gold- bearing black-shale strata. Such methods are effective tools in interpretating specific features of geochemical field structures in analogous potential ore-bearing areas

  8. History and progress of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Rivera, Francisco Moreira; Rencz, Andrew N.; Garrett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada, and the Mexican Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km2, 13323 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of North American soils (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a series of workshops in 20032004 and pilot studies were conducted from 20042007. The ideal sampling protocol at each site includes a sample from 05 cm depth, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a sample from the soil C horizon. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods are used for As, Hg, Se, and total C on this same size fraction. The major mineralogical components are determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. Sampling in the conterminous U.S. was completed in 2010 (c. 4800 sites) with chemical and mineralogical analysis currently underway. In Mexico, approximately 66% of the sampling (871 sites) had been done by the end of 2010 with completion expected in 2012. After completing sampling in the Maritime provinces and portions of other provinces (472 sites, 7.6% of the total), Canada withdrew from the project in 2010. Preliminary results for a swath from the central U.S. to Florida clearly show the effects of soil parent material and climate on the chemical and mineralogical composition of soils. A sample archive will be established and made available for future investigations.

  9. Advanced cost-effective surface geochemical techniques for oil/gas/uranium exploration, environmental assessments and pipeline monitoring - a template for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, Paul; Chanrasekharan, G.Y.V.N.; Rajender Rao, S.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced geochemical soil gas methods have been successfully developed for the exploration of oil/gas/uranium and for environmental assessments. Application of these cost-effective technologies in India can substantially reduce exploration risk while accelerating the development of oil/gas/uranium onshore resources. A reliable and effective monitoring system using geochemical soil gas surveys ensures that CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery operations as well as CO 2 sequestration projects are safe and acceptable for the disposal of CO 2 , Soil gas surveys along with other technologies can also be applied for monitoring of oil/gas pipelines for leakage, especially those that are old or pass through populated regions

  10. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  11. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  12. Comparison of U-spatial statistics and C-A fractal models for delineating anomaly patterns of porphyry-type Cu geochemical signatures in the Varzaghan district, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezelbash, Reza; Maghsoudi, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The delineation of populations of stream sediment geochemical data is a crucial task in regional exploration surveys. In this contribution, uni-element stream sediment geochemical data of Cu, Au, Mo, and Bi have been subjected to two reliable anomaly-background separation methods, namely, the concentration-area (C-A) fractal and the U-spatial statistics methods to separate geochemical anomalies related to porphyry-type Cu mineralization in northwest Iran. The quantitative comparison of the delineated geochemical populations using the modified success-rate curves revealed the superiority of the U-spatial statistics method over the fractal model. Moreover, geochemical maps of investigated elements revealed strongly positive correlations between strong anomalies and Oligocene-Miocene intrusions in the study area. Therefore, follow-up exploration programs should focus on these areas.

  13. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [Uniiversity of Nevada, Las Vegas; Haber, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  14. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  15. Destruction of mangrove vegetation by Sphaeroma terebrans along Kerala coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Extent of damage causEd. by wood boring isopod crustaceans to mangrove vegetation off Kerala Coast, India has been evaluated in this study, based on a survey and monthly collections from two localities in Cochin backwaters system. Eventhough...

  16. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. Bacterial communities associated with subsurface geochemical processes in continental serpentinite springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, William J; Morrill, Penny L; Szponar, Natalie; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2013-07-01

    Reactions associated with the geochemical process of serpentinization can generate copious quantities of hydrogen and low-molecular-weight organic carbon compounds, which may provide energy and nutrients to sustain subsurface microbial communities independently of the photosynthetically supported surface biosphere. Previous microbial ecology studies have tested this hypothesis in deep sea hydrothermal vents, such as the Lost City hydrothermal field. This study applied similar methods, including molecular fingerprinting and tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, to ultrabasic continental springs emanating from serpentinizing ultramafic rocks. These molecular surveys were linked with geochemical measurements of the fluids in an interdisciplinary approach designed to distinguish potential subsurface organisms from those derived from surface habitats. The betaproteobacterial genus Hydrogenophaga was identified as a likely inhabitant of transition zones where hydrogen-enriched subsurface fluids mix with oxygenated surface water. The Firmicutes genus Erysipelothrix was most strongly correlated with geochemical factors indicative of subsurface fluids and was identified as the most likely inhabitant of a serpentinization-powered subsurface biosphere. Both of these taxa have been identified in multiple hydrogen-enriched subsurface habitats worldwide, and the results of this study contribute to an emerging biogeographic pattern in which Betaproteobacteria occur in near-surface mixing zones and Firmicutes are present in deeper, anoxic subsurface habitats.

  19. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  20. Mid-Holocene vegetation history and Neolithic land-use in the Lake Banyoles area (Girona, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revelles, J.; Cho, S; Iriarte, E; Burjachs, F.; van Geel, B.; Palomo, A; Piqué, R; Peña-Chocarro, L; Terradas, X

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on high-resolution analysis of pollen and sedimentology and botanical macro-remains analysis in a core from Lake Banyoles (Girona, Spain). The core sequence comprises a high resolution mid-Holocene (ca. 8.9-3.35 cal ka BP) vegetation succession, and sedimentological, geochemical

  1. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  2. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  3. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  4. Distinguishing of uranium-bearing sandstone by the geochemical characteristics in northern Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wangzhang; Zhang Zhufeng; Wang Yunliang; Sun Shuqin.

    1994-01-01

    Expounding geochemical characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan, the authors demonstrate the favourable and unfavourable conditions for enrichment of uranium on the basis of element abundances and ratios of U, Th and K measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy surveying. The differences between uranium-bearing and non-uranium sandstones and between red sandstone (clay stone) and greenish sandstone can be determined by the gamma-ray spectroscopy (measuring U, Th and K) and XRF analysis (measuring As and Ba). Therefore, the prospecting of the sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan can be concentrated in a certain range

  5. Applications of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy to geochemical reconnaissance for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagle, G.W.; Butz, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of large numbers of natural groundwater and stream sediment samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy has been applied to a geochemical reconnaissance program as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Approximately 25 elements have been determined in over 60,000 samples by ICP analysis. These data are combined with additional measurements obtained by atomic absorption, colorimetry, neutron activation, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results are presented and interpreted in terms of the uranium favorability of areas in Texas where this survey has been completed

  6. The role of geochemical prospecting in phased uranium exploration. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.Y.; Armour-Brown, A.; Olsen, H.; Lundberg, B.; Niesen, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The commencement of a UNDP/IAEA uranium exploration project in Northern Greece in 1971 offered the opportunity to test and apply an exploration strategy based on a phased use of geochemical exploration methods. The paper reviews the exploration task, the strategy selected, and some results obtained. The project area (22000 km 2 ) was explored by car-borne survey, covering 15000 km of road and track. Concurrently, a stream sediment geochemical survey was begun which aimed at a nominal sample density of one sample per square kilometre. Samples were analysed for copper, lead, zinc, silver, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, mercury and manganese, in addition to uranium. At each site, a general reading of radioactivity was made, and treated like another element analysis. The reconnaissance programme succeeded in delineating a number of important target areas, varying in size from a few to several hundred square kilometres with significant uranium potential. Follow-up and detailed surveys have been carried out over a number of these, including a sedimentary basin of continental deposits which have been found to contain occurrences of secondary uranium minerals, and two areas in which granitic bodies have been found to have fracture systems and secondary uranium mineralization of economic interest. In no case has sufficient work been yet done to prove economic deposits of uranium. The phased strategy used has, however, already been demonstrated to be effective in the environment of northern Greece. (author)

  7. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  8. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  10. Geochemical behavior of disposed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book are organized to cover the chemical aspects that are important to understanding the behavior of disposed radioactive wastes. These aspects include radionuclide sorption and desorption, solubility of radionuclide compounds, chemical species of radionuclides in natural waters, hydrothermal geochemical reactions, measurements of radionuclide migration, solid state chemistry of wastes, and waste-form leaching behavior. The information in each of the papers is necessary to predict the transport of radionuclides from wastes via natural waters and thus to predict the safety of the disposed waste. Radionuclide transport in natural waters is strongly dependent on sorption, desorption, dissolution, and precipitation processes. The first two papers discuss laboratory investigations of these processes. Descriptions of sorption and desorption behavior of important radionuclides under a wide range of environmental conditions are presented in the first section. Among the sorbents studied are basalt interbed solids, granites, clays, sediments, hydrous oxides, and pure minerals. Effects of redox conditions, groundwater composition and pH on sorption reactions are described

  11. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described.

  12. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described

  13. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  14. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  15. Podoconiosis: non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gail; Tekola, Fasil; Newport, Melanie J

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis). Podoconiosis is a non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkalic clay soils. It is found in at least 10 countries in tropical Africa, Central America and northwest India, where such soils coexist with high altitude, high seasonal rainfall and low income. Podoconiosis develops in men and women working barefoot on irritant soils, with signs becoming apparent in most patients by the third decade of life. Colloid-sized silicate particles appear to enter through the skin, are taken up into macrophages in the lower limb lymphatics and cause endolymphangitis and obliteration of the lymphatic lumen. Genetic studies provide evidence for high heritability of susceptibility to podoconiosis. The economic burden is significant in affected areas dependent on subsistence farming. Podoconiosis is unique in being an entirely preventable non-communicable disease. Primary prevention entails promoting use of footwear in areas of irritant soil; early stages are reversible given good foot hygiene, but late stages result in considerable economic and social difficulties, and require extended periods of elevation and occasionally nodulectomy.

  16. Petroleum geochemical responses to reservoir rock properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Reservoir geochemistry is used to study petroleum basin development, petroleum mixing, and alterations. In this study, polar non-hydrocarbons were used as proxies for describing reservoir properties sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. A core flood experiment was conducted on a Carboniferous siltstone core obtained from a site in the United Kingdom. Core samples were then obtained from a typical upper shoreface in a North Sea oilfield. The samples were extracted with a dichloromethane and methanol mixture. Alkylcarbazoles and alkylfluorenones were then isolated from the samples. Compositional changes along the core were also investigated. Polar non hydrocarbons were studied using a wireline gamma ray log. The strongest deflections were observed in the basal coarsening upwards unit. The study demonstrated the correlations between molecular markers, and indicated that molecular parameters can be used to differentiate between clean sand units and adjacent coarsening upward muddy sand sequences. It was concluded that reservoir geochemical parameters can provide an independent response to properties defined by petrophysical methods. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  18. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  19. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenber, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  20. Drift pumice in the central Indian Ocean Basin: Geochemical evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.; JaiSankar, S.; Ilangovan, D.

    Abundant white to light grey-coloured pumice without ferromanganese oxide coating occurs within the Quaternary sediments of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Two distinct groups of pumice are identified from their geochemical composition, which...

  1. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  2. The geochemical chararateristics of the marble deposits east of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), marbles were investigated with the view to establishing marble occurrences and their geochemical characteristics. Crystalline rocks of the Nigerian Basement Complex (migmatite – gneiss complex) underlie the area. Ten marble bodies were ...

  3. Probabilistic, sediment-geochemical parameterisation of the groundwater compartment of the Netherlands for spatially distributed, reactive transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gijs; Gunnink, Jan; van Vliet, Marielle; Goldberg, Tanya; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    Pollution of groundwater aquifers with contaminants as nitrate is a common problem. Reactive transport models are useful to predict the fate of such contaminants and to characterise the efficiency of mitigating or preventive measures. Parameterisation of a groundwater transport model on reaction capacity is a necessary step during building the model. Two Dutch, national programs are combined to establish a methodology for building a probabilistic model on reaction capacity of the groundwater compartment at the national scale: the Geological Survey program and the NHI Netherlands Hydrological Instrument program. Reaction capacity is considered as a series of geochemical characteristics that control acid/base condition, redox condition and sorption capacity. Five primary reaction capacity variables are characterised: 1. pyrite, 2. non-pyrite, reactive iron (oxides, siderite and glauconite), 3. clay fraction, 4. organic matter and 5. Ca-carbonate. Important reaction capacity variables that are determined by more than one solid compound are also deduced: 1. potential reduction capacity (PRC) by pyrite and organic matter, 2. cation-exchange capacity (CEC) by organic matter and clay content, 3. carbonate buffering upon pyrite oxidation (CPBO) by carbonate and pyrite. Statistical properties of these variables are established based on c. 16,000 sediment geochemical analyses. The first tens of meters are characterised based on 25 regions using combinations of lithological class and geological formation as strata. Because of both less data and more geochemical uniformity, the deeper subsurface is characterised in a similar way based on 3 regions. The statistical data is used as input in an algoritm that probabilistically calculates the reaction capacity per grid cell. First, the cumulative frequency distribution (cfd) functions are calculated from the statistical data for the geochemical strata. Second, all voxel cells are classified into the geochemical strata. Third, the

  4. Geochemical, hydrological, and biological cycling of energy residual. Research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobber, F.J.

    1983-03-01

    Proposed research goals and specific research areas designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biophysical mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy residuals in natural systems can be understood are described. Energy development and production have resulted in a need for advanced scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants in subsurface environments

  5. Integrated geophysical-geochemical methods for archaeological prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    A great number of field measurements with different methods and instruments were conducted in attempts to develop a method for an optimal combination of various geochemical and geophysical methods in archaeological prospecting. The research presented in this thesis focuses on a study of how different anthropogenic changes in the ground can be detected by geochemical and geophysical mapping and how the results can be presented. A six-year pilot project, Svealand in Vendel and Viking periods (S...

  6. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution using chemical equilibrium codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Pirhonen, V.

    1991-01-01

    Geochemical equilibrium codes are a modern tool in studying interaction between groundwater and solid phases. The most common used programs and application subjects are shortly presented in this article. The main emphasis is laid on the approach method of using calculated results in evaluating groundwater evolution in hydrogeological system. At present in geochemical equilibrium modelling also kinetic as well as hydrologic constrains along a flow path are taken into consideration

  7. Chapter 6. Dwarf mistletoe surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Muir; B. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe surveys are conducted for a variety of vegetation management objectives. Various survey and sampling techniques are used either at a broad, landscape scale in forest planning or program review, or at an individual, stand, site level for specific project implementation. Standard and special surveys provide data to map mistletoe distributions and quantify...

  8. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-02-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.

  9. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  10. Reconstructing vegetation past: Pre-Euro-American vegetation for the midwest driftless area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika E. Shea; Lisa A. Schulte; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for...

  11. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  12. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Savage, D.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic data, including rate constants, reaction orders and activation energies, are compiled for 34 hydrolysis reactions involving feldspars, sheet silicates, zeolites, oxides, pyroxenes and amphiboles, and for similar reactions involving calcite and pyrite. The data are compatible with a rate law consistent with surface reaction control and transition-state theory, which is incorporated in the geochemical software package EQ3/6 and GWB. Kinetic data for the reactions noted above are strictly compatible with the transition-state rate law only under far-from-equilibrium conditions. It is possible that the data are conceptually consistent with this rate law under both far-from-equilibrium and near-to-equilibrium conditions, but this should be confirmed whenever possible through analysis of original experimental results. Due to limitations in the availability of kinetic data for mine-water reactions, and in order to simplify evaluations of geochemical models of groundwater evolution, it is convenient to assume local-equilibrium in such models whenever possible. To assess whether this assumption is reasonable, a modeling approach accounting for couple fluid flow and water-rock interaction is described that can be use to estimate spatial and temporal scale of local equilibrium. The approach is demonstrated for conditions involving groundwater flow in fractures at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site, and is also used to estimate the travel time necessary for oxidizing surface waters to migrate to the level of a HLW repository in crystalline rock. The question of whether local equilibrium is a reasonable assumption must be addressed using an appropriate modeling approach. To be appropriate for conditions at the Kamaishi site using the modeling approach noted above, the fracture fill must closely approximate a porous mine, groundwater flow must be purely advective and diffusion of solutes across the fracture-host rock boundary must not occur. Moreover, the mineralogical and

  13. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu; Neyama, Atsushi

    1999-09-01

    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  14. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  15. Uncertainty in reactive transport geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedegaard-Jensen, A.; Ekberg, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Geochemical modelling is one way of predicting the transport of i.e. radionuclides in a rock formation. In a rock formation there will be fractures in which water and dissolved species can be transported. The composition of the water and the rock can either increase or decrease the mobility of the transported entities. When doing simulations on the mobility or transport of different species one has to know the exact water composition, the exact flow rates in the fracture and in the surrounding rock, the porosity and which minerals the rock is composed of. The problem with simulations on rocks is that the rock itself it not uniform i.e. larger fractures in some areas and smaller in other areas which can give different water flows. The rock composition can be different in different areas. In additions to this variance in the rock there are also problems with measuring the physical parameters used in a simulation. All measurements will perturb the rock and this perturbation will results in more or less correct values of the interesting parameters. The analytical methods used are also encumbered with uncertainties which in this case are added to the uncertainty from the perturbation of the analysed parameters. When doing simulation the effect of the uncertainties must be taken into account. As the computers are getting faster and faster the complexity of simulated systems are increased which also increase the uncertainty in the results from the simulations. In this paper we will show how the uncertainty in the different parameters will effect the solubility and mobility of different species. Small uncertainties in the input parameters can result in large uncertainties in the end. (authors)

  16. Fruits and Vegetables at Home: Child and Parent Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine child and parent perceptions of home food environment factors and associations with child fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: Research staff administered surveys to children during after-school sessions, and parents completed surveys by mail or over the phone. Setting: Four urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota,…

  17. Scientific fundamentals of the exploration and calculability of a waste repository. Project part III, sub-project 2: Validity and applicability of geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.

    1991-04-01

    The thermodynamic computer models WATEQF, PHREEQE, EQ3NR/EQ6, and SOLMINEQ 88 have been verified for their applicability to describe geochemical processes in the system salt stock/cap rock/ground water, i.e. processes such as dissolution, sedimentation, exchange and redox reactions. To begin with, the hydrochemical data obtained by the hydrogeological survey at the Gorleben site have been evaluated to thus form a reference data base. Then, these data have been used to derive the essential conditions and benchmark data to establish a geochemical model. (HP) [de

  18. Geochemical analysis of brine samples for exploration of Borate deposits in the South of Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bemani

    2016-07-01

    suggested for detailed exploration (Bemani et al., 2014. Generally speaking, for considering the spatial distribution of data the fractal method could better identify the anomalies. Also, EDA is a quick and easy method to detect anomalies. Acknowledgment The authors are grateful to the Kaniran Mining Company and the south Khorasan branch of the Iranian Mining Engineering Organization for their financial support of this study. References Bemani, M., 2012. Prospecting and Exploring of Borax in the south of Sabzevar, combination of remote sensing, field surveying and geochemical studying. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran, 137 pp (in Persian with English abstract. Bemani, M., Mojtahedzadeh, S.H. and Kohsari, A.H., 2014. Investigation of geology, mineralogy and genesis of Mohammadabad-Oryan index boron (south of Sabzevar. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy 22(1: 173- 186 (in Persian with English abstract. Carranza, E.J.M., 2009. Geochemical Anomaly and Mineral Prospectivity Mapping in GIS. In: M. Hale (Editor, Handbook of exploration and environmental geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 51-115. Filliben, J.J. and Heckert, A., 2005. Exploratory data analysis. Engineering Statistics Handbook, Internet, National Institute of Standards and Technology, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda356.htm. Hasanipak, A.A. and Sharafaddin, M., 2005. Exploratory Data Analysis.Tehran University press, Tehran 996 pp (in Persian.

  19. Significance of geochemical characterization to performance at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. concept for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste resembles those of other countries in that it relies upon burial in a deep geologic medium. This concept relies upon multiple barriers to retard transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment; those barriers consist of the waste form, waste container, engineered barrier system (including possible backfill) and retardant properties of the host rock. Because mobilization of radionuclides is fundamentally a geochemical problem, an understanding of past, present, and future geochemical processes is a requisite part of site characterization studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geochemical information is needed for evaluating three favorable conditions (the rates of geochemical processes, conditions that promote precipitation or sorption of radionuclides or prohibit formation of colloids, and stable mineral assemblages) and four potentially adverse conditions of the site (groundwater conditions that could increase the chemical reactivity of the engineered barried system or reduce sorption, potential for gaseous radionuclide movement, and oxidizing groundwaters) for key issues of radionuclide release, groundwater quality, and stability of the geochemical environment. Preliminary results of long-term heating experiments indicate that although zeolites can be modified by long-term, low temperature reactions, their beneficial sorptive properties will not be adversely affected. Mineral reactions will be controlled by the aqueous activity of silica in groundwater with which the minerals are in contact. Geochemical barriers alone may satisfy release requirements to the accessible environment for many radionuclides; however, additional site specific geochemical and mineralogical data are needed to test existing and future radionuclide transport models

  20. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Kozelová; Dana Országhová; Milan Fiľa; Zuzana Čmiková

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific heal...

  1. The geological, geochemical, topographical and hydrogeological characteristics of the Broubster natural analogue site, Caithness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.K.; Milodowski, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    One of the four analogue sites chosen for investigation by the British Geological Survey is the uranium mineralization at Broubster, Caithness, Scotland. Naturally occurring uranium has been leached from a thin mineralized limestone horizon and has been carried by groundwater flow into a peat bog about 100 m away. This process has probably been going on for at least 5 000 years. Standard surveying, hydrogeological and geochemical methods have been applied in the investigation and analysis of the area. Selected samples of the mineralization, peat soils and associated groundwaters have been examined in detail. This report summarizes the main findings accumulated since 1968 when the site was first discovered, and provides a useful information base for further modelling work. 27 refs.; 12 plates; 40 figs.; 17 tabs

  2. The geological, geochemical, topographical and hydrogeological characteristics of the Broubster natural analogue site, Caithness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.K.; Milodowski, A.E.

    1989-06-01

    One of the four natural analogue sites chosen for investigation by the British Geological Survey is the uranium mineralisation at Broubster, Caithness, Scotland. Naturally occurring uranium has been leached from a thin mineralised limestone horizon and has been carried by groundwater flow into a peat bog about 100m away. This process has probably been going on for at least 5000 years. Standard surveying, hydrogeological and geochemical methods have been applied in the investigation and analysis of the area. Selected samples of the mineralisation, peat soils and associated groundwaters have been examined in detail. This report summarises the main findings accumulated since 1968 when the site was first discovered, and provides a useful information base for further modelling work. (author)

  3. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  4. Geochemical Evolution of the Louisville Seamount Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Mahoney, J. J.; Koppers, A. A.; Lonsdale, P. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Louisville seamount chain is a 4300 km long chain of submarine volcanoes in the southwestern Pacific that is commonly thought to represent a hotspot track. It spans an ~80 Myr age range, comparable to that of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain (Koppers et al., G-cubed, 5 (6), 2004). The few previously dredged igneous samples are dominantly basaltic and alkalic, and have been inferred to represent post-shield volcanism (Hawkins et al., AGU Monograph, 43, 235, 1987). Their isotope and trace element signatures suggest an unusually homogenous mantle source (Cheng et al., AGU Monograph, 43, 283, 1987). Dredging in 2006, during the AMAT02RR cruise of the R.V. Revelle, was carried out in the hope of recovering both shield and post-shield samples and of exploring the geochemical evolution of the chain. Igneous rocks were recovered from 33 stations on 23 seamounts covering some 47 Myr of the chain's history. Our study, focusing on the major and trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics of these samples, shows that all are alkalic basalts, basanites and tephrites containing normative nepheline. Variations in major and trace elements appear to be controlled predominantly by variable extents of melting and fractional crystallization, with little influence from mantle source heterogeneity. Indeed, age-corrected isotopic values define only a narrow range, in agreement with long-term source homogeneity relative to the scale of melting; e.g., ɛNd varies from +4.1 to +5.7, 206Pb/204Pb from 19.048 to 19.281, and 87Sr/86Sr from 0.70362 to 0.70398. These values broadly fall within the fields of the proposed "C" or "FOZO" mantle end-members. However, small variations are present, with less radiogenic Nd and Pb isotope ratios at the older, western end of the chain, defining a trend toward a broadly EM2-like composition. Although some workers have postulated that the Louisville hotspot was the source of the ~120 Myr Ontong Java Plateau, our samples are isotopically distinct

  5. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  6. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  7. Geochemical water signature in the Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Hammed, Mohammed S.

    2017-04-01

    The Bahariya Oasis is located about 200 km SW of Cairo in the central part of the Western Desert of Egypt. It occupies a sub-elliptic 40 km wide depression stretching NE-SW for approximately 90 km. The Bahariya Oasis has been targeted for numerous geological studies on structural geology, stratigraphy, and iron ore deposits. The oasis was characterized since the Roman times by the presence of natural hydrothermal springs venting water from the relatively shallow Nubia Sandstone formation. Inside the depression are visible numerous circular concentric features that morphologically resemble the hydrothermal vent complexes observed at igneous provinces in other localities of the planet. In order to investigate the origin and the mechanisms of formation of these features, we conducted a fieldwork survey as well as fluids sampling from the available well sites. The aim was to constrain the origin of the fluids that potentially triggered or facilitated the formation of the concentric structures observed on the field. This study presents the geochemical results of groundwaters and soil gas samples. Ten samples were collected from deep wells present in the area. In particular, 8 warm waters were collected by wells between 800 m and 1200 m deep. The measured temperatures at these sites range from 36.5 °C to 52.3°C, while the coldest wells have temperatures ranging from 27.9 °C to 36.5°C. For each sample collected from the wells we analyzed the major, minor and trace elements, dissolved gases (He, Ne, H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO2, Rn), and relative isotopic values. In the areas around the wells we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes as well as radon activity. Overall, the water showed a high value of dissolved Rn, ranging from 9 to 43 Bq/l, and dissolved CO2 ranging from 5.9 to 17.4 cc/l. The waters show a radiogenic signature of isotopic helium, highlighting very prolonged interaction with local crust enriched in radiogenic elements. The isotopic values of δ18O and δD show a clear

  8. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  9. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  10. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  11. Expression of Geochemical Controls on Water Quality in Loch Vale, Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorski, H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Stets, E.; Clow, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Relationships between concentrations of rock weathering products and discharge provide insight into the interactions between climate and solute dynamics. This concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationship is especially interesting in high alpine regions, due to their susceptibility to changes in the timing and magnitude of snowmelt. Previous studies looking at C-Q relationships have concluded that concentrations of conservative solutes remain relatively constant as discharge varies; however, these results may be due to relatively small sample sizes, especially at higher discharge values. Using water chemistry data collected regularly by the U.S. Geological Survey from Loch Vale, a high-elevation catchment in Rocky Mountain National Park, C-Q relationships were examined to determine possible geochemical controls on stream solute concentrations. A record of over 20 years of C-Q data resulted in a pattern that shows little variation in conservative solute concentrations during base flow and larger variations in concentrations around peak discharge. This observed pattern is consistent with accumulation of solutes in pore water during base flow, which are then flushed out and diluted by snowmelt. Further evidence of this flushing out mechanism is found in patterns of hysteresis that are present in annual C-Q relationships. Before peak discharge, concentrations of weathering products are higher than after peak discharge at similar values of discharge. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the geochemical processes controlling stream chemistry vary by season. During the winter, solute concentrations are transport-limited due to slow subsurface flushing resulting in concentrations that are effectively constant and close to equilibrium. During the spring and summer, concentrations drop sharply after peak discharge due to a combination of dilution and reaction-limited processes under conditions with faster subsurface flow and continued snowmelt. This study provides

  12. Geophysical and geochemical techniques for exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittig, M.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed descriptive information in this book is based on 389 US patents that deal with geophysical and geochemical techniques useful for the exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals. Where it was necessary to round out the complete technological picture, a few paragraphs from cited government reports have been included. These techniques are used in prospecting for oil, coal, oil shale, tar sand and minerals. The patents are grouped under the following chapters: geochemical prospecting; geobiological prospecting; geophysical exploration; magnetic geophysical prospecting; gravitational geophysical prospecting; electrical geophysical prospecting; nuclear geophysical prospecting; seismic geophysical prospecting; and exploratory well drilling. This book serves a double purpose in that it supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the US patent literature in this field. By indicating all the information that is significant, and eliminating legal jargon and juristic phraseology, this book presents an advanced, industrially oriented review of modern methods of geophysical and geochemical exploration techniques

  13. Geochemical methods for identification of formations being prospective for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, A.M.; Komarova, N.I.; Spiridonov, A.A.; Shor, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geochemical methods of uranium content evaluation in metamorphic, ultrametamorphic and sedimentary formations are considered. At that, the following four factors are of the highest importance: 1) average uranium content-geochemical background; 2) character of uranium distribution; 3) forms of uranium presence; 4) the value of thorium-uranium ratio. A complex of radiogeochemical criteria, favourable for uranium presence is formulated: high average background content of total and '' mobile''uranium and high value of variation coefficient (80-100% and above); low (approximately one or lower) thorium-uranium ratio; sharp increase in uranium concentration in accessory minerals. Radiogeochemical peculiarities of metamorphic and ultrametamorphic formations prospective for uranium are enumerated. The peculiarities condition specificity of geochemical prospecting methods. Prospecting methods first of all must be directed at the evaluation of radioelement distribution parameters and specification of the forms of their presence

  14. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  15. Effect of source integration on the geochemical fluxes from springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Phillips, Fred M.; White, Art F.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Liu, Fengjing

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical fluxes from watersheds are typically defined using mass-balance methods that essentially lump all weathering processes operative in a watershed into a single flux of solute mass measured in streamflow at the watershed outlet. However, it is important that we understand how weathering processes in different hydrological zones of a watershed (i.e., surface, unsaturated, and saturated zones) contribute to the total geochemical flux from the watershed. This capability will improve understanding of how geochemical fluxes from these different zones may change in response to climate change. Here, the geochemical flux from weathering processes occurring solely in the saturated zone is investigated. This task, however, remains exceedingly difficult due to the sparsity of subsurface sampling points, especially in large, remote, and/or undeveloped watersheds. In such cases, springflow is often assumed to be a proxy for groundwater (defined as water residing in fully saturated geologic formations). However, springflow generation may integrate different sources of water including, but not limited to, groundwater. The authors’ hypothesis is that long-term estimates of geochemical fluxes from groundwater using springflow proxies will be too large due to the integrative nature of springflow generation. Two conceptual models of springflow generation are tested using endmember mixing analyses (EMMA) on observations of spring chemistries and stable isotopic compositions in a large alpine watershed in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. In the “total springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be 100% groundwater. In the “fractional springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be an integration of different sources of water (e.g., groundwater, unsaturated flow, preferential flow in the soil, etc.) and groundwater is only a fractional component. The results indicate that groundwater contributions in springflow range from 2% to 100

  16. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  17. Potential in-class strategies to increase children's vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Pettigrew, Simone; Wright, Shannon; Pratt, Iain S; Blane, Sally; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The Crunch&Sip programme is a school-based nutrition initiative designed to increase the fruit, vegetable and water intakes of primary-school children. In recognition of the notable deficits in children's vegetable consumption, the present study explored the receptivity of school staff to a realignment of the Crunch&Sip programme to feature a primary focus on vegetable consumption. This involved investigating school staff members' perceptions of relevant barriers, motivators and facilitators. A multi-method approach was adopted that involved four focus groups and a survey (administered in paper and online formats) containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended items. Western Australia. Staff from Western Australian schools participated in the focus groups (n 37) and survey (n 620). School staff were strongly supportive of modifying the Crunch&Sip programme to focus primarily on children's vegetable consumption and this was generally considered to be a feasible change to implement. Possible barriers identified included children's taste preferences and a perceived lack of parental support. Suggested strategies to overcome these barriers were education sessions for parents and children, teachers modelling vegetable consumption for their students and integrating vegetable-related topics into the school curriculum. School staff are likely to support the introduction of school-based nutrition programmes that specifically encourage the consumption of vegetables. Potential barriers may be overcome through strategies to engage parents and children.

  18. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  19. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  20. The effect of short ground vegetation on terrestrial laser scans at a local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Powrie, William; Smethurst, Joel; Atkinson, Peter M.; Einstein, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can record a large amount of accurate topographical information with a high spatial accuracy over a relatively short period of time. These features suggest it is a useful tool for topographical survey and surface deformation detection. However, the use of TLS to survey a terrain surface is still challenging in the presence of dense ground vegetation. The bare ground surface may not be illuminated due to signal occlusion caused by vegetation. This paper investigates vegetation-induced elevation error in TLS surveys at a local scale and its spatial pattern. An open, relatively flat area vegetated with dense grass was surveyed repeatedly under several scan conditions. A total station was used to establish an accurate representation of the bare ground surface. Local-highest-point and local-lowest-point filters were applied to the point clouds acquired for deriving vegetation height and vegetation-induced elevation error, respectively. The effects of various factors (for example, vegetation height, edge effects, incidence angle, scan resolution and location) on the error caused by vegetation are discussed. The results are of use in the planning and interpretation of TLS surveys of vegetated areas.

  1. Vertical evolution of petrographic and organic geochemical parameters in Las Duenas mire (Cantabrian Coast, North Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Dias, V.; Borrego, A.G.; Blanco, C.G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    Las Duenas mire has developed on a flat siliceous substrate over the Holocene. The sedimentary cover has a thickness of around 50 cm and the mire comprises a surface area of 27 ha. A core sample obtained using a manual probe was split into sub-samples of around 3-4 cm thickness for petrographic and organic geochemical analysis. The fen originated by minerogenesis and contains a high concentration of mineral matter throughout its profile which decreases towards the top. The present day vegetation is dominated by Sphagnum. A variety of transparent textinite with intense fluorescence is evidence of the low maturity of the profile, which is also confirmed by the presence of low reflecting huminite of the A variety (Hr {proportional_to} 0.15%). The fluorescence spectra of sporinite and cutinite are similar and, compared with those of transparent textinite, they have a lower intensity and are shifted to higher wavelengths. The low maturity of the organic matter is also confirmed by the presence of unstable {beta}{beta} hopane configurations, the abundance of hopene, and the presence of functionalized hopanoids, steroids and other triterpenoids. The evolution of the geochemical parameters in the peat profile indicates the presence of more humid conditions in the top 4 cm and at a depth of 11-15 cm. These periods are characterized by a high Sphagnum/higher plant contribution as deduced from the n-alkane ratios. The low reflectance of huminite at the depth of 11-15 cm could also support less oxidizing condition. The sediment at a depth of 22 cm where peaty matter starts to accumulate has been dated as 9603 cal BC, whereas the plant fraction at the same depth dates back to a maximum of 200 years. Sediment reworking derived from radiocarbon dates indicates that this fen is not suitable for palaeoenvironmental studies. (author)

  2. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  3. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eDanczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11 and Parcubacteria (OD1 that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  4. Tracking riverborne sediment and contaminants in Commencement Bay, Washington, using geochemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2017-09-29

    Large rivers carry terrestrial sediment, contaminants, and other materials to the coastal zone where they can affect marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. This U.S. Geological Survey study combined river and marine sediment geochemistry and organic contaminant analyses to identify riverborne sediment and associated contaminants at shoreline sites in Commencement Bay, Puget Sound, Washington, that could be used by adult forage fish and other marine organisms. Geochemical signatures distinguished the fine fraction (contaminants were measured in surface sediment did not have measurable 7Be activities in that layer, so their contaminant assemblages were attributed to sources from previous years. Concentrations of organic contaminants (the most common of which were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fecal sterols) were higher in the contaminants in marine rather than river sediment, indicates that riverborne sediment-bound contaminants are retained in shallow marine habitats of Commencement Bay. The retention of earlier inputs complicates efforts to identify recent inputs and sources. Understanding modern sources and fates of riverborne sediment and contaminants and their potential ecological impacts will therefore require a suite of targeted geochemical studies in such marine depositional environments.

  5. Geochemical disturbance of soil cover in the nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan V; Kosheleva, Natalia E

    2017-08-01

    The anthropogenic geochemical transformation of soil cover in large nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin was assessed. The results of the geochemical survey of 2010-2012 revealed the spatial distribution patterns and abundances of 18 hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of Erdenet (Mongolia) and Zakamensk (Buryat republic, Russian Federation). In both cities, mining activities disturbed soil cover which accumulates Mo, Cu, As, Sb, W in Erdenet and Bi, W, Cd, Be, Pb, Mo, Sb in Zakamensk. Maximum accumulation of elements in Erdenet is restricted to the industrial zone. In Zakamensk, it has spread on ½ of the territory with the degree of multielemental pollution exceeding the extremely dangerous level by 16 times. The effect of mining centers on the state of the river system is local and does not spread to the Selenga River. Downstream from Erdenet, an artificial pool intercepts heavy metal and metalloid flows of the Erdenetii-Gol River. By contrast, downstream from the tailing dumps of the Dzhida tungsten-molybdenum plant the concentrations of ore elements W and Mo and their accessories Bi and Cd in the Modonkul River exceed background values by 146, 20, 57, and 21 times, respectively, decreasing by an order of magnitude 30 km downstream.

  6. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danczak, Robert; Yabusaki, Steven; Williams, Kenneth; Fang, Yilin; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  7. A hydro-geochemical study of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area: Fluvial metal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfali, Samira

    2004-01-01

    peaks only to calcite, dolomite and quartz. No speciation of metals in flood plain soils was done, nor XRD. The flood plain contains mostly terra rossa soils high in oxides and it is expected that the Ferric soil phase would have a major role in metal retention. The objective of this study is a complete hydro-geochemical survey of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area and this study would clarify fluvial metal transport within the catchment area. The outcome of this work might assess the factors that influence water quality. This is attained through an improved knowledge of river hydrology, texture of sediment and soil, minerals in soil and sediment and soil and sediment geochemistry

  8. Geochemical mapping of Anheung, Wonju and Eomjeong sheets (1:50,000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Soo; Seo, Hyo Joon; Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung; Kim, Seong Jae [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    A geochemical mapping was undertaken on the three quadrangles of the Anheung, Wonju and Eomjeong sheets (1:50,000, new edition) in the southwestern Taebaeg Mineralized Belt. The survey area, ca. 1,900 km{sup 2}, is covered mostly by Jurassic granites and Precambrian metamorphic rocks, and partly by Cambro-Ordovician limestones and the Cretaceous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Light mineral stream sediments and water samples, totally 751 for each media, were collected from active channels of primary or secondary order with a mean sampling density of 1/2.4 km{sup 2}. Geochemical maps were made on 17 elements (i.e., Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, W, Zn) for stream sediments. Geochemical distribution maps for water samples were independently made on major and minor components (i.e., Na, K, Li, Si, Ca, Mg, Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) and other physico-chemical properties (i.e., Electric Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, pH, Dissolved Oxygen). Analysis was carried out by Ion Coupled Plasma Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography. Geochemical anomalies were evaluated based upon geological and other field information. The Ag-As, Cu-Pb-Zn and W-Mo anomalies of stream sediments in the northern Anheung and southern Eomjeong sheets indicate a contamination derived from mining districts. Pb-Zn anomalies from southeastern area in the Eomjeong sheet may suggest a potential of polymetallic deposits near Mesozoic granites intruding the Ogcheon strata. High concentrations of Ca, Na, K, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} in stream waters around Chungju and Wonju imply a strong pollution over urban districts and stock farms. (author). 57 refs., 70 figs.

  9. Comments on geochemical aspects of SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The Swedish Government has asked SKB to carry out a safety assessment of the KBS-3 disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel 'to demonstrate that the KBS-3 method has good prospects of being able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years.' The results of that assessment, referred to as SR 97, have recently been published. The present report summarizes the results of a review of selected geochemical aspects of SR 97. These subjects include the hydrochemical evolution of a defective canister, thermodynamic data supporting estimates of radioelement solubilities, modeling of near-field chemistry and analyses of the effects of ice melting on propagation of an oxidizing front to repository depths. The primary focus of the review is on the canister-defect scenario, and, more specifically, on supporting analyses of the hydromechanical evolution of a defective canister. The results of these analyses figure prominently in the safety assessment because they suggest that even a defective canister will, in effect, remain dry for as long as 200,000 years. This is an important constraint because it is taken in SR 97 as the period of time required for a continuous water pathway to form in the near field. The transport of most radionuclides (i.e., those that do not exist as a gas) cannot occur until this pathway is formed. It is concluded that although SKBs hydromechanical models are sound, they may suffer from an over-simplification of the chemical processes involved. Analyses using the models do not acknowledge that the chemical system within the canister is open in all respects to the chemical system in the buffer. Instead, mass transfer across the defect at the canister-buffer interface is limited to liquid H 2 O and water vapor. Consideration of mass transfer of other gases [e.g., CO 2 and H 2 S] dissolved in buffer porewaters suggests that associated reactions involving the iron insert and inner surfaces of the

  10. Geochemical and hydrodynamic phosphorus retention mechanisms in lowland catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.

    2017-01-01

    The release of phosphorus (P) to surface water from heavily fertilised agricultural fields is of major importance for surface water quality. The research reported in this thesis examined the role of geochemical and hydrodynamic processes controlling P speciation and transport in lowland catchments

  11. Geothermal investigations with isotope and geochemical techniques in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) for Latin America on the Use of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration started in 1984. The first activity carried out was a Seminar on isotope and geochemical techniques in geothermal exploration, which took place in June 1984 in Morelia, Mexico. During the seminar, which was attended by representatives of the institutions which later took part in the programme, the objectives, main research lines, and geothermal fields to be studied during the CRP were discussed. The first research contracts were awarded towards the end of 1984. The field work started in 1985 and continued through 1990. During the implementation of the CRP a considerable number of geothermal fields were studied in the nine participating countries. The investigations carried out were geochemically quite comprehensive in most cases, but in some others they were still in a reconnaissance stage when the CRP ended: the latter studies are not reported in these proceedings, but the data obtained are in principle available from the relevant national institutions. While investigations with conventional geochemical techniques had already started in several fields before 1985, isotope methods were applied for the first time in all cases during this CRP. Due to the remoteness and high elevation of many of the fields studied and the adverse meteorological conditions during long periods of the year, the investigations could not proceed rapidly: this is the main reason for the unusually long duration of the CRP, which could be concluded only after more than five years after its inception

  12. Comparison of thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratillake, M.R.; Newton, G.W.A.; Robinson, V.J.

    1988-05-01

    Four thermodynamic databases used by European groups for geochemical modelling have been compared. Thermodynamic data for both aqueous species and solid species have been listed. When the values are directly comparable any differences between them have been highlighted at two levels of significance. (author)

  13. Overview of geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.J.; Wolery, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste management are discussed with an emphasis on data base development and computer code. Other areas for future research include: precipitation kinetics, fixed fugacity, sorption, glasslt. slashwater interactions, redox disequilibrium and kinetics, radiolysis, solid solutions, and isotopic fractionation. 15 references

  14. Geochemical reactivity of rocks of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chuman, T.; Gürtlerová, P.; Hruška, Jakub; Adamová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), s. 341-349 ISSN 1744-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : geochemical reactivity * Czech Republic * susceptibility to weathering Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2014

  15. Geochemical trends in the weathered profiles above granite gneiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical trends in the weathered profiles above granite gneiss and schist of Abeokuta area, southwestern Nigeria. Anthony T Bolarinwa, Anthony A Elueze. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 19-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in the Dange Formation Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Niveria. OA Adekeye, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 101-106. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Geochemical characterization of the siliciclastic rocks of Chitravati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Somasekhar

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... Chitravati Group of Cuddapah Supergroup to decipher the provenance and depositional environment. Both the units ... Based on major element geochemical classification diagram, Pulivendla Quartzite .... The youngest age limit of the Nallamalai ...... eastern Oregon and western Idaho, USA: Implications for.

  18. Uruguay Mining inventory. Florida fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Artignan, D.; Vairon, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Florida fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 752 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  19. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil ... Kalpana1 D J Patil1 A M Dayal1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500606, India.

  20. Uruguay Mining inventory. Las Animas fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Las Animas fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 738 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories.

  1. Uruguay Mining inventory. Minas fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Artignan, D.; Vairon, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Minas fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 380 km2 obtaining with 433 samples for study which were analized by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  2. Mining inventory of Uruguay. Polanco fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H; Artignan, D; Vairon, P

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Polanco fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory . In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 685 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  3. The geochemical behavior of protactinium 231 and its chosen geochemical analogue thorium in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.

    1983-03-01

    To be able to judge whether protactinium 231 might represent a major contribution to the human radiation risk from high level radioactive waste a literature study of the geochemical behavior of protactinium has been made. The interest in protactinium determinations has, as far, been in the field of marine geochemistry and geochronology. These investigations show that thorium may be used as a chemical analogue. The content of protactinium 231 is determined by the 235 U content and consequently the occurrence of protactinium in nature is directly associated to the geochemistry of uranium. The pronounced hydrolytic tendency of protactinium and its great sorption and coprecipitation capacity ought to prevent or at least appreciably delay its transport from a back-filled nuclear waste vault to the uppermost surface of the earth. It also has a tendency to form colloids or particulates which may be strongly fixed on a rock surface. In adsorption and desorption processes kinetics must play an important role. Our knowledge in this field is quite limited. Under the physico-chemical conditions in the sea, protactinium is rapidly scavenged from the water column by particulates. It accumulates in the sediments. (author)

  4. Baseline geochemical data for stream sediment and surface water samples from Panther Creek, the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, and the Main Salmon River from North Fork to Corn Creek, collected prior to the severe wildfires of 2000 in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann; Crock, James G.; Meier, Allen; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance baseline geochemical study in central Idaho. The purpose of the baseline study was to establish a 'geochemical snapshot' of the area, as a datum for monitoring future change in the geochemical landscape, whether natural or human-induced. This report presents the methology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, sediment, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples collected during this geochemical investigation. In the summer of 2000, the Clear Creek, Little Pistol, and Shellrock wildfires swept across much of the area that was sampled. Thus, these data represent a pre-fire baseline geochemical dataset. A 2001 post- fire study is planned and will involve re-sampling of the pre-fire baseline sites, to allow for pre- and post-fire comparison.

  5. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  6. Radioactivity in Scottish soils and grassy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Thomson, A.J.; Howson, G.

    1989-05-01

    In June 1987, soil and graminoid vegetation samples were collected from 159 randomly selected Scottish sites and analysed for radioactivity due to potassium-40, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Activity due to plutonium-238 and plutonium-239/240 was also measured in soils from 47 of the sites. The main aims of this survey were to determine: (a) the geographic distribution of radiocaesium activity due to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor disaster, (b) the pattern of radiation due to the naturally occurring isotope potassium-40, (c) the activity attributable to caesium-137 fallout from nuclear weapons testing prior to the Chernobyl deposition, (d) the uptake of caesium-137 by vegetation from different soil types. (author)

  7. Regional geochemical maps of uranium in Northern Scotland. Environmental and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Institute of Geological Studies geochemical mapping programme is outlined. The natural levels of uranium in rocks, soils and waters are discussed. Some practical details of geochemical mapping are given. Applications of geochemical maps of uranium in Scotland are considered: economic applications and medical geography and agriculture. A list of 38 references is appended. (U.K.)

  8. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, S.P.; Dekkers, M.J.; Janssen, M.A.; Commandeur, J.

    1991-01-01

    Vriend, S.P., Dekkers, M.J.. Janssen, M.A. and Commandeur, J., 1991. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region. Portugal. In: A.W. Rose and P.M. Taufen I Editors). Geochemical Exploration ! 989. J. Geochem. Expior., 4 ! : ! 5 I- 167. Tile potential of

  9. GEOBASI: The geochemical Database of Tuscany Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Raco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the new Regional Geochemical Database (RGDB, called GEOBASI, is presented and illustrated in the framework of a joint collaboration among the three Tuscan universities (Florence, Pisa and Siena, CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, ARPAT (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, LAMMA (Environmental Modelling and Monitoring Laboratory for Sustainable Development Consortium and S.I.R.A. (Territorial and Environmental Informative System of Tuscany. The database has permitted the construction of a repository where the geochemical information (compositional and isotopic has been stored in a structured way so that it can be available for different groups of users (e.g. institutional, public and private companies. The information contained in the database can in fact be downloaded freely and queried to correlate geochemistry to other non compositional variables. The first phase of the project was aimed at promoting the use of the geochemical data already available from previous investigations through a powerful Web-GIS interface to implement the exploratory statistics graphical-numerical tools used to: 1 analyse the spatial variability of the investigated context, 2 highlight the geographic location of data pertaining to classes of values or single cases, 3 compare the results of different analytical methodologies applied to the determination of the same element and/or chemical species, 4 extract the geochemical data related to specific monitoring plans and/or geographical areas, and finally 5 recover information about data below the detection limit to understand their impact on the behaviour of the investigated variable. Developments of this project will be focused on the definition of rules and standardized methods in a way that external users could also interactively pursue the RGDB. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of the Scarlino-Follonica plain will permit the improvement and test of

  10. Geochemical Anomalies in the Sediments of Lake Druksiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinas, A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on natural processes in Lake Druksiai and accumulation of pollutants, in 19931997, carrying on the state scientific program, the Marine Geochemistry Division of the Institute of Geography performed lithological geochemical mapping of lake bottom sediments on a scale of 1 .50 000. The results obtained enabled to distinguish zones of higher anthropogenous geochemical load, where geochemical anomalies of pollutants, including oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals, had been taken into account. Applying concentration coefficients for oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and their natural background, the attempt was made to differentiate natural and technogenous components in the geochemical anomalies As expected, the finer sediments -aleurite-pelite mud - showed amounts of oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals being 12.1 times higher than in fine sand - the most coarse of the sediments studied Sediments with organic mater exceeding 20% contained 11.7 times more pollutants than those with organic matter below 1 .5%. Calculations of concentration coefficients (CC) showed no elements in no stations exceeded 10 - the sediments did not reach the category of high pollution However, in many sites, the coefficients exceeded values of 1-2, thus, showing sediments attributable to the categories of weakly polluted or just polluted. Mapping model done by GIS methods (by superimposing schemes of pollutant CCs distribution in the lake and summing them) for geochemical anomalies two derivative map-schemes were obtained for oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals. They showed that clean sediments cover just 24.75% (according to the pollutant background for soil types) and 12.35% (according to the organic matter background for its amount intervals) lake bottom area. Zones slightly polluted by an element at least cover 69.7 and 80.29% of lake area, correspondingly; whereas zones slightly polluted by all

  11. Validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Geochemical Modeling and Nuclide/Rock/Groundwater Interactions Studies Program, a study was conducted to partially validate the WATEQ4 aqueous speciation-solubility geochemical model for uranium. The solubility controls determined with the WATEQ4 geochemical model were in excellent agreement with those laboratory studies in which the solids schoepite [UO 2 (OH) 2 . H 2 O], UO 2 (OH) 2 , and rutherfordine ((UO 2 CO 3 ) were identified as actual solubility controls for uranium. The results of modeling solution analyses from laboratory studies of uranyl phosphate solids, however, identified possible errors in the characterization of solids in the original solubility experiments. As part of this study, significant deficiencies in the WATEQ4 thermodynamic data base for uranium solutes and solids were corrected. Revisions included recalculation of selected uranium reactions. Additionally, thermodynamic data for the hydroxyl complexes of U(VI), including anionic (VI) species, were evaluated (to the extent permitted by the available data). Vanadium reactions were also added to the thermodynamic data base because uranium-vanadium solids can exist in natural ground-water systems. This study is only a partial validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model because the available laboratory solubility studies do not cover the range of solid phases, alkaline pH values, and concentrations of inorganic complexing ligands needed to evaluate the potential solubility of uranium in ground waters associated with various proposed nuclear waste repositories. Further validation of this or other geochemical models for uranium will require careful determinations of uraninite solubility over the pH range of 7 to 10 under highly reducing conditions and of uranyl hydroxide and phosphate solubilities over the pH range of 7 to 10 under oxygenated conditions

  12. Geochemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, M.

    2003-12-01

    It seems counterintuitive that chemical erosion in glaciated regions proceeds at rates comparable to those of temperate catchments with comparable specific runoff (Anderson et al., 1997). All the usual factors that are associated with elevated rates of chemical weathering ( Drever, 1988, 1994), such as water, soil, and vegetation, are either entirely absent or absent for much of the year. For example, glaciated regions are largely frozen for significant periods each year, the residence time of liquid water in the catchment is low ( Knight, 1999), there are thin, skeletal soils at best, and vegetation is either absent or limited ( French, 1997). Other chapters in this volume have highlighted how these factors are important in other, more temperate and tropical environments. Even so, chemical erosion rates in glaciated terrain are usually near to or greater than the continental average ( Sharp et al., 1995; Wadham et al., 1997; Hodson et al., 2000). This is because glaciated catchments usually have high specific runoff, there are high concentrations of freshly comminuted rock flour, which is typically silt sized and coated with microparticles, and adsorbed organic matter or surface precipitates that may hinder water-rock interactions are largely absent ( Tranter, 1982). In short, the rapid flow of water over fine-grained, recently crushed, reactive mineral surfaces maximizes both the potential rates of chemical weathering and chemical erosion.A range of both lab- and field-based studies of glacial chemical weathering have been undertaken, mainly on the smaller glaciers of Continental Europe (e.g., Brown et al., 1993a, b), Svalbard (e.g., Hodson et al., 2002), and North America (e.g., Anderson et al., 2000). The field-based studies typically generate hydrographs of glacier runoff, which show a characteristic diurnal cycle during summer in low latitudes ( Figure 1), and more subdued diurnal cycles at high latitudes (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The concentration of ions in

  13. Geochemical and Geophysical Characteristics of the Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC, Masbate Island, Philippines: Implications for its Generation, Evolution and Emplacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearlyn C. Manalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first field, geochemical and geophysical information on the recently recognized Early Cretaceous Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC in the island of Masbate in the Central Philippines. Mapping of the western limb of the island revealed that only the upper crustal section of the BOC is exposed in this area. Geochemically, the pillow basalts are characterized by transitional mid-oceanic ridge basalt-island arc tholeiitic compositions. Gravity surveys yielded low Bouguer anomaly values that are consistent with the highly dismembered nature of the BOC. Short wavelength, high amplitude magnetic anomalies registered across the study area are attributed to shallow magnetic sources. This is taken to support the model that the ophiolitic complex occurs as thin crustal slivers that are not deeply-rooted in the mantle. Comparing BOC with other ophiolites in the Central Philippines, such as those in the islands of Sibuyan, Leyte and Bohol, suggests the possibility of a common or contiguous source for similarly-aged and geochemically composed crust-mantle sequences in the region.

  14. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  15. Geochemical interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry images from the Achala granite (Cordoba, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis E.

    1998-01-01

    Data of an old spectrometry gamma-ray survey carried out in the Sierras Pampeanas Range by the National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina) were reprocessed to obtain a corrected digital archive. The geochemical interpretation of the 250 x 250 meters spectrometric grids from the Achala batholith area was based on the behaviour of the radioelements in a peraluminous magma. Spectrometric maps of potassium, uranium, thorium and their ratios were used. In particular, the Th grid was very useful to define the primary magmatic evolution of the granitoids. K and U correlate roughly with Th distribution. The observed positive correlation between Th and U is thought to be the result of surficial leaching of U from uraninite. Finally, U/Th ratio allows to determine both, the magmatic evolution of the rocks and the mineral phase responsible for U content. (author)

  16. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  17. Integrating Remote Sensing and Field Data to Monitor Changes in Vegetative Cover on a Multipurpose Range Complex and Adjacent Training Lands at Camp Grayling, Michigan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tweddale, Scott

    2001-01-01

    .... Remote sensing and field surveys were used to determine vegetative cover. In the field, vegetative cover data were collected on systematically allocated plots during the peak of the growing season in 1997...

  18. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  19. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes

  1. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of

  2. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  3. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookie, Kate L.; Best, Georgia I.; Conner, Tamlin S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned) fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18–25 (66.1% female) living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs. cooked/canned/processed fruits and vegetables, negative and positive mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative mood, positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing), and covariates (including socio-economic status, body mass index, sleep, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use). Results: Controlling for covariates, raw fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) predicted reduced depressive symptoms and higher positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing; processed FVI only predicted higher positive mood. The top 10 raw foods related to better mental health were carrots, bananas, apples, dark leafy greens like spinach, grapefruit, lettuce, citrus fruits, fresh berries, cucumber, and kiwifruit. Conclusions: Raw FVI, but not processed FVI, significantly predicted higher mental health outcomes when controlling for the covariates. Applications include recommending the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables to maximize mental health benefits. PMID:29692750

  4. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa Part 2: Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion lies within the Succulent Karoo Hotspot that stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. This project, carried out to document the botanical diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, was part of a project identified as a priority during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme initiative in this Hotspot. Botanical surveys were conducted in an area covering over three million hectares. Satellite images of the area and topocadastral, land type and geology maps were used to stratify the area into relatively homogeneous units. An analysis of the floristic data of 390 sample plots identified two major floristic units, i.e. the Fynbos Biome related vegetation and the Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation. A description of the vegetation related to the Succulent Karoo Biome is presented in this article. Seven associations, 16 subassociations and several mosaic vegetation units, consisting of more than one vegetation unit, were identified and mapped. Various threats to the vegetation in the region were identified during the survey and are briefly discussed.

  5. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Brookie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18–25 (66.1% female living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs. cooked/canned/processed fruits and vegetables, negative and positive mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative mood, positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing, and covariates (including socio-economic status, body mass index, sleep, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use.Results: Controlling for covariates, raw fruit and vegetable intake (FVI predicted reduced depressive symptoms and higher positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing; processed FVI only predicted higher positive mood. The top 10 raw foods related to better mental health were carrots, bananas, apples, dark leafy greens like spinach, grapefruit, lettuce, citrus fruits, fresh berries, cucumber, and kiwifruit.Conclusions: Raw FVI, but not processed FVI, significantly predicted higher mental health outcomes when controlling for the covariates. Applications include recommending the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables to maximize mental health benefits.

  6. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28231181

  7. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Setiawan Slamet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  8. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-12-07

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers' motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  9. Geochemical and Geophysical Study in a Degraded Area Used for Disposal of Sludge from a Water Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.C.A.; Nunes, S.A.; Da Silva, D.R.; Lira, C.P.; Boaventura, G.R.; Do Nascimento, C.T.C.; Moreira, R.C.A.; Pinheiro, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of disposal of sludge from water treatment plant (WTS) in area damaged by laterite extraction and its consequences to soil and groundwater were investigated. Therefore, the presence and concentration of anthropogenic elements and chemical compounds were determinated. WTS disposal's influence was characterized by electroresistivity method. The WTS's geochemical dispersion was noticed in the first meters of the non saturated zone from the lending area. Lateritic profiles were characterized due to the large variation in chemical composition between the horizons. Infiltration and percolation of rainwater through the WTS have caused migration of total dissolved solids to the groundwater. WTS's disposing area has more similarities to local preserved vegetation than to gravel bed area. WTS can be considered a noninert residue if disposed in degraded areas located in regions with similar geological and hydrochemical characteristics.

  10. Effects of metals on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, N P

    1972-01-01

    Prospectors have long known that abnormal concentrations of metals in the soil overlying an ore deposit can affect the vegetation rooting in this soil; mineral deposits have even been discovered because of such vegetation changes. Recently, many people have become interested in the possibility of remote sensing such vegetation changes, and perhaps using the results in conjunction with airborne geophysics and photogeological interpretation in integrated prospecting programs.

  11. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  12. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC) on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both hom...

  13. Eating a rainbow. Introducing vegetables in the first years of life in 3 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Sara M; Caton, Samantha J; Bouhlal, Sofia; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Annemarie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Møller, Per; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Low vegetable consumption in children is a concern in many EU countries, fewer than one fifth of children in Europe consume the WHO recommended amounts. Systematic studies demonstrate that experience with a variety of vegetables early in childhood can promote later consumption as early dietary habits often track into adulthood. This study examined pre-school children's experience with vegetables across three European countries in order to assess cultural differences, effects of age and culinary practices. Mothers of pre-school children (N=234) in the UK (N=71), Denmark (N=93) and France (N=70) completed a survey assessing parental and infant familiarity, frequency of offering and liking for 56 vegetables as well as preparation techniques for these vegetables. Analyses revealed that although children aged 25-36 months had been introduced to the greatest number of vegetables, children aged 6-12 months were offered vegetables more frequently and had a higher reported liking for these vegetables. UK children's liking was related to frequency of maternal intake and frequency of offering. Denmark had introduced the greatest number of vegetables and offered vegetables more frequently than both the UK and France. Choice of preparation methods differed between countries while choice of seasonings was similar. Results suggest increasing variety and frequency of vegetable offering between 6 and 12 months, when children are most receptive, may promote vegetable consumption in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  15. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  16. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  17. Version 4. 00 of the MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eary, L.E.; Jenne, E.A.

    1992-09-01

    The MINTEQ code is a thermodynamic model that can be used to calculate solution equilibria for geochemical applications. Included in the MINTEQ code are formulations for ionic speciation, ion exchange, adsorption, solubility, redox, gas-phase equilibria, and the dissolution of finite amounts of specified solids. Since the initial development of the MINTEQ geochemical code, a number of undocumented versions of the source code and data files have come into use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report documents these changes, describes source code modifications made for the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) program, and provides comprehensive listings of the data files. A version number of 4.00 has been assigned to the MINTEQ source code and the individual data files described in this report.

  18. Version 4.00 of the MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eary, L.E.; Jenne, E.A.

    1992-09-01

    The MINTEQ code is a thermodynamic model that can be used to calculate solution equilibria for geochemical applications. Included in the MINTEQ code are formulations for ionic speciation, ion exchange, adsorption, solubility, redox, gas-phase equilibria, and the dissolution of finite amounts of specified solids. Since the initial development of the MINTEQ geochemical code, a number of undocumented versions of the source code and data files have come into use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report documents these changes, describes source code modifications made for the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) program, and provides comprehensive listings of the data files. A version number of 4.00 has been assigned to the MINTEQ source code and the individual data files described in this report.

  19. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  20. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in Dried Foods, Fresh Vegetables and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

     The present study surveyed the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods including milk powder, spices and herbs and others, and fresh vegetables commercially available in markets, and ground soil materials for the agriculture. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 15% of 33 spice and herb samples and 3% of 36 taste foods, and these were C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. sakazakii and C. dubliensis. Cronobacter spp. from fresh vegetables were detected in 12% of field vegetables and 13% of hydroponic vegetables. C. turicensis was prevalent in field vegetables, and C. malonaticus was in hydroponic ones. And, Cronobacter spp. in shredded vegetables were detected from 44% of 9 samples, and these were C. dubliensis, C. turicensis and C. sakazakii. Also, Cronobacter spp. in soil from rice field, vegetable field and sandpits were predominantly C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus.

  1. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  2. Western states uranium resource survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to provide a comprehensive description of uranium resources in the United States. To carry out this task, ERDA has contracted with various facilities, including universities, private companies, and state agencies, to undertake projects such as airborne radiometric surveys, geological and geochemical studies, and the development of advanced geophysical technology. LLL is one of four ERDA laboratories systematically studying uranium distribution in surface water, groundwater, and lake and stream sediments. We are specifically responsible for surveying seven western states. This past year we have designed and installed facilities for delayed-neutron counting and neutron-activation analysis, completed seven orientation surveys, and analyzed several thousand field samples. Full-scale reconnaissance surveys began last fall

  3. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of

  4. Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus,Stefan; Kurbatov,Andrei; Yates,Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the northern Antarctic Peninsula area, at least 12 Late Plelstocene-Holocene volcanic centers could be potential sources of tephra layers in the region. We present unique geochemical fingerprints for ten of these volcanoes using major, trace, rare earth element, and isotope data from 95 samples of tephra and other eruption products. The volcanoes have predominantly basaltic and basaltic andesitic compositions. The Nb/Y ratio proves useful to distinguish between volcanic centers located on ...

  5. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, considerable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R and D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  6. Geochemical normalization of magnetic susceptibility for investigation of floodplain sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faměra, Martin; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Grison, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2018), č. článku 189. ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Background functions * Geochemical normalization * Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility * Post-depositional processes * Provenance Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Geology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2016

  7. Use of natural geochemical tracers to improve reservoir simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, O.; Chatzichristos, C.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Kleven, R.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Stubos, A.K.; Adler, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces a methodology for integrating geochemical data in reservoir simulations to improve hydrocarbon reservoir models. The method exploits routine measurements of naturally existing inorganic ion concentration in hydrocarbon reservoir production wells, and uses the ions as non-partitioning water tracers. The methodology is demonstrated on a North Sea field case, using the field's reservoir model, together with geochemical information (SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+} K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -} concentrations) from the field's producers. From the data-set we show that some of the ions behave almost as ideal sea-water tracers, i.e. without sorption to the matrix, ion-exchange with the matrix or scale-formation with other ions in the formation water. Moreover, the dataset shows that ion concentrations in pure formation-water vary according to formation. This information can be used to allocate produced water to specific water-producing zones in commingled production. Based on an evaluation of the applicability of the available data, one inorganic component, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, is used as a natural seawater tracer. Introducing SO{sub 4}{sup 2} as a natural tracer in a tracer simulation has revealed a potential for improvements of the reservoir model. By tracking the injected seawater it was possible to identify underestimated fault lengths in the reservoir model. The demonstration confirms that geochemical data are valuable additional information for reservoir characterization, and shows that integration of geochemical data into reservoir simulation procedures can improve reservoir simulation models. (author)

  8. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  9. The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Roel H.; Lacambra, Lysette; Landstra, Ynze; Perini, Chiara; Poulie, Joline; Schwaner, Marie J.; Yin, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Aquaponics, producing fish and vegetables in a closed-loop water system, reduces fertilizer use and water discharge, and is therefore promoted as a sustainable venture. A recent global study found that the majority of 257 surveyed aquaponics farms made losses, but the reasons have been poorly

  10. Vegetable production in Togo and potential impact of pesticide use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In West Africa, market gardening is considered one of the sectors in agriculture that consumes lots of pesticides. In order to study (i) the principal protection practices of vegetables and (ii) the inherent environmental risks to pesticide use practices, a survey was carried in Togo from 2010 to 2011. A random selection of 161 ...

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Urban Community Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Packnett, Elizabeth; Miles, Richard A.; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between household participation in a community garden and fruit and vegetable consumption among urban adults. Design: Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional random phone survey conducted in 2003. A quota sampling strategy was used to ensure that all census tracts within the city were represented. Setting:…

  12. Vegetation Cover Changes in Selected Pastoral Villages in Mkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arid and semi-arid savannah ecosystems of Tanzania are subjected to increasing pressure from pastoral land-use systems. A spatial temporal study involving analysis of satellite imageries and range surveys was carried out to determine the effects of high stocking levels on savannah vegetation cover types in Mkata plains.

  13. Vegetation diversity of salt-rich grasslands in Southeast Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliáš, P. Jr.; Sopotlieva, D.; Dítě, D.; Hájková, Petra; Apostolova, I.; Senko, D.; Melečková, Z.; Hájek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2013), s. 521-537 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : salt marshes * vegetation survey * grasslands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  14. Vegetables and social relations in Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Esther J.; Eiter, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to explore differences in motivation for and actual use of allotment gardens. Results from questionnaire surveys and semistructured interviews in two Norwegian and one Dutch garden show that growing vegetables and consuming the harvest is a fundamental part of gardening. The same

  15. Mapping coastal vegetation using an expert system and hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, K.S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kloosterman, E.H.; Oosten, van H.; Kumar, L.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring salt marshes in the Netherlands are important activities of the Ministry of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat). The Survey Department (Meetkundige Dienst) produces vegetation maps using aerial photographs. However, it is a time-consuming and expensive activity. The accuracy of the

  16. A vegetal Geiger counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the Chernobyl accident impact on ecosystems, Ukrainian and Swiss scientists have used a plant: the Arabidopsis thaliana. They have introduced in its genome a gene coding an enzyme called β-glucuronidase. This substance, when it is expressed, colours vegetal cells blue. In fact the introduced gene is divided between 2 paired chromosomes. When the plant is placed on a nuclear contaminated soil, radiation damaged chromosomes exchange fragments and the 2 parts of the enzyme gene may recombine, the enzyme can then be expressed. For low and medium contamination ( 2 ) biologists have found a correlation between the number of blue spots on the plant and the irradiation rate. (A.C.)

  17. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  18. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  19. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  20. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  1. The geochemical environment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a geologic environment on the Canadian Shield has recently been presented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to governments, scientists, and the public, for review. An important part of this concept concerns the geochemical environment of a disposal vault and includes consideration of rock and groundwater compositions, geochemical interactions between rocks, groundwaters, and emplaced vault materials, and the influences and significance of anthropogenic and microbiological effects following closure of the vault. This paper summarizes the disposal concept and examines aspects of the geochemical environment. The presence of saline groundwaters and reducing conditions at proposed vault depths (500-1000 m) in the Canadian Shield has an important bearing on the stability of the used nuclear fuel, its container, and buffer and backfill materials. The potential for introduction of anthropogenic contaminants and microbes during site investigations and vault excavation, operation, and sealing is described with examples from AECL's research areas on the Shield and in their underground research laboratory in southeastern Manitoba. (author)

  2. Evaluation of disposal site geochemical performance using a containment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, A.; Domenico, P.A.; Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The containment factor is a measure of retention by geologic setting of wastes released from a repository. The factor is alternatively defined either in terms of several measurable hydrological and geochemical parameters, or in terms of amounts of waste components that may be released to the geologic setting and, subsequently, to the environment. Containment factors for individual waste components in a given geologic setting are functions of groundwater to rock volume ratios, sorption or exchange characteristics of the rocks, and containment time to groundwater travel time ratios. For high-level radioactive wastes, containment factors based on the NRC and EPA limit values for cumulative releases from waste and to the environment provide a measure of the geochemical performance of the geologic setting in tuff, basalt, and salt. The containment factor values for individual nuclides from high-level wastes indicate that for some of the nuclides containment may be achieved by groundwater travel time along. For other nuclides, additional performance functions need to be allocated to geochemical retention by such processes as sorption, ion-exchange or precipitation

  3. In situ geochemical properties of clays subject to thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Compositional variation and geochemical environment in an argillaceous unit are a function of age, depth of burial and mode of origin. This paper considers the variation limits likely to be encountered in potential repository host rocks and examines the significance of factors such as porosity, pore-fluid pressure, total fluid content, and major and accessory mineral component behaviors in controlling the geochemical environment in the neighbourhood of a thermally active waste canister. Particular attention is paid to the use of Eh-pH diagrams in assessing corrosion environments and nuclide speciation. The paper outlines the variables which must be considered when endeavouring to interpret such plots (e.g. temperature, concentration, concurrent reactions and probabilities) and uses the behavior of various iron minerals found in clay deposits under specific conditions to illustrate the complexities. The overall thermal stability of various clay and accessory minerals is discussed and extended to attempt to predict behavior under deep repository conditions, using available data on the diagenetic characteristics of clay-rich sediments. The physical behavior of fluids in plastic clays is considered and methods evaluated for deriving induced geochemical conditions in a thermally active repository. The latter section is particularly related to canister corrosion studies, in situ experiments, and waste dissolution parameters

  4. The role of atomic absorption spectrometry in geochemical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the principles of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the basic hardware components necessary to make measurements of analyte concentrations. Then we discuss a variety of methods that have been developed for the introduction of analyte atoms into the light path of the spectrophotometer. This section deals with sample digestion, elimination of interferences, and optimum production of ground-state atoms, all critical considerations when choosing an AAS method. Other critical considerations are cost, speed, simplicity, precision, and applicability of the method to the wide range of materials sampled in geochemical exploration. We cannot attempt to review all of the AAS methods developed for geological materials but instead will restrict our discussion to some of those appropriate for geochemical exploration. Our background and familiarity are reflected in the methods we discuss, and we have no doubt overlooked many good methods. Our discussion should therefore be considered a starting point in finding the right method for the problem, rather than the end of the search. Finally, we discuss the future of AAS relative to other instrumental techniques and the promising new directions for AAS in geochemical exploration. ?? 1992.

  5. Factors affecting vegetable preference in adolescents: stages of change and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Taejung; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of vegetables, daily vegetable intake among adolescents in Korea is lower than the current dietary recommendation. The objective of this study was to examine determinants affecting vegetable preference in order to suggest a stage-tailored education strategy that can promote vegetable consumption in adolescents. Adolescents (n = 400, aged 16-17 years) from two high schools participated in a cross-sectional study. Survey variables were vegetable preference, the social cognitive theory (SCT) and stages of change (SOC) constructs. Based on vegetable preference, subjects were classified into two groups: a low-preference group (LPG) and a high-preference group (HPG). SOC was subdivided into pre-action and action/maintenance stages. To compare SCT components and SOC related to vegetable preference, chi-squared and t-tests, along with stepwise multiple-regression analysis, were applied. In the LPG, a similar number of subjects were classified into each stage. Significant differences in self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at home and school were detected among the stages. Subjects in the HPG were mainly at the maintenance stage (81%), and there were significant differences among the stages regarding self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and parenting practice. In the predictions of vegetable preference, self-efficacy and parenting practice had a significant effect in the "pre-action" stage. In the action/maintenance stage, outcome expectation, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at school had significant predictive value. In predicting the vegetable preference for all subjects, 42.8% of the predictive variance was accounted for by affective attitudes, self-efficacy, and vegetable accessibility at school. The study revealed that different determinants affect adolescent vegetable preference in each stage. Self-efficacy and affective attitudes are important determinants affecting

  6. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: vpereira@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C., E-mail: ludka@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: julio@geologia.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio do Janeiro (CCMN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza. Dept. de Geologia

    2013-07-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  7. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir; Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb 2 O 5 /Ta 2 O 5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  8. Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollister; Robert G. Bjork; Noemie Boulanger-Lapointe; Elisabeth J. Cooper; Johannes H.C. Cornelissen; Thomas A. Day; Ellen Dorrepaal; Tatiana G. Elumeeva; Mike Gill; William A. Gould; John Harte; David S. Hik; Annika Hofgaard; David R. Johnson; Jill F. Johnstone; Ingijorg Svala Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Kari Klanderud; Julia A. Klein; Saewan Koh; Gaku Kudo; Mark Lara; Esther Levesque; Borgthor Magnusson; Jeremy L. May; Joel A. Mercado; Anders Michelsen; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Vladimir G. Onipchenko; Christian Rixen; Niels Martin Schmidt; Gaius R. Shaver; Marko J. Spasojevic; Pora Ellen Porhallsdottir; Anne Tolvanen; Tiffany Troxler; Craig E. Tweedie; Sandra Villareal; Carl-Henrik Wahren; Xanthe Walker; Patrick J. Webber; Jeffrey M. Welker; Sonja Wipf

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome1. Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic2,3, but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158...

  9. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  10. Vegetable Genetic Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization

  11. Adaptive Multiscale Modeling of Geochemical Impacts on Fracture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, S.; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Deng, H.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding fracture evolution is essential for many subsurface energy applications, including subsurface storage, shale gas production, fracking, CO2 sequestration, and geothermal energy extraction. Geochemical processes in particular play a significant role in the evolution of fractures through dissolution-driven widening, fines migration, and/or fracture sealing due to precipitation. One obstacle to understanding and exploiting geochemical fracture evolution is that it is a multiscale process. However, current geochemical modeling of fractures cannot capture this multi-scale nature of geochemical and mechanical impacts on fracture evolution, and is limited to either a continuum or pore-scale representation. Conventional continuum-scale models treat fractures as preferential flow paths, with their permeability evolving as a function (often, a cubic law) of the fracture aperture. This approach has the limitation that it oversimplifies flow within the fracture in its omission of pore scale effects while also assuming well-mixed conditions. More recently, pore-scale models along with advanced characterization techniques have allowed for accurate simulations of flow and reactive transport within the pore space (Molins et al., 2014, 2015). However, these models, even with high performance computing, are currently limited in their ability to treat tractable domain sizes (Steefel et al., 2013). Thus, there is a critical need to develop an adaptive modeling capability that can account for separate properties and processes, emergent and otherwise, in the fracture and the rock matrix at different spatial scales. Here we present an adaptive modeling capability that treats geochemical impacts on fracture evolution within a single multiscale framework. Model development makes use of the high performance simulation capability, Chombo-Crunch, leveraged by high resolution characterization and experiments. The modeling framework is based on the adaptive capability in Chombo

  12. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlatti, Fabio [Department of Environmental Technology, National Department of Mineral Production – DNPM, Rua Dr. José Lourenço, 90560115-280 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe [Department of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela – USC, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa, s/n. Campus sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ferreira, Tiago Osório, E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Department of Soil Science, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu{sup 2+} ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180 mg.kg{sup −1}, while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086 mg.kg{sup −1}, respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution. - Highlights: • The hazardous effects of mine waste rocks at

  13. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  14. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended.

  15. A Spatially Constrained Multi-autoencoder Approach for Multivariate Geochemical Anomaly Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirong, C.; Qingfeng, G.; Renguang, Z.; Yihui, X.

    2017-12-01

    Separating and recognizing geochemical anomalies from the geochemical background is one of the key tasks in geochemical exploration. Many methods have been developed, such as calculating the mean ±2 standard deviation, and fractal/multifractal models. In recent years, deep autoencoder, a deep learning approach, have been used for multivariate geochemical anomaly recognition. While being able to deal with the non-normal distributions of geochemical concentrations and the non-linear relationships among them, this self-supervised learning method does not take into account the spatial heterogeneity of geochemical background and the uncertainty induced by the randomly initialized weights of neurons, leading to ineffective recognition of weak anomalies. In this paper, we introduce a spatially constrained multi-autoencoder (SCMA) approach for multivariate geochemical anomaly recognition, which includes two steps: spatial partitioning and anomaly score computation. The first step divides the study area into multiple sub-regions to segregate the geochemical background, by grouping the geochemical samples through K-means clustering, spatial filtering, and spatial constraining rules. In the second step, for each sub-region, a group of autoencoder neural networks are constructed with an identical structure but different initial weights on neurons. Each autoencoder is trained using the geochemical samples within the corresponding sub-region to learn the sub-regional geochemical background. The best autoencoder of a group is chosen as the final model for the corresponding sub-region. The anomaly score at each location can then be calculated as the euclidean distance between the observed concentrations and reconstructed concentrations of geochemical elements.The experiments using the geochemical data and Fe deposits in the southwestern Fujian province of China showed that our SCMA approach greatly improved the recognition of weak anomalies, achieving the AUC of 0.89, compared

  16. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. I: a review of the method and of the geochemical behavior of K, Th and U; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. I: revisao da metodologia e do comportamento geoquimico dos elementos K, Th e U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br, e-mail: mulbrich@usp.br; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This contribution is part of a research project on the Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), cropping out in the Ponta Grossa Arch (Parana state, SE Brazil). An initial study used the gamma-spectrometric data of the Serra do Mar Sul Aero geophysical Project, performed during the 70's for CPRM. Later, terrestrial gamma-spectrometric surveys focused on the study of the differentiated Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG) in the NW corner of CGC, and the Serra do Carambei Granite, to the SW. In this paper, the results obtained for JMG are presented in two parts. The first deals with methodology and the presentation of several gamma-spectrometric 'color-scale' maps, indicating that results obtained in granites depend strongly on a climatic factor, given the mobility of K during weathering in subtropical climates with strong rainfalls, also favoring a greater mobility of U. Minerals that are U and Th hosts, documented in granites, are reviewed, together with the weathering processes that control the mobility of K, U and Th in soils. Strong K signals in granitic areas submitted to these climates document the presence of fresh rock and/or effects of hydrothermal alteration, while weak or nil signals are evidence of strong leaching of K during weathering. U and Th will be retained in the residual soils, in part leading to their selective enrichment, also coupled with soil migration to lower topographic levels by colluvial transport. The larger solubility of U (as uranyl ion) allows its liberation under oxidizing conditions, and its migration, limited by the possibility of absorption in newly formed mineral and organic soil phases. Th should be retained almost totally in resistant phases and, when liberated in solution, will mostly be fixed in organic and inorganic soil substances. (author)

  17. Stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum and geochemical reference materials at pressure below 1 torr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang-Jae; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J., E-mail: jjyoh@snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopy that utilizes a highly irradiated pulse laser focused on the target surface to produce plasma. We obtain spectroscopic information from the microplasma and determine the chemical composition of the sample based on its elemental and molecular emission peaks. We develop a stand-off LIBS system to analyze the effect of the remote sensing of aluminum and various geochemical reference materials at pressures below 1 torr. Using a commercial 4 inch refracting telescope, our stand-off LIBS system is configured at a distance of 7.2 m from the four United States Geological Survey (USGS) geochemical samples that include granodiorite, quartz latite, shale-cody, and diabase, which are selected for planetary exploration. Prepared samples were mixed with a paraffin binder containing only hydrogen and carbon, and were pelletized for experimental convenience. The aluminum plate sample is considered as a reference prior to using the geochemical samples in order to understand the influence of a low pressure condition on the resulting LIBS signal. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and pulsed at 10 Hz with 21.7 to 48.5 mJ/pulse was used to obtain signals, which showed that the geochemical samples were successfully detected by the present stand-off detection scheme. A low pressure condition generally results in a decrease of the signal intensity, while the signal to noise ratio can vary according to the samples and elements of various types. We successfully identified the signals at below 1 torr with stand-off detection by a tightly focused light detection and by using a relatively larger aperture telescope. The stand-off LIBS detection at low pressure is promising for potential detection of the minor elements at pressures below 1 torr. - Highlights: • Stand-off LIBS signals at below 1 torr are compared to those of in-situ conditions. • Vacuum condition provides easier detection of the

  18. Quality assurance and quality control of geochemical data—A primer for the research scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Geochemistry is a constantly expanding science. More and more, scientists are employing geochemical tools to help answer questions about the Earth and earth system processes. Scientists may assume that the responsibility of examining and assessing the quality of the geochemical data they generate is not theirs but rather that of the analytical laboratories to which their samples have been submitted. This assumption may be partially based on knowledge about internal and external quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programs in which analytical laboratories typically participate. Or there may be a perceived lack of time or resources to adequately examine data quality. Regardless of the reason, the lack of QA/QC protocols can lead to the generation and publication of erroneous data. Because the interpretations drawn from the data are primary products to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stakeholders, the consequences of publishing erroneous results can be significant. The principal investigator of a scientific study ultimately is responsible for the quality and interpretation of the project's findings, and thus must also play a role in the understanding, implementation, and presentation of QA/QC information about the data. Although occasionally ignored, QA/QC protocols apply not only to procedures in the laboratory but also in the initial planning of a research study and throughout the life of the project. Many of the tenets of developing a sound QA/QC program or protocols also parallel the core concepts of developing a good study: What is the main objective of the study? Will the methods selected provide data of enough resolution to answer the hypothesis? How should samples be collected? Are there known or unknown artifacts or contamination sources in the sampling and analysis methods? Assessing data quality requires communication between the scientists responsible for designing the study and those collecting samples, analyzing samples, treating data, and

  19. Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita

    Aquifer that an important sources of water in the El Paso/Cd. Juraez metroplex. To delineate the boundary between fresh and brackish water from the northern Hueco Bolson Aquifer, we utilize an integrative geochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological approach. The goal of this study is to use geophysical well-log analysis and the water chemical analysis for identifying the changes in the quality of the groundwater. A detailed microgravity survey is utilized to explore the subsurface geological structures that control the conduits and/or barriers of groundwater flow. A detailed geochemical analysis of aquifer samples provide salinity of groundwater that will complement to the subsurface structures obtained from the geophysical study. This fundamental research in developing methods from an integrated approach to estimate aquifer quality can be used as an analog for similar studies in other arid regions.

  20. Geochemical and biogeochemical investigations in national parks [Badania geochemiczne i biogeochemiczne w parkach narodowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    National parks hold a key position among nature protection areas including a diversity of resources - natural, cultural, recreational and scenic. These "inviolable sanctuaries" are simultaneosuly ecologic knots and pristine nature refuges due to the presence of a number of unique plant and animal species. These species make up a natural gene bank. Classically, the level of biologic degradation in national parks is determined on the basis of qualitative and quantitative studies of plant bioindicators. Their scope encompasses phytosociologic survey the purpose of which is to identify floral assemblages with a detailed list of species to record future changes in their number. The best biomonitors of air quality are epiphytic lichens, ground mosses and conifers. Geochemical and biogeochemical investigations are widely performed in the U.S.A. to evaluate the degree of pollution in the nature protection areas including national parks (Gough et al., 1988a, b; Crock et al., 1992a, 1993; Jackson et al., 1995). Variability of element concentrations in soils and plants is assessed by using unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA). It enables obtaining important statistical information with a minimum number of samples. In some cases a combined grid and barbell sampling design is applied (Jackson et al., 1995). In specific mountainous parks a method of 2-3 transects parallel to the extent of range (crest) is recommended. To determine the impact of a single pollution source on a given park, traverse sampling beginning near the emitter is used (Crock et al., 1992, 1993). The obtained results are a "snapshot" of chemical composition of soils and plant bioindicators that can be a reference for any future changes in the concentration level of chemical elements and organics. In addition, baseline element and organics composition of the media mentioned above can be compared with that obtained for geochemical atlases of polluted urban and industrial areas. Geochemical and

  1. Effects of Land-Use Change and Managed Aquifer Recharge on Geochemical Reactions with Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality in Atoll Island Aquifers, Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Gurdak, J. J.; Odigie, K. O.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll groundwater systems in Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur houses a U.S. Department of Defense military installation and presents an ideal study location where a human impacted aquifer is co-located next to a natural aquifer as part of two artificially conjoined atoll islands. The hydrogeology and geochemistry of carbonate atoll aquifers has been well studied, particularly because of its small, well-defined hydrologic system that allows for relatively precise modeling. However, it is unknown how changes in land-use/land cover and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) alters natural geochemical processes in atoll aquifers. A better understanding of this has implications on groundwater quantity and quality, carbonate dissolution, and best aquifer management practices in the context of rising sea level and saltwater intrusion. Roi has been heavily modified to house military and civilian operations; here, lack of vegetation and managed recharge has increased the volume of potable groundwater and affected the geochemical processes in the freshwater lens and saltwater transition zone. Namur is heavily vegetated and the hydrogeology is indicative of a natural atoll island. A suite of monitoring wells were sampled across both island settings for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, DOC/DIC, δ13C and δ18O/2H isotopes. By modeling geochemical reactions using a conservative mixing approach, we measure deviations from expected reactions and compare the two contrasting settings using derived geochemical profiles through a wide salinity spectrum. Results indicate that groundwater on Namur is more heavily depleted in δ13C and has greater dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting higher microbial oxidation and greater dissolution within the carbonate aquifer. This suggests MAR and reduction of vegetation makes the groundwater supply on atoll islands more resilient to sea level rise.

  2. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-07-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW) are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests (MF). The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer) showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart) than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation structure (stand density

  3. Recent developments and evaluation of selected geochemical techniques applied to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.; Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.; Reimer, G.M.; Spirakis, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Various geochemical techniques for uranium exploration are currently under study by the geochemical techniques team of the Branch of Uranium and Thorium Resources, US Geological Survey. Radium-226 and its parent uranium-238 occur in mineral spring water largely independently of the geochemistry of the solutions and thus are potential indicators of uranium in source rocks. Many radioactive springs, hot or cold, are believed to be related to hydrothermal systems which contain uranium at depth. Radium, when present in the water, is co-precipitated in iron and/or manganese oxides and hydroxides or in barium sulphate associated with calcium carbonate spring deposits. Studies of surface water samples have resulted in improved standardized sample treatment and collection procedures. Stream discharge has been shown to have a significant effect on uranium concentration, while conductivity shows promise as a ''pathfinder'' for uranium. Turbid samples behave differently and consequently must be treated with more caution than samples from clear streams. Both water and stream sediments should be sampled concurrently, as anomalous uranium concentrations may occur in only one of these media and would be overlooked if only one, the wrong one, were analysed. The fission-track technique has been applied to uranium determinations in the above water studies. The advantages of the designed sample collecting system are that only a small quantity, typically one drop, of water is required and sample manipulation is minimized, thereby reducing contamination risks. The fission-track analytical technique is effective at the uranium concentration levels commonly found in natural waters (5.0-0.01 μg/litre). Landsat data were used to detect alteration associated with uranium deposits. Altered areas were detected but were not uniquely defined. Nevertheless, computer processing of Landsat data did suggest a smaller size target for further evaluation and thus is useful as an exploration tool

  4. Developing protocols for geochemical baseline studies: An example from the Coles Hill uranium deposit, Virginia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Denise M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Seal, Robert R.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Aylor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We outline protocols for baseline geochemical surveys of stream sediments and water. • Regression on order statistics was used to handle non-detect data. • U concentrations in stream water near this unmined ore were below regulatory standards. • Concentrations of major and trace elements were correlated with stream discharge. • Methods can be applied to other extraction activities, including hydraulic fracturing. - Abstract: In this study, we determined baseline geochemical conditions in stream sediments and surface waters surrounding an undeveloped uranium deposit. Emphasis was placed on study design, including site selection to encompass geological variability and temporal sampling to encompass hydrological and climatic variability, in addition to statistical methods for baseline data analysis. The concentrations of most elements in stream sediments were above analytical detection limits, making them amenable to standard statistical analysis. In contrast, some trace elements in surface water had concentrations that were below the respective detection limits, making statistical analysis more challenging. We describe and compare statistical methods appropriate for concentrations that are below detection limits (non-detect data) and conclude that regression on order statistics provided the most rigorous analysis of our results, particularly for trace elements. Elevated concentrations of U and deposit-associated elements (e.g. Ba, Pb, and V) were observed in stream sediments and surface waters downstream of the deposit, but concentrations were below regulatory guidelines for the protection of aquatic ecosystems and for drinking water. Analysis of temporal trends indicated that concentrations of major and trace elements were most strongly related to stream discharge. These findings highlight the need for sampling protocols that will identify and evaluate the temporal and spatial variations in a thorough baseline study

  5. Discovery of Wolitu Pb-Zn deposit through geochemical prospecting under loess cover in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the finding of the Wolitu Pb-Zn deposit in Inner Mongolia, China, through a series of geochemical surveys. The Wolitu area, located in the loess-cover area in the Hure Banner, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia, and neighboring the Horqin Sandy Land to the north, had no previous history of Pb-Zn mining or record of Pb-Zn mineralization. Our study identified a large Pb-Zn anomaly with potential zones of mineralization by stream sediment survey. Random rock sampling reveals limonitization at sporadic outcrops in the gullies. The high concentrations of Pb in the residual debris provided guidelines to fix the position for exploratory trench. Oxidized concealed orebodies were identified by trenching. Blind orebodies in veins hosted within the structural zone between slates and marbles of the upper Carboniferous Shizuizi Formation and the Permian granite were discovered by drilling. It is computed that the ore reserve may reach up to 540,000 tones with Pb grade of 1.27% and Zn of 1.9%. This case study is an excellent example for identifying potential polymetallic deposits in loess covered terrains using geochemical exploration.

  6. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads ( n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria ( p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed ( p = 0.007), promotion ( p = 0.017), location of food outlets ( p = 0.027), and price ( p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  7. Association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.

  8. Levantamento florístico do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da vegetação ciliar na bacia do rio Taperoá, PB, Brasil Floristic survey of components of shrub-tree riparian vegetation in the Taperoá river basin, Paraíba State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecksandra Vieira de Lacerda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o papel relevante e o nível de degradação presente nas áreas ciliares, a pesquisa objetivou estudar a composição florística do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da vegetação ciliar em diferentes ambientes hídricos do semi-árido paraibano na bacia do rio Taperoá. O levantamento florístico foi realizado no período de junho/2002 a fevereiro/2003 e abrangeu nove pontos distribuídos ao longo de rios, riachos, lagoa e açude. A definição das atividades apoiou-se em análise de cartas e mapas da vegetação em escala de 1:100.000 e caminhadas aleatórias que permitiram a realização de coleta de material vegetal, utilizado para identificação por meio de consultas a especialistas e de morfologia comparada, usando bibliografia especializada e análise das exsicatas depositadas no herbário Lauro Pires Xavier - JPB (UFPB, João Pessoa, PB. A vegetação arbustivo-arbórea da mata ciliar nos nove pontos amostrados foi representada por 43 espécies, das quais 41 são pertencentes a 19 famílias, e duas espécies permaneceram indeterminadas. As famílias que apresentaram o maior número de espécies foram Mimosaceae (sete, Caesalpiniaceae (cinco e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento indicaram que as áreas ciliares apresentaram certa particularização em termos de composição florística, o que se refletiu nos baixos índices de similaridades entre o conjunto de áreas amostradas.Considering the relevant role and the current level of degradation of riparian areas, this work aimed to study the floristic composition of shrub-tree riparian vegetation at different hydric environments in the Taperoá river basin, in the semi-arid region of the Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. The survey was performed from June 2002 to February 2003. Nine sampling sites were distributed along rivers and streams, and around lagoon, and dam. The definition of activities was based on the analysis of charts and vegetation maps

  9. Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses...... > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls...

  10. The use of high altitude remote sensing in determining existing vegetation and monitoring ecological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K.; Garcia, A.

    1972-01-01

    High altitude color and multispectral black and white photography was used to survey existing vegetation and soil conditions on the Empire Ranch where large scale development will soon begin. Utilizing stereo pairs of the high altitude color photography, four vegetation classifications were discernable as a function of topography and foliage characteristics. In contrast to the undeveloped Ranch, the same photography was used to detect environmental changes in the Tucson metropolitan area as a result of rapid urbanization. The most prevalent change related to development is the removal of vegetation in high density areas to allow for housing starts. Erosion then occurs where vegetation has been removed.

  11. Geochemical composition of river loads in the Tropical Andes: first insights from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio Poma, Gustavo; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Bouillon, Steven; Álvarez, Lenín; Zhiminaicela, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Processes governing the transport of total suspended material (TSM), total dissolved solids (TDS) and particulate organic carbon (POC) are currently not well known for Tropical Andean river systems. We analyzed the geochemical behavior and the budgets of the particulate and dissolved loads for several sub-catchments in the Paute River basin in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, and examined how anthropogenic activities influenced the dynamics of riverine suspended and dissolved loads. We gathered a large dataset by regularly sampling 8 rivers for their TSM, POC, and TDS. Furthermore, we determined the major elements in the dissolved load and stable isotope composition (δ13C) of both the POC, and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The rivers that were sampled flow through a wide range of land uses including: 3 nature conservation areas (100 - 300 Km²), an intensive grassland and arable zone (142 Km²); downstream of two cities (1611 and 443 Km²), and 2 degraded basins (286 and 2492 Km²). We described the geochemical characteristics of the river loads both qualitatively and quantitatively. Important differences in TSM, POC and TDS yields were found between rivers: the concentration of these loads increases according with human activities within the basins. For all rivers, TSM, TDS and POC concentrations were dependent on discharge. Overall, a clear relation between TSM and POC (r²=0.62) was observed in all tributaries. The C:N ratios and δ13CPOC suggest that the POC in most rivers is mainly derived from soil organic matter eroded from soils dominated by C3 vegetation (δ13CPOC < -22‰). Low Ca:Si ratios (<1)and high δ13CDIC (-9 to -4) in the Yanuncay, Tomebamba1 and Machángara, rivers suggest that weathering of silica rocks is dominant in these catchments, and that the DIC is mainly derived from the soil or atmospheric CO2. In contrast, the Ca:Si ratio was high for the Burgay and Jadán rivers (1-13), and the low δ13CDIC values (-9 to -15) suggest that

  12. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Geochemical Investigation of Selected Elements in an Agricultural Soil: Case Study in Sumani Watershed West Sumatera in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geochemical study of agricultural soil and river sediments along Sumani watershed, West Sumatra in Indonesia. We examined the distribution and abundances of 16 elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr, Si, Ti, Fe Ca, and P in vegetable soil, sawah soil =and river sediment sample, to evaluate the factors controlling their abundances, possible sources, and environmental implications. Average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr at vegetable (1 soil were 38, 88.3, 38.7, 3, 8, 101, 96, 98, 87, 31 and 218 mg kg-1 , 26, 39.05, 8.8, 13.5, 31, 231.5, 37, 19, 78, 16 and 303.5 mg kg-1 at sawah soil (3, 4 and 30, 61.6, 35.7, 9, 22, 294, 65, 12, 78, 14 and 232 mg kg-1 at river sediment (2, respectively. The concentration of Pb, Rb, Th and Zr at upland vegetables, V and Zr at sawah soil and river sediment were mostly two time Sumatra BCSCST or BCC in several samples. Enrichment factor values showed low to moderate enrichment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Rb, Ce and Zr, whereas Th showed significant contamination at vegetables soil, suggesting contributions from anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic contributions of most metals mainly originate from natural processes. However, Pb, Ce, Th and Zr ranges of 527–108, 41-89, 66-117 and 35-100%, respectively, at Vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment confirm their anthropogenic contribution. Factor analysis and correlation matrices suggested that elevated metal concentrations at agricultural soil in Sumani watershed might be controlled by pH, CEC, Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Deposition of metals at vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment might be controlled by non-ferrous metal (i.e., aluminosilicates, sediment grain size, or source rock composition (andesite, alluvial fan, undifferentiated volcanic material, granite and gneiss.

  14. Hydrothermal system of the Papandayan Volcano from temperature, self-potential (SP) and geochemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Revil, André; Gunawan, Hendra; Saing, Ugan B.; Grandis, Hendra

    2017-07-01

    Papandayan volcano in West Java, Indonesia, is characterized by intense hydrothermal activities manifested by numerous fumaroles at three craters or kawah, i.e. Mas, Manuk and Baru. The latter was created after November 2002 phreatic eruption. Since 2011, numerous volcano-tectonic B events are encountered and the volcano was set on alert status on several occasions. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the structure of the summital hydrothermal system from Self-Potential (SP), soil temperature and gas concentrations in the soil (CO2, SO2 and H2S) data. This combination of geophysical and geochemical methods allows identification of the weak permeable zones serving as preferential pathways for hydrothermal circulation and potential candidates to future landslides or flank collapses. This study is an on-going collaborative research project and we plan to conduct electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and also Induced-Polarization (IP) surveys. Additional data would allow the 3D imaging of the studied area. The IP parameters will be used to characterise and to quantify the degree of alteration of the volcanic rocks as has been shown very recently in the laboratory studies. There are also rocks and soil samples that will undergo laboratory analyses at ISTerre for IP and complex resistivity parameters at the sample scale that will help to interpret the survey results.

  15. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  16. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Durango, Colorado. This is one in a series of site specific geochemical investigations performed on the inactive uranium mill tailings included in the UMTRA Project. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples are water extracted remove easily soluble salts and acids extracted to remove cabonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Three major conclusions are: (1) carbonate salts and low TDS characterize the tailings; (2) the adjacent area and raffinate ponds contain contaminants deposited by a single event of fluid permeation of the soils; and (3) the Animas River adjacent to the site has elevated gross alpha activity attributed to 226 Ra in the sediments derived from the tailings or milling activities

  17. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-09-01

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  18. Geochemical modeling of uranium mill tailings: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Serne, R.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    Liner failure was not found to be a problem when various acidic tailings solutions leached through liner materials for periods up to 3 y. On the contrary, materials that contained over 30% clay showed a decrease in permeability with time in the laboratory columns. The decreases in permeability noted above are attributed to pore plugging resulting from the precipitation of minerals and solids. This precipitation takes place due to the increase in pH of the tailings solution brought about by the buffering capacity of the soil. Geochemical modeling predicts, and x-ray characterization confirms, that precipitation of solids from solution is occurring in the acidic tailings solution/liner interactions studied. X-ray diffraction identified gypsum and alunite group minerals, such as jarosite, as having precipitated after acidic tailings solutions reacted with clay liners. The geochemical modeling and experimental work described above were used to construct an equilibrium conceptual model consisting of minerals and solid phases. This model was developed to represent a soil column. A computer program was used as a tool to solve the system of mathematical equations imposed by the conceptual chemical model. The combined conceptual model and computer program were used to predict aqueous phase compositions of effluent solutions from permeability cells packed with geologic materials and percolated with uranium mill tailings solutions. An initial conclusion drawn from these studies is that the laboratory experiments and geochemical modeling predictions were capable of simulating field observations. The same mineralogical changes and contaminant reductions observed in the laboratory studies were found at a drained evaporation pond (Lucky Mc in Wyoming) with a 10-year history of acid attack. 24 references, 5 figures 5 tables

  19. Geochemical factors promoting die-back gap formation in colonizing patches of Spartina densiflora in an irregularly flooded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Costa, Cesar S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Circular (RP) and ring-shape (RP) patches of vegetation in intertidal flats have been associated with the radial expansion of tussock growth forms and die-back gap in older central stands, respectively. RP formation has not yet been sufficiently explained. We accomplished a comparative geochemical study of CP and RP structures of Spartina densiflora within a single saltmarsh in a microtidal estuary (changing in water level and salinity. During high-water period dissolved H2S was frequently low in pore waters of S. densiflora structures due to reactive-Fe, which scavenge the sulfide from solution and form solid sulfides. During less flooded-brackish water period, pore water pH goes down below 4 inside the vegetated bordering areas of RP. In these locations the concentration of soluble sulfides dramatically increases up to 140 μM L-1. The high concentration of protons in pore water is the result of solid sulfides atmospheric oxidation to sulfuric acid. High dissolution of H2S, along with the low pH, creates a toxic environment for S. densiflora and die-back central gap formation in RP. CP structure was 5 cm higher in the intertidal than RP but shows frequent presence of a water layer, less severe oxidation of sulfides and limited building-up of toxic condition to plants. Development of S. densiflora RP probably indicates the uplift of sediment by this bioengineer grass and/or periodic lowering of the water surface below a certain critical level.

  20. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  1. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.P.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Pujol, L.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  2. The Narssaq-project - a geochemical, ecological environmental research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.; Rose-Hansen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of mineral occurrences near the town of Narssaq in South Greenland are recorded to be worth mining in the near future: the uranium occurrences at Kvanefjeld in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq intrusion and the zirconium occurrences in the southern part on the south coast of the Kangerdluarssuk fjord. Consideration of the environment plays a large part in discussions regarding the exploitation of these minerals. A report is given of the geochemical, ecological environmental investigations carried out at Narssaq since 1974. (BP)

  3. Overview of geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.; Wolery, T.

    1984-01-01

    Research needs include, but are not limited to: measurement of basic thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures for species identified by modelers as potentially important; evaluation of substances which control or limit precipitation and/or nucleation kinetics; sorption studies specifically designed to provide data needed for modeling. This includes the rate of sorption, desorption, and the characterization of the solid and aqueous phases; site-mixing models and thermodynamic data for secondary minerals that form solid solutions; the development of standard techniques for measuring rate laws for precipitation and dissolution kinetics; and measurement of rate laws describing redox kinetics, dissolution, and precipitation involving aqueous species and solid phases of interest to geochemical modelers

  4. Experimental insights into geochemical changes in hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcon, Virginia; Joseph, Craig; Carter, Kimberly E.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Lopano, Christina L.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing applied to organic-rich shales has significantly increased the recoverable volume of methane available for U.S. energy consumption. Fluid-shale reactions in the reservoir may affect long-term reservoir productivity and waste management needs through changes to fracture mineral composition and produced fluid chemical composition. We performed laboratory experiments with Marcellus Shale and lab-generated hydraulic fracturing fluid at elevated pressures and temperatures to evaluate mineral reactions and the release of trace elements into solution. Results from the experiment containing fracturing chemicals show evidence for clay and carbonate dissolution, secondary clay and anhydrite precipitation, and early-stage (24–48 h) fluid enrichment of certain elements followed by depletion in later stages (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Zn). Other elements such as As, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Y increased in concentration and remained elevated throughout the duration of the experiment with fracturing fluid. Geochemical modeling of experimental fluid data indicates primary clay dissolution, and secondary formation of smectites and barite, after reaction with fracturing fluid. Changes in aqueous organic composition were observed, indicating organic additives may be chemically transformed or sequestered by the formation after hydraulic fracturing. The NaCl concentrations in our fluids are similar to measured concentrations in Marcellus Shale produced waters, showing that these experiments are representative of reservoir fluid chemistries and can provide insight on geochemical reactions that occur in the field. These results can be applied towards evaluating the evolution of hydraulically-fractured reservoirs, and towards understanding geochemical processes that control the composition of produced water from unconventional shales. - Highlights: • Metal concentrations could be at their peak in produced waters recovered 24–48 after fracturing. • Carbonate

  5. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Algert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health, vegetable intake and the benefits of gardening. The gardeners surveyed were generally low income and came from a variety of ethnic and educational backgrounds. Participants in this study reported doubling their vegetable intake to a level that met the number of daily servings recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Growing food in community and home gardens can contribute to food security by helping provide access to fresh vegetables and increasing consumption of vegetables by gardeners and their families.

  6. Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed

  7. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  8. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  9. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  10. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  11. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  12. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Banksia woodlands (BW) are iconic ecosystems of Western Australia (WA) composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae, e.g. Banksia menziesii and Banksia attenuata, in combination with other species, such as Eucalyptus spp., Verticordia spp. or Melaleuca spp. Although located in very poor dune soils, BW provide numerous ecosystem services and sustain a high biodiversity. In this area, annual rainfall is relatively high (about 800 mm) but permeability of the sandy substrate leads to a functionally arid ecosystem. Currently, BW are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion; therefore conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical. Despite numerous efforts, the success of restoration plans is usually poor mostly due to the high sensitivity to drought stress and poor seedling survival rates (5-30%) (Benigno et al., 2014). A characteristic feature of BW is their root architecture, formed by a proteoid (cluster) system that spreads to form thick mats below the soil surface, favouring the uptake of nutrients (especially, P), and preventing soil erosion. Root exudates are related to numerous plant functions, as they facilitate penetration of roots in soil and enhance the extraction of scarce mineral nutrients and its further assimilation. Exudates may also interact directly with soil or indirectly through microbial mediated events being also related to soil water repellency (SWR; Lozano et al, 2014). Knowledge about the specific compounds able to induce SWR is limited (Doerr et al., 2000), but it is generally accepted that is caused by organic molecules coating the surface of soil mineral particles and aggregates (Jordán et al., 2013). Proteaceae release short-chained organic acids to enhance phosphate acquisition, which have been also reported to be related with SWR (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). It is hypothesized that disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils is underlying the failure of restoration plans. This research aims to study SWR and its impact on water economy in relation with soil functioning and plant strategies for water uptake in pristine BW. Results are expected to shed light on the origin and implications of SWR in the area and provide useful information for improving ongoing restoration plans. Materials and methods The study was conducted in natural BW of WA. Soil samples were collected at different soil depths (0-1, 1-10, 20-30 and 40-50 cm). Rationale for sampling depths was based on the different severities of SWR at each layer under field conditions. Soil water repellency was assessed under laboratory conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) and the chemical organic assemblage of bulked soil subsamples from each layer was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Results and discussion Soil water repellency distributed discontinuously through the soil profile. The first thin layer (0-1 cm) composed of coarse sand and litter, located immediately above Banksia root clusters, showed wettable conditions. In contrast, the relatively well aggregated soil layer where the Banksia cluster root system is located (1-10 cm) was severely water-repellent. The 20-30 and 40-50 cm deep layers rendered wettable or subcritically water-repellent. After Py-GC/MS analysis, major compounds were identified and grouped according to their probable biogenic origin (lignin, polysaccharides, peptides, etc.). Among other soil organic compounds, well resolved bimodal alkane/akene (C8-C31, maxima at C13 and C26) and fatty acids series (short-chained, C5-C9, and long-chained even-numbered C12-C18) were associated to the root cluster soil layer (1-10 cm). Also, a relatively high contribution of fire-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed (7%), which is consistent with frequent fires occurring in BW. These results point to possible indirect links between organic substances released by roots and soil wettability involving soil microorganisms. Further discussion should shed light on possible ecological plant strategies and specific adaptations for water uptake in such arid ecosystems of WA. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by the University of Western Australia (Research Collaboration Award 2015: 'Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration') and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research projects GEOFIRE, CGL2012-38655-C04-01, and POSTFIRE, CGL 2013-47862-C2-1-R. References Benigno SM, Dixon KW, Stevens JC. 2014. Seedling mortality during biphasic drought in sandy Mediterranean soils. Funct Plant Biol 41: 1239-1248 DOI: 10.1071/FP13366 Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Sci Rev 51: 33-65. DOI: 10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00011-8. Jordán A, Zavala LM, Mataix-Solera J, Doerr SH. 2013. Soil water repellency: origin, assessment and geomorphological consequences. Catena 108: 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.005. Jiménez-Morillo NT, González-Pérez JA, Jordán A, Zavala LM, de la Rosa JM, Jiménez-González MA, González-Vila FJ. 2014 Organic matter fractions controlling soil water repellency in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (Southwestern Spain). Land Degrad. Develop. published online. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2314 Lozano E, Garcia-Orenes F, Barcenas-Moreno G, Jimenez-Pinilla P, Mataix-Solera J, Arcenegui V, Morugan-Coronado A, Mataix-Beneyto J. 2014. Relationships between soil water repellency and microbial community composition under different plant species in a Mediterranean semiarid forest. J Hydrol Hydromech 62: 101-107. DOI: 10.2478/johh-2014-0017

  13. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  14. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke

    2011-04-01

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  15. Geochemical databases. Part 1. Pmatch: a program to manage thermochemical data. Part 2. The experimental validation of geochemical computer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D.; Nilsson, K.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1993-01-01

    This work is carried out under cost-sharing contract with European Atomic Energy Community in the framework of its programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Wastes. Part 1: PMATCH, A Program to Manage Thermochemical Data, describes the development and use of a computer program, by means of which new thermodynamic data from literature may be referenced to a common frame and thereby become internally consistent with an existing database. The report presents the relevant thermodynamic expressions and their use in the program is discussed. When there is not sufficient thermodynamic data available to describe a species behaviour under all conceivable conditions, the problems arising are thoroughly discussed and the available data is handled by approximating expressions. Part II: The Experimental Validation of Geochemical Computer models are the results of experimental investigations of the equilibria established in aqueous suspensions of mixtures of carbonate minerals (Calcium, magnesium, manganese and europium carbonates) compared with theoretical calculations made by means of the geochemical JENSEN program. The study revealed that the geochemical computer program worked well, and that its database was of sufficient validity. However, it was observed that experimental difficulties could hardly be avoided, when as here a gaseous component took part in the equilibria. Whereas the magnesium and calcium carbonates did not demonstrate mutual solid solubility, this produced abnormal effects when manganese and calcium carbonates were mixed resulting in a diminished solubility of both manganese and calcium. With tracer amounts of europium added to a suspension of calcite in sodium carbonate solutions long term experiments revealed a transition after 1-2 months, whereby the tracer became more strongly adsorbed onto calcite. The transition is interpreted as the nucleation and formation of a surface phase incorporating the 'species' NaEu(Co 3 ) 2

  16. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  17. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  18. Metallogenetic characterization of granitoid rocks through geochemical prospection: the Lagoa Real example related to uranium mineralization in Bahia state, Brazil; Caracterizacao metalogenetica de corpos gratinoides atraves de prospeccao geoquimica: o exemplo da suite intrusiva Lagoa Real relacionada a mineralizacoes de uranio no Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.E., E-mail: cprmsa@bahianet.com.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (GEREMI/SUREG/SA/CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Within a broad metallogenetic evaluation program carried out by CPRM - Geological Survey of Brazil in covenant with the CBPM - Companhia Baiana de Pesquisa Mineral in the central part of the Sao Francisco Craton, the Lagoa Real granitoid rocks was one of the selected targets. The work included geochemical exploration supplemented by follow-in survey and integrated 1:200.000 scale geochemical cartography. The Lagoa Real granitoid was recognized with composition ranging from monzogranitic to alcaligranitic type. The geochemical surveying led to the definition of the metallogenetic specialization of the granitoid rock, with characteristic geochemical and mineralogic associations. These associations are related to uranium mineralization. The genetic model using stream sediment and pan concentrate data, show similarity with the metallogenetic model of zonal partitioning proposed by Routhier (1963), for plutonogenic lode deposits with potential for Sn, W, Nb, Be, REE, Au, and U. In this work emphasis is given to the importance of the integrated use of different prospective methods toward the evaluation of granitoid systems, particularly the combination of geochemical surveying methods with results for a better understanding of the geologic and metallogenetic settings. (author)

  19. Brent coal typing by combined optical and geochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducazeaux, J.; Le Tran, K.; Nicolas, G. (Societe Nationale des Petroles d' Aquitaine (SNPA), 64 - Pau (France))

    1991-12-01

    Palynological,petrographical and organic geochemical studies show that various kinds of coal occur throughout the Middle Jurassic Brent Group in the Viking Graben. Two types of coal with strong contrast in terms of source rock potential are thoroughly investigated in this study. It is found that they are relevant to two distinct organic facies. Though having the same organic carbon content, they are very different with respect to the petroleum generating potential, one being a conventional gas-prone coal of type III kerogen and the other one of type II-(III) kerogen which should be considered as an oil-generating coal. Explanations are sought for the difference observed, both geochemically and optically. Palynological study shows the occurrence of two distinct communities of land plants in relation with the depositional environment and climatic changes, whilst coal petrographical study shows that the macerals are unevenly and differently distributed in these two coal types. The original organic material and the depositional environment appear to be the main controlling factors. 13 Refs.; 8 Figs.

  20. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.